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MedWorm: Genital Herpes



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Genital Herpes category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:33:17 +0100

 



Prevalence of genital herpes in HIV positive patients attending STI clinic at a tertiary care hospital and its correlation with CD4 counts

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: HIV infection is emerging as one of the major health problems faced by the clinicians across the world, more so because of co-existence of many sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among HIV infected patients. The presence of untreated STIs (both ulcerative and non-ulcerative) increases the risk of both acquisition and transmission of HIV by a factor of upto 10 times. Recurrent and persistent ulcerative HSV2 lesions are among the common infections in HIV patients. Prevalence of genital herpes has increased markedly between the 1970's and 1990's. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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First HSV-1 Non Primary Genital Herpes in two patients

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Although HSV-1 has become a common cause of primary genital herpes, the two cases we report are, to our knowledge, the first documented first episodes of HSV-1 genital herpes in patients in whom there is evidence of prior HSV-2 infection. Beyond proving that this situation is possible, they call forth the following questions: why had such cases not been documented before, are they indeed rare? if so why? are prior encounters with one herpes simplex genotype protective against the other? (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)



Seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus-2 among pregnant women attending antenatal care at health facilities in Wolaita zone, Ethiopia

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Herpes simplex virus type-2 is the common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Genital herpes infection is a major concern in pregnancy due to the risk of neonatal transmission. (Source: Virology Journal)



Novel therapeutic investigational strategies to treat severe and disseminated HSV infections suggested by a deeper understanding of in vitro virus entry processes.

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Clementi N, Criscuolo E, Cappelletti F, Burioni R, Clementi M, Mancini N Abstract The global burden of herpes simplex virus (HSV) legitimates the critical need to develop new prevention strategies, such as drugs and vaccines that are able to fight either primary HSV infections or reactivations. Moreover, the ever-growing number of patients receiving transplants increases the number of severe HSV infections that are unresponsive to current therapies. Finally, the high global incidence of genital HSV-2 infection increases the risk of perinatal transmission to newborns, in which disseminated infection or central nervous system (CNS) involvement is frequent, with associated high morbidity and mortality rates. There are several key features shared by novel anti-HSV drugs, from ...



Status of vaccine research and development of vaccines for herpes simplex virus prepared for WHO PD-VAC.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Johnston C, Gottlieb SL, Wald A Abstract Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and -2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent global pathogens which commonly cause recurrent oral and genital ulcerations. Less common but more serious complications include meningitis, encephalitis, neonatal infection, and keratitis. HSV-2 infection is a significant driver of the HIV epidemic, increasing the risk of HIV acquisition 3 fold. As current control strategies for genital HSV-2 infection, including antiviral therapy and condom use, are only partially effective, vaccines will be required to reduce infection. Both preventive and therapeutic vaccines for HSV-2 are being pursued and are in various stages of development. We will provide an overview of efforts to develop HSV-2 vaccines, including a dis...

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Vaccine for treating genital herpes reduced viral shedding at 6 months

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 15:08:56 +0100

WASHINGTON – Research is honing in on the best dose for a therapeutic vaccine shown to reduce shedding of herpes simplex virus 2 in subjects with genital herpes infections, based on results presented... (Source: Internal Medicine News)



Investigational Therapeutic Genetic Herpes Vaccine PromisingInvestigational Therapeutic Genetic Herpes Vaccine Promising

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 09:07:57 +0100

Phase 2 data for a novel immunotherapy for genital herpes showed a significant reduction in viral shedding and lesions, although the reduction in lesions was also seen with placebo. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)



Investigational Therapeutic Genital Herpes Vaccine PromisingInvestigational Therapeutic Genital Herpes Vaccine Promising

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 02:43:49 +0100

Phase 2 data for a novel immunotherapy for genital herpes showed a significant reduction in viral shedding and lesions, although the reduction in lesions was also seen with placebo. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Dermatology Headlines)



Monoclonals and Herpes Vaccine to Top Dermatology MeetingMonoclonals and Herpes Vaccine to Top Dermatology Meeting

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 20:24:07 +0100

New data on monoclonal antibodies for atopic dermatitis and phase 2 findings for a genital herpes vaccine will be among the most watched results from the American Academy of Dermatology meeting. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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'Vaginal seeding' may put newborns at risk of infection

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 14:00:00 +0100

"'Vaginal seeding' of babies born by C-section could pose infection risk," The Guardian reports.  The practice of exposing babies born by caesarean section to their mother's vaginal fluid in an effort to boost their immunity may actually lead to an infection, experts say. Vaginal seeding involves rubbing vaginal fluid on the baby with the intention of exposing it to the "healthy" bacteria it would be exposed to in a vaginal birth. However, there is no evidence the practice is effective, and it runs the risk of babies developing serious infections from potentially harmful bacteria or viruses mothers may be unaware they are carrying. The most effective and safe way you can improve your baby's immunity is through breastfeeding. Where did the story come from? Doct...



Herpes Mastitis: Diagnosis and Management

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report two cases about simultaneous mammary and extramammary (oral and genital) herpetic infection in nonlactating women. In both cases, HSV breast lesions were acquired by sexual contacts with partners who were asymptomatic HSV carriers. Through a review of literature, we highlight clinical signs for an early diagnosis. We also emphasize the advantage of the valacyclovir for treating this uncommon pathology. (Source: The Breast Journal)



HSV antivirals – current and future treatment options

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 18 Author(s): Alexander Birkmann, Holger Zimmermann Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 can cause infections with clinical manifestations ranging from benign and generally self-limiting blisters or sores as seen in labial and genital herpes through to severe and in rare cases even life-threatening infections. At present, approved treatments for herpes simplex virus are almost all nucleoside analogs. Novel antiviral approaches include therapeutic vaccines, with the most advanced having successfully completed Phase 2 clinical development. Moreover, several small molecules approaches are being developed for the treatment of genital or labial HSV infections. Of particular interest are two novel compounds (amenamevi...



Evolution of rational vaccine designs for genital herpes immunotherapy

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: April 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 17 Author(s): Johanna Katharina Kaufmann, Jessica Baker Flechtner Immunotherapeutic vaccines have emerged as a novel treatment modality for genital herpes, a sexually transmitted disease mainly caused by herpes simplex virus type 2. The approaches to identify potential vaccine antigens have evolved from classic virus attenuation and characterization of antibody and T cell responses in exposed, but seronegative individuals, to systematic screens for novel T cell antigens. Combined with implementation of novel vaccine concepts revolving around immune evasion and local recruitment of immune effectors, the development of a safe and effective therapeutic vaccine is within reach. Here, we describe the vaccine approaches ...



Acyclovir

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 06:22:50 +0100

is a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue antiviral agent with activity against herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1), genital herpes virus (HSV-2), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). [#] [#] (Source: Aids Info Drugs)

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Dermatoses of the Glans Penis in Korea: A 10-Year Single Center Experience.

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 13:25:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: This study shows the usefulness of a topographic approach in the diagnosis of dermatoses of the glans penis in Korea. The findings could be used as baseline data for establishing an accurate diagnosis in Koreans. PMID: 26848217 [PubMed] (Source: Annals of Dermatology)



[Oral viral infections].

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Parent D Abstract Exclude herpes infection in the presence of acute oral ulcers of unknown origin, particularly in patients in poor general condition. Remember that asymptomatic HSV-1 shedding in saliva may result in an oral-genital transmission. Perform an anogenital examination and a screening for other sexually transmitted diseases when oral warts are diagnosed. Search for immunosuppression and monitor the patient (screening for a potential associated carcinoma) when there is rapid growth of oral warts. Consider all the clinical signs (systemic, skin, other mucosa, immunity…) when a patient has an enanthem or oral ulcerations. Ask for a HIV test when an oral Kaposi's sarcoma, a hairy leukoplakia or major aphthae are diagnosed. PMID: 26854091 [PubMed - as supplied...



Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2 Cervicovaginal Shedding Among Women Living With HIV-1 and Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in Burkina Faso: An 8-Year Longitudinal Study

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. ART is strongly associated with a decrease in cervicovaginal HSV-2 shedding, and the impact was sustained over several years. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Correlates of African American female adolescent offenders 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") use and sexually transmitted infection morbidity.

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 21:52:02 +0100

Correlates of African American female adolescent offenders 3, 4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") use and sexually transmitted infection morbidity. J Hum Behav Soc Environ. 2016;26(2):194-201 Authors: Stephens T, Holliday RC, Hopkins S, Rose S, Braithwaite R, Smith S Abstract The current study was designed to determine the extent to which self-reported ecstasy use in a population of juvenile adolescent detainees in a southern state is associated with high-risk health behaviors pertaining to sexually transmitted infection (STI) symptomology and past history of STI occurrence. Participants were 764 African American females extracted from an overall sample of 2,260 juvenile offenders housed at selected Youth Development Campuses in the state of Georgia. Si...



[Research Articles] Mathematical modeling of herpes simplex virus-2 suppression with pritelivir predicts trial outcomes

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic models estimate the potency of antiviral agents but do not capture viral and immunologic factors that drive the natural dynamics of infection. We designed a mathematical model that synthesizes pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and viral pathogenesis concepts to simulate the activity of pritelivir, a DNA helicase-primase inhibitor that targets herpes simplex virus. Our simulations recapitulate detailed viral kinetic shedding features in five dosage arms of a phase 2 clinical trial. We identify that in vitro estimates of median effective concentration (EC50) are lower than in vivo values for the drug. Nevertheless, pritelivir potently decreases shedding at appropriate doses based on its mode of action and long half-life. Although pritelivir directly inhi...

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Stunting at 5 Years Among SGA Newborns

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Etiological subgroups of SGA differed in risk of stunting at 5 years. SGA newborns of inadequate GWG mothers who smoke and SGA newborns of short mothers were at particularly high risk of stunting. (Source: PEDIATRICS)



Unfortunate synergy between HIV and genital herpes.

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: PMID: 26884529 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Canadian Family Physician Medecin de Famille Canadien)



Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genital shedding in HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women receiving effective combination antiretroviral therapy

Sun, 31 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The dynamics of genital shedding of HSV-2 DNA was assessed in HIV-1-infected women taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). HIV-1 RNA, HIV-1 DNA and HSV DNA loads were measured during 12–18 months using frozen plasma, PBMC and cervicovaginal lavage samples from 22 HIV-1-infected women, including 17 women naive for antiretroviral therapy initiating cART and 5 women with virological failure switching to a new regimen. Nineteen (86%) women were HSV-2-seropositive. Among HSV-2-/HIV-1-co-infected women, HIV-1 RNA loads showed a rapid fall from baseline after one month of cART, in parallel in paired plasma and cervicovaginal secretions. In contrast, HIV-1 DNA loads did not show significant variations from baseline up to 18 months of treatment in both systemic and genital compartme...



Coping strategies and behavioural changes following a genital herpes diagnosis among an urban sample of underserved Midwestern women

Sun, 31 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study focused on understanding the coping strategies and related behavioural changes of women who were recently diagnosed with herpes simplex virus type 2. In particular, we were interested in how coping strategies, condom use, and acyclovir uptake evolve over time. Twenty-eight women screening positive for herpes simplex virus type 2 were recruited through a public health STD clinic and the Indianapolis Community Court. Participants completed three semi-structured interviews with a woman researcher over a six-month period. The interviews focused on coping strategies for dealing with a diagnosis, frequency of condom use, suppressive and episodic acyclovir use, and the utilisation of herpes simplex virus type 2 support groups. Interview data were analysed using content analysis to iden...



Factors Influencing Genital Herpes Testing

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 14:04:41 +0100

Genital herpes causes morbidity and increases the risk of HIV acquisition for those infected. Unfortunately, most people infected are unaware yet still may asymptomatically shed the virus. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not currently recommend routine genital herpes (HSV-2) testing for the general population. It is unclear whether routine testing would improve health or alter sexual risk behaviors to reduce the spread of infection, especially in adolescent populations. (Source: Journal of Adolescent Health)

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Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) Modulation of Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans Initiation of HeLa 299 Cell-Associated Biofilm.

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Plotkin BJ, Sigar IM, Tiwari V, Halkyard S Abstract Although herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1), and type-2 (HSV-2), Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans co-habit the oral and genital mucosa, their interaction is poorly understood. We determined the effect HSV has on bacterial and/or fungal adherence, the initial step in biofilm formation. HeLa229 cells were infected with HSV-1 (KOS) gL86 or HSV-2 (KOS) 333gJ (-) at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 50 and 10. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) and/or C. albicans (yeast forms or germ tube forms) were co-incubated for 30 min (37 °C; 5 % CO2; 5:1 organism: HeLa cell ratio; n = 16) with virus-infected HeLa cells or uninfected HeLa cell controls. Post-incubation, the monolayers were washed (3x; PBS), lysed (RIPA), and the ...



Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda

Thu, 07 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2–seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Fatal Neonatal Herpes Simplex Infection Likely from Unrecognized Breast Lesions

Thu, 07 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Type 1 herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) is very prevalent yet in rare circumstances can lead to fatal neonatal disease. Genital acquisition of type 2 HSV is the usual mode for neonatal herpes, but HSV-1 transmission by genital or extragenital means may result in greater mortality rates. A very rare scenario is presented in which the mode of transmission was likely through breast lesions. The lesions were seen by nurses as well as the lactation consultant and obstetrician in the hospital after delivery of the affected baby but not recognized as possibly being caused by herpes. The baby died 9 days after birth with hepatic failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Peripartum health care workers need to be aware of potential nongenital (including from the breast[s]) neonatal herpes acqu...



Characteristics of Sexually Transmitted Infections among High-Risk HIV-Positive Patients Attending an Urban Clinic in Uganda

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Clinical and microbiologically diagnosed STIs were diagnosed in nearly one-fourth of the HIV-positive high-risk population. HIV care programs should note our high rates of STIs among HIV-positive high-risk populations and consider routine screening and treatment algorithms for these populations in their own settings. (Source: Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (JIAPAC))



Non-healing genital herpes mimicking donovanosis in an immunocompetent man

Mon, 07 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We report a case of genital herpes manifesting as painless chronic non-healing genital ulcers with exuberant granulation tissue in an immunocompetent man. Owing to this morphology, the ulcers were initially mistaken for donovanosis. To the best of our knowledge, such a presentation of genital herpes in an immunocompetent individual has not been described previously. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)

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Cholestanol-conjugated Sulfated Oligosaccharide PG545 Disrupts Lipid Envelope of Herpes Simplex Virus Particles.

Mon, 07 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Said JS, Trybala E, Görander S, Ekblad M, Liljeqvist JÅ, Jennische E, Lange S, Bergström T Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and many other viruses including HIV initiate infection of host cells by binding to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains of cell surface proteoglycans. Although GAG mimetics such as sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides exhibit potent antiviral activity in cultured cells, the prophylactic application of these inhibitors as vaginal microbicides failed to protect women on their exposure to HIV infection. A possible explanation for this failure is that sulfated oligo- and polysaccharides exhibit no typical virucidal activity as their interaction with viral particles is largely electrostatic and reversible, and thereby vulnerable to competition with GAG-bin...



High Rate of β-Globin DNA Detection Validates Self-Sampling in Herpes Simplex Virus Shedding Studies

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 06:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Human β-globin DNA detection rate was high, and the quantity obtained significantly increased with genital, but not oral HSV shedding. The high rate of β-globin DNA detection is consistent with high adherence to study procedures in longitudinal studies of genital herpes shedding. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)



Low prevalences of HIV infection and HSV genital shedding in the general adult female population in Senegal

Mon, 30 Nov 2015 08:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Taken together, our observations indicate a low prevalence of HSV DNA genital shedding in adult Senegalese women. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)



Induction of interferon-{lambda} contributes to TLR3 and RIG-I activation-mediated inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells

Mon, 30 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We examined the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible I (RIG-I) in End1/E6E7 cells by real-time PCR. The IFN- induced by TLR3 and RIG-I activation of End1/E6E7 cells was also examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. HSV-2 infection of End1/E6E7 cells was evaluated by the real-time PCR detection of HSV-2 gD expression. The antibody to IL-10Rβ was used to determine whether IFN- contributes to TLR3/RIG-I mediated HSV-2 inhibition. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase I (OAS-1) and myxovirus resistance A (MxA) were determined by the real-time PCR and western blot. End1/E6E7 cells were transfected with shRNA to knockdown the IRF3, IRF7 or RIG-I expression. Student's t-test and p...

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Oral and Vaginal Tenofovir for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding in Immunocompetent Women: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Cross-over Trial

Mon, 23 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. Oral TDF modestly decreased HSV shedding and lesion rate, and quantity of virus shed when used consistently. Vaginal TFV gel decreased quantity of virus shed by 60%. In contrast to effects on HSV-2 acquisition, tenofovir is unlikely to provide clinically meaningful reductions in the frequency of HSV shedding or genital lesions. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01448616 (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Protection from genital herpes disease, seroconversion and latent infection in a non-lethal murine genital infection model by immunization with an HSV-2 replication-defective mutant virus.

Fri, 20 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Diaz FM, Knipe DM Abstract Viral vaccines have traditionally protected against disease, but for viruses that establish latent infection, it is desirable for the vaccine to reduce infection to reduce latent infection and reactivation. While seroconversion has been used in clinical trials of herpes simplex virus (HSV) vaccines to measure protection from infection, this has not been modeled in animal infection systems. To measure the ability of a genital herpes vaccine candidate to protect against various aspects of infection, we established a non-lethal murine model of genital HSV-2 infection, an ELISA assay to measure antibodies specific for infected cell protein 8 (ICP8), and a very sensitive qPCR assay. Using these assays, we observed that immunization with HSV-2 dl5-29 v...



Everything You Think You Know About Herpes Is Wrong

Mon, 16 Nov 2015 22:55:03 +0100

By Kristine Thomason Hate to break it to you, but you probably have herpes. Turns out, nearly two-thirds of the global population is infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), according to a recent report released by the World Health Organization (WHO). The WHO researchers estimated that 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 are infected with HSV-1, which is best known as a cause of cold sores. Another 417 million people worldwide aged 15-49 have HSV-2, the type most often thought of as a sexually transmitted disease. But get this-140 million adults have genital infections caused by HSV-1, meaning half a billion people could sexually transmit either virus. While this news may be shocking--don't freak out. Herpes has been seriously stigmatized for years, but the fact is, if you don...



Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

Sat, 14 Nov 2015 00:04:02 +0100

Authors: Johnston C, Corey L Abstract SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, ...



Herpes Simplex Virus Seroprevalence and Seroconversion Among Active Duty US Air Force Members with HIV Infection

Sat, 14 Nov 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) plays an important role in the dynamics of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection. HSV-2 enhances HIV acquisition through genital ulceration, which provides a portal of entry for HIV, and upregulates activated immune cells associated with HSV-2 infection, which may increase the number of immune targets for HIV infection [1]. Subclinical genital erosions in the setting of HSV-2 infection are also thought to facilitate HIV transmission by promoting HIV shedding in the genital tract [2,3,4]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)

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An estimated two-thirds of world’s population under age of 50 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1

Wed, 28 Oct 2015 18:00:00 +0100

More than 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which commonly causes ‘cold sores’ and can also cause genital herpes, according to new research by the University of Bristol and the World Health Organisation [WHO]. The findings, published in the journal PLOS ONE, reveal the first global estimates of HSV-1 infection. (Source: University of Bristol news)



Globally, an estimated two-thirds of the population under 50 are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1

Wed, 28 Oct 2015 05:00:00 +0100

More than 3.7 billion people under the age of 50 – or 67% of the population – are infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), according to WHO’s first global estimates of HSV-1 infection published today in the journal PLOS ONE. Herpes simplex virus is categorized into 2 types: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 are highly infectious and incurable. HSV-1 is primarily transmitted by oral-oral contact and in most cases causes orolabial herpes or “cold sores” around the mouth. HSV-2 is almost entirely sexually transmitted through skin-to-skin contact, causing genital herpes. (Source: WHO news)



Self-reported sexually transmitted infections among female university students.

Thu, 22 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Contraceptive counselling should also include information about primary and secondary prevention of STI, such as the importance of correct use of a condom and STI testing, to prevent a further spread of STIs. PMID: 26489857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences)



Valaciclovir versus aciclovir for the treatment of primary genital herpes simplex: a cost analysis

Wed, 21 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The current guidelines for the treatment of primary herpes simplex in the Genito-urinary department in Sheffield Teaching Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, recommend valaciclovir as a first-line medication. This is a prodrug of aciclovir, which has been used for many years as a treatment for primary herpes simplex virus. The basis of the recommendation largely relates to valaciclovir being more bioavailable than aciclovir. However, there is no evidence to suggest this has an effect on overall outcome with regard to symptom control and viral shedding. The purpose of the service evaluation was to discover if significant cost savings could be made by changing the prescribing policy to make aciclovir the drug of choice for primary herpes simplex virus. Based on 160 patients receiving valaciclovi...



Genital infections and risk of premature rupture of membranes in Mulago Hospital, Uganda: a case control study

Fri, 16 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Trichomonas vaginalis alone, T. vaginalis with C. trachomatis co-infection and abnormal per vaginal discharge were found as risk factors for PROM. There was no association of HSV-2 serostatus, syphilis, N. gonorrhea, C. trachomatis, Group B Streptococcus and Bacterial vaginosis with PROM. Candidiasis seemed to have a protective effect on PROM. (Source: BMC Research Notes)

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Study of patterns of sexually transmitted diseases using a syndromic approach in the era of human immunodeficiency virus from a tertiary care hospital of the Northern India

Mon, 12 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Viral STIs such as molluscum contagiosum, herpes genitalis, and condylomata acuminata are on the rise among STI/RTI clinic attendees. (Source: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases)



Syphilis: Is it making resurgence?

Mon, 12 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Incidence of syphilis has shown a rising trend over past few years. The major risk factors considered are the HIV infection and homosexual behavior. (Source: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases)



Cancers attributable to infections among adults with HIV in the United States

Fri, 09 Oct 2015 17:03:19 +0100

Conclusion: The very high fraction of cancer attributable to infection in HIV-infected people points to special opportunities to prevent these cancers, that is, avoidance, detection, and early treatment of cancer-associated infections, and universal early detection and uninterrupted treatment of HIV infection to avoid immunosuppression. (Source: AIDS)



Infectious reproductive disease pathogens in dairy herd bulls

Mon, 28 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionBovine genital campylobacteriosis is present in south‐western Victoria, despite longstanding recommendations to vaccinate bulls. Screening bulls for persistent infection with BVDV is probably justified, despite the absence of persistently infected bulls in this study. Further research is warranted to investigate the potential reproductive implications of BHV‐1, and the presence of T. foetus. (Source: Australian Veterinary Journal)



Herpes simplex virus 2 hepatitis in a lung transplant recipient: a diagnostic challenge

Tue, 15 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases as a Risk for Acquiring HIV Infection among the Population of Men Who Have Sex with Men--A Case-Control Study.

Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study investigates sexually transmitted diseases as a risk for HIV infection. A total of 296 men who have sex with men (MSM) were included in this case control study. Differences among the frequencies of sexually transmitted diseases among the MSM of HIV positive and HIV negative status were tested. The history of HIV positive more often states falling ill with sexually transmitted diseases than this was the case before they became HIV positive, unlike those MSM who are not HIV infected (45.9%:11.1% that is OR 6.79, 95% CI 3.49-13.19). Hepatitis B infection is more frequent in HIV positive MSM (11.5%:1.9%; OR 6.58, 95% CI 1.86-23.3). The frequency of gonorrhea in case history of HIV positive MSM is significantly higher than in the HIV negative group (11.5%:3.8%, OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.13-9...



Correlates to seroprevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 among rural Appalachian drug users

Wed, 19 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsDespite lower seroprevalence than that reported in similar studies of substance abusers, targeted interventions to reduce sexual risk behavior are warranted in this underserved population. Network‐informed approaches with particular focus on women, older individuals, and those engaging in frequent unprotected sex are recommended. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)



Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Type 2 and Coinfection With HIV and Syphilis: The First National Seroprevalence Survey in Saudi Arabia

Fri, 14 Aug 2015 07:01:25 +0100

Conclusions: Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection is highly prevalent in Saudi Arabia and mostly acquired before adulthood. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence is very low, acquired in adulthood, and increased with age. Monitoring the prevalence of HSV infection can help inform targeted strategies to prevent new infections, neonatal transmission, and the spread of other STIs in the Kingdom. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)



Studies may lead to universal test for oral, genital herpes

Tue, 11 Aug 2015 21:28:21 +0100

Stephen FellerBALTIMORE, Aug. 11 (UPI) -- Researchers found differences in strains of the herpes simplex virus which may lead to better diagnostic tests and a vaccine for oral and genital herpes. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)



Research advances potential for test and vaccine for genital and oral herpes

Tue, 11 Aug 2015 17:28:44 +0100

Findings from a pair of new studies could speed up the development of a universally accurate diagnostic test for human herpes simplex viruses, according to researchers. The work may also lead to the development of a vaccine that protects against the virus. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

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Research Advances Potential for a Globally Accurate Diagnostic Test and Vaccine for Genital and Oral Herpes - 8/11/15

Tue, 11 Aug 2015 12:00:00 +0100

Findings from a pair of new studies could speed up the development of a universally accurate diagnostic test for human herpes simplex viruses (HSV), according to researchers at Johns Hopkins and Harvard universities and the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (Source: Johns Hopkins Medicine News)



Research advances potential for test and vaccine for genital and oral herpes

Tue, 11 Aug 2015 04:00:00 +0100

(Johns Hopkins Medicine) Findings from a pair of new studies could speed up the development of a universally accurate diagnostic test for human herpes simplex viruses, according to researchers at Johns Hopkins and Harvard universities and the National Institutes of Health. The work may also lead to the development of a vaccine that protects against the virus. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Gel shown to cut genital herpes risk, but not HIV

Thu, 06 Aug 2015 16:16:22 +0100

Stephen FellerWASHINGTON, Aug. 6 (UPI) -- An experimental gel meant to curb the sexual transmission of HIV was found to cut the chances of a woman contracting herpes by half. (Source: Health News - UPI.com)



Experimental Gel Could Prevent Genital Herpes Infection

Thu, 06 Aug 2015 00:15:02 +0100

But follow-up study of the gel for HIV prevention yields disappointing results (Source: WebMD Health)



If you could protect your child from cancer with a vaccine, would you have them get it?

Fri, 31 Jul 2015 21:31:00 +0100

According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) viruses such as Epstein-Barr, HPV, Hepatitis B and Herpes Virus-8 can cause cancer.   Most parents have no problem having their child vaccinated for Hep B but many parents struggle with the HPV vaccine.   Statistically, one out of every 2 teens is sexually active. Every 20 minutes of every day someone is diagnosed with an HPV related cancer! 6 million HPV infections are diagnosed every year with the vast majority being found in young people.    The vaccine can be given as young as 9 years of age but is recommended between 11 and 12.  Antibodies in the vaccine are more robust in children of that age then those who are 16 years and older.  It is important for kids to get the vaccine before they b...



Expression and characterization of the gD protein of HSV-2 fused to the tetramerization domain of the transcription factor p53

Wed, 22 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015 Source:Protein Expression and Purification Author(s): M. Pérez-Hernández, I. Gadea, J.M. Escribano, E. Tabarés, S. Gómez-Sebastián The highly immunogenic glycoprotein D (gD) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a very important element for entry of this virus into host cells. These characteristics have made this protein a very interesting HSV-2 subunit vaccine candidate. Despite efforts to prevent genital herpes using gD-based subunit vaccines, to date, clinical trials using this antigen have failed. Therefore, using a small animal model, we sought to determine if a tetramerized truncated form of gD subunit vaccine, produced by recombinant baculovirus infected insect larvae, would elicit better protection against genital herp...



Clinical roundup

Mon, 20 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

New investigational topical HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV) treatment We start this week with a novel therapeutic agent for HSV. Khemis et al1 in France highlight the potential role for a novel agent, the CS21 barrier genital gel in the management of recurrent genital HSV. This prospective randomised controlled, investigator-blinded trial compared CS21 barrier genital gel, the investigational agent, with topical aciclovir and a placebo in 61 (43 women and 18 men) patients with recurrent herpes. They compared clinical end points using a cumulative score of four herpes-related functional symptoms (pain, burning, itching and tingling sensation) and secondary endpoints (skin changes, time to heal, local tolerance and overall acceptability of the treatment). CS21 was found to be more efficient than ...

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IJERPH, Vol. 12, Pages 7585-7592: Seminal Shedding of CMV and HIV Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men

Tue, 07 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

As in many urban areas in the United States, the largest burden of the HIV epidemic in San Diego is borne by men who have sex with men (MSM). Using data from well-characterized HIV transmitting and non-transmitting partner pairs of MSM in San Diego, we calculated the population attributable risk (PAR) of HIV transmissions for different co-infections common among MSM in this area. We found that over a third of HIV transmissions could be potentially attributed to genital shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) (111 transmission events), compared to 21% potentially attributed to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) (62 events) and 17% to herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) (51 events). Although our study cannot infer causality between the described associations and is limited in sample s...



[Editorial] STIs climbing in men who have sex with men in England

Fri, 03 Jul 2015 23:30:57 +0100

Pride in London 2015, England's biggest pride parade so far, took place last weekend, bringing together the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Despite this celebration, a report from Public Health England on sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in England in 2014, published on June 23, 2015, uncovers alarming statistics in men who have sex with men (MSM). Although total STI diagnoses decreased by 0·3% in England from 2013 to 2014, diagnoses in MSM rose sharply, with syphilis increasing by 46%, gonorrhoea by 32%, chlamydia by 26%, and genital herpes and warts by 10% each. (Source: LANCET)



Laboratory diagnosis and epidemiology of herpes simplex 1 and 2 genital infections.

Sat, 20 Jun 2015 15:48:03 +0100

Authors: Glinšek Biškup U, Uršič T, Petrovec M Abstract Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 are the main cause of genital ulcers worldwide. Although herpes simplex virus type 2 is the major cause of genital lesions, herpes simplex virus type 1 accounts for half of new cases in developed countries. Herpes simplex virus type 2 seroprevalence rises with sexual activity from adolescence through adulthood. Slovenian data in a high-risk population shows 16% seroprevalence of HSV-2. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA in genital swabs was detected in 19% and 20.7%, respectively. In most cases, genital herpes is asymptomatic. Primary genital infection with herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 can be manifested by a severe clinical picture, involving the vesicular skin and mucosal changes and ulcerative l...



Successful treatment of hypertrophic herpes simplex genitalis in HIV‐infected patient with topical imiquimod

Sat, 13 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We report a case of hypertrophic genital herpes in a HIV‐positive patient who was successfully treated with topical 5% imiquimod after treatment failures with oral and i.v. antivirals. (Source: The Journal of Dermatology)



Changes in the contribution of genital tract infections to HIV acquisition among Kenyan high-risk women from 1993 to 2012

Fri, 15 May 2015 13:08:44 +0100

Conclusion: Bacterial vaginosis and HSV-2 have consistently been the largest contributors to HIV acquisition risk in the Mombasa Cohort over the past 20 years. Interventions that prevent these conditions would benefit women's health and could reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV. (Source: AIDS)

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Contribution of N-linked glycans on HSV-2 gB to cell-cell fusion and viral entry.

Fri, 08 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Luo S, Hu K, He S, Wang P, Zhang M, Huang X, Du T, Zheng C, Liu Y, Hu Q Abstract HSV-2 is the major cause of genital herpes and its infection increases the risk of HIV-1 acquisition and transmission. HSV-2 glycoprotein B together with glycoproteins D, H and L are indispensable for viral entry, of which gB, as a class III fusogen, plays an essential role. HSV-2 gB has seven potential N-linked glycosylation (N-CHO) sites, but their significance has yet to be determined. For the first time, we systematically analyzed the contributions of N-linked glycans on gB to cell-cell fusion and viral entry. Our results demonstrated that, of the seven potential N-CHO sites on gB, mutation at N390, N483 or N668 decreased cell-cell fusion and viral entry, while mutation at N133 mainly affe...



Patient Preferences for Test Result Notification

Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Preferences for test result notification can differ substantially depending upon the test under consideration and results of the test. Providers and health care systems should consider these factors when deciding how to communicate results to patients. (Source: Journal of General Internal Medicine)



Socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics associated with HSV-2 sero-prevalence in high risk women in KwaZulu-Natal

Tue, 05 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: The high sero-prevalence of HSV-2 in the studied population is of great public health importance since this high risk population could act as a reservoir for future infections particularly HIV transmission. (Source: BioMed Central)



A model for the coupled disease dynamics of HIV and HSV-2 with mixing among and between genders.

Mon, 04 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Alvey C, Feng Z, Glasser J Abstract Evidence indicates that those with genital herpes (HSV-2) infections have greater risks of infection by HIV; and, once co-infected, are more likely to transmit HIV. To better understand the interactions between HIV and HSV-2, we construct a mathematical model that describes the joint dynamics. A new feature of this model is the inclusion of both heterosexual and homosexual interactions. We derive and interpret the basic and invasion reproduction numbers for HIV and HSV-2 using the approach of next-generation matrices. We then perform scenario analyses and conduct a sensitivity analysis to investigate the impact of the model parameters on the reproduction numbers and disease prevalences. We conclude that homosexual transmission drasticall...



5 Things Your Gynecologist Wishes You Knew

Fri, 01 May 2015 14:39:45 +0100

Your gynecologist has heard it all -- so why do women so often shy away from talking about their sexual health? From yeast infections to HPV, three female gynecologists share in the above #OWNSHOW video the things they want all women to know about their bodies. Beware Yeast Infection Risks Dr. Michele Curtis says all women should be aware of the things that increase their chances of getting a yeast infection: 1. Antibiotics "If you take antibiotics, that's going to change the normal bacterial balance, and that will increase the risk for a yeast infection," Curtis says. 2. Hormonal Changes "If you are in a state of hormonal changes, like pregnancy, or sometimes right before your period, that will increase your risk for yeast infection," she says. 3. Damp Clothing Think it's OK to run so...

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Molecular diagnostics and newborns at risk for genital herpes simplex virus.

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Chua C, Arnolds M, Niklas V Abstract Herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection in the newborn carries a high mortality rate and can result in lifelong neurologic impairment. The severity of HSV infection in the newborn has always dictated conservative management when prodromal symptoms or active genital lesions (or those suggestive of genital herpes) are present during labor and delivery. The risk of intrapartum infection, however, is related to the presence or absence of maternal immunity (neutralizing antibody) to HSV. The most significant risk of transmission is in first-episode primary infections with active lesions at delivery. Recent recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics Committees on Infectious Diseases and the Fetus and Newborn use rapid serologic and ...



Antiherpes Drug May Suppress HIV Levels

Tue, 28 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

While valacyclovir, a prodrug of acyclovir, is used to control the virus that causes genital herpes, a small study by National Institutes of Health (NIH) researchers and their colleagues reveals that the drug also directly affects HIV replication (Vanpouille C et al. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;pii:civ172). (Source: JAMA)



Why This Woman Celebrates The Day She Was Diagnosed With Herpes

Mon, 27 Apr 2015 20:34:10 +0100

In a conversation with HuffPost Live on Friday, writer Ella Dawson opened up about the "tidal wave of shame" she felt when she first found out she had genital herpes. But through the support of her family and friends, she's gained the strength to speak out and combat the stigma of the sexually transmitted infections. Dawson, who recently wrote about breaking the stigma of herpes for Women's Health, told host Nancy Redd that when she was diagnosed two years ago, her "first instinct was panic and shame" and certainty that it was going to ruin her life. But she immediately did her research, and when she found out how common genital herpes actually is -- one in six people have it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention -- her fear started to dissipate. "As I met more p...



Identification of ribonucleotide reductase mutation causing temperature‐sensitivity of herpes simplex virus isolates from whitlow by deep sequencing

Wed, 22 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Key Clinical Message Herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. The secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir‐resistant and temperature‐sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. We identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature‐sensitivity by deep‐sequencing analysis. Herpes simplex virus 2 caused a genital ulcer, and a secondary herpetic whitlow appeared during acyclovir therapy. The secondary and recurrent whitlow isolates were acyclovir‐resistant and temperature‐sensitive in contrast to a genital isolate. We identified the ribonucleotide reductase mutation responsible for temperature‐sensitivity by deep‐sequencing analysis. (Source: Clinical Case Reports...



Ella Dawson tells everybody she has genital herpes to destigmatize the STI

Fri, 17 Apr 2015 01:02:45 +0100

Ella Dawson, 22, of New York has genital herpes and is stepping into the limelight in the hopes she can destigmatize STIs. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Trends in prevalence of selected opportunistic infections associated with HIV/AIDS in Uganda

Fri, 17 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Background: After more than a decade of establishing and expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), empirical evidence on its impact on trends of opportunistic infections (OIs) associated with the deadly human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in resource poor settings is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of HAART coverage on trends of five most common OIs in Uganda. Methods: Observational data from January 2002 to December 2013 for 5972 HIV positive individuals attending the AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) HIV/AIDS care programme in Uganda were extracted and analysed. Trends were analysed using autoregressive moving average time series and mixed effects linear regression models adjusting for all available potential confounders. Results...



Young people's comparative recognition and recall of an Australian Government Sexual Health Campaign

Mon, 13 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In 2009, the Australian Government’s National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program launched a multi-million dollar sexual health campaign targeting young people. We assessed campaign recognition among a community sample of young people. Individuals aged 16–29 years self-completed a questionnaire at a music festival. Participants were asked whether they recognised the campaign image and attempted to match the correct campaign message. Recognition of two concurrent campaigns, GlaxoSmithKline’s The Facts genital herpes campaign (targeting young women) and the Drama Downunder campaign (targeting gay men) were assessed simultaneously. Among 471 participants, just 29% recognised the National Sexually Transmitted Infection Prevention Program campaign. This compared ...



Atypical presentations of genital herpes simplex virus in HIV-1 and HIV-2 effectively treated by imiquimod

Mon, 13 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We report two cases with hypertrophic presentations which were effectively treated with imiquimod, one of which is the first reported case occurring in a patient with HIV-2. (Source: International Journal of STD and AIDS)



An age-structured model for the coupled dynamics of HIV and HSV-2

Fri, 10 Apr 2015 18:16:16 +0100

Evidence suggests a strong correlation between the prevalence of HSV-2 (genital herpes) and the perseverance of the HIV epidemic. HSV-2 is an incurable viral infection, characterized by periodic reactivation. We construct a model of the co-infection dynamics between the two diseases by incorporating a time-since-infection variable to track the alternating periods of infectiousness of HSV-2. The model considers only heterosexual relationships and distinguishes three population groups: males, general population females, and female sex workers. We calculate the basic reproduction numbers for each disease that provide threshold conditions, which determine whether a disease dies out or becomes endemic in the absence of the other disease. We also derive the invasion reproduction numbers that det...



Mycoplasma genitalium Is Associated With Increased Genital HIV Type 1 RNA in Zimbabwean Women

Fri, 10 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. The growing evidence for an association between M. genitalium and HIV genital shedding and the high prevalence and persistence of M. genitalium in this population suggest that further research into this association is important. Consideration of the cost-effectiveness of M. genitalium screening interventions may be warranted. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2-Infected Dendritic Cells Produce TNF-α, Which Enhances CCR5 Expression and Stimulates HIV Production from Adjacent Infected Cells.

Fri, 03 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Marsden V, Donaghy H, Bertram KM, Harman AN, Nasr N, Keoshkerian E, Merten S, Lloyd AR, Cunningham AL Abstract Prior HSV-2 infection enhances the acquisition of HIV-1 >3-fold. In genital herpes lesions, the superficial layers of stratified squamous epithelium are disrupted, allowing easier access of HIV-1 to Langerhans cells (LC) in the epidermis and perhaps even dendritic cells (DCs) in the outer dermis, as well as to lesion infiltrating activated T lymphocytes and macrophages. Therefore, we examined the effects of coinfection with HIV-1 and HSV-2 on monocyte-derived DCs (MDDC). With simultaneous coinfection, HSV-2 significantly stimulated HIV-1 DNA production 5-fold compared with HIV-1 infection alone. Because <1% of cells were dually infected, this was a field eff...



Genital Herpes in Women

Thu, 02 Apr 2015 07:00:00 +0100

(Source: eMedicineHealth.com)



News from NIH

Fri, 27 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

March 26, 2015: HIV Can Spread Early, Evolve in Patients’ Brains   "The AIDS virus can genetically evolve and independently replicate in patients’ brains early in the illness process, researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health have discovered."   March 23, 2015: For Most Children With HIV and Low Immune Cell Count, Cells Rebound After Treatment   "Most children with HIV who have low levels of a key immune cell eventually recover levels of this cell after beginning treatment, according to a study by researchers funded by the National Institutes of Health." March 13, 2015: Anti-Herpes Drug May Help Control HIV, NIH Study Finds   "Valacyclovir, a drug commonly used to control the virus that causes genital herpes, appears to reduce the levels of HI...



The effect of menopause on the innate antiviral activity of cervicovaginal lavage

Thu, 26 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Reproductive hormones are known to impact innate mucosal immune function of the lower genital tract. Our objectives were to determine the effect of hormonal status on intrinsic antiviral (herpes simplex virus [HSV]-1, HSV-2, and human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-1) activity of cervicovaginal lavage (CVL). (Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology)



Anti-herpes drug may help control HIV, NIH study finds

Fri, 13 Mar 2015 14:00:00 +0100

Drug appears to reduce the levels of HIV in patients who do not have genital herpes. (Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH) News Releases)

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Antiviral Medication in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Part II: HIV.

Wed, 11 Mar 2015 17:46:02 +0100

Authors: Majewska A, Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska B, Malejczyk M, Mlynarczyk G, Majewski S Abstract This is a second part of a review under a main title Antiviral medication in sexually transmitted diseases. In the part we published in Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013,13(13):1837-45, we have described mechanisms of action and mechanism of resistance to antiviral agents used in genital herpes and genital HPV infection. The Part II review focuses on therapeutic options in HIV infection. In 1987, 6 years after the recognition of AIDS, the FDA approved the first drug against HIV - zidovudine. Since then a lot of antiretroviral drugs are available. The most effective treatment for HIV is highly active antiretroviral therapy - a combination of several antiretroviral medicines that cause a reduction of H...



Genital Herpes Vaccine Shows Promise in Mouse Study

Tue, 10 Mar 2015 14:00:00 +0100

It also seems effective against oral herpes, but only human trials can prove true benefit, experts say (Source: Fertility News - Doctors Lounge)



Experimental herpes vaccine upends traditional approach and shows promise

Fri, 06 Mar 2015 05:00:00 +0100

(Albert Einstein College of Medicine) Scientists at Albert Einstein College of Medicine have designed a new type of vaccine that could be the first-ever for preventing genital herpes -- one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, affecting 500 million people worldwide. Using a counterintuitive approach, researchers were able to prevent both infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 2, which causes genital herpes. Findings from the research, conducted in mice, were published today in the online journal eLife. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



A 51-year-old man with seizures and progressive behavioral changes.

Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Cable CA, Freeman WD, Rubin MN, Khoor A, Karnatovskaia LV Abstract A 51-year-old man was admitted for evaluation of new-onset generalized seizures in the context of progressive and significant behavioral change. His medical history was only notable for previous outbreaks of genital herpes. He took no medications. He had occasional social alcohol use and no illicit drug use but was a 35-pack-year current smoker. The patient had no relevant occupational exposure history but had recently traveled to Panama. Initially, the patient's significant other noticed a progressive flattening of his affect. The patient then started to experience episodes of "passing out" that led to injuries prompting ED visits. He was prescribed antiseizure medications and scheduled for an outpatient w...



Clinical Inquiry: How well do antivirals shorten genital herpes pain duration?

Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Yip ST, Liu R, Warrington T, Webb CW, Hamilton A Abstract Oral and intravenous (IV) acyclovir each shorten the duration of pain for a first primary outbreak of herpes by about 50%; topical acyclovir shortens it by about 25%. Oral valacyclovir and famcyclovir are equivalent to oral acyclovir. Adding topical acyclovir to oral acyclovir doesn't produce additional benefit. PMID: 25789347 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Journal of Family Practice)

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'Game changer' HIV drug cuts infection risk by 86%

Wed, 25 Feb 2015 13:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The results of this unpublished study were presented at a conference in Seattle and have been reported by the Medical Research Council, who helped fund it. As it has not been published, some important details are not yet known, such as: The researchers report that there was "high adherence" to taking the medication, but it is not known how regularly it was taken, or how many people stopped taking it and why. No details have been provided about any side effects experienced on the medication. The incidence of STIs was used to determine whether taking Truvada changed sexual risk-taking behaviour. It is currently unclear which STIs were compared between the two groups. Three common STIs are viral (genital herpes, genital warts and human papilloma virus), so it is ...



Herpes Simplex Virus DNAemia Preceding Neonatal Disease

Mon, 23 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We report an infant who had a positive blood HSV polymerase chain reaction test before the onset of clinical signs of HSV disease. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)



Novel rat models to study primary genital herpes simplex virus-2 infection

Sat, 21 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we describe that six rat models (SD, WIST, LEW, BN, F344 and DA) are susceptible to intravaginal herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection after pre-treatment with progesterone. At a virus dose of 5 × 106 PFU of HSV-2, all rat models were infected presenting anti-HSV-2 antibodies, infectious virus in vaginal washes, and HSV-2 DNA genome copies in lumbosacral dorsal root ganglia and the spinal cord. Most of the LEW, BN, F344, and DA rats succumbed in systemic progressive symptoms at day 8-14 post infection, but presented no or mild genital inflammation while SD and WIST rats were mostly infected asymptomatically. Infected SD rats did not reactivate HSV-2 spontaneously or after cortisone treatment. In an HSV-2 virus dose reduction study, F344 rats were shown to be most suscep...



Comparable mRNA expression of inflammatory markers but lower claudin-1 mRNA levels in foreskin tissue of HSV-2 seropositive versus seronegative asymptomatic Kenyan young men

Wed, 18 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Whereas no general inflammation was demonstrated in the foreskin of asymptomatic HSV-2 seropositive individuals, a decreased expression of claudin-1 indicates a less robust genital epithelial barrier. An intact epithelial barrier is essential for blocking mucosal entry of genital infections, including HIV. (Source: BMJ Open)



Review: Oral antiviral drugs reduce clinical recurrence in recurrent genital herpes.

Tue, 17 Feb 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kalil AC, Sandkovsky US PMID: 25686194 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Internal Medicine)

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Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Epidemiology and Treatment.

Mon, 16 Feb 2015 11:28:03 +0100

Authors: James SH, Kimberlin DW Abstract Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) are highly prevalent viruses capable of establishing lifelong infection. Genital herpes in women of childbearing age represents a major risk for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HSV infection, with primary and first-episode genital HSV infections posing the highest risk. The advent of antiviral therapy with parenteral acyclovir has led to significant improvement in neonatal HSV disease mortality. Further studies are needed to improve the clinician's ability to identify infants at increased risk for HSV infection and prevent MTCT, and to develop novel antiviral agents with increased efficacy in infants with HSV infection. PMID: 25677996 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: H...



The impact of hormonal contraception and pregnancy on sexually transmitted infections and on cervicovaginal microbiota in african sex workers.

Sat, 14 Feb 2015 05:58:07 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Oral contraceptive and injectable use were associated with several STIs but not with VMB composition. The increased herpes simplex virus-2 prevalence among injectable users might explain the potentially higher HIV risk in these women, but more research is needed to confirm these results and elucidate biological mechanisms. PMID: 25668647 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)



Sexually transmitted infection trends among gay or bisexual men from a clinic-based sentinel surveillance system in british columbia, Canada.

Sat, 14 Feb 2015 05:58:06 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our clinic-based sentinel surveillance system found increasing trends for gonorrhea and syphilis among gay/bisexual men but not for other STI in British Columbia. Further investigation is required to explore the syndemic effects of syphilis, gonorrhea, and HIV. This new platform will be a valuable tool for ongoing monitoring of STI and targeting prevention efforts. PMID: 25668648 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Herpes)



Sexually Transmitted Infection Trends Among Gay or Bisexual Men From a Clinic-Based Sentinel Surveillance System in British Columbia, Canada

Fri, 13 Feb 2015 16:10:35 +0100

Conclusions: Our clinic-based sentinel surveillance system found increasing trends for gonorrhea and syphilis among gay/bisexual men but not for other STI in British Columbia. Further investigation is required to explore the syndemic effects of syphilis, gonorrhea, and HIV. This new platform will be a valuable tool for ongoing monitoring of STI and targeting prevention efforts. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Diseases)