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Preview: MedWorm: Epidemiology

MedWorm: Epidemiology provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Epidemiology

Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:09:17 +0100


Hypertriglyceridemia and Cardiovascular Diseases: Revisited.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:03:02 +0100

Authors: Han SH, Nicholls SJ, Sakuma I, Zhao D, Koh KK Abstract Residual cardiovascular risk and failure of high density lipoprotein cholesterol raising treatment have refocused interest on targeting hypertriglyceridemia. Hypertriglyceridemia, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and remnant cholesterol have demonstrated to be important risk factors for cardiovascular disease; this has been demonstrated in experimental, genetic, and epidemiological studies. Fibrates can reduce cardiovascular event rates with or without statins. High dose omega-3 fatty acids continue to be evaluated and new specialized targeting treatment modulating triglyceride pathways, such as inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III and angiopoietin-like proteins, are being tested with regard to their effects on lipid prof...

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Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:00:02 +0100

Authors: Tambo A, Roshan MH, Pace NP Abstract Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID: 27014372 [PubMed] ...

Often seen, rarely recognized: mast cell activation disease - a guide to diagnosis and therapeutic options.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 10:13:01 +0100

Authors: Afrin LB, H Butterfield J, Raithel M, J Molderings G Abstract Mast cell (MC) disease has long been thought to be just the rare disease of mastocytosis (in various forms, principally cutaneous and systemic), with aberrant MC mediator release at symptomatic levels due to neoplastic MC proliferation. Recent discoveries now show a new view is in order, with mastocytosis capping a metaphorical iceberg now called "MC activation disease" (MCAD, i.e. disease principally manifesting inappropriate MC activation), with the bulk of the iceberg being the recently recognized "MC activation syndrome" (MCAS), featuring inappropriate MC activation to symptomatic levels with little to no inappropriate MC proliferation. Given increasing appreciation of a great menagerie of mutations in MC re...

PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway contributes to protective effects of misoprostol on cerebral injury in APP/PS1 mice.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Tian X, Ji C, Luo Y, Yang Y, Kuang S, Mai S, Ma J, Yang J Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which inhibit the enzymatic activity of the inflammatory cyclooxygenases (COX), reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal aging populations. Considering multiple adverse side effects of NSAIDs, findings suggest that COX downstream prostaglandin signaling function in the pre-clinical development of AD. Our previous study found that misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor agonist, has neuroprotection against brain injury induced by chronic aluminum overload. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of misoprostol on neurodegeneration in overexpressin...

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Stockholm, Sweden: Molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities to ceftaroline, linezolid, mupirocin and vancomycin in 2014

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, there was a diverse genetic population among the MRSA isolates and no predominant genotype was found. This study identified a few strains with high-level ceftaroline resistance, high-level mupirocin resistance and high-risk genotypes. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)

The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 9 Author(s): Johannes W De Jong, Louk JMJ Vanderschuren, Roger AH Adan Obesity and obesity-related disorders are a major threat to public health. It has been suggested that food addiction is a valid clinical concept and that food addiction is a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic. Research involving restricted access ‘binge’ diets has shown that rodents will display sucrose-related behavior that is reminiscent of substance addiction, under certain conditions. A question that remains, however, is if food or certain components of food possess addictive qualities akin to drugs of abuse. The alternative is that ‘food addiction’ (or rather ‘eating addiction’) is not a substance use disorde...

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A Model For Sea Lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) Dynamics In A Seasonally Changing Environment

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Epidemics Author(s): Matthew A. Rittenhouse, Crawford W. Revie, Amy Hurford Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) are a significant source of monetary losses on salmon farms. Sea lice exhibit temperature-dependent development rates and salinity-dependent mortality, but to date no deterministic models have incorporated these seasonally varying factors. To understand how environmental variation and life history characteristics affect sea lice abundance, we derive a delay differential equation model and parameterize the model with environmental data from British Columbia and southern Newfoundland. We calculate the lifetime reproductive output for female sea lice maturing to adulthood at different times of the year and find differences ...

Information Content of Household-Stratified Epidemics

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Epidemics Author(s): T.M. Kinyanjui, L. Pellis, T. House Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-se...

Epidemiology and Severity of Sports and Recreation Injuries Presenting to a Tertiary Adult Emergency Department.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 22:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The 7.6% admission rate is higher than previously reported, likely because the study institution is a tertiary referral center. ATV riding is associated with higher severity injuries that are more likely to require hospital admission. Most sports injuries that present to an emergency department, specifically isolated soft tissue injuries of the extremities, may be more efficiently treated in a non-emergent setting. PMID: 27014859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Physician and Sportsmedicine Online)

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Consequences of Recipient Obesity on Postoperative Outcomes in a Renal Transplant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:17:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis clearly demonstrated greater risks for obese renal transplant recipients and poorer postoperative outcomes with obesity. We confidently recommend renal transplant candidates seek medically supervised weight loss before transplant. PMID: 27015529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)

Symptomatic Treatment of Subepithelial Infiltrates after Viral Conjunctivitis: Loteprednol or Dexamethasone?

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 18:29:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The study has found that in the treatment of SEI, which developed after EKC, statistically similar results can be obtained with loteprednol, which is known to have fewer adverse effects. PMID: 27015587 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)

Headache and temporo mandibular disorders: epidemiological assessment.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:00:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the existence of a relationship between headache and TMDs, showing that a dysfunctional patient has a greater predisposition to headache than a non-dysfunctional subject. PMID: 27009413 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Minerva Stomatologica)

QuickStats: Difference in Life Expectancy Between Females and Males at Birth and at Age 65 Years - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2014.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Abstract Females born in 2014 can expect to live 4.8 years longer than males born in the same year. This difference in life expectancy between females and males has not changed since 2010, but decreased from 5.4 years in 2000 and 7.0 years in 1990. The difference in life expectancy between females and males who were aged 65 years in 2014 was 2.5 years, a decrease from 2.6 years in 2010, 2.9 years in 2000, and 3.8 years in 1990. PMID: 27010663 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)

Errata: Vol. 65, No. 9.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Abstract In the report, "Notes from the Field: Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Meningoencephalitis from a Household Rodent Infestation - Minnesota, 2015," on page 248, the first sentence of the fourth paragraph should read, "The family was referred for integrated pest management services through the St. Paul-Ramsey County Department of Public Health, with assistance from the Minnesota Department of Health Healthy Homes grant program." PMID: 27010589 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)

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Notes from the Field: Injuries Associated with Bison Encounters - Yellowstone National Park, 2015.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Cherry C, Leong K, Wallen R, Buttke D Abstract Since 1980, bison have injured more pedestrian visitors to Yellowstone National Park (Yellowstone) than any other animal (1). After the occurrence of 33 bison-related injuries during 1983-1985 (range = 10-13/year), the park implemented successful outreach campaigns (1) to reduce the average number of injuries to 0.8/year (range = 0-2/year) during 2010-2014 (unpublished data, National Park Service, September 2015). During May-July 2015, five injuries associated with bison encounters occurred (Table). Case reports were reviewed to evaluate circumstances surrounding these injuries to inform prevention. PMID: 27010506 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)

Preventing Transmission of Zika Virus in Labor and Delivery Settings Through Implementation of Standard Precautions - United States, 2016.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Olson CK, Iwamoto M, Perkins KM, Polen KN, Hageman J, Meaney-Delman D, Igbinosa II, Khan S, Honein MA, Bell M, Rasmussen SA, Jamieson DJ Abstract Zika virus transmission was detected in the Region of the Americas (Americas) in Brazil in May 2015, and as of March 21, 2016, local mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus had been reported in 32 countries and territories in the Americas, including Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.* Most persons infected with Zika virus have a mild illness or are asymptomatic. However, increasing evidence supports a link between Zika virus infection during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes (1), and a possible association between recent Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome has been reported (2). Although Zik...

Photokeratitis Linked to Metal Halide Bulbs in Two Gymnasiums - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Finn LE, Gutowski J, Alles S, Mirowitz N, Johnson C, Osterhoudt KC, Patel A Abstract In December 2011 and December 2013, the Philadelphia Department of Public Health (PDPH) received separate reports of clusters of photokeratitis linked to gymnasium events. Photokeratitis, a painful eye condition resulting from unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has previously been linked to metal halide lamps with broken outer envelopes (1,2). To investigate the cause of these clusters and further characterize patients with photokeratitis, PDPH administered questionnaires to potentially exposed persons, established a case definition, and conducted environmental assessments of both gymnasiums. Because event attendee registration information was available, a cohort study was cond...

Tuberculosis Among Temporary Visa Holders Working in the Tourism Industry - United States, 2012-2014.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

This report describes three foreign-born persons holding temporary visas who had infectious TB while working at tourist destinations in the United States during 2012-2014. Multiple factors, including dormitory-style housing, transient work patterns, and diagnostic delays might have contributed to increased opportunity for TB transmission. Clinicians in seasonally driven tourist destinations should be aware of the potential for imported TB disease in foreign-born seasonal workers and promptly report suspected cases to health officials. PMID: 27010221 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)

Leveling of Tuberculosis Incidence - United States, 2013-2015.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Salinas JL, Mindra G, Haddad MB, Pratt R, Price SF, Langer AJ Abstract After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB ...

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Concern about the expanding prescription drug epidemic: a survey of licensed prescribers and dispensers - Wright RE, Reed N, Carnes N, Kooreman HE.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

BACKGROUND: Prescription drug misuse and abuse has reached epidemic levels in the U.S., and stands as a leading cause of death. As the primary gatekeepers to the medications contributing to this epidemic, it is critical to understand the views of licensed ... (Source: SafetyLit)

The spectrum of unnatural deaths in Solapur district of Western Maharashtra: an autopsy based study - Dingre NS, Kaulaskar SV.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

The main aim of this study was to analyse different causes of unnatural deaths and its epidemiological aspects. Identifying the risks of unnatural deaths will help to improve overall planning & enable to prevent avoidable deaths. The study was conducted in... (Source: SafetyLit)

Suicide: the lonely path - Bowyer L, Gillett G.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

Most contemporary discourse on suicide in New Zealand is framed in either epidemiological terms, or as a medical problem internal to the individual. Epidemiology focuses on statistics, and has consistently over-emphasised teenage suicide numbers, obscuring... (Source: SafetyLit)

The pattern of road traffic crashes in South East Iran - Rad M, Martiniuk ALC, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Mohammadi M, Rashedi F, Ghasemi A.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

BACKGROUND: In the present study, the epidemiologic aspects of road traffic crashes in South East of Iran are described.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included the profile of 2398 motor vehicle crashes recorded in the police office in one Year... (Source: SafetyLit)

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A study of cranial injuries in road traffic accidents in Tirupati Region - Venkateswarrao S, Bhaskar K.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

Death due to Road Traffic Accidents (RTAs) are increasing at an alarming rate world wide thereby possessing a major epidemiological problem. Victims in RTAs sustain large varieties of injuries and occurrence of cranial injuries is extremely high in RTAs. T... (Source: SafetyLit)

Epidemiological profile of victims in road traffic accidents: a hospital-based study - Monga S, Gupta S, Devgan S, Dhingra R, Rupali R, Arora H.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

BACKGROUND: Over the past 20 years there is rapid urbanization and population is increasing to an alarming proportions. Death rates in most of the countries have declined and life expectancy has increased; but traffic injuries have emerged as a highly visi... (Source: SafetyLit)

Epidemiology and short-term mortality in traumatic patients admitted to Shariati Hospital in Iran between 2012 and 2013 - Sheikhghomi S, Rahimi-Movaghar V, Jafarpour S, Saadat S.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

PURPOSE Trauma is an inevitable part of the health burden in every country. Both the preventive and rehabilitative aspects of traumatic injuries are expensive. Since most of the injuries happen in low- and middle-income developing countries, a judicious a... (Source: SafetyLit)

Epidemiology of patients admitted to a major trauma centre in northern India - Rastogi D, Meena S, Sharma V, Singh GK.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

OBJECTIVE Trauma in India is an increasingly significant problem, particularly in light of rapid development and increasing motorization. Social changes are resulting in alterations in the epidemiology of trauma. The aim of the study was to assess the var... (Source: SafetyLit)

Epidemiology of traffic crash mortality in west of Iran in a 9 year period - Hamzeh B, Najafi F, Karamimatin B, Ahmadijouybari T, Salari A, Moradinazar M.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

This study aims to determine traffic accident mortality trends and th... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Epidemiology of sports injuries referring to Kashan University of Medical Sciences Trauma Research Center from 2005 to 2011 - Sharif MR, Akbarnejad A, Moravveji A, Hamayattalab R, Sayyah M.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

OBJECTIVE Among the injury types, sports ones constitute a considerable proportion of patients who refer to the medical centers. This research was conducted to examine the frequency of sports-related injuries referring to Kashan University of Medical Scie... (Source: SafetyLit)

Perinatal Backgrounds and NICU Bed Occupancy of Multiple-Birth Infants in Japan.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 10:06:02 +0100

Authors: Koshida S, Ono T, Tsuji S, Murakami T, Takahashi K Abstract Multiple pregnancies (twin, triplet, and higher-order pregnancy) are associated with an increased risk of resultant preterm and low birth weight infants. The increase of multiple pregnancies for several decades in Japan has been an important consideration in bed allocation planning for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The guideline of the Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology (JSOG) in 2008 recommended that embryo transfer be limited to one. The epidemiological data of Japanese regional multiple pregnancies before the JSOG recommendation are valuable in assessing the perinatal effects after this recommendation. The aim of this study was to investigate regional backgrounds of multiple pregnancies and neona...

From Ebola to Zika: Lessons Learned from Reporting on Public Health Emergencies

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 06:14:39 +0100

University of Texas at Austin, Moody College of Communication. 03/04/2016This 48-minute presentation features a doctor, who is also a health journalist, who describes her work reporting on public health emergencies. Topics include the Ebola epidemic, Zika virus outbreak, and issues with understanding public health risk. (Video or Multimedia) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)

Zika Virus: An Unfolding Epidemic.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 06:14:02 +0100

Authors: Todd B Abstract What we know now about this emerging global threat. PMID: 27011140 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Nursing)

Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and In-Hospital Mortality of Venous Thromboembolism in Liver Cirrhosis: A Single-Center Retrospective Observational Study.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 05:16:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS VTE was observed in 0.4% of patients with liver cirrhosis during hospitalization and it significantly increased the in-hospital mortality. Elevated PT/INR aggravated the risk of VTE. PMID: 27009380 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Medical Science Monitor)

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Biomonitoring of Prenatal Analgesic Intake and Correlation to Infantile Anti Aeroallergens IgE

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 03:25:22 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Allergy)

Procedures to Assist Health Care Providers to Determine When Home Assessments for Potential Mold Exposure Are Warranted

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present the procedures in the form of a guided 2-part interview. The first part has 5 questions that triage the patient toward a more detailed questionnaire that reflects features of housing conditions known to be reliably associated with exposures to mold and dampness contaminants. We chose the questions based on the conditions associated with moisture problems in homes across the United States and Canada. The goal is to facilitate the clinician's effort to help patients reduce exposure to environmental triggers that elicit symptoms to better manage their disease. (Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice)

Pediatric scrub typhus in Southern Kerala: An emerging public health problem

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Scrub typhus is a common cause of fever in South India. Awareness among medical professional should be a high priority as late detection is the cause of failure of treatment, complications, and even mortality. (Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health)

Opioid epidemic

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 26 March 2016 Source:New Scientist, Volume 229, Issue 3066 (Source: New Scientist)

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Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 September 2016 Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 206 Author(s): Aurélie Goncalves, Marielle Margier, Camille Tagliaferri, Patrice Lebecque, Stéphane Georgé, Yohann Wittrant, Véronique Coxam, Marie-Josèphe Amiot, Emmanuelle Reboul Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and...

The role of antiretroviral therapy in reducing TB incidence and mortality in high HIV-TB burden countries

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: March 2016 Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Volume 6, Issue 3 Author(s): Anthony D Harries, Ajay MV Kumar, Nang Thu Thu Kyaw, Nguyen Binh Hoa, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Rony Zachariah With the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals in 2016, all countries have committed to end the tuberculosis (TB) epidemic by 2030, defined as dramatic reductions in TB incidence and mortality combined with zero TB-induced catastrophic costs for families. This paper explores how antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high HIV-TB burden countries may help in reducing TB incidence and mortality and thus contribute to the ambitious goal of ending TB. ART in people living with HIV has a potent TB preventive effect, with this being most apparent in those with the most ...

Letter on ethnic density and suicide: interpretation of results as a protective ethnic density effect is premature

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology)

Peri-gestational risk factors for pediatric brain tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Consistent with results for PBTs in the general population, these results suggest that higher birth weights increase OPG risk in individuals with NF1. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology)

Incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia in burn patients with inhalation injury treated with high frequency percussive ventilation versus volume control ventilation: A systematic review

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

With the advances in the burn wounds care, the epidemiology of infection has changed and pneumonia has become the most frequent infection in this population [1]. Inhalation injuries occur in up to one third of burn patients with many receiving mechanical ventilation [2]. In December 2013, the National Healthcare Safety Network published their report about device associated infections that occurred in the year 2012 in 4444 health care facilities across the U.S.A. (Source: Burns : Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries)

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Epidemiological characterization of ostomized patients attended in referral centers from the city of Maceió, Alagoas, Brazil

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The study provides relevant data that can be used as input for prevention and strategies to improve the health of the ostomized population. (Source: Journal of Coloproctology)

Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant enterococci in postacute care facility and predictors of clearance: A 5-year retrospective cohort study

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The strongest risk factor for prolonged VRE carriage was old-age-home residents. Survival is adversely affected by VRE carriage and functional mobility. Patients with these factors should be managed more carefully, and active surveillance should be focused on this high-risk group to prevent spread of transmission. (Source: Journal of Clinical Gerontology and Geriatrics)

The social impact of Parkinson's disease in Spain: Report by the Spanish Foundation for the Brain

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The incidence and prevalence rates of Parkinson's disease in Spain are similar to those in the rest of Europe. According to current population estimates, there are at least 300 000 patients with Parkinson's disease and one new case per 10 000 habitants per year in Spain. This has a major impact on the patient's quality of life and nearly doubles patient mortality. In addition, the disease generates sizeable costs for the country that may exceed 17 000€ per year per patient; costs will rise due to the ageing of the population and the new therapies employed. Healthcare professionals and administrators dedicate their efforts to providing quality care to patients. Despite the above, we still have a long way to go in order to provide quality, efficient, multidisciplinary, and univ...

Reduced Levels of Genital Tract Immune Biomarkers in Postmenopausal Women: Implications for HIV Acquisition

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Rates of HIV infections are increasing in older adults. Although it is known that the HIV/AIDS epidemics affects women disproportionately, little is known regarding immune functions in the genital tract of postmenopausal women, as relevant to HIV susceptibility. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

Gastroschisis: Epidemiology and Mode of Delivery, 2005-2013

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Gastroschisis is a severe congenital anomaly the etiology of which is unknown. Research evidence supports attempted vaginal delivery for pregnancies complicated by gastroschisis in the absence of obstetric indications for cesarean delivery. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

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Current perspective in Tuberculosis vaccine development for high TB endemic regions

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a global epidemic, despite of the availability of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) vaccine for more than six decades. In an effort to eradicate TB, vaccinologist around the world have made considerable efforts to develop improved vaccine candidates, based on the understanding of BCG failure in developing world and immune response thought to be protective against TB. The present review represents a current perspective on TB vaccination research, including additional research strategies needed for increasing the efficacy of BCG, and for the development of new effective vaccines for high TB endemic regions. (Source: Tuberculosis)

Pain Prevalence, Socio-Demographic and Clinical Features in Patients With Chronic Ulcers

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Chronic wounds are considered a worldwide epidemic and pain is the most frequently symptom referred by the patients who have this type of wound. The aim was to assess the prevalence of pain in chronic wounds and relate socio-demographic and clinical variables to pain. This is an analytical cross-sectional study, carried out in Basic Health Units (BHU), Family Health Strategy (ESF) and in a university hospital in two cities of Minas Gerais. 200 individuals who had chronic ulcers of different etiologies participated. (Source: Journal of Tissue Viability)

Normalization and integration of large-scale metabolomics data using support vector regression

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion SVR normalization can effectively remove the unwanted intra- and inter-batch variations, and is much better than other common normalization methods. (Source: Metabolomics)

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Virtual Screening of Eighteen Million Compounds against Dengue Virus: Combined Molecular Docking and Molecular Dynamics Simulations Study

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling Author(s): Shaher Bano Mirza, Ramin Ekhteiari Salmas, M.Qaiser Fatmi, Serdar Durdagi Dengue virus is a major issue of tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus has been the cause behind the major alarming epidemics in the history with mass causalities from the decades. Unavailability of on-shelf drugs for the prevention of further proliferation of virus inside the human body results in immense number of deaths each year. This issue necessitates the design of novel anti-dengue drug. The protease enzyme pathway is the critical target for drug design due to its significance in the replication, survival and other cellular activities of dengue virus. Therefore, approximately eighteen ...

The Link Between Migraine, Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome and Cervical Artery Dissection.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Mawet J, Debette S, Bousser MG, Ducros A Abstract Headache is the common thread of migraine, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and cervical artery dissection (CeAD), three medical conditions that otherwise appear to be very different. However, epidemiological, clinical and genetic data suggest that these conditions share common and complex features and are, at least partly, linked. The purpose of this manuscript is to review existing evidence for an association between migraine, RCVS and CeAD and discuss the potential underlying mechanisms. PMID: 27016026 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Headache)

Well: Seeking Painkillers in the Emergency Room

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:29:15 +0100

“Why wouldn’t I give patients a Percocet prescription? It makes their life easier and my life easier,” a colleague said to me recently. But that’s not the answer to the opioid epidemic. (Source: NYT)

Difference in characteristics and outcomes between medullary breast carcinoma and invasive ductal carcinoma: a population based study from SEER 18 database.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In conclusion, MBC demonstrated more aggressive behavior but similar outcomes compared to IDC, which may be determined by prognostic factors such as breast subtype. These results not only confer deeper insight into MBC but contribute to individualized and tailored therapy, and thereby may improve clinical management and outcomes. PMID: 27009810 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

Repurposing metformin for cancer treatment: current clinical studies.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Chae YK, Arya A, Malecek MK, Shin DS, Carneiro B, Chandra S, Kaplan J, Kalyan A, Altman JK, Platanias L, Giles F Abstract In recent years, several studies have presented evidence suggesting a potential role for metformin in anti-cancer therapy. Preclinical studies have demonstrated several anticancer molecular mechanisms of metformin including mTOR inhibition, cytotoxic effects, and immunomodulation. Epidemiologic data have demonstrated decreased cancer incidence and mortality in patients taking metformin. Several clinical trials, focused on evaluation of metformin as an anti-cancer agent are presently underway. Data published from a small number of completed trials has put forth intriguing results. Clinical trials in pre-surgical endometrial cancer patients exhibited a si...

Liberia: Keep Track of Ebola and Terrorism

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:43:04 +0100

[NEWS] The Recurrence Of Ebola in Guinea recently has raised serious concern in Liberia and Sierra Leone, the three countries worst affected by the epidemic since it started in November 2013. The three countries had previously been declared Ebola free by the World Health Organization (WHO) before the most recent outbreak in Guinea. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Pure animal phobia is more specific than other specific phobias: epidemiological evidence from the Zurich Study, the ZInEP and the PsyCoLaus.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:29:02 +0100

Authors: Ajdacic-Gross V, Rodgers S, Müller M, Hengartner MP, Aleksandrowicz A, Kawohl W, Heekeren K, Rössler W, Angst J, Castelao E, Vandeleur C, Preisig M Abstract Interest in subtypes of mental disorders is growing in parallel with continuing research progress in psychiatry. The aim of this study was to examine pure animal phobia in contrast to other specific phobias and a mixed subtype. Data from three representative Swiss community samples were analysed: PsyCoLaus (n = 3720), the ZInEP Epidemiology Survey (n = 1500) and the Zurich Study (n = 591). Pure animal phobia and mixed animal/other specific phobias consistently displayed a low age at onset of first symptoms (8-12 years) and clear preponderance of females (OR > 3). Meanwhile, other specific phobias started ...

Severity of mental illness as a result of multiple childhood adversities: US National Epidemiologic Survey - Curran E, Adamson G, Stringer M, Rosato M, Leavey G.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

PURPOSE: To examine patterns of childhood adversity, their long-term consequences and the combined effect of different childhood adversity patterns as predictors of subsequent psychopathology. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data from the US Nationa... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Updating the evidence for physical activity: summative reviews of the epidemiological evidence, prevalence, and interventions to promote "active aging" - Bauman A, Merom D, Bull FC, Buchner DM, Fiatarone Singh MA.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: There is a global imperative to increase awareness of the emerging evidence on physical activity (PA) among older adults. "Healthy aging" has traditionally focused on preventing chronic disease, but greater efforts are required to red... (Source: SafetyLit)

Misuse of prescribed pain medication in a military population: a self-reported survey to assess a correlation with age, deployment, combat illnesses, or injury? - Ramirez S, Bebarta VS, Varney SM, Ganem V, Zarzabal LA, Potter JS.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Opioid misuse is a growing epidemic among the civilian and military communities. Five hundred prospective, anonymous surveys were collected in the emergency department waiting room of a military tertiary care hospital over 3 weeks. Demographics, medical an... (Source: SafetyLit)

New insights into HIV epidemic in South Africa: key findings from the National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey, 2012.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:52:07 +0100

This article presents key findings from the 2012 HIV prevalence, incidence and behaviour survey conducted in South Africa and explores trends in the HIV epidemic. A representative household based survey collected behavioural and biomedical data among people of all ages. Chi-squared test for association and formal trend tests (2002, 2005, 2008 and 2012) were used to test for associations and trends in the HIV epidemic across the four surveys. In 2012 a total of 38 431 respondents were interviewed from 11 079 households; 28 997 (67.5%) of 42 950 eligible individuals provided blood specimens. HIV prevalence was 12.2% [95% CI: 11.4-13.1] in 2012 with prevalence higher among females 14.4% than males 9.9%. Adults aged 25-49 years were most affected, 25.2% [95% CI: 23.2-27.3]. HIV prevalence incr...

Gender inequality dynamics in the prevention of a heterosexual HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:52:07 +0100

Authors: Wathuta J Abstract This paper critiques the approach to the elimination of gender inequality as an HIV prevention strategy in the just ended era of the Millennium Development Goals, with the aim of contributing to the formulation of policy guidelines for sub-Saharan Africa in the Sustainable Development Goals. The aim is to underscore the mutual responsibility of women and men in achieving a sustainable HIV response and ending the epidemic. While taking into account the real vulnerability of women, prevention programmes can reflect gender dynamics more accurately so that attention is given to the role of both sexes in propagating - or stemming - a predominantly heterosexual HIV epidemic. More emphasis could be given to the harm caused to both men and women by certain norms...

Oral histories of HIV/AIDS support group members, NGO workers and home-based carers in KwaZulu-Natal.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:52:07 +0100

Authors: Denis P Abstract The purpose of this paper is to bring to the attention of the AIDS research community the existence of an oral history project known as the Memories of AIDS Project. The project focused on HIV/AIDS support group members, non-governmental organisation (NGO) workers and home-based carers in the Umgungundlovu (Pietermaritzburg) District Municipality, South Africa. The project was carried out by the Sinomlando Centre for Oral History and Memory Work, a research and community development centre of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, over a period of three years (2011-2013). Sixty-five individual oral history interviews of 1 to 4 hours duration and 11 focus group sessions were recorded, transcribed and translated from isiZulu into English when necessary. The life s...

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The use of cash transfers for HIV prevention - are we there yet?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:52:07 +0100

Authors: Taaffe J, Cheikh N, Wilson D Abstract Poverty and social inequality are significant drivers of the HIV epidemic and are risk factors for acquiring HIV. As such, many individuals worldwide are at risk for new HIV infection, especially young women in East and Southern Africa. By addressing these drivers, social protection programmes may mitigate the impact of poverty and social inequality on HIV risk. There is reason to believe that social protection can be used successfully for HIV prevention; social protection programmes, including cash transfers, have led to positive health outcomes and behaviour in other contexts, and they have been used successfully to promote education and increased income and employment opportunities. Furthermore, cash transfers have influenced sexual...

Epidemiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia: Results of a Central European multicenter, prospective, observational study compared with data from the European region.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The present study was the first to collect multicenter data on the epidemiology of HAP in the Central European Region, with respect to the incidence of etiologic agents causing HAP. It was concerned with relationships between 30-day patient mortality and the type of HAP, etiologic agent and adequacy of initial empirical antibiotic therapy. PMID: 27003315 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub)

Minimum Cost Estimation of a Baseline Survey for a Molecular Epidemiology Cohort Study: Collecting Participants in a Model Region in Japan.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:51:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: We investigated a standardized example of the tasks and total actual costs of a regional study office. Our approach is easy to utilize and will help improve the management of regional study offices in future molecular epidemiology studies. PMID: 27001116 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Epidemiology)

The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:51:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules. PMID: 27001115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Epidemiology)

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Work stress and cardiovascular disease: a life course perspective.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:49:02 +0100

Authors: Li J, Loerbroks A, Bosma H, Peter Angerer A Abstract Individuals in employment experience stress at work, and numerous epidemiological studies have documented its negative health effects, particularly on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although evidence on the various interrelationships between work stress and CVD has been accumulated, those observations have not yet been conceptualized in terms of a life course perspective. Using the chain of risk model, we would like to propose a theoretical model incorporating six steps: (1) work stress increases the risk of incident CVD in healthy workers. (2) Among those whose work ability is not fully and permanently damaged, work stress acts as a determinant of the process of return to work after CVD onset. (3) CVD patients experience...

Zika Virus: An Unfolding Epidemic

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:44:16 +0100

What we know now about this emerging global threat. (Source: AJN)

[Epidemiological study on urinary stones in the region of Fez and the risk of recurrence].

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:38:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The results of our study are conformed to the series of results in other regions of Morocco regarding the predominance of calcium oxalate stones. The presence of crystals in the urine of 69% of patients may indicate other recurrences. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4. PMID: 27009630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Progres en Urologie)

Upper tract urothelial carcinoma: epidemiology, high risk populations, and detection.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:35:02 +0100

Authors: Redrow GP, Matin SF Abstract Upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) is a rare but highly morbid genitourinary malignancy. In 2014 approximately 15000 new cases were diagnosed in the United States. It accounts for approximately 5-10% of all urothelial cell carcinomas, and 10% of renal tumors. Recent research has increased understanding of the epidemiology of this disease, including several high-risk populations. Environmental exposure to tobacco as well as aristolochic acid, and other carcinogens significantly increase the development of UTUC. Additionally, the genetic condition of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC), also known as Lynch Syndrome (LS) is linked to development of UTUC. Advances in imaging, ureteroscopy, cytological techniques and pathologic...

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The Potential Trajectory of Carbapenem-Resistant EnterobacteriaceaeThe Potential Trajectory of Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:34:28 +0100

How much of a public health threat is carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae, and what types of infection control practices should be put in place to help prevent it? American Journal of Epidemiology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Epidemiology of scorpion envenomation in the state of cearÁ, northeastern brazil.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:16:02 +0100

This report is a retrospective study of the epidemiology of scorpion sting cases recorded from 2007 to 2013 in the State of Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected from the Injury Notification Information System database of the Health Department of Ceará. A total of 11,134 cases were studied and distributed across all the months of the studied period and they occurred mainly in urban areas. Victims were predominantly 20-29 years-old women. Most victims were bitten on the hand; and received medical assistance within 1-3 hours after being bitten. Cases were mostly classified as mild and progressed to cure. Scorpion envenomation in Ceará is an environmental public health problem that needs to be monitored and controlled throughout the year. PMID: 27007558 [PubMed - in process]...

Mycobacterial Peritonitis in CAPD Patients in Limpopo: A 6-Year Cumulative Report from a Single Center in South Africa.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:11:02 +0100

Authors: Tamayo-Isla RA, de la Cruz MC, Okpechi IG Abstract South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide due to the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. There are, however, no reports on peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients due toMycobacteriumtuberculosis in South Africa. The aim of this study is to discuss our experience of tuberculous peritonitis in CAPD patients from a rural endemic area of South Africa. This is a retrospective descriptive study of CAPD patients diagnosed with mycobacterium peritonitis infection from January 2008 to August 2014 at the Limpopo Kidney and Dialysis Centre (LKDC) in South Africa. The diagnosis of peritonitis was based on the International Society for Peritoneal Dial...

Heroin Epidemic Is Yielding to a Deadlier Cousin: Fentanyl

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:43:39 +0100

Cheaper and far more potent, the synthetic painkiller is becoming the drug of choice for some addicts — and is killing them more quickly. (Source: NYT Health)

Left behind: U.S. government denies justice for Marine families whose lives were ruined at contaminated Camp Lejeune

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

(NaturalNews) Cancer-causing pollution at a US Marine base shows that chemical manufacturing is being done without any human safety precautions or long-term epidemiological studies. It's the norm in America to manufacture a chemical first, dump it into the land and then see how it... (Source:

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Comparisons of Cocaine-Only, Opioid-Only, and Users of Both Substances in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusions/importance: This sample of past-12-month cocaine and/or opioid users had greater involvement with other substances, more psychiatric and medical conditions compared to the general population. Co-users had greater involvement with other substances than opioid-only users in particular. PMID: 27002858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)

Decision-making in an era of cancer prevention via aspirin: New Zealand needs updated guidelines and risk calculators.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:09:03 +0100

Authors: Wilson N, Selak V, Blakely T, Leung W, Clarke P, Jackson R Abstract Based on new systematic reviews of the evidence, the US Preventive Services Task Force has drafted updated guidelines on the use of low-dose aspirin for the primary prevention of both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. The Task Force generally recommends consideration of aspirin in adults aged 50-69 years with 10-year CVD risk of at least 10%, in who absolute health gain (reduction of CVD and cancer) is estimated to exceed absolute health loss (increase in bleeds). With the ongoing decline in CVD, current risk calculators for New Zealand are probably outdated, so it is difficult to be precise about what proportion of the population is in this risk category (roughly equivalent to 5-year CVD risk ≥5%...

Outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST76 and ST37 isolates in neonates

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:13 +0100

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Shanghai Children’s Hospital in China. Twenty-two non-duplicate CRKP strains were collected from pediatric patients between March and June in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The transferability of bla NDM-1 was investigated by conjugation experiment. The plasmids bearing antibiotic resistance genes were characterized by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...

Epidemiological and clinical features for cefepime heteroresistant Escherichia coli infections in Southwest China

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:12 +0100

This study aimed to report the characteristics of invasive E. coli with FEP-PHR traits and further to investigate the predisposing factors for its acquisition. A retrospective case–control study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Southwest China. A total of 319 successive and non-duplicate E. coli strains were isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids between July 2011 and August 2013. Among the seventy (70/319, 21.9 %) isolates harboring FEP-PHR traits, 30 (42.9 %) isolates were isolated from blood, 14 (20.0 %) isolates were isolated from bile, and 13 (18.6 %) isolates were isolated from drainage. FEP-PHR isolates were verified by population analysis profile (PAP) assays. Male gender, receipt of total parenteral nutrition, cephalosporins exposure, and production of exte...

In vivo development of daptomycin resistance in vancomycin-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus severe infections previously treated with glycopeptides

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:12 +0100

Abstract Our aim was to describe the clinical and microbiological features of four cases of severe vancomycin-susceptible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in which the vancomycin non-susceptibility development and daptomycin resistance occurred under therapy with teicoplanin (three cases) and daptomycin switched to vancomycin (one case). Clinical data were retrospectively reviewed. On nine clinical epidemiologically unrelated daptomycin-susceptible (DAP-S) and daptomycin-resistant (DAP-R) MRSA, we performed: (i) DAP-VAN-TEC-CFX-RIF minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs); (ii) glycopeptide resistance detection (GRD) by δ-hemolysis; (iii) glycopeptide population analysis; (iv) molecular characterization by PFGE-MLST-SCCmec-agr-typing; (v) rpoB and mp...

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Phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a sub-Andean forest from the Norte de Santander, Colombia.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The appreciable diversity of the verrucarum group observed in this area suggest further investigation on the biogeography and evolution of this group, and epidemiological risk for human populations around this area, as there are reports of Leishmania natural infection and favourable conditions for domestication of phlebotomines in rural towns. PMID: 27004581 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)

Relationship of annual entomological inoculation rates to malaria transmission indices, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Based on EIR values malaria transmission was classified as stable when EIR was >1.5 or unstable when EIR was ≤ 1.5. Although, earlier studies have shown correlation between EIRs and malaria PR, this study demonstrated a significant correlation between EIRs and malaria incidence rates. PMID: 27004578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)

Comparative evaluation of validity and cost-benefit analysis of rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits in diagnosis of dengue infection using composite reference criteria: A cross-sectional study from south India.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: It was concluded that in dengue outbreak, Panbio IgM capture RDT alone is reliable and easily available test which can be used in acute phase of dengue infection in any resource limited set up. NS1 capture rates by any of the other three RDTs might not be reliable for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection. PMID: 27004576 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)

Epidemiology of dengue in Nepal: History of incidence, current prevalence and strategies for future control.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

Authors: Subedi D, Taylor-Robinson AW Abstract Dengue is now established as one of the most important arboviral infections. As the epidemic continues unabated globally, this Aedes mosquito-transmitted pathogen is considered a major re-emerging tropical disease and significant public health concern. Four well-established distinct serotypes of dengue virus, with a fifth one recently proposed, are responsible for causing a spectrum of clinical symptoms in humans ranging from mild fever to severe haemorrhagic manifestations. Indigenous cases of dengue were first recognised in Nepal, a Himalayan country bordered by India and China, just a decade ago in a cluster of tropical and subtropical areas. Subsequently, the range of infection has extended all over the country and now comprises no...

Social patterns and differentials in the fertility transition in the context of HIV/AIDS: evidence from population surveillance, rural South Africa, 1993 – 2013

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Literature is limited on the effects of high prevalence HIV on fertility in the absence of treatment, and the effects of the introduction of sustained access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on fertility. We su... (Source: Population Health Metrics)

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Role of myokines in the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:46:03 +0100

Authors: Kostrominova TY Abstract Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries and is on the rise in developing countries. Obesity-related changes in lipid and glucose metabolism predispose to the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle constitutes about 40 percent of total body weight and is unique compared to other muscle types since it is one of the most important organs for insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in humans. Abnormalities in skeletal muscle lipid and glucose metabolism as well as abnormal accumulation of intramyocellular lipids could predispose for the development of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes factors with autocrine/paracrine/endocrine functions that can regulate skeletal muscle metabo...

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:39:02 +0100

Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical dysfunction or treat insufficient stimulated cortisol levels in the setting of MDR-TB. PMID: 27006656 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)

Vitamin D Supplementation and Hemoglobin Levels in Hypertensive Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:39:02 +0100

In conclusion, a daily vitamin D supplement of 2800 IU for eight weeks did not improve Hb levels or anemic status in hypertensive patients. Future trials should focus on anemic patients with deficient 25OHD levels (e.g., <30 nmol/L). This trial is registered with [NCT02136771]. PMID: 27006655 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)

[In Depth] Don't blame sports for Zika's spread

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Since the Zika virus began racing through the Americas, scientists have been trying to figure out when and where it entered Brazil, where it was first detected in March 2015. Speculation has focused on the influx of fans for the World Cup in June and July 2014, or for a championship canoe race in September 2014. But a new genome analysis suggests the virus had likely been spreading there long before either event, having arrived sometime between May and December 2013. It could have arrived during the Confederations Cup soccer tournament in late June 2013, the authors say. That event brought the Tahitian national team to a stadium in Recife, near the epicenter of the Brazilian epidemic. But that was several months before cases of Zika were reported in Tahiti, and the authors think it's more ...

HLA‐DRB1*08:03:02 and HLA‐DQB1*06:01:01 are associated with house dust mite–sensitive allergic rhinitis in Chinese subjects

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionHLA‐DRB1*08:03:02 and HLA‐DQB1*06:01:01 are associated with HMD‐sensitive AR and may confer a risk for development of AR in Han Chinese subjects sensitized to HDM. (Source: International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology)

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Epidemiology and characteristics of Kikuchi‐Fujimoto disease in the African‐descent population of Martinique, French West Indies

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: We report the first epidemiological description of KFD in a population of sub‐Saharan origin. According to our data, this disease is present in the Black African diaspora and is strongly associated with autoimmune diseases, particularly lupus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)

The number of persons with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis in the United States: Impact of race/ethnicity, age, sex, and obesity

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Over half of all persons with symptomatic knee OA are younger than 65 years of age. As many of these younger persons will live for three decades or more, there is substantially more time for greater disability to occur and policymakers should anticipate healthcare utilization for knee OA to increase further in upcoming decades. These data emphasize the need for the deployment of innovative prevention and treatment strategies for knee OA, especially among younger persons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)

Survey definitions of gout for epidemiological studies: Comparison with crystal identification as the gold standard

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: A simple definition of ‘self‐report of gout or urate‐lowering therapy use' has the best test performance characteristics of existing definitions that use routinely available data. A more complex combination of features is more sensitive, but still lacks good specificity. If more accurate case‐definition is required for a particular study, the 2015 ACR‐EULAR Gout Classification criteria should be considered. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis Care and Research)

Characterizing the spatial distribution of multiple pollutants and populations at risk in atlanta, georgia

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion : Placing multipollutant air quality within a geographic regionalization problem reveals the nature and spatial distribution of differential pollutant combinations across urban environments and provides helpful insights for identifying spatial exposure and demographic contrasts for future health studies. (Source: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology)

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Ad19a E3/49K Trafficking and Proteolytic Processing [Microbiology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The E3 transcription unit of human species C adenoviruses (Ads) encodes immunomodulatory proteins that mediate direct protection of infected cells. Recently, we described a novel immunomodulatory function for E3/49K, an E3 protein uniquely expressed by species D Ads. E3/49K of Ad19a/Ad64, a serotype that causes epidemic keratokonjunctivitis, is synthesized as a highly glycosylated type I transmembrane protein that is subsequently cleaved, resulting in secretion of its large ectodomain (sec49K). sec49K binds to CD45 on leukocytes, impairing activation and functions of natural killer cells and T cells. E3/49K is localized in the Golgi/trans-Golgi network (TGN), in the early endosomes, and on the plasma membrane, yet the cellular compartment where E3/49K is cleaved and the protease involved r...

HIV Whole-Genome Sequencing Now: Answering Still-Open Questions [Commentaries]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Diversity, evolution, and epidemiology of HIV are directly relevant to HIV transmission and pathogenesis; hence, they play a key role in antiretroviral treatment and vaccine design. Global HIV whole-genome sequencing would provide a treasure chest of data to answer many questions still open in these fields. An article by Berg et al. in this issue of the Journal of Clinical Microbiology describes a universal strategy to amplify and sequence heterogeneous HIV whole genomes (M. G. Berg, J. Yamaguchi, E. Alessandri-Gradt, R. W. Tell, J.-C. Plantier, and C. A. Brennan, J Clin Microbiol 54:868–882, 2016, (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)