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MedWorm: Malaria



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Malaria category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:31:28 +0100

 



The baboon (Papio anubis)-Plasmodium knowlesi model of placental malaria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: About 24 million pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are exposed to malaria in pregnancy, a condition referred to as placental malaria. This condition affects both the mother and infant causing adverse pregnancy outcomes like low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, abortion, still birth, anaemia, mortality, just to mention a few. Comprehensive studies of placental malaria cannot be done in humans due to confounding variables that include mother's health status, inaccurate estimation of infection, inadequate tissue for analysis, patient compliance, socio-economic conditions and moral, ethical and financial limitations. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Assessment of effect of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy on birth weight of babies in Nigeria: Life-saving dynamics

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Malaria infection during pregnancy, although preventable and treatable, still has adverse effects on both the mother and fetus in Nigeria. These adverse effects; intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight and maternal anemia are significant risk factors for neonatal and infant mortality. The 2014 national guidelines and strategies for control of malaria during pregnancy recommend administration of at least 3 doses of Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) as Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) to pregnant women attending Antenatal Care Clinic (ANC). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Spatiotemporal epidemiology of malaria in Madagascar between 2006 and 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

In this study, we investigate the spatiotemporal patterns of the occurrence of malaria in relation to bioclimatic conditions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Rapid diagnostic point of care tests in resource limited settings

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: One of the definitions of diagnostic point of care testing is provision of laboratory testing at or near the site of patient care. It has the potential to minimise the time to obtain the result of the test, which expedites the diagnosis and initiation of the treatment especially in resource-limited settings where health care infrastructure is weak and access to quality and timely medical care represents a challenge. It is estimated, that introduction of rapid, laboratory-independent diagnostic tests for four diseases (syphilis, malaria, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia) in developing countries could prevent more than 1.2 million deaths annually. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Leptospirosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Leptospirosis is present worldwide and is especially important in developing countries, where sanitation is precarious. Sporadic cases are linked to contact with urine-contaminated water. In tropical countries, urban outbreaks can occur after floods in rainy season. Mild non-lethal anicteric forms comprise most cases and can be easily confused with flu, dengue fever, other mild viral illnesses and P. vivax malaria. About 5 to 10% of cases develop severe sepsis-like disease or meningitis during outbreaks. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Malaria: Past, present and future

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Malaria has always exerted a heavy toll on mankind. At the turn of the 20th century millions died each year in India alone. No other infectious disease has had more impact on the human genome, particularly in tropical regions. In the past 150 years malaria has been first controlled and then eliminated in Europe, North America and Russia. This was achieved mainly by a dual attack on the malaria vector –the anopheline mosquito, and the malaria parasite in the human host. The successes in temperate regions led to a global eradication effort endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 1955. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Climate change and disease dynamics - A big data perspective

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

The objective of this research is to predict disease scenarios based on environmental conditions change and climatic variability by combining regional climate models with mathematical models for disease transmission. Malaria and dengue fever are the most important vector borne diseases in the tropical and sub-tropicalcountries. Integration of large repositories of geospatial and health data derived from traditional stream as vital statistics, surveillance and hospitalization, and non-traditional sources including social media networks provide valuable insights into the spatio-temporal determinants of health and wellbeing. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Rickettsia felis burden in the tropics

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Rickettsia felis bacterium has been observed since the early twentieth century in the cat flea. It was grown for the first time in my laboratory on cell Xenopus then insect cells particularly Aedes albopictus cells. It grows only at temperature under 30̊C. First described in California, the bacterium is present in the whole world. For a long time it was considered a rare disease associated with fleas. In fact, in recent years, Rickettsia felis was found as the most frequently identified bacteria in patients with fever in tropical countries after malaria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Management of relapsing Plasmodium vivax malaria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) endemicity covers large and diverse geographical regions. Transmission is lower than Plasmodium falciparum, however, relapses caused by hypnozoite forms increase the number of infections and sustain transmission. Resistance against chloroquine is increasing and assessment of efficacy is confounded because recrudescence, relapse and reinfection cannot be distinguished reliably. Background incidence of new P.vivax infections are needed for comparing efficacy of treatment regimens. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Malaria prevention strategies

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Substantial gains have been made in the control of malaria; in many regions malaria has reached historically low prevalence. Still the global malaria burden remains unacceptably high and the spread of antimalarial and insecticide resistance threatens a resurgence. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Declining efficacy of mefloquine-artesunate combination and relative role of drug-resistant molecular markers: Thai-Myanmar Border 2003-2013

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Background: Mefloquine-artesunate treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in the displaced population on the Thailand-Myanmar border led to a dramatic decline in transmission. Efficacy has fallen substantially in recent years, but the relative contribution of resistance to the individual drugs is unknown. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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The threat of antimalarial drug resistance

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: History has shown us that wherever antimalarial drugs are deployed antimalarial drug resistance will follow. A pattern has emerged with the drugs falling to resistance first in South East Asia and subsequently in India, Latin America and Africa. The decline in chloroquine efficacy led to millions of avoidable deaths from malaria in sub-Saharan Africa throughout the 1980s and ‘90s. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Field evaluation of a novel loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for molecular diagnosis of asymtomatic malaria in a field setting in sub-Saharan Africa

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment is recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO). However, more sensitive and high throughput diagnostic tools are required to support the new pursuit for malaria elimination. The challenge of deploying molecular tools like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral settings where they are most needed remains a concern, thus isothermal amplification methods such as loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) are being developed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Studies on incidence of malaria and comparative efficacy of diagnostic test methods for plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Diagnostic methods are becoming a crucial component of malaria control and prevention. Improved ability to diagnose malaria may prevent many unnecessary antimalarial treatments and should also allow prompt attention to other causes of fever when malaria is ruled out. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Designing new antimalarial hits from African medicinal plants at the University of Buea (Cameroon); Part I: Isolation, in vitro activity, in silico “drug-likeness” and Pharmacokinetic profiles

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Drug resistance has drastically exacerbated the burden of malaria in Africa. It is therefore an urgent need to design novel therapies both efficacious, safe and affordable especially to poor people of endemic remote areas. The Malaria Drug discovery programme of the University of Buea (Cameroon) aims to identify the compounds responsible for the anti-malarial activity of medicinal plants commonly used in handling malaria symptoms by traditional healers of Cameroon. The present paper report on the potential of selected compounds idenfied from Dacryoedes edulis (Burseraceae), Kigelia africana (Bignoniaceae) and Hypericum lanceolatum (Hypericaceae), and their suitability as leads for the treatment of drug resistant malaria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antibiotic prescribing to the inpatients diagnosed with Malaria and Viral fever in two tertiary care hospitals in Madhya Pradesh India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Indiscriminate antibiotic prescribing is cause for the global increase in antibiotic resistance. Hospitals are major antibiotics users and thus substantially contribute in the development of resistant bacterial strains. The situation is highly under-estimated due to the paucity of studies from major antibiotic consumer countries like India. Aim of the present study was to describe and compare antibiotic prescribing among in-patients diagnosed for non-bacterial infections, at the medicine departments of two private sector hospitals, a teaching (TH) and a non-teaching (NTH), in Madhya Pradesh, India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Assessment of fourteen days primaquine treatment efficacy in plasmodium vivax malaria at primary and tertiary care centers in Southwestern India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Acquaintance is scanty on PQ efficacy and P. vivax relapse in Udupi district, Karnataka, India. We assessed the efficacy of 14 days PQ treatment for preventing recurrence of P. vivax infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Decadal study of incidence and control of Malaria in Tribal Population – with special reference to Khammam district of Telangana State

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: It is stated that 80 percent of the malaria cases in India are confined to 20 percent population of which tribals living in hilly, forest and mountain slopes are significant. Low level of literacy, ignorance and poor health seeking behavior of the tribals are the major reasons for the prevalence of malaria in the agency areas inhabited by the tribals. Health facilities are limited to most of the tribals in view of the logistic problems and inaccessibility. Geographical isolation, remoteness, persistence of vector – conducive environment, poverty, low level of awareness, traditions and superstitious, malnutrition. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Clinical, social, and meteorological factors associated with dengue and malaria diagnosis in adults in Pune, India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Acute febrile illness is one of the most common reasons for hospital admission in India. We sought to assess factors associated with distinct and similar presentation of malaria and dengue that create a diagnostic challenge for clinicians when rapid diagnostics are not available. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Influence of α thalassemia on the protective effect of sickle cell gene on severity of P. falciparum malaria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study was undertaken to assess the role of α-thalassemia on the protective effect of sickle-cell-gene on severe P. falciparum malaria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Development of saliva based diagnostic method for malaria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study was aimed at developing a non-invasive diagnostic method for detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human malaria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Community cases management of malaria in Tripura, India- MSF intervention in response to malaria epidemic

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

The objective was to reduce morbidity and mortality due to malaria outbreak in Tripura through a community approach of improved access to a comprehensive package of malaria prevention, diagnosis and treatment in the most affected villages of Dhalai district. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Assessment of uptake of intermittent preventive therapy for malaria in pregnancy following a health facility based training approach in Akwa Ibom state, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The Nigeria Demography and Health Survey 2013 reported only 11.6% of pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) received Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPTp) with Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) to prevent malaria. The United States President's Malaria Initiative funds the Malaria Action Program for States (MAPS) project to implement malaria interventions in selected states including Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. Previous training of ANC providers on management of malaria in pregnancy in clusters where health workers were selected by their supervisors for the training outside the facility did not yield much behavior change. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



An evaluation of a 24 hour malaria mobile case reporting system compared to the paper-based case reporting system in South Africa, 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: South Africa is pursuing a malaria elimination initiative, with the goal of zero local transmission by the year 2018. The South African National Department of Health has developed a 24 Hour Electronic Reporting System that is expected to decrease the time required for malaria cases to be reported from the health facility level, to the district, provincial and national levels. This will facilitate case investigation within 48 hours and response within 72 hours upon/of diagnosis, the objective of our study was to compare timeliness of data input between the paper-based and the 24-hour reporting system and to assess the acceptability of end users to use the new 24-hour reporting system. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



A cross sectional study on knowledge and perception about risk factors of selected vector borne diseases among the population of rural field practice areas of KSHEMA

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Malaria, Dengue and other vector-borne diseases (VBDs) are a major public health threats in India. Due to increasing resistance to both drugs and pesticides, there is a need to establish integrated vector management strategies. These strategies should involve local communities in managing the ecosystem to reduce health risks and increase the sustainability of programmes to control VBDs. An important step in disease management is educating the local community regarding VBDs and their riskfactors. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Socio-economic and demographic impact on malaria prevalence in Akoko South-west of Ondo state, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Malaria is an endemic disease prevalent in the tropical and sub tropical region of the world. About 216 million people are still affected by malaria yearly killing about 650,000 people with children under five and pregnant women mostly affected. Many people had died unnecessarily due to malaria due to their inability to procure hospital prescribed drugs especially where free malaria drugs are not available (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Plasmodium falciparum GLURP 2 clones on the Jos Plateau, Nigeria, possibly indicates that the region is a low endemic area

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Malaria is holoendemic in Nigeria. But since its transmission is also determined by geographical factors, the disease differs in its characteristics in different parts of the country. Genotyping the parasite is useful in studying its transmission dynamics. In high endemic areas, infections are often composed of multiple distinct parasite clones; while in low endemic areas the numbers of clones are usually few. On the Jos plateau, little is known about the genetic characteristics of Plasmodium falciparum. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Severe plasmodium vivax infections in children

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Severe clinical cases exclusively associated with Plasmodium vivax are increasingly being reported worldwide with complications like renal failure, jaundice, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cerebral malaria, seizures, anemia, thrombocytopenia, pulmonary edema, splenic rupture and death. Recently vivax severity has been on the rise in India where P.vivax contributes in equal ratio with P.falciparum to the disease. Two main transporters studied with regard to chloroquine resistance (CQR) are chloroquine resistance transporter (pvcrt-o) and the multidrug resistance transporter (pvmdr1) orthologous to the pfcrt and pfmdr1 genes respectively. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Could malaria re-emerge in Romania?

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Romania was an endemic malaria country with as many as 300,000 new cases yearly and the eradication was completed in 1962. The permanent risk of malaria re-emergence in Romania maintains because of the simultaneous presence of the Anopheles maculipennis group vector species and imported malaria cases. The risk increased in the present conditions of climatic and other environmental changes. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular identification of human plasmodium knowlesi infections in North Sumatera, Indonesia

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Indonesia contributed 21% of malaria burden in Southeast Asia which caused by all Plasmodium species. However most reports predominate by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax due to routine diagnosis made by RDT and microscopy. The recognition of human P. knowlesi infection in Borneo for almost a decade ago was followed by similar identification of the species in other Southeast Asian countries. Until now, most diagnosis of P. knowlesi in human is made by molecular testing described by Singh et al. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Concurrent dengue and malaria coinfection: Observations from a central Mumbai hospital

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

The objective of this study is to understand and observe the interplay of Dengue and Malaria,compare their clinical and laboratory features and analyze the outcomes. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Dengue virus infection in the Democratic Republic of Sao Tome and Principe

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Dengue fever has become a worldwide public health concern, threatening an estimated 40% of the world's population. However, most resource and focus are still put on malaria in Africa. Dengue statuses are poorly recognized in many African countries. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Surveillance of tropical infections in medical intensive care unit

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

This study was conducted to generate surveillance data on tropical infections of Indian population. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Prevalence of congenital malaria in Blue Nile state, Sudan

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Malaria during pregnancy is a priority area for malaria research and control as pregnant women represent a high risk group for severe malaria. Additionally, malaria during pregnancy may result in fetal exposure to malaria if parasites are transmitted across the placenta and could result in congenital malaria which is defined as the existence of asexual forms of malaria parasites in the peripheral blood of an infant within 7 days of life, irrespective of clinical symptom. Recently, congenital malaria is increasingly reported among babies born to mothers from endemic areas. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Uptake of intermittent preventive therapy among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in public and registered private health facilities in Oyo State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Malaria infection during pregnancy remain a major public health problem in Nigeria. The 2013 Nigeria Demography and Health Survey revealed that while most pregnant women (PW) access Antenatal Care (ANC) from skilled care providers, majority of them do not benefit from interventions to prevent malaria. Intermittent Preventive Therapy (IPTp) using Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP) is a full therapeutic course of intermittent medicine given to PW at routine ANC visits. The WHO recommends that this treatment be given to all PW at each scheduled antenatal care visit except during the first trimester. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Malaria preventive practices and clinical burden among HIV patients attending clinic at a tertiary hospital in Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

This study aims to assess Malaria preventive practices and the clinical burden among HIV infected patients. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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The possible role of nutritional status on the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine balance of children with malaria from Imo State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study specifically examined the balance between Interleukin 10, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF) and nutritional status of Plasmodium falciparum malaria infected children in South Eastern Nigeria to determine and evaluate the influence of malnutrition on immune response among p.f Infected children in Imo State Nigeria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The possible roles of IPT and ITNS in gestational, placental and cord blood malaria parasitemia, pregnancy outcome and fetal weight in Isu, Imo State Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Pregnant women in varying stages of pregnancy consented to participate in this study aimed at assessing the possible roles of the use of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT), insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) in addition to the routine prophylactic malaria drug (Paludrine) on gestational, placental, cord blood malaria parasitemia, pregnancy outcome and weight of the new born. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Malaria in Hong Kong: Impact, eradication and legacy

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: This presentation explores how the impact of malaria and the process of its eradication shaped the development of Hong Kong, its scientific and medical expertise and legacy for preparedness. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Hemoglobinuria (Black Water Fever) in severe falciparum malaria – a case report

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

We present a rare case of black water fever in Kuwait. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antibodies to plasmodium falciparum glutamic acid rich protein (PfGARP) inhibit parasite growth by arresting trophozoite development

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria affects almost one-half of the world's population and causes more than 600,000 deaths annually. Young children in malaria endemic areas of Africa have the highest mortality rate because of their immature immune systems. In previous vaccine discovery efforts, we developed a differential screening method using plasma from children who were resistant or susceptible to falciparum malaria. Using this approach, we discovered PfSEA-1. Antibodies to PfSEA-1 predict resistance to severe disease in two yr old children, block schizont egress from infected RBC in vitro, and vaccination with rPbSEA-1A protects mice from P. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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The in vivo assessment of antiplasmodial activities of leaves and stem bark extracts of Mangifera indica (linn) and Cola nitida (linn)

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria is a serious parasitic disease from tropical regions caused by species of Plasmodium and transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes. It is prevalent in countries in Africa, Southeast Asia and South America. High mortality rate is reported in these regions. The exponential increment of resistance of the most severe and commonest form of Plasmodium species, Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, a prominent anti malarial drug and first line drug over the past two decades has necessitated the investigation into tradinationally calmed anti malarial plants. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Diagnosis and treatment of uncomplicated malaria in children at a tertiary hospital in Abuja

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria poses a global threat and challenge to healthcare despite the fact that it is treatable and preventable. Though there are documented evidences on the consequences of misdiagnosis of malaria, presumptive diagnosis is still being widely practiced by clinicians. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Common parasites prevalent among school children in Nnobi, Idemili South Local Government Area, Anambra State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The distribution of parasitic diseases in any community is usually wide spread but uneven. These infections are malaria, helminthes or arthropods and their prevalence among the various population segments is said to be tilted heavily towards women and children of school age due to obvious reasons: higher exposure to infective agents. Many surveys abound as to the situation in many communities in various parts of Nigeria. This paper presents a study conducted in Nnobi, a major town in Idemili South Local Government Area of Anambra state, using zinc sulphate flotation method and microscopy to determine and expose the parasites prevalent among school children in the area. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Studies on the current status of malaria and its management practices in rural communities of southeast Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study was undertaken: (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Influence of nutritional status on pro and anti inflammatory cytokine balance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria children in Imo State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: In malaria endemic regions, malnutrition has also been reported to be a public health problem and an important factor modulating the risk of malaria. Pro- inflammatory cytokines are known mediators of malnutrition with higher risk in sub Saharan African Countries. Given the fact that the pattern of the host innate immunity mediated by pro- inflammatory cytokines and the balance between the pro and anti - inflammatory cytokines is critical in determining malaria outcomes. Understanding the impact of malnutrition on pro and anti- inflammatory cytokine response in Plasmodium falciparum (p.f) infected children is very important for malaria control. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Study of profile of Plasmodium vivax malaria in a medical college hospital

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria is a devastating parasitic disease transmitted through the bite of infected female anopheles mosquito. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



In-silico analysis of Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) family and production of PF3D7_0110700 protein in human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Chromatin Assembly Factor 1 (CAF-1) is a histone chaperone that promotes DNA synthesis-coupled chromatin assembly during DNA replication and DNA repair. It is a highly conserved heterotrimeric protein complex basically required for normal S-phase progression and chromatin restoration during DNA repair. Here, we report a comprehensive In-silico analysis of PfCAF-1 family and cloning, production and purification of PfCAF-1 gene (PF3D7_0110700). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Assessment of malaria transmission intensity using anti-MSP1-19 (Plasmodium vivax) antibody as a serological marker in a previously malaria endemic district in Sri Lanka

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study assessed the ability of using anti-malaria antibody MSP1-19 for vivax malaria to predict changes in transmission intensity in a previously malaria endemic district in Sri Lanka i.e. Kurunegala. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Comparative study between vivax and falciparum malaria in Eastern India: Breaking a myth

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Plasmodium vivax has long been thought to cause benign infection which has been challenged recently. Various studies have pointed towards the rising severity of vivax infections. Till date no longitudinal study has compared vivax and falciparum malaria directly to show the final outcome. Our aim was to explore the manifestations of vivax and falciparum malaria infection and to follow them up and observe the final outcome over a period of 28 days. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Genome wide collation of zinc finger family in P. falciparum

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Despite progress in recent years, malaria continues to be a major public health problem. P. falciparum- the most virulent species of human malaria requires specialized regulation of gene expression for survival in two different hosts. A subset of these regulators belongs to the zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) that are involved in transcription regulation, signal transduction, RNA binding and regulation of apoptosis. The present study identified the first genome-wide analysis of zinc finger family in P. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Malaria and soil transmitted helminthes co-infection among Abia State polytechnic students, Aba, Southeastern Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Soil transmitted helminthes and malaria infections are among the endemic parasitic diseases that have caused over half a million deaths in most tropical parts of the world, where both have similar geographical distribution and co-infections are common. In Nigeria and other tropical countries, malaria and helminthes infections are reportedly endemic and pose significant health problems. It becomes very necessary therefore to determine the impact of malaria and helminthes co-infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



A novel spiroindoline kills human malaria parasites via modulation of Na ion influx mediated autophagy and apoptosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria continues to be a global health burden, causing millions of death every year. Resistance to current antimalarial chemotherapy needs attention and demands for active drug candidates that can combat developing resistance mechanisms of Plasmodium. We synthesized natural product inspired scaffolds based on indoles from chiral bicyclic lactams as potential antimalarial compounds. The strategy involved site specific diversification of natural product scaffolds obtained from chiral bicyclic lactams, with discrete architecture and disparate stereochemistry with an attractive steps/scaffold ratio of 1.7:1. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular cloning and production of type III Hsp40 protein co-chaperone PfZRF1 of human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Despite of remarkable progress in combating malaria, this deadly disease still accounts for more than a half million deaths annually. In the light of growing incidences of drug resistance, an understanding of parasite biology is necessary for the development of new antimalarials. During life cycle in two different hosts Plasmodium falciparum experiences frequent thermal variations and physiological stress. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are key players for its survival and making them attractive drug targets. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Changing profile of malaria: An observational study in a central Mumbai hospital, India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Malaria has been one of the leading causes of acute febrile illnesses in India.A definite change in the trend of malarial infections,their clinical features and outcomes has been noticed recently. The present study,in a Mumbai hospital,during 3 consecutive monsoons,was carried out,to observe and compare the changing profile. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Performance evaluation of malaria microscopists working at malaria slides rechecking laboratories for external quality assessment in Ethiopia

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Microscopic diagnosis of Giemsa stained thick and thin blood films by skilled microscopists has remained the standard laboratory method for the diagnosis of malaria. The Performance of Malaria Microscopists in all health facilities have been raised concerns by many experts. Microscopists who are working at Malaria Rechecking Laboratories have to be competent to cross check blood film slides which are collected from testing sites. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Age-dependent carriage of alleles and haplotypes of Plasmodium falciparum sera5, eba-175, and csp in a region of intense malaria transmission in Uganda

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The development of malaria vaccines is constrained by genetic polymorphisms exhibited by Plasmodium falciparum antigens. We investigated the age-dependent distribution of alleles or haplotypes of three P. falciparum malaria vaccine candidates, circumsporozoite protein (csp), erythrocyte binding antigen 175 (eba-175) and serine repeat antigen 5 (sera5) in a region of intense malaria transmission in Uganda. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Plasmodium falciparum malaria: association of sickle cell trait in the reduction of parasite density in symptomatic Fulani tribe living in sympatry in Mali, West Africa

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Mutation of the b-chain of the globin gene due to a single base pair mutation A→T in the genome sequence has been associated with protection from severe malaria outcome. Differences in malaria susceptibility have been accorded to asymptomatic Fulani and other sympatric ethnic groups in Burkina Faso and Mali with Fulani being less parasitized, infected and more responsive to Plasmodium falciparum antigens. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Five-year review of non-typhoidal salmonella meningitis in Cape Town, 2010 - 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

We report three cases of NTS meningitis in paediatric patients in Cape Town (Note: two more cases have been identified). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Identification and characterization of a novel protein PfCDPK-5 for the development of pediatric malaria vaccine

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Malaria are among the leading causes of mortality for children under five years of age worldwide, with most of these deaths resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection. Resistance to existing anti-malarial medications is an urgent problem and may prevent effective eradication strategies. Despite decades of research, no vaccine candidate has been shown to confer significant protection to children. Though marginal protection has been achieved using the vaccine candidate RTS, S/AS01 and irradiated sporozoites, broadly effective vaccine candidates are urgently needed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Development of new generation blood-stage malaria vaccines against Plasmodium falciparum targeting the PfRH5-CyRPA multiprotein adhesion complex

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum parasites is central to malaria pathogenesis. Thus, it is critical to understand this intricate biological process for the development of novel malaria intervention strategies. P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion is a complex, multistep process that is mediated by a number of redundant ligand-receptor interactions. Extensive research over three decades has aimed at identifying an essential parasite ligand that could be targeted across multiple parasite strains. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Proteomic analysis reveals novel proteins associated with the Plasmodium protein exporter PTEX and a loss of complex stability upon truncation of the core PTEX component, PTEX150.

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 00:23:17 +0100

ABSTRACT The Plasmodium translocon for exported proteins (PTEX) has been established as the machinery responsible for the translocation of all classes of exported proteins beyond the parasitophorous vacuolar membrane of the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite. Protein export, particularly in the asexual blood stage, is crucial for parasite survival as exported proteins are involved in remodelling the host cell, an essential process for nutrient uptake, waste removal and immune evasion. Here we have truncated the conserved C‐terminus of one of the essential PTEX components, PTEX150, in Plasmodium falciparum in an attempt to create mutants of reduced functionality. Parasites tolerated C‐terminal truncations of up to 125 amino acids with no reduction in growth, protein export or the establ...



Evidence for spleen dysfunction in malaria-HIV co-infection in a subset of pediatric patients

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Authors: Regina Joice, Charles Frantzreb, Alana Pradham, Karl B Seydel, Steve Kamiza, Dyann F Wirth, Manoj T Duraisingh, Malcolm E Molyneux, Terrie E Taylor, Matthias Marti & Danny A Milner Jr (Source: Modern Pathology)



Vietnam’s Battle With Tuberculosis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 20:29:59 +0100

A country’s stunning progress against tuberculosis may be threatened by reduced support for a health care system stretched thin. (Source: NYT Health)



An ancient killer: Ancestral malarial organisms traced to age of dinosaurs

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 17:35:36 +0100

A new analysis of the prehistoric origin of malaria suggests that it evolved in insects at least 100 million years ago, and the first vertebrate hosts of this disease were probably reptiles, which at that time would have included the dinosaurs. Researchers say it may have been involved in their extinction. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Malaria Parasite Proteins and Their Role in Alteration of the Structure and Function of Red Blood Cells.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 10:25:02 +0100

Authors: Proellocks NI, Coppel RL, Mohandas N, Cooke BM Abstract Malaria, caused by Plasmodium spp., continues to be a major threat to human health and a significant cause of socioeconomic hardship in many countries. Almost half of the world's population live in malaria-endemic regions and many of them suffer one or more, often life-threatening episodes of malaria every year, the symptoms of which are attributable to replication of the parasite within red blood cells (RBCs). In the case of Plasmodium falciparum, the species responsible for most malaria-related deaths, parasite replication within RBCs is accompanied by striking alterations to the morphological, biochemical and biophysical properties of the host cell that are essential for the parasites' survival. To achieve this, th...

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An ancient killer: Ancestral malarial organisms traced to age of dinosaurs

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Oregon State University) A new analysis of the prehistoric origin of malaria suggests that it evolved in insects at least 100 million years ago, and the first vertebrate hosts of this disease were probably reptiles, which at that time would have included the dinosaurs. Researchers say it may have been involved in their extinction. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



A generic schema and data collection forms applicable to diverse entomological studies of mosquitoes

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Standardized schemas, databases, and public data repositories are needed for the studies of malaria vectors that encompass a remarkably diverse array of designs and rapidly generate large data volumes, often i... (Source: Source Code for Biology and Medicine)



Molecules, Vol. 21, Pages 424: Preliminary LC-MS Based Screening for Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Thioredoxin Reductase (PfTrxR) among a Set of Antimalarials from the Malaria Box

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase (PfTrxR) has been identified as a potential drug target to combat growing antimalarial drug resistance. Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) has pre-screened and identified a set of 400 antimalarial compounds called the Malaria Box. From those, we have evaluated their mechanisms of action through inhibition of PfTrxR and found new active chemical scaffolds. Five compounds with significant PfTrxR inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9–7.5 µM against the target enzyme, were found out of the Malaria Box. (Source: Molecules)



Practical Implications of the Non-Linear Relationship between the Test Positivity Rate and Malaria Incidence

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

by Ross M. Boyce, Raquel Reyes, Michael Matte, Moses Ntaro, Edgar Mulogo, Feng-Chang Lin, Mark J. Siedner Background The test positivity rate (TPR), defined as the number of laboratory-confirmed malaria tests per 100 suspected cases examined, is widely used by malaria surveillance programs as one of several key indicators of temporal trends in malaria incidence. However, there have been few studies using empiric data to examine the quantitative nature of this relationship. Methods To characterize the relationship between the test positivity rate and the incidence of malaria, we fit regression models using the confirmed malaria case rate as the outcome of interest and TPR as the predictor of interest. We varied the relationship between the two by alternating linear and polynomial terms for ...



Complexity of Infection and Genetic Diversity in Cambodian Plasmodium vivax

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate that this high-throughput genotyping assay is efficient in characterizing P. vivax diversity and can provide valuable insights to assess the efficacy of malaria elimination programs or to monitor the spread of specific parasites. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

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Significant Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Quinine and Ampicillin–Cloxacillin Combination

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Quinine therefore, reduced the bioavailability and the antimicrobial activity of ampicillin–cloxacillin upon co-administration, which may have therapeutic implications. Caution is required with the co-administration of these medicines. (Source: Drugs in R&D)



Health situation in Yemen critical as violent conflict enters second year

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:50:37 +0100

27 March 2016, Sana’a, Yemen – This week marks one year since the escalation of the conflict in Yemen, where the violence has had a devastating impact on millions of innocent civilians, causing immeasurable suffering. Since March 2015, more than 6200 people have been killed and 30 000 injured. More than 21 million people – 82% of the total population – are in need of humanitarian aid, including almost 2.5 million people who have been internally displaced. More than one third of people in need live in inaccessible or hard-to-reach areas. Even before the current conflict, the health system in Yemen had been facing some challenges, and ongoing violence has led to further deterioration of the health situation. Almost 19 million people lack access to clean water and sanitation, placing...



Safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetic properties of coadministered azithromycin and piperaquine in pregnant Papua New Guinean women

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsAZI–PQ appears to be well tolerated and safe in pregnancy. Based on the present/other data, total AZI doses higher than 3 g for the treatment and prevention of malaria may be unnecessary in pregnant women, while clearance of parasitaemia could improve the relative bioavailability of PQ. (Source: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology)



The correlation between platelet count and parasite density in children with malaria infection

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions There was a weak negative correlation between the platelet count and parasite count. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)



In vitro inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum early and late stage gametocyte viability by extracts from eight traditionally used South African plant species

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: This study shows the potential transmission blocking activity of extracts from selected South African medicinal plants and substantiates their traditional use in malaria control that broadly encompasses prevention, treatment and transmission blocking. Further studies are needed to isolate and identify the active principles from the crude extracts of A. afra, T. emetica and T. floribunda, as well as to examine their efficacy towards blocking parasite transmission to mosquitoes. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)

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Chloroquine inhibits Rhodococcus equi replication in murine and foal alveolar macrophages by iron-starvation

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Leticia T. Gressler, Angela I. Bordin, Cole M. McQueen, Noah D. Cohen, Agueda Castagna de Vargas Rhodococcus equi preferentially infects macrophages causing pyogranulomatous pneumonia in young foals. Both the vapA and rhbC genes are up-regulated in an iron (Fe)-deprived environment, such as that found within macrophages. Chloroquine (CQ) is a drug widely used against malaria that suppresses the intracellular availability of Fe in eukaryotic cells. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of CQ to inhibit replication of virulent R. equi within murine (J774A.1) and foal alveolar macrophages (AMs) and to verify whether the mechanism of inhibition could be Fe-deprivation-depend...



Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:31:02 +0100

Authors: Prah J, Ameyaw EO, Afoakwah R, Fiawoyife P, Oppong-Danquah E, Boampong JN Abstract Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and two brands of artemether injections were purchased from pharmacies in Cape Coast for the study. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated. The samples were then analyzed for the content of...



Antibiotics Side Effects on the Mitochondria

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:38:08 +0100

Science is just beginning to understand how important your mitochondria are to warding off the diseases of aging. And, as usual, mainstream medicine is lagging way behind. Along with your telomeres, the cellular time keepers at the ends of your chromosomes, your mitochondria are another key component of the anti-aging equation. You see, these tiny organelles in your cells are the power plants that turn fuel into energy for your body. Healthy mitochondria keep you young and energetic.  Research shows that damaged mitochondria can lead to: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease; Epilepsy, migraines, and nerve pain; Loss of muscle control and balance; Strokes, heart disease, and coronary artery disease; Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia;...



MOLECULAR SURVEILLANCE OF Plasmodium vivax AND Plasmodium falciparum DHFR MUTATIONS IN ISOLATES FROM SOUTHERN IRAN.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:16:02 +0100

Authors: Sharifi-Sarasiabi K, Haghighi A, Kazemi B, Taghipour N, Nazemalhosseini Mojarad E, Gachkar L Abstract In Iran, both Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum malaria have been detected, but P. vivax is the predominant species. Point mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr) gene in both Plasmodia are the major mechanisms of pyrimethamine resistance. From April 2007 to June 2009, a total of 134 blood samples in two endemic areas of southern Iran were collected from patients infected with P. vivax and P. falciparum. The isolates were analyzed for P. vivax dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) and P. falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) point mutations using various PCR-based methods. The majority of the isolates (72.9%) had wild type amino acids at five codons of pvdhfr. Amongs...



Nigeria: Tackling Malaria

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 10:06:21 +0100

[This Day] Paul Obi writes on efforts by stakeholders in tackling malaria scourge in the country (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)

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Management of septic shock and severe infections in migrants and returning travelers requiring critical care

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:13 +0100

Abstract During the past decade, global human movement created a virtually “borderless world”. Consequently, the developed world is facing “forgotten” and now imported infectious diseases. Many infections are observed upon travel and migration, and the clinical spectrum is diverse, ranging from asymptomatic infection to severe septic shock. The severity of infection depends on the etiology and timeliness of diagnosis. While assessing the etiology of severe infection in travelers and migrants, it is important to acquire a detailed clinical history; geography, dates of travel, places visited, type of transportation, lay-overs and intermediate stops, potential exposure to exotic diseases, and activities that were undertaken during travelling and prophylaxis and vaccines eith...



Antifolate resistance associated point mutations among asymptomatic malaria cases.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

Authors: Sharma J, Dutta P, Khan SA PMID: 27004583 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)



Performance evaluation of rapid diagnostic test for malaria in high malarious districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The overall specificity and negative predictive values of RDT for malaria diagnosis were excellent. However, the sensitivity and positive predictive values of RDT were low. Therefore, in-service training, quality monitoring of RDTs, and adequate laboratory supplies for diagnostic services of malaria would be crucial for effective intervention measures. PMID: 27004580 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)



Role of geospatial technology in identifying natural habitat of malarial vectors in South Andaman, India.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The natural habitat of malaria vector indicated that Tushnabad, Garacharma, Manglutan, Chouldari, Ferrargunj and Wimberlygunj hamlets are within the proximity of 2.5 km from the prime habitat location with more number of malaria positive cases. Also these hamlets are surrounded by dense evergreen forest and the land surface is draped by clay loam and clay soil texture exhibiting high soil moisture content warranting high rates of survival and proliferation of the vector ensuring resurgence of malaria every year. It is thus concluded that application of geospatial technologies plays an important role in identifying the natural habitat of malaria vector. PMID: 27004579 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)



Relationship of annual entomological inoculation rates to malaria transmission indices, Bayelsa State, Nigeria.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Based on EIR values malaria transmission was classified as stable when EIR was >1.5 or unstable when EIR was ≤ 1.5. Although, earlier studies have shown correlation between EIRs and malaria PR, this study demonstrated a significant correlation between EIRs and malaria incidence rates. PMID: 27004578 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)

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Netting the malaria menace: Distribution and utilization of long-lasting insecticidal net in a malaria endemic area in Bankura, West Bengal.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 01:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Around two-third population of the study area was effectively covered with LLIN. Higher proportion of socially marginalized people received LLIN. Threat perception regarding malaria was directly associated with both receipt and use of LLIN. Behaviour change communication on utilization along with adequate access to LLIN needs to be strengthened. PMID: 27004575 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases)



Inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus in Whole-Blood Thin Smears Used for Malaria Diagnosis [Parasitology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Malaria is an important mimic or coinfection in potential Ebolavirus disease patients. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the 100% methanol-inactivating Zaire Ebolavirus Makona variant for malaria thin-smear preparation. We determined that 100% methanol completely inactivated the virus after 15 min. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)



Differential T‐cell responses to a chimeric Plasmodium falciparum antigen; UB05‐09, correlates with acquired immunity to malaria

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Parasite Immunology)



Antibody Profiling in Naïve and Semi-immune Individuals Experimentally Challenged with Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Clinical protection against experimental challenge in volunteers with previous P. vivax exposure was associated with elevated pre-existing antibodies, an attenuated serological response to the challenge and reactivity to new antigens. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)



Tuberculosis Made Me Blind, But We Can Make Sure No One Else Needs to Suffer Like I Did

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 21:09:40 +0100

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Malaria family tree has bird roots

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:32:34 +0100

Extensive testing of malarial DNA found in birds, bats and other small mammals from five East African countries revealed that malaria has its roots in bird hosts. It then spread from birds to bats and on to other mammals. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



He Looks At Tuberculosis Death Toll And Wonders Why You're Not Worried

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:00:22 +0100

Aaron Motsoaledi is tired of delivering the same spiel over and over again. No matter how many times the charismatic health minister of South Africa speaks out, people don’t seem to grasp the threat presented by tuberculosis, now the No. 1 infectious killer in the world. “People think it’s a curable disease that’s been there for ages, so what’s new? I think that’s the mentality,” Dr. Motsoaledi told The Huffington Post. As chair of the Stop TB Partnership, a group of public and private leaders hosted through the United Nations Office for Project Service, he has seen the eyes of bureaucrats around the world glaze over when he brings up TB. And yet 4,100 people die every day from the disease. His own country is one of the hardest hit. Motsoaledi...



Malaria family tree has bird roots

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Cornell University) Extensive testing of malarial DNA found in birds, bats and other small mammals from five East African countries revealed that malaria has its roots in bird hosts. It then spread from birds to bats and on to other mammals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Genomic signatures of population decline in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Population genomic features such as nucleotide diversity and linkage disequilibrium are expected to be strongly shaped by changes in population size, and might therefore be useful for monitoring the success of... (Source: Malaria Journal)



Persistent Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in a western Cambodian population: implications for prevention, treatment and elimination strategies

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Subclinical Plasmodium parasitaemia is an important reservoir for the transmission and persistence of malaria, particularly in low transmission areas. (Source: Malaria Journal)

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Pathophysiological Mechanisms in Gaseous Therapies for Severe Malaria [Minireviews]

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Over 200 million people worldwide suffer from malaria every year, a disease that causes 584,000 deaths annually. In recent years, significant improvements have been achieved on the treatment of severe malaria, with intravenous artesunate proving superior to quinine. However, mortality remains high, at 8% in children and 15% in adults in clinical trials, and even worse in the case of cerebral malaria (18% and 30%, respectively). Moreover, some individuals who do not succumb to severe malaria present long-term cognitive deficits. These observations indicate that strategies focused only on parasite killing fail to prevent neurological complications and deaths associated with severe malaria, possibly because clinical complications are associated in part with a cerebrovascular dysfunction. Cons...



Targets and Mechanisms Associated with Protection from Severe Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Kenyan Children [Microbial Immunity and Vaccines]

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Severe malaria (SM) is a life-threatening complication of infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Epidemiological observations have long indicated that immunity against SM is acquired relatively rapidly, but prospective studies to investigate its immunological basis are logistically challenging and have rarely been undertaken. We investigated the merozoite targets and antibody-mediated mechanisms associated with protection against SM in Kenyan children aged 0 to 2 years. We designed a unique prospective matched case-control study of well-characterized SM clinical phenotypes nested within a longitudinal birth cohort of children (n = 5,949) monitored over the first 2 years of life. We quantified immunological parameters in sera collected before the SM event in cases and their individually matc...



Experimental Systems for Studying Plasmodium‐HIV coinfection

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Letters)



Microsatellite Genotyping of Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Pregnant Women in Four Malaria Endemic Countries

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present the results of a study aimed at characterizing the genetic structure of P. vivax populations obtained from pregnant women from different malaria endemic settings. Between June 2008 and October 2011 nearly 2000 pregnant women were recruited during routine antenatal care at each site and followed up until delivery. A capillary blood sample from the study participants was collected for genotyping at different time points. Seven P. vivax microsatellite markers were used for genotypic characterization on a total of 229 P. vivax isolates obtained from Brazil, Colombia, India and Papua New Guinea. In each population, the number of alleles per locus, the expected heterozygosity and the levels of multilocus linkage disequilibrium were assessed. The extent of genetic differentiation among...