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Preview: MedWorm: West Nile Virus

MedWorm: West Nile Virus



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the West Nile Virus category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 12:10:25 +0100

 



Serological and molecular investigation of dengue, chikungunya and rift valey fever in febrile and non-febrile patients from northern Mozambique during Dengue outbreak, 2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Arboviruses represent the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. In Mozambique, arboviroses have been heavily neglected and for this reason they are never considered in the differential diagnosis of acute febrile illness. A recent dengue outbreak was reported in Pemba, situated in northern Mozambique in 2014, and during the outbreak more than half of dengue suspected cases had their dengue results negative, suggesting other causes of fever of unknown origin. The aim of the study was to investigate the circulation of dengue (DENV), chikungunya (CHIKV), west nile virus (WNV) and rift valley fever (RVF) in febrile and non febrile patients in Pemba, during the outbreak of dengue in 2014. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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West Nile Virus circulation and incrimination of mosquito vectors in Northeast India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. The prevalence of WNV antibodies in Indian population has been known since 1952. Following phylogenetic analysis, Indian isolates were classified into Lineage 1 and 5. Since 2006, with the identification of WNV as an aetiology causing acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) in Northeast India, scattered cases have been recorded in Assam every year during the months of June to October. However, the mosquito species involved in transmission of WNV in this region requires detailed study. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Study of antibody dynamics in horses vaccinated against West Nile Virus (WNV)

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: WNV is an RNA virus belonging to Flaviviridae family, transmitted by mosquitoes, causing zoonosis. Humans and horses are dead-end hosts. To date, there is no cure for the disease. The prevention can be achieved minimizing the exposure to the vector or through vaccination in equine species. In Italy, two vaccines are authorized: the “Equip WNV - Pfizer” (inactivated vaccine, VM-2 strain) and the “Proteq West Nile - Merial” (recombinant canarypox virus, vCP2017 strain, that expresses the WNV prM/prE genes). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Cross-protective immunity against circulating Japanese encephalitis virus and West Nile Virus by live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA 14-14-2

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Co-circulation of Japanese encephalitis Virus (JEV) and West Nile Virus (WNV) has been accounted in India. Both viruses are antigenically related and belong to the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex. Recently, the Government of India introduced the live attenuated JE vaccine SA 14-14-2 in routine immunization program for children and mass vaccination campaign among adults in highly JE endemic areas of Assam, Northeast India. However, the protection elicited by the JE vaccine against the circulating JEV and WNV in this region have not been studied. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Experimental infection of rock pigeons ( Columba livia ) with three West Nile virus lineage 1 strains isolated in Italy between 2009 and 2012

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 13:34:21 +0100

Research Articles M. SPEDICATO, I. CARMINE, A. L. BELLACICCO, G. MARRUCHELLA, V. MARINI, M. PISCIELLA, G. DI FRANCESCO, A. LORUSSO, F. MONACO, G. SAVINI, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 144 Issue 06, pp 1301-1311Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)



Detection of West Nile virus and tick-borne encephalitis virus in birds in Slovakia, using a universal primer set

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne neurotropic pathogen that presents a major public health concern. Information on WNV prevalence and circulation in Slovakia is insufficient. Oral and cloacal swabs and bird brain samples were tested for flavivirus RNA by RT-PCR using newly designed generic primers. The species designation was confirmed by sequencing. WNV was detected in swab and brain samples, whereas one brain sample was positive for tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). The WNV sequences clustered with lineages 1 and 2. These results confirm the circulation of WNV in birds in Slovakia and emphasize the risk of infection of humans and horses. (Source: Archives of Virology)

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Serological Evidence of Infection with Endemic Human Pathogens Among Free-Ranging Old World Monkeys in Puerto Rico.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Hemme RR, Lopez-Ortiz R, Garcia BR, Sharp TM, Galloway RL, Elrod MG, Hunsperger EA Abstract Serum specimens from free-ranging but nonnative patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) in southwestern Puerto Rico (PR) were tested for antibodies to infection with dengue viruses (DENVs), West Nile virus (WNV), Leptospira species, and Burkholderia pseudomallei by microneutralization, plaque reduction neutralization, microscopic agglutination, and indirect hemagglutination, respectively. Of 23 animals (21 E. patas and two M. mulatta) tested, all had evidence of prior DENV infection, and of 17 animals tested for WNV, nine (53%) had evidence of prior infection. Of 24 (22 E. patas, two M. mulatta) tested for Leptospira spp., 10 (42%) had evidence of pri...



Nigeria: Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases - Call for Timely Public Health Response in Nigeria

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 14:48:37 +0100

[Guardian] At present, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is monitoring a couple of infectious diseases, including: Ebola, Lassa fever, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Haemorrhagic fever, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease. The rate of re-emergence of infectious disease has been on the increase. Diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, Influenza (flu), hepatitis and staphylococcus infections thought to have been controlled are re-emerging. A majority of the agents (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)



Rab8b Plays a Role in WNV Particle Release [Cell Biology]

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we sought to determine which Rab proteins are involved in intracellular trafficking of nascent WNV particles. RNAi analysis revealed that Rab8b plays a role in WNV particle release. We found that Rab8 and WNV antigen were colocalized in WNV-infected human neuroblastoma cells, and that WNV infection enhanced Rab8 expression in the cells. In addition, the amount of WNV particles in the supernatant of Rab8b-deficient cells was significantly decreased compared with that of wild-type cells. We also demonstrated that WNV particles accumulated in the recycling endosomes in WNV-infected cells. In summary, these results suggest that Rab8b is involved in trafficking of WNV particles from recycling endosomes to the plasma membrane. (Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry)



Best Natural Mosquito Repellent for Zika Virus

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 18:02:35 +0100

I’ve hacked my way through a lot of jungles. I also live and practice medicine in South Florida. So I’m pretty familiar with mosquitoes. Apart from the itchy bumps and skin irritation that even a “normal” bite brings, mosquitoes can spread malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, West Nile virus and, of course, the Zika virus. The problem is that Western medicine’s answer to the Zika public health scare is to kill off mosquitoes with man-made poisons that are far more dangerous than the virus. Governments in a number of countries, including the U.S., are now even thinking about bringing back DDT, the insecticide that was banned in America in 1972 and later worldwide. But even popular bug repellent brands are dangerous. Most contain an insect-repelling chemical ca...



High genetic diversity in the Culex pipiens complex from a West Nile Virus epidemic area in Southern Europe

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The Culex pipiens complex includes the most widespread mosquito species in the world. Cx. pipiens is the primary vector of the West Nile Virus (WNV) in Europe and North America. Cases of WNV have been recorded in... (Source: Parasites and Vectors)

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Preventing Zika in the U.S.: What Environmental Health and Pest Management Professionals Need to Know

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 01:36:11 +0100

National Environmental Health Association. 03/03/2016This webinar presentation provided an overview of the epidemiology of the Zika virus outbreak and concerns on how it could spread and change. It discussed how the Zika virus is different than West Nile virus; Aedes mosquito control, with real world examples and what to consider; worker safety and preventive measures; and public education around the Zika virus. (Presentation Slides) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)



Temporal and Spatial Variability of Entomological Risk Indices for West Nile Virus Infection in Northern Colorado: 2006-2013

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we present descriptive data from historical surveillance records spanning 2006–2013 to discern seasonal and yearly patterns of entomological risk for WNV infection. Also, we retrospectively test the hypothesis that entomological risk is correlated with human transmission risk and is heterogeneous within the City of Fort Collins. Four logistically relevant zones within the city were established and used to test this hypothesis. Zones in the eastern portion of the city consistently had significantly higher Culex abundance and VI compared with zones in the west, leading to higher entomological risk indicators for human WNV infection in the east. Moreover, the relative risk of a reported human case of WNV infection was significantly higher in the eastern zones of the city....



Inhibition of West Nile Virus Multiplication in Cell Culture by Anti-Parkinsonian Drugs

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Ana B. Blázquez, Miguel A. Martín-Acebes, Juan-Carlos Saiz (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)

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Mosquito Surveillance for 15 Years Reveals High Genetic Diversity Among West Nile Viruses in Israel

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel and has been the cause of several outbreaks in recent years. In 2000, a countrywide mosquito survey was established to monitor WNV activity and characterize viral genotypes in Israel. We analyzed data from 7135 pools containing 277 186 mosquitoes collected over the past 15 years and, here, report partial sequences of WNV genomes obtained from 102 of the 336 positive mosquito pools. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that cluster 4 and the Mediterranean and Eastern European subtypes of cluster 2 within WNV lineage 1 circulated in Israel, as did WNV lineage 2, highlighting a high genetic diversity of WNV genotypes in our region. As a major crossroads for bird migration between Africa and Eurasia and with a long history of human infection, Israel ser...



Executive Orders and Emergency Declarations for the West Nile Virus: Applying Lessons from Past Outbreaks to Zika

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 16:20:40 +0100

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 03/01/2016This 20-page document provides a brief analysis of select uses of local, state, and federal executive powers to combat West Nile virus. The analysis of local, state, and federal Executive Orders and emergency declarations for West Nile virus provides a number of findings that could inform policy makers on what the coming months may hold for the Zika virus response. Appendices list Coding Categories, and West Nile Virus Executive Orders and Declarations. (PDF) (Source: Disaster Lit: Resource Guide for Disaster Medicine and Public Health)



Host sphingomyelin increases West Nile virus infection in vivo [Research Articles]

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus and the West Nile virus (WNV), are arthropod-borne viruses that represent a global health problem. The flavivirus lifecycle is intimately connected to cellular lipids. Among the lipids co-opted by flaviviruses, we have focused on SM, an important component of cellular membranes particularly enriched in the nervous system. After infection with the neurotropic WNV, mice deficient in acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), which accumulate high levels of SM in their tissues, displayed exacerbated infection. In addition, WNV multiplication was enhanced in cells from human patients with Niemann-Pick type A, a disease caused by a deficiency of ASM activity resulting in SM accumulation. Furthermore, the addition of SM to cultured cells also increased WNV infection, whe...

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Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Volz A, Lim S, Kaserer M, Lülf A, Marr L, Jany S, Deeg CA, Pijlman GP, Koraka P, Osterhaus AD, Martina BE, Sutter G Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells n...



Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in South‐West Germany

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionThis work serves as a proof‐of‐concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)



[Comment] Zika virus and neurological disease—approaches to the unknown

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The early part of the 21st century has seen an unparalleled number of emerging infectious disease events: West Nile virus across the Americas, severe acute respiratory syndrome in China and beyond, chikungunya, avian influenza, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, Ebola virus. So many in fact that perhaps we should no longer consider them extraordinary. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



4 ways to protect your family from mosquitoes

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 14:00:23 +0100

.Follow me at @drClaire The news about the Zika virus possibly causing microcephaly in infants has everyone talking about — and worried about — mosquitoes. It’s not just the Zika virus that can be spread by mosquitoes; these insects also spread other illnesses, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, West Nile virus, eastern equine encephalitis, and Japanese encephalitis. It should be said that most people who are bitten by mosquitoes don’t get sick with anything. But if you are living in or traveling to an area where these illnesses are prevalent, it’s important to know the four best ways to protect yourself and your family: Choose your clothes wisely. Lightweight long sleeves and long pants are your best bet; spraying clothing with insect repellent may help even mo...



Zika Was First Discovered in 1947. Why Is it Now a Threat?

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 21:10:29 +0100

Mostly innocuous and fairly unknown until a few weeks ago, the Zika virus is suddenly dominating the news. Under scrutiny is the virus's putative link with a congenital birth defect called microcephaly, which causes babies to be born with abnormally small heads and undeveloped brains. Two recent publications [1,2] have documented finding the genome of the Zika virus in the amniotic fluid and brains of fetuses affected by microcephaly from three different mothers. These numbers are still too small to constitute a proof, and in fact, alternative theories are already cropping up: an organization of Argentinean doctors has published a report in which they claim that it's not the virus, rather the insecticide used against the mosquitos, that causes the birth defect. But what is Zika and, if th...

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Willingness to Pay for Mosquito Control in Key West, Florida, and Tucson, Arizona.

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Dickinson KL, Hayden MH, Haenchen S, Monaghan A, Walker KE, Ernst KC Abstract Mosquito-borne illnesses like West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue are growing threats to the United States. Proactive mosquito control is one strategy to reduce the risk of disease transmission. In 2012, we measured the public's willingness to pay (WTP) for increased mosquito control in two cities: Key West, FL, where there have been recent dengue outbreaks, and Tucson, AZ, where dengue vectors are established and WNV has been circulating for over a decade. Nearly three quarters of respondents in both cities (74% in Tucson and 73% in Key West) would be willing to pay $25 or more annually toward an increase in publicly funded mosquito control efforts. WTP was positively associated with income (both c...



Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 49: In Vitro and in Vivo Evaluation of Mutations in the NS Region of Lineage 2 West Nile Virus Associated with Neuroinvasiveness in a Mammalian Model

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

West Nile virus (WNV) strains may differ significantly in neuroinvasiveness in vertebrate hosts. In contrast to genetic lineage 1 WNVs, molecular determinants of pathogenic lineage 2 strains have not been experimentally confirmed so far. A full-length infectious clone of a neurovirulent WNV lineage 2 strain (578/10; Central Europe) was generated and amino acid substitutions that have been shown to attenuate lineage 1 WNVs were introduced into the nonstructural proteins (NS1 (P250L), NS2A (A30P), NS3 (P249H) NS4B (P38G, C102S, E249G)). The mouse neuroinvasive phenotype of each mutant virus was examined following intraperitoneal inoculation of C57BL/6 mice. Only the NS1-P250L mutation was associated with a significant attenuation of virulence in mice compared to the wild-type. Multiplication...



Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB) in viral infections.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Malinowska M, Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej P, Tokarz-Deptuła B, Deptuła W Abstract During reaction to stress caused by viral infection, RNA granules are formed in order to protect mRNA. Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB) provide cell homeostasis and mRNA stability. They are formed, for example, during polio virus and MRV (mammalian orthoreovirus) infections. Some viruses, such as influenza virus and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus 1), block the formation of granules. In addition, there are viruses like West Nile Virus, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) or human Herpes viruses, which influence the functioning of the granules. PMID: 26894234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Biochim Pol)



Culex pipiens and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) populations as vectors for lineage 1 and 2 West Nile virus in Europe

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 18:07:02 +0100

This study represents the first test of the vectorial competence of European Culex pipiens Linnaeus 1758 and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (both: Diptera: Culicidae) populations for lineage 1 and 2 WNV isolated in Europe. Culex pipiens and S. albopicta populations were susceptible to WNV infection, had disseminated infection, and were capable of transmitting both WNV lineages. This is the first WNV competence assay to maintain mosquito specimens under environmental conditions mimicking the field (day/night) conditions associated with the period of maximum expected WNV activity. The importance of environmental conditions is discussed and the issue of how previous experiments conducted in fixed high temperatures may have overestimated WNV vector competence results with respect...



The E glycoprotein plays an essential role in the high pathogenicity of European-Mediterranean IS98 strain of West Nile virus.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Alsaleh K, Khou C, Frenkiel MP, Lecollinet S, Vàzquez A, de Arellano ER, Després P, Pardigon N Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) is the most widespread arbovirus in the world. Several recent outbreaks and epizootics have been reported in Europe and the Mediterranean basin with increased virulence. In contrast to the well-characterized American and Australian strains, little is known about the virulence determinants of the WNV European-Mediterranean strains. To investigate the viral factors involved in the virulence of these strains, we generated chimeras between the highly neuropathogenic Israel 1998 (IS-98-ST1, IS98) strain and the non-pathogenic Malaysian Kunjin virus (KJMP-502). In vivo analyses in a mouse model of WNV pathogenesis shows that chimeric virus where KJMP-50...

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European microbiology labs ‘well prepared’ for infectious disease threats

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

But licensing of labs and accreditation of tests need to be improved, says reportRelated items from OnMedicaDengue fever and West Nile virus threat to the UKCoronavirus ‘not yet reached pandemic potential’Better use of vaccines could help tackle antimicrobial resistance WHO responded 'too slowly' to Ebola warningsEuropean medicines regulator sets up Zika virus task force (Source: OnMedica Latest News)



The Presence and Seroprevalence of Arthropod-Borne Viruses in Nasiriyah Governorate, Southern Iraq: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Barakat AM, Smura T, Kuivanen S, Huhtamo E, Kurkela S, Putkuri N, Hasony HJ, Al-Hello H, Vapalahti O Abstract The knowledge on the presence and seroprevalence of arboviruses in Iraq is fragmental. To assess the exposure of the population to arbovirus infections in southern Iraq, we conducted a serological screening of the most common arbovirus groups using immunofluorescence, hemagglutination inhibition and neutralization tests. Serum samples of 399 adult volunteers were collected in Nasiriyah, Iraq. Antibodies were detected against West Nile virus (WNV) (11.6%), sandfly-borne Sicilian virus serocomplex (18.2%), sandfly-borne Naples virus serocomplex (7.8%), Sindbis virus (1.5%), chikungunya virus (0.5%), and Tahyna virus (2.0%). The results suggest that WNV and sandfly-bo...



West Nile virus infection in children.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 16:32:09 +0100

Authors: Barzon L, Pacenti M, Sinigaglia A, Berto A, Trevisan M, Palù G Abstract West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging flavivirus responsible for an increasing number of outbreaks of neuroinvasive disease in North America, Europe, and neighboring countries. Almost all WNV infections in humans are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes. Transmission during pregnancy and through breastfeeding has been reported, but the risk seems to be very low. West Nile disease in children is less common (1-5% of all WNV cases) and associated with milder symptoms and better outcome than in elderly individuals, even though severe neuroinvasive disease and death have been reported also among children. However, the incidence of WNV infection and disease in children is probably underestima...



Seropositivity for West Nile Virus Antibodies in Patients Affected by Myasthenia Gravis.

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 08:15:04 +0100

CONCLUSION: As already observed in other human autoimmune diseases, pathogen-triggered autoimmunity could be involved in MG by breaking immunological self-tolerance through possible mechanisms of molecular mimicry between virus proteins and AChR subunits. In predisposed individuals, WNV infection could also represent an additional risk factor to initiate MG. PMID: 26858791 [PubMed] (Source: Clin Med Res)



[Zika Virus: A Review to Clinicians].

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 18:33:02 +0100

Authors: Pinto Junior VL, Luz K, Parreira R, Ferrinho P Abstract Zika virus is a flavivirus related to Dengue virus, yellow fever virus and West Nile virus. It is considered an emerging arbovirus transmitted by mosquitos of the genus Aedes. Its first description took place in 1947 in the Zika Forest in Uganda, isolated on Rhesus monkey used as bait to study the yellow fever virus. Sporadic cases have been detected in African countries and at the end of the 70's in Indonesia. In 2007, epidemics were described in Micronesia and other islands in the Pacific Ocean and more recently in Brazil. Clinical picture is characterized as a 'dengue-like' syndrome, with abrupt onset of fever and an early onset evanescent rash, often pruritic. Occasionally the disease has been associated with Guil...

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Surveillance of maternal antibodies against West Nile virus in chicken eggs in Southwest Germany

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionThis work serves as a proof‐of‐concept that such a method is useful and a potential alternative to use of sentinel chicken for regular WNV surveillance.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)



Primary Versus Nonprimary West Nile Virus Infection: A Cohort Study

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. The possibility that NPI may be an emerging clinical entity with a high mortality rate must be considered seriously. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



What You Need to Know About the Zika Virus

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 11:51:44 +0100

The rapid spread of Zika virus through the Americas, together with the association of infection with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, have propelled this previously ignored virus into the limelight. What is this virus and where did it come from? History Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey that was being used to monitor for the presence of yellow fever virus in the Zika Forest of Uganda. At this time, cell lines were not available for studying viruses, so serum from the febrile monkey was inoculated intracerebrally into mice. All the mice became sick, and the virus isolated from their brains was called Zika virus. The same virus was subsequently isolated from Aedes africanus mosquitoes in the Zika forest. Serological studies done in the 1950s showed that h...



The Latest On Zika: One Mother's Story

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 23:47:22 +0100

As Zika virus, which is spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, continues to dominate the headlines, personal stories are coming to the forefront. One mother whose son was born with microcephaly, the birth defect believed to be linked to the Zika virus, describes the difficulty of facing her son's future without certainty that he'll ever be able to walk or talk. With the high volume of news about the Zika virus, it's tough to stay up-to-date. Check out our full coverage here -- or read our daily recaps here. Here's the latest information you should know: 1. Brazilian mother of baby born with microcephaly speaks out (function(){var src_url="https://spshared.5min.com/Scripts/PlayerSeed?playList=519456048&height=&width=100&sid=577&origin=undefined&videoGroupID=15584...



U.S. Scientists Are Starting From Ground Zero With The Zika Vaccine

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 13:45:12 +0100

As the research community gears up to address Zika virus, one common question has been why, if we’ve known about Zika since 1947, are we only starting these efforts in 2016? As Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, admitted, the disease is uncharted territory. "We, prior to this time, have really not spent anything on Zika,” he said during a press conference Thursday. Currently, there is no cure and no vaccine for the disease, and diagnosing the disease takes up to two weeks in specialized labs.  To ramp up research on the Zika virus threat, the NIAID, the arm of the National Institutes of Health that conducts and supports research on infectious diseases, is now alerting the research community in the U.S. that t...

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WHO convenes emergency meeting on Zika virus

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Emergency meeting called in light of observed increase in neurological disorders and neonatal malformationsRelated items from OnMedicaNew target in war against mosquito-borne diseasesDengue fever cases in returning travellers increase by 60% in one yearDengue fever and West Nile virus threat to the UKWHO responded 'too slowly' to Ebola warningsThree Britons infected with Zika virus (Source: OnMedica Latest News)



Assessing the risk of transfusion‐transmitted emerging infections

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionRisk assessment determines the necessity, urgency and magnitude of response to threats posed by TT EIDs. In order to timely assess the risk, it is important to be vigilant and to identify the infectious threat to the blood safety as soon as possible. The manner in which the risk assessment is applied is dependent on uncertainties manifested by EID, a specific context of blood transfusion practice and a framework within which the risk is managed. (Source: ISBT Science Series)



Establishment of an Algorithm Using prM/E- and NS1-Specific IgM Antibody-Capture Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Diagnosis of Japanese Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Infections in Humans [Immunoassays]

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The front-line assay for the presumptive serodiagnosis of acute Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) infections is the premembrane/envelope (prM/E)-specific IgM antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). Due to antibody cross-reactivity, MAC-ELISA-positive samples may be confirmed with a time-consuming plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT). In the present study, we applied a previously developed anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1)-specific MAC-ELISA (NS1-MAC-ELISA) on archived acute-phase serum specimens from patients with confirmed JEV and WNV infections and compared the results with prM/E containing virus-like particle-specific MAC-ELISA (VLP-MAC-ELISA). Paired-receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses revealed no statistical ...



Small-Scale Trials Suggest Increasing Applications of Natular™ XRT and Natular™ T30 Larvicide Tablets May Not Improve Mosquito Reduction in Some Catch Basins.

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 10:00:02 +0100

Authors: Harbison JE, Henry M, Corcoran PC, Zazra D, Xamplas C Abstract Stormwater catch basins are commonly treated with larvicides by mosquito control agencies to reduce local populations of mosquito species capable of transmitting West Nile virus. Recent evidence suggests that extended-release larvicides formulated to last up to 180 days in catch basins may not be effective in some basins due to chronic flushing, rapid dissolution, or burying of treatment in sump debris. To investigate if increasing the number of applications could improve effectiveness, a small study was performed over 13 weeks in 2015 to evaluate two extended-release larvicides (Natular™ XRT 180-day tablets and Natular™ T30 30-day tablets) and a larvicide oil (CocoBear™). Over the course of 13 weeks, thr...



A Security Guard With West Nile Virus Encephalitis

Fri, 22 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A 57-year-old male working as a security supervisor in an office building was seen for return to work by the on-site occupational health nurse. He was observed to have slow gait as he entered the clinic waiting area, was pale, diaphoretic, and slow in responding to questions. His return to work note stated he was recovering from West Nile Virus (WNV). Implications for return to work are presented. (Source: Workplace Health and Safety)

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Immune response differences might determine severity of West Nile Virus disease

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(PLOS) While most West Nile Virus infections in humans are asymptomatic and go unnoticed, the virus causes serious and sometimes fatal neurologic illness in some people. A study published on Jan. 21 in PLOS Pathogens suggests that an exaggerated and abnormal immune response contributes to the development of neurologic symptoms following West Nile Virus infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

West Nile virus in Europe and the USA Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association (Source: Veterinary Record)



Position statement on West Nile virus: a committee opinion

Tue, 19 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Although there is currently no definitive evidence linking West Nile virus (WNV) transmission with reproductive cells, it is recommended that practitioners defer gamete donors who have confirmed or suspected WNV infections. This document replaces the previously published document of the same name, last published in 2012 (Fertil Steril 2012;98:e15-6). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)



We Need To Take Action Against Zika Virus Now, U.S. Experts Say

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 17:03:27 +0100

By: Mindy Weisberger Published: 01/15/2016 02:34 AM EST on LiveScience The rapid spread of a disease called Zika virus urgently requires attention, two leading researchers say. Zika virus is the most recent in a list of viruses that were formerly confined to remote niches of the world but are now expanding their reach into the Northern Hemisphere. Much about these viruses is still poorly understood, wrote Dr. Anthony Fauci, director of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and Dr. David Morens, senior scientific advisor for the NIAID, in an article published in the New England Journal of Medicine on Thursday (Jan. 14). Zika virus is carried by mosquitos and causes generally mild symptoms like fever and rashes. However, it has recently been linked to an ala...



4 Things To Know About Zika's Potential Spread To The U.S.

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 22:43:30 +0100

A mosquito-borne virus that may have caused serious birth defects for thousands of babies in Brazil made its way to Puerto Rico by the end of last year, and experts are grappling with what this means -- if anything -- for North America. Zika has been characterized in the past as an annoying but generally harmless sickness, with symptoms like rash, fever, joint-pain and red eyes. In fact, about one in four who get infected with disease probably don't even notice they have it. But when the virus became widespread in Brazil in 2015, with an estimated 500,000 to 1.5 million residents contracting Zika, health officials noticed that it coincided with a sharp increase in microcephaly, a condition in which a fetus' brain doesn't grow to full size and the baby is born with an abnormally small head....

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Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 29 December 2015 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): Slimane Boukraa, Maria A. de La Grandiere, Thomas Bawin, Fara N. Raharimalala, Jean-Yves Zimmer, Eric Haubruge, Etienne Thiry, Frédéric Francis Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were con...



Chronic West Nile virus infection in kea (Nestor notabilis)

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 February 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 183 Author(s): Tamás Bakonyi, Gyula K. Gajdon, Raoul Schwing, Wolfgang Vogl, Annett-Carolin Häbich, Denise Thaller, Herbert Weissenböck, Ivo Rudolf, Zdenek Hubálek, Norbert Nowotny Six kea (Nestor notabilis) in human care, naturally infected with West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 in Vienna, Austria, in 2008, developed mild to fatal neurological signs. WNV RNA persisted and the virus evolved in the birds’ brains, as demonstrated by (phylo)genetic analyses of the complete viral genomes detected in kea euthanized between 2009 and 2014. WNV antibodies persisted in the birds, too. Chronic WNV infection in the brain might contribute to the circulation of the virus through oral transmission to predatory birds...



Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus [Virology]

Wed, 30 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiel...



Seroprevalence of antibodies against dengue virus among pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe.

Tue, 29 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Yen TY, Trovoada Dos Santos MJ, Tseng LF, Chang SF, Cheng CF, Carvalho AV, Shu PY, Lien JC, Tsai KH Abstract Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resources and attention are still focused on malaria, while dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. In this serological survey, dengue virus (DENV) transmission was demonstrated by using serum samples collected from 78 pregnant women in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe (DRSTP) during 2003 to 2004. Immunofluorescence assay was performed and 31 samples (39.74%) were found positive for DENV antibodies. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that 53 samples (67.95%) were positive for ...

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Host preferences in host‐seeking and blood‐fed mosquitoes in Switzerland

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The avian zoonotic agent for West Nile virus (WNV) can cause neuroinvasive disease in horses and humans and is expanding its range in Europe. Analyses of the risk for transmission to these hosts in non‐endemic areas are necessary. Host preferences of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), the main vectors of WNV, were determined in Switzerland using animal‐baited trap (horse, chickens) experiments at a natural and a periurban site. This was undertaken on four occasions during May–September 2014. In addition, the hosts of 505 blood‐fed mosquitoes collected in a zoo and in the field were determined. Mosquito data obtained in the animal bait experiments were corrected for host weight and body surface area and by Kleiber's scaling factor. Collections of 11–14 different mosquito sp...



Seroepidemiological study of west nile virus and rift valley Fever virus in some of Mammalian species (herbivores) in northern Turkey.

Sun, 20 Dec 2015 20:17:58 +0100

CONCLUSION: This may suggest that the RVFV disease is not present in northern Turkey.This is the first serological study on RVFV in Turkey. PMID: 23785699 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases)



The first investigation of west nile virus in horses using real time rt-PCR in middle black sea region in Turkey.

Sun, 20 Dec 2015 20:17:58 +0100

CONCLUSION: Although obtained result indicated no evidence of WNV-RNA in horses, Black Sea Region of Turkey is one of the suitable places for the WNV infection. For this reason, our research will continue for the determination of the viruses in vectors and susceptible animals such as horses, dogs, etc. PMID: 23378973 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases)



Economic appraisal of the public control and prevention strategy against the 2010 West Nile Virus outbreak in Central Macedonia, Greece

Sat, 19 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the economic efficiency of the public control and prevention strategies to tackle the 2010 West Nile Virus (WNV) outbreak in the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. Efficiency is examined on the basis of the public prevention costs incurred and their potential in justifying the costs arising from health and nuisance impacts in the succeeding years. (Source: Public Health)



Going viral: Could peroxisomes be key to stopping West Nile and Dengue viruses?

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 13:46:06 +0100

A new discovery could open the door to one day treat or prevent diseases caused by West Nile virus and Dengue virus infections. Together the viruses are the cause of tens of millions of infections each year. Currently there are no treatments or vaccines available. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

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Concurrent Outbreaks of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Disease - Arizona, 2015.

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 20:54:03 +0100

This report describes the first known concurrent outbreaks of SLEV and WNV disease in the United States. PMID: 26656306 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)



CCR5 limits cortical viral loads during West Nile virus infection of the central nervous system

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: These data indicate that regional differences in chemokine expression occur in response to WNV infection of the CNS, and that cortical neurons require CCR5 activity to limit viral burden in this brain region. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)



A mathematical model for the spread of west nile virus in migratory and resident birds

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 04:28:31 +0100

We develop a mathematical model for transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) that incorporates resident and migratory host avian populations and a mosquito vector population. We provide a detailed analysis of the model's basic reproductive number and demonstrate how the exposed infected, but not infectious, state for the bird population can be approximated by a reduced model. We use the model to investigate the interplay of WNV in both resident and migratory bird hosts. The resident host parameters correspond to the American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos), a competent host with a high death rate due to disease, and migratory host parameters to the American Robin (Turdus migratorius), a competent host with low WNV death rates. We find that yearly seasonal outbreaks depend primarily on the number...



Notes from the Field: Concurrent Outbreaks of St. Louis Encephalitis Virus and West Nile Virus Disease — Arizona, 2015

Fri, 11 Dec 2015 19:22:34 +0100

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)

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[Tropical ophthalmology : Intraocular inflammation caused by "new" infectious pathogens and travel-related infections].

Wed, 09 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

[Tropical ophthalmology : Intraocular inflammation caused by "new" infectious pathogens and travel-related infections]. Ophthalmologe. 2015 Dec 9; Authors: Pleyer U, Klauß V, Wilking H, Nentwich MM Abstract A number of "new" (emerging) infections that can also cause inflammatory eye changes are appearing and becoming increasingly important. In the past, diseases such as chikungunya, dengue fever or West Nile virus infections were endemic in tropical regions, but are now expanding worldwide and causing significant morbidity and even mortality. "Globalization" and human migration are important factors leading to the import of these infections. Climate changes are probably even more important. Increasing temperatures provide suitable conditions for new vectors, and may l...



Detection of emergent strains of West Nile virus with a blood screening assay.

Tue, 08 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: We experimentally demonstrate that a commercially available WNV blood screening assay can detect different strains of WNVKUN . Given that WNV can be transfusion transmissible, it is essential to confirm that emergent strains are detectable by existing blood screening methods. PMID: 26644018 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)



Has a Global Gathering of Scientists Found Common Ground on Gene-Editing the Human Germline?

Fri, 04 Dec 2015 21:17:03 +0100

The study of biology often reveals the beauty of natural design and of natural processes. Certainly this is true of the way that bacteria and other organisms defend themselves against attack from viruses. These studies revealed the exquisite way that some bacteria chop up the DNA of invading organisms and use it to create a memory of the invader, the so-called CRISPR/Cas system, which has been receiving massive public attention in recent weeks. Using CRISPR/Cas, bacteria have evolved an "immune system" that helps protect them from attack in the same way that humans have immune cells that maintain a memory of infectious diseases. Sometimes though, such elegant discoveries lead to technologies that come with risks. Discovery of the bacterial "immune system" has enabled technology to be deve...



The Yin and Yang of Antiviral Innate Immunity in Central Nervous System.

Thu, 03 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zohaib A, Sarfraz A, Muhammad Kaleem Q, Ye J, Niaz Mughal M, Tariq Navid M, Ahmed Khan F, Duan X, Zhu B, Wan S, Cao S Abstract The innate immune system provides protection against invading neurotropic viruses. It acts as the first line of defense against invading viruses and plays an elementary role in their pathogenesis. The list of viruses capable of infecting human central nervous system (CNS) is quite long, most important of them are Japanese Encephalitis virus (JEV), rabies virus, West Nile virus (WNV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), La Crosse virus, tick borne encephalitis virus (TEBE) and polio virus. Germ line pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD) - ...



Generation and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against prM protein of West Nile virus.

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 18:59:39 +0100

In this study we generated and characterized a monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the WNV prM protein. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb reacted with WNV prM specifically. Immunohistochemistry assays demonstrated that the MAb recognized native prM protein in transfected BHK-21 cells. Preliminary studies were performed to identify the epitope recognized by the MAb using a set of synthesized overlapping peptides spanning the whole length of the prM protein. The MAb reported here may provide a valuable tool for the further exploration of the biological properties and functions of the prM protein and may also be developed for potential clinical applications. PMID: 25514166 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy)

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[Meningoencephalitis caused by West Nile virus in a renal transplant recipient].

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 18:58:20 +0100

In conclusion, especially in endemic areas, WNV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CNS infections develop in solid organ transplant cases and patients with other immunodeficiencies who present with fever, generalized myalgia, gastrointestinal symptoms and/or neurological disorders. PMID: 25492663 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni)



[Flavivirus seroepidemiology in blood donors in Mersin province, Turkey].

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 18:58:20 +0100

Authors: Tezcan S, Kızıldamar S, Ulger M, Aslan G, Tiftik N, Ozkul A, Emekdaş G, Niedrig M, Ergünay K Abstract Among the vector-borne flaviviruses, West Nile virus (WNV), tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Dengue virus (DENV) constitute the most frequently-observed pathogens with significant public health impact in endemic regions throughout the globe. This seroepidemiological study was undertaken to investigate human exposure to DENV, WNV and TBEV, as well as other flaviviruses via various serological assays in the Mediterranean province of Mersin, Turkey, where scarce data is currently present for the circulation of these agent. A total of 920 sera were collected after informed consent from asymptomatic blood donors (all were male; age range: 18-63 yrs, mean age: 35.17 ...



Discovery of Nanomolar Dengue and West Nile Virus Protease Inhibitors Containing a 4-Benzyloxyphenylglycine Residue

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 16:32:58 +0100

Journal of Medicinal ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01441 (Source: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry)



Arbovirus Infections

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 06:00:00 +0100

This article reviews the major arbovirus infections that can cause neurologic disease likely to be encountered in the United States. Recent Findings:: West Nile virus continues to be an important cause of epidemic encephalitis, while emerging arbovirus infections such as dengue and chikungunya have rapidly expanded their geographic distribution. As emerging arboviruses expand in new geographic regions, neurologic abnormalities are reported in new patient populations. Summary:: Emerging arbovirus infections are increasingly important causes of neurologic disease throughout the world and in the United States. While no US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved therapy is yet available for these infections, prompt recognition and diagnosis from the consulting neurologist will ensure app...



Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain.

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Cano-Terriza D, Guerra R, Lecollinet S, Cerdà-Cuéllar M, Cabezón O, Almería S, García-Bocanegra I Abstract A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Córdoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7-11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9-15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both in pigeons and in zoo birds. Even though seropositivity to AIVs was not detected in any of the analyzed pigeons, 17.9% of 28 (CI95%: 3.7-32.0...

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Epidemiological survey of zoonotic pathogens in feral pigeons (Columba livia var. domestica) and sympatric zoo species in Southern Spain

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: December 2015 Source:Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Volume 43 Author(s): David Cano-Terriza, Rafael Guerra, Sylvie Lecollinet, Marta Cerdà-Cuéllar, Oscar Cabezón, Sonia Almería, Ignacio García-Bocanegra A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of pathogenic zoonotic agents (flaviviruses, avian influenza viruses (AIVs), Salmonella spp. and Toxoplasma gondii) in feral pigeons and sympatric zoo animals from Córdoba (Southern Spain) between 2013 and 2014. Antibodies against flaviviruses were detected in 7.8% out of 142 (CI95%: 3.7–11.8) pigeons, and 8.2% of 49 (CI95%: 0.9–15.4) of zoo animals tested. Antibodies with specificity against West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) were confirmed both ...



Bagaza virus inhibits Japanese encephalitis & West Nile virus replication in Culex tritaeniorhynchus & Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: BAGV infection in Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes altered their susceptibility to JEV and WNV producing low virus yield. However, the role of BAGV in inhibiting JEV/WNV replication in field mosquitoes needs further investigations. PMID: 26905241 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Indian J Med Res)



What are the Most Common Arbovirus in Children in the US?

Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:46:50 +0100

Discussion Arboviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods (primarily mosquitos and ticks) to humans. Most infections are asymptomatic. Many others have mild symptoms such as an influenza-like illnesses. But for some patients they can cause neuroinvasive disease with meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Some patients also unfortunately die. Diagnosis is by serum or cerebrospinal fluid IgM antibody to the specific virus. Treatment is supportive only as there is no specific treatment and currently there are no vaccines for prevention. Mosquito bite and tick bite prevention are the best options for families and can be reviewed here. A systematic review of West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in adults showed those infected can have a lengthy recovery with many sequelae, p...



What are the Most Common Arboviruses in Children in the US?

Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:46:50 +0100

Discussion Arboviruses are viruses transmitted by arthropods (primarily mosquitos and ticks) to humans. Most infections are asymptomatic. Many others have mild symptoms such as an influenza-like illnesses. But for some patients they can cause neuroinvasive disease with meningitis, encephalitis and flaccid paralysis. Some patients also unfortunately die. Diagnosis is by serum or cerebrospinal fluid IgM antibody to the specific virus. Treatment is supportive only as there is no specific treatment and currently there are no vaccines for prevention. Mosquito bite and tick bite prevention are the best options for families and can be reviewed here. A systematic review of West Nile Virus (WNV) neuroinvasive disease in adults showed those infected can have a lengthy recovery with many sequelae, p...



West Nile virus infection in Ogbomoso: serological evidence.

Sun, 29 Nov 2015 01:50:41 +0100

Authors: Kolawole OE, Kola OJ Abstract A seroepidemiological study for West Nile virus was carried out in an urban and rural settlements in Ogbomoso for its IgM and IgG. Human sera was obtained and West Nile virus IgM and IgG was determined using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique. Out of 93 subjects tested, 19.4% and 12.9% were positive for IgG and IgM, respectively. Among the urban dwellers, 23.40% were positive for both IgG and IgM, while the rural dwellers had 15.22% for IgG and 2.17% for IgM. Test for pure antibody to West Nile virus revealed that 23.7% had the virus while 8.6% had antibodies that cross reacted for other flaviviruses. Results show that West Nile virus is circulating in Ogbomoso and its environ which might have accounted for malaria like infection in t...

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Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis

Sat, 28 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Purpura fulminans (PF) is a medical emergency presenting with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S [1]. It is a rapidly progressive thrombotic disorder with a high initial mortality and long-term morbidity in survivors. PF lesions initially present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of centralized blue-black hemorrhagic necrosis [2]. West Nile virus (WNV) is a member of the Flaviviridae family and is transmitted to humans through mosquito bites. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)



Larval development of Culex quinquefasciatus in water with low to moderate

Fri, 27 Nov 2015 16:14:50 +0100

ABSTRACT Population growth and urbanization have increased the potential habitats, and consequently the abundance of Culex quinquefasciatus, the southern house mosquito, a vector of West Nile Virus in urban areas. Water quality is critical in larval habitat distribution and in providing microbial food resources for larvae. A mesocosm experiment was designed to demonstrate which specific components of water chemistry are conducive to larval Culex mosquitoes. Dose–response relationships between larval development and NO3, NH4, and PO4 concentrations in stream water were developed through this experiment to describe the isolated effects of each nutrient on pre‐adult development. The emergence pattern of Culex mosquitoes was found to be strongly related to certain nutrients, and results sh...



West Nile Virus Seroprevalence in the Greek Population in 2013: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Survey

Wed, 25 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Spyros Pournaras, Maria Mavrouli, Andriani Marka, Persefoni Tserkezou, Agoritsa Baka, Charalambos Billinis, Antonios Katsioulis, Anna Psaroulaki, Anna Papa, Nikos Papadopoulos, Zissis Mamuris, Athanasios Tsakris, Jenny Kremastinou, MALWEST Project Cases of West Nile Virus (WNV) disease were recorded for three consecutive years in Greece following the year 2010 outbreak. A cross-sectional serologic survey was conducted to estimate the WNV seroprevalence and assess the ratio of infection to neuroinvasive disease. A stratified left-over sampling methodology was used including age and residence strata. A total of 3,962 serum samples was collected and tested for WNV Immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by Enzyme–Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). All positive s...



Vector competence of two Indian populations of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes to three West Nile virus strains.

Wed, 18 Nov 2015 19:25:30 +0100

CONCLUSION: WNV has been isolated from >10 mosquito species from India, however, vector competence of none of the species has been studied. The present study demonstrates efficient transmission of WNV by Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. With its country wide prevalence and high vector competence, the mosquitoes could create grave consequences especially when virulent strains with potential to cause acute flaccid paralysis and death are circulating. PMID: 26418647 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)



Persistent impacts of West Nile virus [Ecology]

Tue, 17 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Since its introduction to North America in 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has had devastating impacts on native host populations, but to date these impacts have been difficult to measure. Using a continental-scale dataset comprised of a quarter-million birds captured over nearly two decades and a recently developed model of... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)

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Recombinant Envelope-Proteins with Mutations in the Conserved Fusion Loop Allow Specific Serological Diagnosis of Dengue-Infections

Fri, 13 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Alexandra Rockstroh, Luisa Barzon, Monia Pacenti, Giorgio Palù, Matthias Niedrig, Sebastian Ulbert Dengue virus (DENV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and a major international public health concern in many tropical and sub-tropical areas worldwide. DENV is divided into four major serotypes, and infection with one serotype leads to immunity against the same, but not the other serotypes. The specific diagnosis of DENV-infections via antibody-detection is problematic due to the high degree of cross-reactivity displayed by antibodies against related flaviviruses, such as West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow Fever virus (YFV) or Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Especially in areas where several flaviviruses co-circulate or in the context of vaccination e.g. against YFV or TBEV, this severely...



Seven Things Worth Knowing About Mosquitos

Wed, 11 Nov 2015 04:56:14 +0100

This article is part of a series on malaria. You can read the rest of the series here. 1. Not all mosquitoes bite. The female mosquitoes are the dangerous ones. They bite and draw blood. Male mosquitoes feed on flower nectar. Males have very hairy and fuzzy antennae (like a powder puff) whereas females have less hairy antennae. 2. There are three types of malaria carrying mosquitoes. The top three malaria transmitters in Africa are Anopheles gambiae, Anopheles funestus and Anopheles arabiensis. The first two live in areas of Africa where there is higher rainfall while the third, Anopheles arabiensis, is a more savanna-based, arid zone species. Gambiae and funestus prefer to feed indoors and are strongly attracted to humans, but arabiensis feeds as easily outdoors as indoors and also as eas...



Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 5801-5812: Potential for Co-Infection of a Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus, Nhumirim Virus, to Block West Nile Virus Transmission in Mosquitoes

Wed, 11 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Nhumirim virus (NHUV) is an insect-specific virus that phylogenetically affiliates with dual-host mosquito-borne flaviviruses. Previous in vitro co-infection experiments demonstrated prior or concurrent infection of Aedes albopictus C6/36 mosquito cells with NHUV resulted in a 10,000-fold reduction in viral production of West Nile virus (WNV). This interference between WNV and NHUV was observed herein in an additional Ae. albopictus mosquito cell line, C7-10. A WNV 2K peptide (V9M) mutant capable of superinfection with a pre-established WNV infection demonstrated a comparable level of interference from NHUV as the parental WNV strain in C6/36 and C7-10 cells. Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens mosquitoes intrathoracically inoculated with NHUVandWNV, or solely withWNVas a control, wer...



Additional records of vector mosquito diversity collected from Al Khor district of North-eastern Qatar

Wed, 04 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The north-eastern area of Qatar harbors is the most important industrial city in the country, which has witnessed an increase in the number of expatriate people. Because of the increase of reported mosquitoes, there is an urgent need for a surveillance program. This will allow us to build a database of mosquito vectors in the area. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)

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West Nile virus still wiping out birds across North America

Mon, 02 Nov 2015 08:00:00 +0100

Researchers struggle to explain pathogen’s persistence (Source: ScienceNOW)



West Nile virus killing millions more birds than previously thought, UCLA researchers find

Mon, 02 Nov 2015 05:00:00 +0100

(University of California - Los Angeles) West Nile virus is killing millions more birds and affecting many more bird species than previously thought, according to new research from a multi-university team of researchers. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



What ever happened to West Nile?

Mon, 02 Nov 2015 05:00:00 +0100

(Washington University in St. Louis) A study in the Nov. 2 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences is the first to fully document the demographic impacts of West Nile virus on North American bird populations. Data from bird-banding stations shows more species were hit than suspected, and half of those have yet to recover. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Evaluation of the pathogenicity of West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strains in a SPF chicken model of infection: NS3-249Pro mutation is neither sufficient nor necessary for conferring virulence

Fri, 30 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV) strains were reported for the first time in Europe in 2004. Despite an almost silent circulation around their entry point in Hungary, an upsurge of pathogenicity occurred in 2010 as 262 people suffered from neuroinvasive disease in Greece. This increase in virulence was imputed to the emergence of a His249Pro mutation in the viral NS3 helicase, as previously evidenced in American crows experimentally infected with the prototype lineage 1 North-American WNV strain. However, since 2003, WNV strains bearing the NS3Pro genotype are regularly isolated in Western-Mediterranean countries without being correlated to any virulent outbreak in vertebrates. We thus sought to evaluate the weight of the NS3249Pro genotype as a virulence marker of WNV in...



Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 5619-5631: Exposure to West Nile Virus Increases Bacterial Diversity and Immune Gene Expression in Culex pipiens

Tue, 27 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Complex interactions between microbial residents of mosquitoes and arboviruses are likely to influence many aspects of vectorial capacity and could potentially have profound effects on patterns of arbovirus transmission. Such interactions have not been well studied for West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) and Culex spp. mosquitoes. We utilized next-generation sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA bacterial genes derived from Culex pipiens Linnaeus following WNV exposure and/or infection and compared bacterial populations and broad immune responses to unexposed mosquitoes. Our results demonstrate that WNV infection increases the diversity of bacterial populations and is associated with up-regulation of classical invertebrate immune pathways including RNA interference (RNAi), Toll, and ...

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Do citation trends reflect epidemiologic patterns? Assessing MRSA, emerging and re-emerging pathogens, 1963–2014

Mon, 26 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: The Type I pattern pathogens had varied trends in disease incidence in the years following the exponential growth and subsequent decline in the number of citations. Their differing epidemiologic patterns did not correlate with their pattern of citations. We conclude that citation trends on MRSA cannot be used to determine past epidemiologic trends and also that the citation trend for MRSA in 1995–2011 most closely resembled that for HIV in 1981–1998. (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)



Exposure of resident sparrows to West Nile virus evidenced in South Tunisia

Fri, 23 Oct 2015 22:52:36 +0100

Brief Report A. HAMMOUDA, S. LECOLLINET, F. HAMZA, I. NASRI, A. NEB, S. SELMI, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 143 Issue 16, pp 3546-3549Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)



Mitochondrial genomes and comparative analyses of Culex camposi, Culex coronator, Culex usquatus and Culex usquatissimus (Diptera:Culicidae), members of the coronator group

Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: The mitochondrial genomes of Cx. coronator, Cx. usquatus, Cx. usquatissimus and Cx. camposi share the same gene composition and arrangement features that match to those reported for most Culicidae species. They are composed of the same 37 genes and the AT-rich control region, which contains poly-T stretches that may be involved in the functional role of the mitochondrial genome. Taken together, results of the dN/dS ratios, the sliding window analyses and the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses suggest that ATP6, ATP8 and NADH5 are promising genes to be employed in phylogenetic studies involving species of the Coronator Group, and probably other species groups of the subgenus Culex. Bayesian topology corroborated the morphological hypothesis of the Coronator Group as monophyletic li...



Combining reverse-transcription multiplex PCR and microfluidic electrophoresis to simultaneously detect seven mosquito-transmitted zoonotic encephalomyelitis viruses

Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 20 October 2015 Source:The Veterinary Journal Author(s): Yu Wang, Eileen N. Ostlund, Yang Jun, Fu-ping Nie, Ying-guo Li, Donna J. Johnson, Rui Lin, Zheng-guo Li Several mosquito-transmitted viruses are causative agents for zoonotic encephalomyelitis. Rapid identification of these viruses in mosquito populations is an effective method for surveying these diseases. To detect multiple mosquito-transmitted viral agents, including West Nile virus, Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus, Western equine encephalomyelitis virus, Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus, Highlands J virus and Japanese encephalitis virus, an assay using multiplex reverse-transcription PCR combined with microfluidic electrophoresis was deve...

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Chelmsford Man Fighting For His Life After Mosquito Bite

Tue, 20 Oct 2015 03:08:31 +0100

BOSTON (CBS) – From the confines of a wheelchair, Mark Maynard described the partial paralysis that has radically changed his life. “I just didn’t have the strength to move,” says the 41-year-old Chelmsford man. Maynard was a study in good health – but can’t walk now thanks to his wobbly legs, stiff torso, and weak arms. “We’ve all been bitten by mosquitoes during our lives,” he says. “So it is certainly unusual to think that just one time you can get nailed like that. But it can happen.” Maynard thinks it happened during an August 8th family cookout at his Mom’s new place in New Jersey, where hungry mosquitoes feasted on his bare legs. “Simple as that – a backyard barbecue,” says Maynard. “But about a week later I started feeling really achy.” He was ...



Limonoids from Melia azedarach Fruits as Inhibitors of Flaviviruses and Mycobacterium tubercolosis

Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Giuseppina Sanna, Silvia Madeddu, Gabriele Giliberti, Nikoletta G. Ntalli, Filippo Cottiglia, Alessandro De Logu, Emanuela Agus, Pierluigi Caboni The biological diversity of nature is the source of a wide range of bioactive molecules. The natural products, either as pure compounds or as standardized plant extracts, have been a successful source of inspiration for the development of new drugs. The present work was carried out to investigate the cytotoxicity, antiviral and antimycobacterial activity of the methanol extract and of four identified limonoids from the fruits of Melia azedarach (Meliaceae). The extract and purified limonoids were tested in cell-based assays for antiviral activity against representatives of ssRNA, dsRNA and dsDNA viruses and against Mycobacterium tuberculosis....



A comparison of West Nile virus surveillance using survival analyses of dead corvid and mosquito pool data in Ontario, 2002–2008

Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2015 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): Andrea L. Thomas-Bachli, David L. Pearl, Olaf Berke, Elizabeth Jane Parmley, Ian K. Barker The aim of this study was to improve understanding of the relative performance of the use of dead wild corvids and mosquito pools infected with West Nile virus (WNv) in surveillance for WNv activity in the environment. To this end, all records on dead corvid submissions and mosquito pools tested in Public Health Units (PHUs) in Ontario, from 2002–2008, were explored. Survival analyses were employed using the first-WNv-positive cases detected each year for each PHU, and censored observations for PHUs which did not detect WNv during a given year using each data source (504 observations). Surviva...



Co-circulation of Usutu virus and West Nile virus in a reed bed ecosystem

Mon, 12 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: This is the first detection of USUV in Cx. modestus. The results indicate that USUV and WNV may co-circulate in a sylvatic cycle in the same habitat, characterised by the presence of water birds and Cx. modestus mosquitoes, serving as hosts and vectors, respectively, for both viruses. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)



Comparative study on the effectiveness of different mosquito traps in arbovirus surveillance with a focus on WNV detection.

Sun, 11 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Pezzin A, Sy V, Puggioli A, Veronesi R, Carrieri M, Maccagnani B, Bellini R Abstract The selection of the ideal trap for arbovirus surveillance is an issue of primary importance to increase the sensitivity of virus detection and the cost-effectiveness of the entomological surveillance. During the summer 2011, the effectiveness of five types of mosquito traps (CDC gravid trap, CO2-baited trap, BG-Sentinel™ and two experimental prototypes) to attract females potentially infected with West Nile virus were assessed. The study was carried out in three natural wetland sites located in the Emilia-Romagna Region (Northern Italy), using a Latin square scheme. Single night collections of adult females were performed and determination of species and physiological state (gravid, nul...

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Implementation of NAT Screening for West Nile Virus and Experience with Seasonal Testing in Germany

Tue, 06 Oct 2015 17:42:47 +0100

Transfus Med Hemother (Source: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy)



Development and field evaluation of the sentinel mosquito arbovirus capture kit (SMACK)

Tue, 06 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: These results demonstrate that the SMACK is a versatile, simple, and effective passive arbovirus surveillance tool that may also be used as a traditional overnight mosquito trap and has the potential to become a practical substitute for sentinel animal programs. (Source: Parasites and Vectors)