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Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 12:10:44 +0100

 



The evaluation and risk assessment of sexually transmitted disease in Korean adolescents at risk

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: There have been little researches of sexually transmitted infection (STI) for adolescent at risk in Korea and these studies were just for prevalence limited to Chlamydia trichomonas and Neisseria gonorrheae. We explored prevalences and risk factors of 10 pathogens of STI at risk adolescent. Through conducting treatment model, we aim to develop a substantial management plan. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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In vitro activity of different 5-nitroimidazole derivatives and essential oils against Trichomonas vaginalis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Trichomoniasis is a common sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by Trichomonas vaginalis. Treatment of trichomoniais is usually achieved by 5-nitroimidazole derivatives. But some resistant strains to treatment failures of metronidazole have been reported and also numerous side effects, so it is continuing the search for alternative treatments. We evaluated in vitro effective concentrations of different 5-nitroimidazole derivatives and essential oils against T. vaginalis (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



ITS Typing, a potent genetic tool for discrimination of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Genetic variability, virulence factors and drug resistance mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis are poorly understood issues about the parasite. The aim of this study was to determine internal transcribed spacer (ITS) types of available T. vaginalis ITS sequences in Genbank and to compare with ITS types of T. vaginalis isolates from Aydin, Turkey. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Trichomonas vaginalis infection and reproductive complications in women from central Iran

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

In this study, the frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and the possible risk factors were examined in women attending gynecological clinics in Qom, central Iran. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Bacterial vaginosis, aerobic vaginitis, vaginal inflammation and major Pap smear abnormalities

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:12 +0100

Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of the vaginal milieu on the presence of abnormal Pap smears and a positive human papilloma virus (HPV) test. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and May 2015, evaluating the vaginal discharge by fresh wet mount microscopy and comparing these data with Pap smear findings. Wet mount slides were scored for bacterial vaginosis (BV), aerobic vaginitis (AV), presence of Candida and Trichomonas vaginalis. Cytologic evaluation was done on all Pap smears according to the Bethesda criteria. The cobas© HPV Test (Roche) was performed for HPV detection. A total of 622 cases were evaluated. The mean age of the patients was 41.6 ± 10.65 years (range 21–75). Eighty-three women (13.3 %) had a cytol...



Ureaplasma urealyticum: thepresence among sexually transmitted diseases.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

UREAPLASMA UREALYTICUM: THEPRESENCE AMONG SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 18; Authors: Esen B, Gozalan A, Sevindi DF, Demirbas A, Onde U, Erkayıran U, Karakoc AE, Hasçiçek AM, Ergün Y, Adiloglu AK Abstract The study was aimed to detect Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Trichomonas vaginalis in genital samples of symptomatic patients and to remark the presence of U.urealyticum infections in lower genital tract. Cervical and urethral samples from 96 patients (46 males, 50 females) were tested with Seeplex(®) STD6 ACE kit. Consent forms were received and a questionnaire was applied. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS program (version 17.0). The ...

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Reproductive Tract infections and Premalignant Lesions of Cervix: Evidence from Women Presenting at the Cancer Detection Centre of the Indian Cancer Society, Delhi, 2000–2012

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Earlier studies have depicted associations between TV and HPV with possible enhancement of HPV virulence due to TV. Lack of awareness and hygiene, and limited access to gynecologists in LMICs lead to frequent and persistent RTIs which aid and abet HPV infection and CC occurrence. These also need to be addressed to reduce CC and RTIs among women in LMICs. (Source: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India)



Pelvic Examination at the 6‐Week Postpartum Visit After Cesarean Birth

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The objective of this study was to assess the utility of the pelvic examination at the 6‐week postpartum visit after cesarean birth. MethodsData were collected from retrospective chart review in an obstetric resident clinic in Detroit, Michigan. Women included were those who had a cesarean birth between January 2012 and June 2014. ResultsOf 388 women who had a cesarean birth, 211 (54.4%) presented for the 6‐week postpartum visit and underwent pelvic examination. Of these women, 185 (87.7%) were asymptomatic, and 26 (12.3%) reported vaginal discharge. No other concerns were elicited. Of those with symptoms, 4 (15%) had no finding, 13 (50%) had bacterial vaginosis (BV) alone, 2 (8%) had BV and Candida sp, 2 (8%) had BV and Trichomonas vaginalis, 2 (8%) had T vaginalis alone, and 3 (11%) ...



Influence of 120 kDa Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase on Pathogenicity of Trichomonas vaginalis.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 18:29:02 +0100

In this study, the author investigated whether the 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis may be involved in pathogenicity of trichomonads. Antibodies against 120 kDa protein of T. vaginalis, which was identified as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) by peptide analysis of MALDI-TOF-MS, were prepared in rabbits. Pretreatment of T. vaginalis with anti-120 kDa Ab decreased the proliferation and adherence to vaginal epithelial cells (MS74) of T. vaginalis. Subcutaneous tissue abscess in anti-120 kDa Ab-treated T. vaginalis-injected mice was smaller in size than that of untreated T. vaginalis-infected mice. Collectively, the 120 kDa protein expressed by iron may be involved in proliferation, adhesion to host cells, and abscess formation, thereby may influence on the pathogenicity of T. vaginal...



Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 18:29:02 +0100

This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR...



Trichomonas vaginalis induces IL‐1β production in a human prostate epithelial cell line by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome via reactive oxygen species and potassium ion efflux

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONST. vaginalis induces the formation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human prostate epithelial cells via ROS and potassium ion efflux, and this results in IL‐1β production. This is the first evidence for activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the inflammatory response by prostate epithelial cells infected with T. vaginalis. Prostate © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: The Prostate)

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Correlation between Trichomonas vaginalis and Concurrency: An Ecological Study.

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 21:40:02 +0100

Conclusion. Prospective longitudinal studies that include measures of partner behavior are required to definitively establish the role of concurrency in the spread of TV. PMID: 26949392 [PubMed] (Source: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases)



A prospective observational study of vulvovagintis in pregnant women in Argentina, with special reference to candidiasis

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, 39.5% of pregnant women had normal microbial biota and symptoms of VV due to non‐infectious causes were observed (6.2%). The occurrence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was 25% and Candida albicans with a prevalence of 80.7% was the dominant species (P = 0.005) while non‐albicans Candida species and other yeast were more common in asymptomatic ones (P = 0.0038). The frequency of bacterial vaginosis, T. vaginalis, C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae were 18.1%, 1.4, 1.4% and 0.5% respectively. (Source: Mycoses)



First report of an outbreak trichomoniasis in turkey in Sistan, Iran

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract In June 2010, in small flock of turkeys (n = 45) that co-bred with domestic hens (n = 30) and pigeons (n = 35), a disease occurred with the clinical signs of pendulum crop, in appetence and loppy wings. Disease had morbidity (10.3 %) and mortality (6/6 %). Three carcasses and two ill turkeys were referred to the Veterinary clinic in Zabol region for diagnosis and treatment of disease. At necropsy, the oral cavity/crop small yellowish-white masses were characterized. Necrosis in mucosal of crop to gizzard increased and in the crop smelly yellowish green secretions were characterized. According to clinical and necropsy, strong suspicion to trichomoniasis was very high so for perfect diagnosing samples were taken from dead and live turkeys. Samples were taken from o...



Comparison of permanent staining methods for the laboratory diagnosis of trichomoniasis.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 19:51:02 +0100

COMPARISON OF PERMANENT STAINING METHODS FOR THE LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS OF TRICHOMONIASIS. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2016;58 Authors: Menezes CB, Mello Mdos S, Tasca T Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. The diagnosis is based on wet mount preparation and direct microscopy on fixed and stained clinical specimens. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of different fixing and staining techniques used in the detection of T. vaginalis in urine. The smears were fixed and submitted to different methods of permanent staining and then, the morphological aspects of the parasites were analyzed and compared. The Papanicolaou staining with ethanol as the ...



Detecting in High-risk Women: A Tricky Situation

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is an easily treated but difficult-to-diagnose infection with the standard wet prep (WP) method. A point-of-care (POC) test has been developed with a sensitivity of 85%-90% and specificity of 100%. This new test is more costly than the traditional WP. Incorporating this POC test with the WP using a step approach may increase detection of TV while minimizing cost. In this pilot study of 50 subjects, 12 (24%) tested positive for TV. With the WP method, 7 (14%) tested positive. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)

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Detecting Trichomonas vaginalis in High-risk Women: A Tricky Situation

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) is an easily treated but difficult-to-diagnose infection with the standard wet prep (WP) method. A point-of-care (POC) test has been developed with a sensitivity of 85%-90% and specificity of 100%. This new test is more costly than the traditional WP. Incorporating this POC test with the WP using a step approach may increase detection of TV while minimizing cost. In this pilot study of 50 subjects, 12 (24%) tested positive for TV. With the WP method, 7 (14%) tested positive. (Source: The Journal for Nurse Practitioners)



Chorioamnionitis in Teenage Births: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 14:08:31 +0100

Our county is one of three counties in Illinois with the highest rates of teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Prior studies have shown that teenage pregnancy, STD and chorioamnionitis lead to preterm birth. Our objective was to determine the relationship between chorioamnionitis and preterm birth as well as STDs (Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Trichomonas) in the teenage population. (Source: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology)



Prevalence of microorganisms co-infections in human papillomaviruses infected women in Northern China

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:34:29 +0100

Conclusion The study demonstrated a significant association between HPV and HBV, bacterial vaginosis, C. trachomatis and U. urealyticum. The study results suggest that it may be important to screen for the simultaneous presence of different microorganism co-infections with HPV that may have synergistic pathological effects. (Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics)



Canine Trichomonas tenax mandibular gland infestation

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Studies have shown that T. tenax can be found in humans in atypical locations such as the salivary glands and upper and lower respiratory tracts. According to our knowledge this is the first report of T. tenax being present in the salivary glands of a dog. Because of the relatively high prevalence of trichomoniasis in dogs with periodontal diseases, these parasites should be considered together with bacterial and viral agents in salivary gland infections, especially in individuals with compromised oral health. (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)



Addressing structural challenges for the sexual health and well-being of Indigenous women in Australia

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

According to the most recent national data in Australia, chlamydia and gonorrhoea were 3 and 18 times more likely to be diagnosed in Aboriginal populations, respectively, compared with the non-Indigenous population, with 16–19 years old Indigenous Australians carrying the greatest burden of these infections.1 Reports confirm that almost half this age group living in remote communities has one or more of gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomonas infections.2 In addition, significant increases in the prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and higher rates of hepatitis C acquired through burgeoning injecting drug use, combined with high rates of chronic disease, means there is a significant burden of disease among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people that costs individuals, communit...

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Canine Trichomonas tenax mandibular gland infestation

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Several species of trichomonads are intestinal or urogenital parasites of humans and animals, with only a few species typically being located in the oral cavity. The prevalence of oral trichomoniasis in dogs i... (Source: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica)



Correlates of Trichomonas vaginalis Among Middle Age and Older Adults Who Use Drugs.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 13:49:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS/IMPORTANCE: Age- and drug-related immune decline is hypothesized to contribute to increase susceptibility to T. vaginalis in mid-older adults. Broad screening for trichomoniasis, particularly among older adults who are often not regarded as at risk for STIs, is needed to control this often asymptomatic infection. PMID: 26583203 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Peroxisomes in parasitic protists

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Author(s): Toni Gabaldón, Michael L. Ginger, Paul A.M. Michels Representatives of all major lineages of eukaryotes contain peroxisomes with similar morphology and mode of biogenesis, indicating a monophyletic origin of the organelles within the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. Peroxisomes originated from the endoplasmic reticulum, but despite a common origin and shared morphological features, peroxisomes from different organisms show a remarkable diversity of enzyme content and the metabolic processes present can vary dependent on nutritional or developmental conditions. A common characteristic and probable evolutionary driver for the origin of the organelle is an involvement in lipid ...



Eimeria tenella : a novel dsRNA virus in E. tenella and its complete genome sequence analysis

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides a foundation basis for further research on the biological characteristics of Eimeriaviruses. (Source: Virus Genes)



Prevalence and Correlates of a Diagnosis of Sexually Transmitted Infection Among Young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: A National Survey

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 03:34:10 +0100

This article reports the prevalence of self-reported STI diagnoses and their correlates among Aboriginal people aged 16 to 29 years. Methods: Results were analyzed from a survey conducted between 2011 and 2013 at regular community events. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the correlates of a history of STI diagnosis among participants who reported being sexually active and ever having been tested for STIs. All analyses were stratified by sex. Results: Of the 2877 participants in this study, 2320, comprising 60% females, self-reported ever having had vaginal or anal sex, and a further subset of 1589 (68%) reported ever being tested for any of the following STIs: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, or trichomonas. Within this latter group, the proport...

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Evolution of the microtubular cytoskeleton (flagellar apparatus) in parasitic protists

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 8 February 2016 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Author(s): Naoji Yubuki, Ivan Čepička, Brian S. Leander The microtubular cytoskeleton of most single-celled eukaryotes radiates from an organizing center called the flagellar apparatus, which is essential for locomotion, feeding and reproduction. The structure of the flagellar apparatus tends to be conserved within diverse clades of eukaryotes, and modifications of this overall structure distinguish different clades from each other. Understanding the unity and diversity of the flagellar apparatus provides important insights into the evolutionary history of the eukaryotic cell. Diversification of the flagellar apparatus is particularly apparent during the multiple independent transitions ...



Association of human papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis with intraepithelial alterations in cervix samples.

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study describes the association between cytological changes in cervical epithelium and the detection of the most relevant aetiological agents of sexually transmitted diseases. Samples collected from 169 patients were evaluated by conventional cytology followed by molecular analysis to detect HPV DNA, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus 1 and 2,Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, andTreponema pallidum, besides genotyping for most common high-risk HPV. An association between cytological lesions and different behavioural habits such as smoking and sedentariness was observed. Intraepithelial lesions were also associated with HPV and C. trachomatis detection. An association was also found between both simple and multiple genotype infection and cytol...



Inflammatory response of a prostate stromal cell line induced by Trichomonas vaginalis

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study is the first attempt to demonstrate an inflammatory reaction in prostate stromal cells caused by T. vaginalis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Parasite Immunology)



Male non‐gonococcal urethritis: From microbiological etiologies to demographic and clinical features

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsPredicting causative microorganisms in men with non‐gonococcal urethritis based on demographic and clinical features is difficult. However, the present study provides useful information to better understand the microbiological diversity in non‐gonococcal urethritis, and to manage patients with non‐gonococcal urethritis appropriately. (Source: International Journal of Urology)



Suboptimal Trichomonas vaginalis Antigen Test Performance in a Low-Prevalence Sexually Transmitted Infection Community [Letters To The Editor]

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)

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Clinical Laboratory Assessment of Mycoplasma genitalium Transcription-Mediated Amplification Using Primary Female Urogenital Specimens [Bacteriology]

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Following analysis of primary cervix, vagina, and first-void female urine specimens for Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Trichomonas vaginalis via commercial transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), residual material was subjected to Mycoplasma genitalium research-use-only TMA. Representation within a 2,478-specimen retrospective study set was established by comparison to a 6-month audit of clinical C. trachomatis TMA (12,999 specimens) on the basis of the C. trachomatis detection rate, specimen source distribution, clinic location, and age. M. genitalium was detected in 282 (11.4%) patients. This rate was higher than those seen with T. vaginalis (9.0%; P = 0.005), C. trachomatis (6.2%), and N. gonorrhoeae (1.4%). Positive M. genitalium results were confirmed by repeat ...



Trichomonas vaginalis infection and risk of advanced prostate cancer

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONSOur study does not support an increased risk of advanced or fatal prostate cancer in men seropositive for Tv. Prostate © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: The Prostate)



A New Strategy for Trichomonas Testing Adolescent Females in the Emergency Department

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Sensitive trichomonas diagnostic testing has become available, including nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and a rapid antigen testing. The study purpose was to determine if adding sensitive trichomonas testing to routine female sexually transmitted infections (STI) evaluations would increase trichomonas identification and treatment. (Source: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology)



A New Strategy for Trichomonas Testing Female Adolescents in the Emergency Department

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Sensitive trichomonas diagnostic testing has become available, including nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) and a rapid antigen test. The study purpose was to determine if adding sensitive trichomonas testing to routine female sexually transmitted infection (STI) evaluations would increase trichomonas identification and treatment. (Source: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology)



In vitro effect of octenidine dihydrochloride against Trichomonas vaginalis

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular flagellated parasite of the human genitourinary tract and is the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The most common symptoms of trichomoniasis in women are vaginitis, pruritus, dysuria and colpitis macularis (‘strawberry cervix’). In men, clinically manifest trichomoniasis presents as urethral discharge and dysuria. Interestingly, women have a significantly higher prevalence but a lower incidence of T. vaginalis infection compared to men and infections are asymptomatic in >80% of women and in up to 77.3% of men [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)

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In vitro effect of octenidine dihydrochloride against

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Trichomonas vaginalis is a unicellular flagellated parasite of the human genitourinary tract and is the causative agent of trichomoniasis. The most common symptoms of trichomoniasis in women are vaginitis, pruritus, dysuria and colpitis macularis (‘strawberry cervix’). In men, clinically manifest trichomoniasis presents as urethral discharge and dysuria. Interestingly, women have a significantly higher prevalence but a lower incidence of T. vaginalis infection compared with men; infections are asymptomatic in >80% of women and in up to 77.3% of men [1]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)



The incidence of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in women attending nine sexually transmitted diseases clinics in the USA

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Prevalent and incident TV is common among STD clinic attendees; and baseline TV is the main risk factor for incident TV, suggesting high rates of reinfection or treatment failures. This supports the importance of rescreening women after treatment for TV, evaluating current treatment regimens and programmes to ensure treatment of sexual partners. Clinical trial number NCT01154296. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)



Use of a risk quiz to predict infection for sexually transmitted infections: a retrospective analysis of acceptability and positivity

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Results of a participant's own sexual risk quiz score independently predicted STI positivity for women, but not for men. Further study of this simple risk quiz is required. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)



Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium: age-specific prevalence and disease burden in men attending a sexually transmitted infections clinic in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions TV infection was rare in men, asymptomatic and was limited to the heterosexual network. MG infection was relatively common and equally prevalent among MSW and MSM of all ages. Most MG infections remained asymptomatic, however, our results suggest that up to 6% of urogenital complaints could be explained by MG infection. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)



Affirm VPIII microbial identification test can be used to detect gardnerella vaginalis, Candida albicans and trichomonas vaginalis microbial infections in Korean women

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe Affirm test is a quick tool that can help physicians diagnose and treat patients with infectious vaginitis at the point of care. (Source: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research)

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Prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Mon, 18 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Simon Graham, Lucy Watchirs Smith, Christopher K. Fairley, Jane Hocking This review highlights that the prevalence of the four STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and trichomonas) is highly variable among Aboriginal people and that it varies considerably by sex, geographical location, population subgroup and by clinic vs community-based studies. Future community-based studies that include asymptomatic young people are needed to more accurately estimate the prevalence of STIs so that local testing and management protocols can reflect the local context. (Source: Sexual Health)



OsmC and incomplete glycine decarboxylase complex mediate reductive detoxification of peroxides in hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis

Mon, 18 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Author(s): Eva Nývltová, Tamara Smutná, Jan Tachezy, Ivan Hrdý Osmotically inducible protein (OsmC) and organic hydroperoxide resistance protein (Ohr) are small, thiol-dependent peroxidases that comprise a family of prokaryotic protective proteins central to the defense against deleterious effects of organic hydroperoxides, which are reactive molecules that are formed during interactions between the host immune system and pathogens. Trichomonas vaginalis, a sexually transmitted parasite of humans, possesses OsmC homologues in its hydrogenosomes, anaerobic mitochondrial organelles that harbor enzymes and pathways that are sensitive to oxidative damage. The glycine decarboxylase complex...



Trichomoniasis in older individuals: a preliminary report from Iran

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion, unlike other STDs, which have a higher prevalence among adolescents and young adults, the rates of trichomoniasis are more evenly distributed among sexually active women of all age groups. However, frequency of this infection in women aged over 50 years (age of menopause) is notable and complementary studies are needed. (Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases)



Galectin-Protozoan Interactions in Subverting Immunity [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral sexually transmitted infection caused by the vaginotropic extracellular protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. The infection is recurrent, with no lasting immunity, often asymptomatic, and linked to pregnancy complications and risk of viral infection. The molecular mechanisms of immune evasion by the parasite are poorly understood. We demonstrate that galectin-1 and -3 are expressed by the human cervical and vaginal epithelial cells and act as pathogen-recognition receptors for the ceramide phosphoinositol glycan core (CPI-GC) of the dominant surface protozoan lipophosphoglycan (LPG). We used an in vitro model with siRNA galectin knockdown epithelial clones, recombinant galectins, clinical Trichomonas isolates, and mutant protozoan derivatives...



Comparative aspects of immunity and vaccination in human and bovine trichomoniasis: a review

Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus are important extracellular protozoans that cause, respectively, human and bovine venereal diseases. Trichomonads are extracellular parasites that primarily inhabit the genital tracts of the mammalian hosts where they overcome the mucus barrier and parasitize mucosa by contact-dependent or contact-independent cytotoxicity. Transient immunity is usually achieved by the host after clinical infection. At present, vaccination in cattle reduces infection rates and reproductive wastage in affected herds. After vaccination, immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels increase in systemic circulation while immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels rise in the vagina. Only moderate protection is conferred by means of vaccination. Future vacci...

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Microbiological Characteristics of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Infections in South African Women [Bacteriology]

Wed, 30 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We analyzed data of 263 women with at least one genital or anorectal sexually transmitted infection from a cross-sectional study conducted in rural South Africa. We provide new insights concerning the concurrence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections as well as the characteristics of bacterial loads. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)



Clinical and Laboratory Testing for Trichomonas vaginalis Infection [Minireviews]

Wed, 30 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Trichomonas vaginalis infection is highly prevalent in the United States and worldwide. Traditional clinical diagnostic methods fail to identify more than half of these infections that, if left untreated, can result in adverse pregnancy outcomes and an exacerbated risk of both acquisition and transmission of HIV. Women bear a disproportionate amount of the burden of these infections, and testing among populations at risk for this disease should be provided. Molecular technologies have expanded our capacity for laboratory-based detection of infection and can be used on samples already being collected for chlamydia/gonorrhea screening. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)



Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Based on Data Collected by a Network of Clinical Microbiology Laboratories, in Italy.

Sat, 26 Dec 2015 09:24:02 +0100

Authors: Salfa MC, Suligoi B, Italian STI Laboratory-based Surveillance Working Group Abstract Bacterial and protozoal sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, may cause acute symptoms, chronic infections and severe long-term complications. The complications of these infections in women include pelvic inflammatory disease, chronic pelvic pain, tubal infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and infertility. Moreover, infection during pregnancy is associated with premature rupture of the membranes, low birth weight and miscarriage.In Italy, Chlamydia trachomatis and Trichomonas vaginalis infections are not subject to mandatory reporting; while Gonorrhoea is subject to mandatory reporting.To extend surveillance to S...



Sexually transmitted infections in children as a marker of child sexual abuse and direction of future research

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 18:33:32 +0100

Purpose of review: This review considers recent evidence on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) as a marker of child sexual abuse (CSA), when diagnosed after the neonatal period. It also aims to identify if there are specific areas where additional research is required. Recent findings: An evidence-based systematic review using strict inclusion criteria shows that CSA is a major cause of STIs in children. In children 12 years and below, 36–83% of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and 75–94% of Chlamydia trachomatis infections are due to CSA; for children 14 years and younger, 31–58% of anogenital warts are due to CSA. In child genital sampling, genital human papillomavirus (HPV) types were more common in those considered abused (13.7%) than nonabused (1.3%). HPV typing of genital warts in chi...



Management of recalcitrant Trichomonas vaginalis in pregnancy: a case report

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

A case report of a pregnant woman with recalcitrant Trichomonas vaginalis is described. This case was managed with suppressive treatment with metronidazole during pregnancy and cleared with paromomycin vaginal treatment after delivery. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)

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Trichomonas vaginalis erythrophagocytosis in the urine sediment

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)



Amaurocine: anti-Trichomonas vaginalis protein produced by the basidiomycete Amauroderma camerarium.

Wed, 16 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Duarte M, Seixas A, Peres de Carvalho M, Tasca T, Macedo AJ Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral STD worldwide. This infection can lead to severe health conditions, especially when women are affected. Metronidazole and tinidazole are the only choices of treatment. In this sense, natural bioactive compounds against T. vaginalis are an interesting approach in the search for more efficient therapies. Herein, amaurocine, a 12kDa protein, produced by the mushroom Amauroderma camerarium was purified and tested against T. vaginalis, including two fresh clinical isolates. Amaurocine presented MIC values at 2.6 μM against the ATCC isolate 30236, and 5.2 μM against the fresh clinical isolates, TV-LACH1 and TV-LACM2. Furt...



In vitro antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium).

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 04:16:45 +0100

In this study, the antimicrobial activity of Persian shallot hydroalcoholic extract and F1 fraction of the plant (containing amino acid derivatives and/or other cationic compounds) was investigated on some Gram positive cocci and bacilli, Gram negative bacilli, two protozoa, a yeast and a fungus. Excellent activity against Candida albicans (MIC = 64 microg/ml, MBC = 128 microg/ml), Leishmania infantum (MIC = 0.2 mg/ml on the first day of study) and Trichomonas vaginalis (MIC = 5 microg/ml in PSDE form) and a moderate activity against Bacillus spp and Pseudomonas aeroginosa (MIC = 128 microg/ml) was observed. The results showed that this plant contains some anti-trichomonas and anti-leishmania components. PMID: 23210319 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Roumanian Archives of Micro...



Urethritis-associated Pathogens in Urine from Men with Non-gonococcal Urethritis: A Case-control Study.

Fri, 11 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Frølund M, Lidbrink P, Wikström A, Cowan S, Ahrens P, Skov Jensen J Abstract The aetiology of non-gonococcal urethritis (NGU) remains unexplained in 30-40% of patients. Urine samples from men attending Swedish sexually transmitted disease clinics were examined by species-specific quantitative PCRs for Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma genitalium, Trichomonas vaginalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, U. parvum, adenovirus, herpes simplex virus, Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. A total of 187 men with acute NGU (symptoms ≤ 30 days) and 24 with chronic NGU (symptoms > 30 days) were cases, and 73 men without NGU were controls. Number of lifetime sexual partners was negatively associated with U. urealyticum ...



Trichomonas vaginalis infection: How significant is it in men presenting with recurrent or persistent symptoms of urethritis?

Mon, 07 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis has been reported to affect up to 10–20% of men attending sexual health clinics. An audit was undertaken to review the management of persistent or recurrent non-gonococcal urethritis in men presenting at Whittall Street Clinic, Birmingham, UK. Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis infection was with the newly-introduced nucleic acid amplification test. A total of 43 (8%) of 533 men treated for urethritis re-attended within three months with persistent or recurrent symptoms. Chlamydia trachomatis infection was identified in 13/40 (33%), T. vaginalis in 1/27 (4%) and Mycoplasma genitalium in 6/12 (50%). These findings suggest that the prevalence of T. vaginalis infection remains low in our clinic population and may not contribute significa...

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Characterization of Specific RAPD Markers of Virulence in Trichomonas vaginalis Isolates.

Sat, 05 Dec 2015 06:50:03 +0100

Conclusion: These results demonstrate a possible role of this gene in the virulence of T. vaginalis and in the parasite infection with Trichomonas virus as a possible virus receptor. Further analysis of this gene and encoded protein will allow determining the role that they play in the isolates virus susceptible or resistant phenotypes. PMID: 26622300 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology)



A Diagnostic and Symptomatological Study on Trichomoniasis in Symptomatic Pregnant Women in Rafsanjan, South Central Iran in 2012-13.

Sat, 05 Dec 2015 06:50:03 +0100

Conclusion: Our results indicated a high prevalence of T. vaginalis in symptomatic pregnant women, very low sensitivity and relative high specificity of clinical diagnosis and wet mount technique compared to culture and PCR, as well as thatpregnancy increases the susceptibility to the infection in a gestational age-dependent manner. PMID: 26622305 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology)



Prevalence, Clinical Criteria and Sociodemographic Predictors of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Suspected Egyptian Women, Using Direct Diagnostic Techniques.

Sat, 05 Dec 2015 06:50:03 +0100

Conclusion: Trichomoniasis is a common disease in our community. Sociodemographic factors do not seem to affect the prevalence among different Egyptian population. For accurate diagnosis, laboratory investigation is essential. A positive wet smear is diagnostic, but negative samples should be examined by methods that are more sensitive. PMID: 26622298 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology)



Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of chalconyl blended triazole allied organosilatranes as giardicidal and trichomonacidal agents.

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Singh G, Arora A, Mangat SS, Rani S, Kaur H, Goyal K, Sehgal R, Maurya IK, Tewari R, Choquesillo-Lazarte D, Sahoo S, Kaur N Abstract A series of chalconyl blended triazole allied silatranes (7a-g/8a-g/9a-g) were synthesized in good yields using a simple, economical and biocompatible synthetic route. The blend of three different pharmacologically active moieties into a single scaffold resulted into synergistic effect in their bio-activity. Various substitutions were tried to study the structure activity relationship (SAR) of the synthesized compounds on the basis of biological results. All the newly synthesized compounds were well characterized by IR, (1)H and (13)C NMR, low resolution mass spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The structures of 7a and 7c were authenticated ...



5: Injectable progestin contraception and vaginal infection among south african women participating in the VOICE trial

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Data are limited on the potential impact of the injectable progestin contraceptives (IPC) norethisterone enanthate on risk of vaginal infections. We assessed whether users of two common IPC (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA] and norethisterone enanthate [NET-EN]) differed in their risk for bacterial vaginosis (BV) and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)

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7: Is more always better? comparing nucleic acid amplification testing to traditional methods in diagnosis of vaginal infections in gynecology and vulvovaginal referral offices

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) is commercially available for the diagnosis of vaginitis, but only validated in the setting of a STD clinic. The aim of this study was to compare NAAT to traditional testing for vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), bacterial vaginosis (BV), and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) in a general gynecology population. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)



8: Missed opportunities for trichomonas vaginalis diagnosis and treatment at an urban HIV clinic

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The objective of this study was to determine use of this new test among providers at our HIV Clinic, prevalence of T. vaginalis among HIV+ women and men, and predictors of infection. (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)



Chapter 4 Molecular Diagnostics in the Diagnosis of Parasitic Infection

Sat, 28 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2015 Source:Methods in Microbiology, Volume 42 Author(s): Bobbi S. Pritt Molecular testing is increasingly used to supplement or replace conventional microscopy-based methods of parasite identification. Potential benefits of molecular methods such as nucleic acid amplification tests include increased sensitivity, ability to differentiate morphologically similar organisms and lack of reliance on subjective microscopic features. However, several challenges exist for widespread implementation of molecular diagnostics, including the expense of reagents and equipment, need for sophisticated facilities and lack of commercial testing options. Most molecular parasitology tests are based on non-standardised laboratory-developed methods, although new commercial options including...






Ammonium salts of carbamodithioic acid as potent vaginal trichomonacides and fungicides

Wed, 25 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Worldwide, Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent non-viral sexually transmitted infection (STI) [1] that promotes the acquisition and transmission of viral STIs such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) [2,3]. Trichomoniasis in women is also associated with vaginitis, endometritis, adnexitis, pyosalpinx, infertility, preterm delivery, bacterial vaginosis and risk of cervical cancer [4], whilst in men it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer [5]. (Source: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents)

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A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections

Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should rece...



Sexual Assault and Sexually Transmitted Infections in Adults, Adolescents, and Children

Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Survivors of sexual assault are at risk for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We conducted literature reviews and invited experts to assist in updating the sexual assault section for the 2015 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention sexually transmitted diseases (STD) treatment guidelines. New recommendations for STI management among adult and adolescent sexual assault survivors include use of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for detection of Trichomonas vaginalis by vaginal swabs; NAATs for detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis from pharyngeal and rectal specimens among patients with a history of exposure or suspected extragenital contact after sexual assault; empiric therapy for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis based on updated tre...



Advances in the Understanding and Treatment of Male Urethritis

Tue, 24 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis are well-documented urethral pathogens, and the literature supporting Mycoplasma genitalium as an etiology of urethritis is growing. Trichomonas vaginalis and viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and adenovirus) can cause urethritis, particularly in specific subpopulations. New data are emerging regarding the potential role of bacterial vaginosis–associated bacteria in urethritis, although results are inconsistent regarding the pathogenic role of Ureaplasma urealyticum in men. Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum do not appear to be pathogens. Men with suspected urethritis should undergo evaluation to confirm urethral inflammation and etiologic cause. Although nucleic acid amplification testing would detect N. gonorrh...



Genetic Identification of Trichomonas vaginalis by Using the Actin Gene and Molecular Based Methods.

Fri, 20 Nov 2015 10:37:13 +0100

CONCLUSION: The actin gene analysis represents genetic diversity of T. vaginalis and it suggests that various strains can be responsible for clinically different trichomoniasis in infected individuals. It is expected that further studies will be conducted to increase our knowledge about relationship between the actin gene polymorphism and different biological behavior of the parasite. PMID: 25678916 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Parasitology)



Clinical round-up

Thu, 19 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Vaginal infections, a cause of serious morbidity A Cochrane review concludes that asymptomatic screening for lower genital tract infection could prevent preterm birth (relative risk 0.55, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.75).1 Only one trial of moderate quality was suitable for inclusion.2 Three other trials were excluded on the basis that they were not true screening trials (the trials enrolled symptomatic as well as asymptomatic participants). The intervention of screening for vaginal Candida, Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis with a Gram stain at 15–20 gestational weeks in this Austrian study was considered to be cost-saving. This is not current practice in UK antenatal clinics, and implementing such a strategy would have implications for laboratory workload. The Royal College of Obst...

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Kinetics of circulating antibody response to Trichomonas vaginalis: clinical and diagnostic implications

Thu, 19 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Our results describe the direct correlation between the decline of a specific humoral anti-T. vaginalis response and an effective antimicrobial therapy. These findings may facilitate the follow-up approach to circumvent limitations in developing new diagnostic tools and techniques routinely used in microbiology laboratories to assess the presence of T. vaginalis in clinical samples. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)



Genital Trichomonas vaginalis is rare among female attendees at a Sydney metropolitan sexual health clinic.

Wed, 11 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Tilley DM, Dubedat SM, Lowe P, Templeton DJ PMID: 26558330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health)



Activation of MAPK Is Required for ROS Generation and Exocytosis in HMC-1 Cells Induced by Trichomonas vaginalis-Derived Secretory Products.

Sat, 07 Nov 2015 03:02:48 +0100

In this study, we investigated whether MAPK is involved in ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 cells induced by T. vaginalis-derived secretory products (TvSP). We found that TvSP induces the activation of MAPK and NADPH oxidase in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP induced phosphorylation of MAPK and p47(phox) in HMC-1 cells. Stimulation with TvSP also induced up-regulation of CD63, a marker for exocytosis, along the surfaces of human mast cells. Pretreatment with MAPK inhibitors strongly inhibited TvSP-induced ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation. Finally, our results suggest that TvSP induces intracellular ROS generation and exocytotic degranulation in HMC-1 via MAPK signaling. PMID: 26537039 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Korean Journal of Parasitology)



Trichomonas vaginalis : pathogenicity and potential role in human reproductive failure

Fri, 06 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion These results contribute significantly to improving our knowledge of the role of parasitic virulence factors in the development of infection and its role in human infertility. (Source: Infection)



Molecular typing of the Actin gene of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates by PCR-RFLP in Iran.

Mon, 02 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Momeni Z, Sadraei J, Kazemi B, Dalimi A Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is a human urogenital pathogen that causes trichomoniasis, the most common nonviral, parasitic sexually transmitted infection in the world. At present, little is known regarding the degree of strain variability of T. vaginalis. A classification method for T. vaginalis strains would be a useful tool in the study of the epidemiology, drug resistance, pathogenesis and transmission of T. vaginalis. Eight different types of actin genes have been identified by PCR-RFLP in T. vaginalis; the purpose of this study is to determine the genotypes of this parasite in Karaj city, Iran. Forty-five clinical T. vaginalis isolates from vaginal secretions and urine sediment were collected from Karaj city from 2012 through...

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Patient-Delivered Partner Treatment for Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Trichomonas Infection Among Pregnant and Postpartum Women in Kenya

Thu, 29 Oct 2015 22:26:42 +0100

Conclusion: Patient-delivered partner treatment was acceptable and feasible for pregnant/postpartum Kenyan women and may reduce recurrent STIs in pregnancy. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)



Modulatory effect of iron chelators on adenosine deaminase activity and gene expression in Trichomonas vaginalis.

Fri, 23 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Primon-Barros M, Rigo GV, Frasson AP, Santos OD, Smiderle L, Almeida S, Macedo AJ, Tasca T Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitises the urogenital human tract and causes trichomoniasis. During the infection, the acquisition of nutrients, such as iron and purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, is essential for the survival of the parasite. The enzymes for purinergic signalling, including adenosine deaminase (ADA), which degrades adenosine to inosine, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalis isolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA gene expression after iron limitation by 2,2-bipyridyl and ferrozine c...



Increasing trichomonas testing in the pediatric emergency department

Thu, 22 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Improving the process of Trichomonas testing of symptomatic adolescents in the ED, results in higher screening rates among ED pediatric providers. Figure 1Trichomonas testing in the ED. Figure 2Adolescents with STD and Trichomonas testing. (Source: BMJ Quality and Safety)



Prevalence of trichomonas spp. in domestic pigeons in shandong province, china, and genotyping by restriction fragment length polymorphism

Tue, 20 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 October 2015 Source:The Veterinary Journal Author(s): Xiyue Jiang, Jingjing Sun, Fangkun Wang, Hongmei Li, Xiaomin Zhao Oropharyngeal swabs (n = 609) were collected randomly from 80,000 domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) on five pigeon farms and at one pigeon slaughterhouse in Shandong Province, China, from September 2012 to July 2013. Trichomonas spp. were detected in 206/609 (33.8%) samples. The prevalence was 14.9-31.1%, depending on different levels of sanitation and management, and was 4.8% in nestling pigeons, 13.6% in breeding pigeons and 35.2% in adolescent pigeons. Trichomonas gallinae genotypes A and B, and Trichomonas tenax-like isolates, were identified by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and seque...



Exploring the Mechanism How tvMyb2 Recognizes and Binds ap65-1 by Molecular Dynamics Simulations and Free Energy Calculations

Fri, 16 Oct 2015 13:32:16 +0100

Mol. BioSyst., 2015, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C5MB00585J, PaperLi Wei-Kang, Qing-Chuan Zheng, Hong-Xing ZhangTvMyb2, one of the Myb-like transcriptional factors in Trichomonas vaginalis, which binds to two closely spaced promoter sites, MRE-1/MRE-2r and MRE-2f, on the ap65-1 gene. However, the detail dynamical structural...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Mol. BioSyst. latest articles)

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Genital infections and risk of premature rupture of membranes in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: a case control study

Fri, 16 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Trichomonas vaginalis alone, T. vaginalis with C. trachomatis co-infection and abnormal per vaginal discharge were found as risk factors for PROM. There was no association of HSV-2 serostatus, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus and Bacterial vaginosis with PROM. Candidiasis seemed to have a protective effect on PROM. (Source: BMC Research Notes)



Abstract B89: The significance of Vitamin D deficiency and anaerobes in prostate cancer

Wed, 30 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Reduced long-term Vitamin D mediated non-specific macrophage surveillance against low-grade pathogenic anaerobes could explain these associations with PC and increasing urbanisation could be a factor in the health inequality as measured by prostate cancer incidence in African-American men.Citation Format: Tim Oliver, Lucy Blackburn, Frank Chinegwundoh. The significance of Vitamin D deficiency and anaerobes in prostate cancer. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Seventh AACR Conference on The Science of Health Disparities in Racial/Ethnic Minorities and the Medically Underserved; Nov 9-12, 2014; San Antonio, TX. Philadelphia (PA): AACR; Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2015;24(10 Suppl):Abstract nr B89. (Source: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention)



Comparison of cervico-vaginal colonization among sexually active women by intrauterine device use

Sun, 27 Sep 2015 07:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Statistically significant relationship was not detected between IUD and cervico-vaginal colonization. More comprehensive studies using specific test methods should be conducted to better understand the relationship. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)



Digestion of glycogen by a glucosidase released by Trichomonas vaginalis.

Sat, 26 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Huffman RD, Nawrocki LD, Wilson WA, Brittingham A Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis is a protozoan parasite that is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a widespread sexually transmitted disease. In vitro culture of T. vaginalis typically employs a medium supplemented with either maltose or glucose and carbohydrates are considered essential for growth. Although the nature of the carbohydrates utilized by T. vaginalis in vivo is undefined, the vaginal epithelium is rich in glycogen, which appears to provide a source of carbon for the vaginal microbiota. Here, we show that T. vaginalis grows equally well in growth media supplemented with simple sugars or with glycogen. Analysis of conditioned growth medium by thin layer chromatography indicates that growth on glycogen is acco...

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Detection and molecular characterization of double-stranded RNA viruses in Philippine Trichomonas vaginalis isolates

Sat, 19 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This is the first study in the Philippines and one of the two reports worldwide to detect the four TVVs and their concurrent infection in a single T. vaginalis isolate. (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)



HIV acquisition during pregnancy and postpartum is associated with genital infections and partnership characteristics

Fri, 11 Sep 2015 16:39:03 +0100

Conclusion: Pregnant and lactating women may not perceive HIV risk and rarely used condoms. Prevention and treatment of genital infections and risk stratification to identify women for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) could decrease HIV acquisition in pregnant/lactating women. (Source: AIDS)



Innovative Disulfide Esters of Dithiocarbamic Acid as Women-Controlled Contraceptive Microbicides: A Bioisosterism Approach.

Fri, 04 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Mandalapu D, Lal N, Kumar L, Kushwaha B, Gupta S, Kumar L, Bala V, Yadav SK, Singh P, Singh N, Maikhuri JP, Sankhwar SN, Shukla PK, Siddiqi I, Gupta G, Sharma VL Abstract In an ongoing effort to discover an effective, topical, dual-function, non-surfactant contraceptive vaginal microbicide, a novel series of 2,2'-disulfanediylbis(3-(substituted-1-yl)propane-2,1-diyl) disubstituted-1-carbodithioates were designed by using a bioisosterism approach. Thirty-three compounds were synthesized, and interestingly, most demonstrated multiple activities: they were found to be spermicidal at a minimal effective concentration of 1-0.001 %, trichomonacidal against drug-susceptible and resistant Trichomonas strains at minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges of 10.81-377.64 and 10...



Involvement of PI3K/AKT and MAPK Pathways for TNF-α Production in SiHa Cervical Mucosal Epithelial Cells Infected with Trichomonas vaginalis.

Thu, 03 Sep 2015 03:10:42 +0100

Authors: Yang JB, Quan JH, Kim YE, Rhee YE, Kang BH, Choi IW, Cha GH, Yuk JM, Lee YH Abstract Trichomonas vaginalis; induces proinflammation in cervicovaginal mucosal epithelium. To investigate the signaling pathways in TNF-α production in cervical mucosal epithelium after T. vaginalis infection, the phosphorylation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways were evaluated in T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells in the presence and absence of specific inhibitors. T. vaginalis increased TNF-α production in SiHa cells, in a parasite burden-dependent and incubation time-dependent manner. In T. vaginalis-infected SiHa cells, AKT, ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and JNK were phosphorylated from 1 hr after infection; however, the phosphorylation patterns were different from each other. After pretreatment with inhibi...



Eicosapentaenoic Acid Modulates Trichomonas vaginalis Activity

Wed, 02 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology)

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Synedgen’s Director for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Publishes New...

Tue, 01 Sep 2015 16:20:08 +0100

Study suggests that anti-retroviral lectins have a modest potential for preventing or treating Trichomonas infections(PRWeb September 01, 2015)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2015/09/prweb12934948.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)



Stop codon recognition in the early-diverged protozoans Giardia lamblia and Trichomonas vaginalis

Tue, 25 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 August 2015 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Author(s): Baofeng Chai, Cui Li, Jingfei Yu, Yanrong Hao, Ping Guo, Quan Shen Two classes of polypeptide release factors (RFs) are responsible for maintaining accuracy in translation termination; however, their detailed mechanism of action and evolutionary history of these factors remain elusive. The structure and function of RFs vary in bacteria and eukaryotes, a fact that is suggestive of evolutionary changes in the translation termination system. Giardia lamblia (Diplomonada) and Trichomonas vaginalis (Parabasalia) are considered as early-diverged eukaryotes. The class II release factor, eRF3, of Giardia (Gl-eRF3) appears to have only one domain that corresponds to EF-1α and lacks th...



Structure-based design of inhibitors of the crucial cysteine biosynthetic pathway enzyme O-acetyl serine sulfhydrylase.

Tue, 25 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Mazumder M, Gourinath S Abstract The cysteine biosynthetic pathway is of fundamental importance for the growth, survival, and pathogenicity of the many pathogens. This pathway is present in many species but is absent in mammals. The ability of pathogens to counteract the oxidative defences of a host is critical for the survival of these pathogens during their long latent phases, especially in anaerobic pathogens such as Entamoeba histolytica, Leishmania donovani, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Salmonella typhimurium. All of these organisms rely on the de novo cysteine biosynthetic pathway to assimilate sulphur and maintain a ready supply of cysteine. The de novo cysteine biosynthetic pathway, on account of its being important for the survival of pathogens and at the same time ...



Challenges to get axenic cultures of Trichomonas spp. — A new approach in eradication of contaminants and maintenance of laboratory microbiological cultures

Tue, 25 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: November 2015 Source:Journal of Microbiological Methods, Volume 118 Author(s): Anna Koptina, Åke Strese, Anders Backlund, Cecilia Alsmark Contamination of microbiological and cell cultures is a major problem in many scientific and clinical laboratories as well as bioproduct manufacturers worldwide. In the current study we established a rapid (9day) method to detect and eliminate fungal and bacterial contamination in cultures of the unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas spp. The developed method combines identification of the contaminating microorganisms using PCR and sequencing of the 16/18S regions followed by phylogenetic analysis. The next step was a phylogeny-guided selection of antibiotic treatments. We then used a two-step propidium iodide–resorufin assay to te...



Relationship between female genital tract infections, mucosal IL-17 production and local Th17 cells.

Mon, 24 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26302175 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Immunology)

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Detection and quantification of Histomonas meleagridis by real-time PCR targeting single copy genes

Thu, 20 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 August 2015 Source:Veterinary Parasitology Author(s): Imtiaz Hussain, Barbara Jaskulska, Michael Hess, Ivana Bilic Histomonas meleagridis, a protozoan parasite that can infect gallinaceous birds, affects mainly the liver and caeca of infected birds. As a consequence of the recent ban of chemotherapeuticals in Europe and the USA, histomonosis gained somewhat more attention due to its re-emergence and the fact that there is no effective treatment available. Therefore, the special attention is now also given towards the diagnosis and the control of the disease. In the actual study we report the development of highly specific and sensitive real-time PCR methods for detection and quantification of the parasite, based on two protein coding genes, Fe-hy...



Class II Special Controls Guideline: Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays for the Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis - Guideline for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff

Tue, 18 Aug 2015 04:00:00 +0100

This guideline identifies measures that FDA believes will mitigate the risks to health associated with these devices and provide a reasonable assurance of safety and effectiveness. (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)



Anaerobic respiration: In vitro efficacy of Nitazoxanide against mitochondriate Acanthamoeba castellanii of the T4 genotype.

Tue, 18 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Aqeel Y, Farooq M, Siddiqui R, Khan NA Abstract Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protist pathogen that is responsible for serious human and animal infection. Being one of the most frequently isolated protists from the environment, it is likely that it readily encounters microaerophilic environments. For respiration under anaerobic or low oxygen conditions in several amitochondriate protists, decarboxylation of pyruvate is catalyzed by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase instead of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In support, Nitazoxanide, an inhibitor of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, is effective and non-mutagenic clinically against a range of amitochondriate protists, Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The overall aim of the present study w...



Challenges to get axenic cultures of Trichomonas spp.– A new approach in eradication of contaminants and maintenance of laboratory microbiological cultures

Sun, 16 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 15 August 2015 Source:Journal of Microbiological Methods Author(s): Anna Koptina, Åke Strese, Anders Backlund, Cecilia Alsmark Contamination of microbiological and cell cultures is a major problem in many scientific and clinical laboratories as well as bioproduct manufacturers worldwide. In the current study we established a rapid (9day) method to detect and eliminate fungal and bacterial contamination in cultures of the unicellular eukaryote Trichomonas spp. The developed method combines identification of the contaminating microorganisms using PCR and sequencing of the 16/18S regions followed by phylogenetic analysis. The next step was a phylogeny-guided selection of antibiotic treatments. We then used a two-step propidium iodide – resorufin ass...



Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in a Tertiary Care Vaginitis Center

Fri, 14 Aug 2015 07:01:15 +0100

Conclusions: T. vaginalis infection is a rare condition in a tertiary care vaginitis center and often requires nonstandard treatments. Among those who returned for follow-up, the cure rate was 100%. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)

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