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MedWorm: Yaws provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Yaws category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:30:08 +0100


A Sero-epidemiological Approach to Explore Transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Kobina Assan Ampah, Beatrice Nickel, Prince Asare, Amanda Ross, Daniel De-Graft, Sarah Kerber, Ralf Spallek, Mahavir Singh, Gerd Pluschke, Dorothy Yeboah-Manu, Katharina Röltgen The debilitating skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU) is caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans. While various hypotheses on potential reservoirs and vectors of M. ulcerans exist, the mode of transmission has remained unclear. Epidemiological studies have indicated that children below the age of four are less exposed to the pathogen and at lower risk of developing BU than older children. In the present study we compared the age at which children begin to develop antibody responses against M. ulcerans with the age pattern of responses to other pathogens transmitted by various mechanisms. A total of 1,352 ser...

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Haemophilus ducreyi: from sexually transmitted infection to skin ulcer pathogen

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 18:33:33 +0100

This article provides an overview of the biology, epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostic tests, and treatment of Haemophilus ducreyi infection, with special reference to the decline of chancroid and the recent emergence of H. ducreyi as a pathogen responsible for chronic limb ulceration clinically similar to yaws. Recent findings: Chancroid has declined in importance as a sexually transmitted infection in most countries where it was previously endemic. Chancroid may be caused by either class I or class II H. ducreyi isolates; these two classes diverged from each other approximately 1.95 million years ago. H. ducreyi has recently emerged as a cause of chronic skin ulceration in the Pacific region and Africa. Based on sequencing of whole genomes and defined genetic loci, it appears that...

Diagnosis and evaluation of causative factors for the presence of endemic treponemal disease in a Japanese sub-tropical island population from the Tokugawa period

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We present a description and differential diagnosis of pathological lesions observed on skeletal elements found during surface surveys of the Nagabaka site on Miyako-jima Island, Japan. The Nagabaka site served as a bone depository during the Early Modern period (c. AD 1600–1870). We evaluated remains via macroscopic inspection to classify infectious lesions according to criteria in Weston (2008). We also obtained CT scans of three bone elements for more extensive lesion analysis and carried out a differential diagnosis utilizing paleopathological literature. Subsequent investigation yielded convincing evidence of treponemal infection on 23 skeletal elements. Based on known geographical spread and morphological comparisons of lesion patterning, we identified yaws as the pathogen most lik...

Trachoma and Yaws: Common Ground?

Thu, 03 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Anthony W. Solomon, Michael Marks, Diana L. Martin, Alexei Mikhailov, Rebecca M. Flueckiger, Oriol Mitjà, Kingsley Asiedu, Jean Jannin, Dirk Engels, David C. W. Mabey (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Who Neglects Neglected Tropical Diseases? - Korean Perspective.

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 17:30:03 +0100

Authors: Choi MH, Yu JR, Hong ST Abstract Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of tropical infectious diseases of poorest people. Of 17 NTDs managed by WHO, two, guinea worm disease (by 2015) and yaws (by 2020) are targeted for eradication, and four (blinding trachoma, human African trypanosomiasis, leprosy, and lymphatic filariasis) for elimination by 2020. The goals look promising but 11 others are still highly prevalent. Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are one NTD which prevail over the world including temperate zones. They had been highly prevalent in Korea but are mostly disappearing at present through systematic and sustainable control activity. The successful experience of STH control enables Korean experts to develop many programs of NTD control in developing co...

A Retrospective Study on Genetic Heterogeneity within Treponema Strains: Subpopulations Are Genetically Distinct in a Limited Number of Positions

Mon, 05 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions/Significance Heterogeneous sites likely represent both the selection of adaptive changes during infection of the host as well as an ongoing diversifying evolutionary process. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

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[Review] Challenges and key research questions for yaws eradication

Tue, 08 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Yaws is endemic in west Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific region. To eradicate yaws by 2020, WHO has launched a campaign of mass treatment with azithromycin. Progress has been made towards achievement of this ambitious goal, including the validation of point-of-care and molecular diagnostic tests and piloting of the strategy in several countries, including Ghana, Vanuatu, and Papua New Guinea. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed to allow refinement of the eradication strategy. Studies exploring determinants of the spatial distribution of yaws are needed to help with the completion of baseline mapping. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

The Snark and the Skin

Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Jack London, the American journalist and adventure writer, died at age 40 in 1916 at the height of his popularity from “uraemia following renal colic” due to chronic interstitial nephritis. He was known for his novels, notably those set during the Alaskan gold rush, Call of the Wild and White Fang, and for his adventure stories. In The Cruise of the Snark, London recounted his 1907-1908 voyage across the Pacific; the book is laden with observations of indigenous populations, with frequent mention of their skin diseases. While in the Solomon Islands, London observed, “[islanders] are afflicted with every form of malignant skin disease. Some have ringworm…yaws and many other skin ulcerations”(p283) (Figure). (Source: JAMA Dermatology)

Pinta: Latin America's Forgotten Disease?

Mon, 24 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Stamm LV Abstract Pinta is a neglected, chronic skin disease that was first described in the sixteenth century in Mexico. The World Health Organization lists 15 countries in Latin America where pinta was previously endemic. However, the current prevalence of pinta is unknown due to the lack of surveillance data. The etiological agent of pinta, Treponema carateum, cannot be distinguished morphologically or serologically from the not-yet-cultivable Treponema pallidum subspecies that cause venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel. Although genomic sequencing has enabled the development of molecular techniques to differentiate the T. pallidum subspecies, comparable information is not available for T. carateum. Because of the influx of migrants and refugees from Latin America, U.S. p...

Tropical leg ulcers in children: more than yaws.

Wed, 19 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Fegan D, Glennon MJ, Kool J, Taleo F Abstract The management of yaws has changed in recent years. Mass treatment with oral azithromycin has replaced intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin. Treponemal and non-treponemal serology (equivalent to TPHA and RPR) point-of-care blood testing is now available. In addition, recent studies in yaws endemic regions have shown that a significant number of leg ulcers in children which are clinically suggestive of yaws are caused by Haemophilus ducreyi. It is noteworthy that the World Health Organization has also set the ambitious goal to eliminate yaws by 2020. PMID: 26289420 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Tropical Doctor)

Impact of Community Mass Treatment with Azithromycin for Trachoma Elimination on the Prevalence of Yaws

Tue, 04 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We examined children aged 5-14 years and took blood and lesion samples for yaws diagnosis. Results We recruited 897 children, 6 months after mass treatment. There were no cases of active yaws. Serological evidence of current infection was found in 3.6% (95% CI= 2.5-5.0%). This differed significantly between individuals who had and had not received azithromycin (2.8% vs 6.5%, p=0.015); the prevalence of positive serology in 5-14 year-olds had been 21.7% (95% CI=14.6%-30.9%) 6 months prior to mass treatment. Not receiving azithromycin was associated with an odds of 3.9 for infection (p=0.001). National figures showed a 57% reduction in reported cases of yaws following mass treatment. Discussion Following a single round of treatment we did not identify any cases of active yaws in a previously...

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Sat, 01 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

is a non-venereal endemic treponemal infection caused by Treponema pallidum sub-species pertenue, a spirochaete bacterium closely related to Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, the agent of venereal syphilis. Yaws is a chronic, relapsing disease predominantly affecting children living in certain tropical regions. It spreads by skin-to-skin contact and, like syphilis, occurs in distinct clinical stages. It causes lesions of the skin, mucous membranes and bones which, without treatment, can become chronic and destructive. Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, like its sexually-transmitted counterpart, is exquisitely sensitive to penicillin. Infection with yaws or syphilis results in reactive treponemal serology and there is no widely available test to distinguish between these infections. Thus, m...

The burden of mental health in lymphatic filariasis

Thu, 30 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Lymphatic filariasis and other neglected tropical diseases, notably Buruli Ulcer, cutaneous leishmaniasis, leprosy, yaws, onchocerciasis and trachoma cause significant co morbidity associated with mental illness in patients. Studies to assess the prevalence of the burden of this co-morbidity should be incorporated into any future assessment of the Global Burden of neglected tropical diseases. The prevalence of depressive illness in caregivers who support those who suffer from these conditions is required. Such assessments are critical for neglected tropical diseases which have such a huge global prevalence and thus will contribute a significant burden of co-morbidity attributable to mental illness. (Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty)

Macrolide Resistance in the Syphilis Spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum: Can We Also Expect Macrolide-Resistant Yaws Strains?

Mon, 27 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Šmajs D, Paštěková L, Grillová L Abstract Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum (TPA) causes over 10 million new cases of syphilis worldwide whereas T. pallidum ssp. pertenue (TPE), the causative agent of yaws, affects about 2.5 million people. Although penicillin remains the drug of choice in the treatment of syphilis, in penicillin-allergic patients, macrolides have been used in this indication since the 1950s. Failures of macrolides in syphilis treatment have been well documented in the literature and since 2000, there has been a dramatic increase in a number of clinical samples with macrolide-resistant TPA. Scarce data regarding the genetics of macrolide-resistant mutations in TPA suggest that although macrolide-resistance mutations have emerged independently several t...

Haemophilus ducreyi Cutaneous Ulcer Strains Are Nearly Identical to Class I Genital Ulcer Strains

Mon, 06 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that CU strains are derivatives of class I strains that were not recognized until recently. These findings require confirmation by analysis of CU strains from other regions. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Countdown to Zero

Thu, 02 Jul 2015 19:00:47 +0100

Just before the predictable pyrotechnics of a July 4 weekend, something exploded, maybe or maybe not unpredictably. It was a rocket from SpaceX, the current version of a space-dream factory, meant to resupply the International Space Station. The Falcon 9 clears the tower. Vehicle propulsion is still nominal. It is on course and on track. Then it bursts in air. And so it became the third such resupply mission to fail in recent months. Is it more than a failure, but also a metaphor of our times? Ambitions that, even in their smallness, can't be realized? As with so many others of a certain generation, I was caught up in the great space adventure, the high calling. Lots of black-and-white TV images: Mercury, a demonstration project around the notion that we could launch Americans into space; ...

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Failure of PCR to Detect Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue DNA in Blood in Latent Yaws

Tue, 30 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Michael Marks, Samantha Katz, Kai-Hua Chi, Ventis Vahi, Yongcheng Sun, David C. Mabey, Anthony W. Solomon, Cheng Y. Chen, Allan Pillay Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is a neglected tropical disease closely related to venereal syphilis and is targeted for eradication by 2020. Latent yaws represents a diagnostic challenge, and current tools cannot adequately distinguish between individuals with true latent infection and individuals who are serofast following successful treatment. PCR on blood has previously been shown to detect T. pallidum DNA in patients with syphilis, suggesting that this approach may be of value in yaws. We performed real-time PCR for Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue on blood samples from 140 children with positive T. pallidum Particle Agglutination...

Screening wild and semi‐free ranging great apes for putative sexually transmitted diseases: Evidence of Trichomonadidae infections

Fri, 26 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can persist endemically, are known to cause sterility and infant mortality in humans, and could have similar impacts in wildlife populations. African apes (i.e., chimpanzees, bonobos, and to a lesser extent gorillas) show multi‐male mating behavior that could offer opportunities for STD transmission, yet little is known about the prevalence and impact of STDs in this endangered primate group. We used serology and PCR‐based detection methods to screen biological samples from wild and orphaned eastern chimpanzees and gorillas (N = 172 individuals, including adults, and juveniles) for four classes of pathogens that either commonly cause human STDs or were previously detected in captive apes: trichomonads, Chlamydia spp., Treponema pallidum (syphili...

Global epidemiology of yaws: a systematic review

Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2015 Source:The Lancet Global Health, Volume 3, Issue 6 Author(s): Oriol Mitjà , Michael Marks , Diby J P Konan , Gilbert Ayelo , Camila Gonzalez-Beiras , Bernard Boua , Wendy Houinei , Yiragnima Kobara , Earnest N Tabah , Agana Nsiire , Damas Obvala , Fasiah Taleo , Rita Djupuri , Zhang Zaixing , Jürg Utzinger , Lase S Vestergaard , Quique Bassat , Kingsley Asiedu Background To achieve yaws eradication, the use of the new WHO strategy of initial mass treatment with azithromycin and surveillance twice a year needs to be extended everywhere the disease occurs. However, the geographic scope of the disease is unknown. We aimed to synthesise published and unpublished work to update the reported number of people with yaws at national and subnational levels and to esti...

Mapping the geographical distribution of yaws

Wed, 20 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2015 Source:The Lancet Global Health, Volume 3, Issue 6 Author(s): David Mabey (Source: The Lancet Global Health)

Eradicating successfully yaws from India: The strategy & global lessons.

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Narain JP, Jain SK, Bora D, Venkatesh S Abstract Yaws, a non-venereal treponematosis, affecting primarily the tribal populations, has been considered historically as one of the most neglected tropical diseases in the world. In 1996, India piloted an initiative to eradicate yaws based on a strategy consisting of active case finding through house-to-house search and treatment of cases and their contacts with long acting penicillin. Thereafter, the campaign implemented in all 51 endemic districts in 10 s0 tates of the country led to the achievement of a yaws-free status in 2004. In the post-elimination phase, surveillance activities accompanied by serological surveys were continued in the erstwhile endemic districts. These surveys carried out among children between the age of...

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Eradication of yaws in India.

Fri, 17 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: PMID: 25902561 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)

Neglected Tropical Diseases among the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN): Overview and Update

Thu, 16 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Peter J. Hotez, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Ulrich Strych, Li-Yen Chang, Yvonne A. L. Lim, Maureen M. Goodenow, Sazaly AbuBakar The ten member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) constitute an economic powerhouse, yet these countries also harbor a mostly hidden burden of poverty and neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Almost 200 million people live in extreme poverty in ASEAN countries, mostly in the low or lower middle-income countries of Indonesia, the Philippines, Myanmar, Viet Nam, and Cambodia, and many of them are affected by at least one NTD. However, NTDs are prevalent even among upper middle-income ASEAN countries such as Malaysia and Thailand, especially among the indigenous populations. The three major intestinal helminth infections are the most common NTD...

Yaws: 110 Years After Castellani's Discovery of Treponema pallidum Subspecies pertenue.

Mon, 13 Apr 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Stamm LV Abstract Yaws is a neglected infectious disease that affects mostly children and adolescents living in poor, rural communities in humid, tropical areas of Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands. The etiological agent of yaws, Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (T. pertenue), was discovered by Aldo Castellani in 1905 shortly after Schaudinn and Hoffmann discovered the etiological agent of syphilis, T. pallidum subspecies pallidum. The discovery of T. pertenue enabled the development of animal models and the identification of an effective antibiotic treatment (i.e., penicillin) for yaws. A World Health Organization (WHO) mass treatment campaign from 1952 to 1964 reduced the global burden of yaws by 95%, but failed to eradicate this disease. Today, 110 y...

Validation of Serological Tests for the Detection of Antibodies Against Treponema pallidum in Nonhuman Primates

Tue, 24 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Sascha Knauf, Franziska Dahlmann, Emmanuel K. Batamuzi, Sieghard Frischmann, Hsi Liu There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal t...

Case Western Reserve global health expert urges action to eradicate yaws, tropical disease

Thu, 19 Mar 2015 04:00:00 +0100

(Case Western Reserve University) Half a century ago, a concentrated global effort nearly wiped a disfiguring tropical disease from the face of the earth. Now, says Case Western Reserve's James W. Kazura, M.D., it's time to complete the work. In a perspective column in the Feb.19 New England Journal of Medicine, Kazura responded to a research article that demonstrated positive results from a single oral dose of azithromycin. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

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Thu, 05 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Introduction Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is endemic in parts of West Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific. The WHO has launched a campaign based on mass treatment with azithromycin, to eradicate yaws by 2020. Sources of data We reviewed published data, surveillance data and data presented at yaws eradication meetings. Areas of agreement Azithromycin is now the preferred agent for treating yaws. Point-of-care tests have demonstrated their value in yaws. Areas of controversy There is limited data from 76 countries, which previously reported yaws. Different doses of azithromycin are used in community mass treatment for yaws and trachoma. Growing points Yaws eradication appears an achievable goal. The programme will require considerable support from partners across ...

Africa: Diseases Affecting the Poorest Can Be Eliminated, Scientists Say

Fri, 20 Feb 2015 09:28:41 +0100

[Thomson Reuters Foundation]London -It is a little known disease but it could make medical history if scientists' predictions are correct: yaws could completely disappear by 2020, given the right resources. (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)

Diseases affecting the poorest can be eliminated, scientists say

Thu, 19 Feb 2015 15:29:12 +0100

LONDON (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - It is a little known disease but it could make medical history if scientists' predictions are correct: yaws could completely disappear by 2020, given the right resources. (Source: Reuters: Health)

Mass Treatment with Single-Dose Azithromycin for Yaws

Wed, 18 Feb 2015 22:00:08 +0100

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 8, Page 703-710, February 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)

Yaws Eradication — A Goal Finally within Reach

Wed, 18 Feb 2015 22:00:07 +0100

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 372, Issue 8, Page 693-695, February 2015. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)

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A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

Thu, 29 Jan 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Rosanna Ghinai, Philip El-Duah, Kai-Hua Chi, Allan Pillay, Anthony W. Solomon, Robin L. Bailey, Nsiire Agana, David C. W. Mabey, Cheng-Yen Chen, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Michael Marks Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had prev...

Mapping the Epidemiology of Yaws in the Solomon Islands: A Cluster Randomized Survey.

Mon, 24 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Marks M, Vahi V, Sokana O, Puiahi E, Pavluck A, Zhang Z, Dalipanda T, Bottomley C, Mabey DC, Solomon AW Abstract Yaws, a non-venereal treponemal disease, is targeted for eradication by 2020 but accurate epidemiological data to guide control programs remain sparse. The Solomon Islands reports the second highest number of cases of yaws worldwide. We conducted a cluster randomized survey of yaws in two provinces of the Solomon Islands. One thousand four hundred and ninety-seven (1,497) children 5-14 years of age were examined. Clinical signs of active yaws were found in 79 children (5.5%), whereas 140 children (9.4%) had evidence of healed yaws lesions. Four hundred and seventy (470) (31.4%) children had a positive Treponema pallidum particle agglutination assay (TPPA). Two h...

Molecular Differentiation of Treponema pallidum Subspecies in Skin Ulceration Clinically Suspected as Yaws in Vanuatu Using Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Serological Methods.

Mon, 17 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Chi KH, Danavall D, Taleo F, Pillay A, Ye T, Nachamkin E, Kool JL, Fegan D, Asiedu K, Vestergaard LS, Ballard RC, Chen CY Abstract We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical...

Whole Genome Sequence of the Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum Strain Bosnia A: The Genome Is Related to Yaws Treponemes but Contains Few Loci Similar to Syphilis Treponemes

Thu, 06 Nov 2014 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions/Significance The genome of TEN Bosnia A contains several sequences thought to be unique to TPA strains; these sequences very likely represent remnants of recombination events during the evolution of TEN treponemes. This finding emphasizes a possible role of repeated horizontal gene transfer between treponemal subspecies in shaping the Bosnia A genome. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Endemic treponemal diseases

Fri, 12 Sep 2014 00:00:00 +0100

The endemic treponemal diseases, consisting of yaws, bejel (endemic syphilis) and pinta, are non-venereal infections closely related to syphilis, and are recognized by WHO as neglected tropical diseases (NTDs). Despite previous worldwide eradication efforts the prevalence of yaws has rebounded in recent years and the disease is now a major public health problem in 14 countries. Adequate data on the epidemiology of bejel and pinta is lacking. Each disease is restricted to a specific ecological niche but all predominantly affect poor, rural communities. As with venereal syphilis, the clinical manifestations of the endemic treponemal diseases are variable and can be broken down in to early stage and late stage disease. Current diagnostic techniques are unable to distinguish the different caus...

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Yaws, syphilis, sexuality, and the circulation of medical knowledge in the british Caribbean and the atlantic world.

Sun, 06 Jul 2014 11:05:03 +0100

Authors: Paugh K Abstract Summary:This history of the disease categories "yaws" and "syphilis" explores the interplay between European and African medical cultures in the early modern Atlantic world. The assertion made by both early modern and modern medical authorities, that yaws and syphilis are the same disease, prompts a case study of the history of disease that reflects on a variety of issues in the history of medicine: the use of ideas about contagion to demarcate racial and sexual difference at sites around the British Empire; the contrast between persistently holistic ideas about disease causation in the Black Atlantic and the growth of ontological theories of disease among Europeans and Euro-Americans; and the controversy over the African practice of yaws inoculation, whic...

Syphilis-causing strains belong to separate SS14-like or Nichols-like groups as defined by multilocus analysis of 19 Treponema pallidum strains.

Sat, 26 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Nechvátal L, Pětrošová H, Grillová L, Pospíšilová P, Mikalová L, Strnadel R, Kuklová I, Kojanová M, Kreidlová M, Vaňousová D, Procházka P, Zákoucká H, Krchňáková A, Smajs D Abstract Treponema pallidum strains are closely related at the genome level but cause distinct diseases. Subspecies pallidum (TPA) is the causative agent of syphilis, subspecies pertenue (TPE) causes yaws while subspecies endemicum (TEN) causes bejel (endemic syphilis). Compared to the majority of treponemal genomic regions, several chromosomal loci were found to be more diverse. To assess genetic variability in diverse genomic positions, we have selected (based on published genomic data) and sequenced five variable loci, TP0304, TP0346, TP0488, TP0515 and TP0558, in 19 reference Tre...

[News & Analysis] Neglected Tropical Diseases: Oral Antibiotic Raises Hopes of Eradicating Yaws

Fri, 11 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100

Tropical disease experts tried and failed before to eradicate yaws, a rare disfiguring disease of poor countries. Now, they are ready to try again, buoyed by recent data showing that a single dose of an oral antibiotic can cure the disease. But disease eradication is tough, and experts warn it will cost more and take longer than the planners imagine. Author: John Maurice (Source: Science: This Week)

[News & Analysis] Oral Antibiotic Raises Hopes of Eradicating Yaws

Fri, 11 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100

With a simple new tool available, yaws has joined the disease eradication hit list. Author: John Maurice (Source: Science: Current Issue)

NeurologicManifestations of Neglected Tropical Diseases (P4.295)

Wed, 09 Apr 2014 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations of NTDs cause significant morbidity and mortality, although data are limited. The evidence for treatments of neurologic complications is limited for most NTDs. Increased awareness of neurologic manifestations of NTDs can promote early identification and treatment, thereby contributing to ongoing elimination and eradication campaigns.Study Supported by: NADisclosure: Dr. Raibagkar has nothing to disclose. Dr. Berkowitz has received royalty payments from Medmaster and Oxford University Press. Dr. Pritt has nothing to disclose. Dr. Headley-Whyte has nothing to disclose. Dr. Mateen has nothing to disclose. (Source: Neurology)

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Syphilis in the United States

Fri, 21 Feb 2014 20:59:17 +0100

Abstract: Syphilis gained notoriety in the 1500s, when it became widespread throughout Europe. While the origins of syphilis are not certain, recent data have shown that it may have originated in the Americas from a close relative that causes Yaws (Treponema pallidum pertenue). For the past 500years, the disease has shown its various faces all over the world. The 19th century saw an entire medical subspecialty—syphilology (sometimes known as syphilography)—devoted to the study of the great disease, then known as “the great imitator.” Syphilis has an entire textbook of presentations and can mimic many other infections and immune-mediated processes. At the beginning of the 20th century, the many faces of the disease led to Sir William Osler’s well-known aphorism, “The physician w...

Yaws eradication will need millions of donated antibiotics, says WHO

Fri, 21 Feb 2014 13:57:54 +0100

World Health Organisation says bacterial skin disease requires drug companies to give large supplies of single-dose tabletsThe World Health Organisation has stepped up efforts to eradicate yaws, described as the "forgotten disease", after the discovery of a single-dose oral antibiotic that can cure it.Wiping out the bacterial skin disease that causes weeping ulcers would, however, depend on whether drug companies were prepared to donate millions of tablets, the WHO said.Untreated, the disease progresses to the bones, causing severe disfigurement and disability. It mainly affects under-15s in poor, remote populations.Only 12 countries – three Pacific islands, eight African countries and Indonesia – are affected by yaws. A global vaccination programme in the 1950s treated more than 300 m...


Wed, 15 Jan 2014 07:00:00 +0100

Title: YawsCategory: Diseases and ConditionsCreated: 1/24/1999 9:48:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 1/15/2014 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Hepatitis C General)

The endemic treponematoses.

Wed, 01 Jan 2014 05:00:00 +0100

Authors: Giacani L, Lukehart SA Abstract SUMMARY The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervou...

Subsistence and Settlement Correlates of Treponemal Disease: Temporal Patterns in Pre‐Columbian East Tennessee

Tue, 26 Nov 2013 00:00:00 +0100

ABSTRACT After ca 1000 BC, coinciding with the transition to sedentism, tertiary stage treponemal disease apparently becomes osteologically pervasive in pre‐Columbian North America. However, varying interobserver treponemal disease diagnostic thresholds, sampling error and the possibly ecosensitive nature of the pre‐Columbian nonvenereal treponemal disease variants (i.e. yaws and treponarid) prevents subsistence‐settlement pattern from becoming a reliable predictor of treponemal disease prevalence. This is particularly true of later prehistory with the transition from horticulture to intensive, maize‐based agriculture. To address whether treponemal disease visibility does vary across this specific subsistence‐settlement threshold, subadults (4+ years of age) and adults from 11 ...

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Drug and a syphilis test offer hope of yaws eradication

Wed, 24 Apr 2013 13:44:59 +0100

A diagnostic test targeting syphilis and an oral antibiotic could be used together to help eradicate yaws disease, a WHO meeting was told. (Source: SciDev.Net)

[Seminar] Yaws

Sat, 02 Mar 2013 00:00:07 +0100

Yaws is an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue—a bacterium that closely resembles the causative agent of syphilis—and is spread by skin-to-skin contact in humid tropical regions. Yaws causes disfiguring, and sometimes painful lesions of the skin and bones. As with syphilis, clinical manifestations can be divided into three stages; however, unlike syphilis, mother-to-child transmission does not occur. A major campaign to eradicate yaws in the 1950s and 1960s, by mass treatment of affected communities with longacting, injectable penicillin, reduced the number of cases by 95% worldwide, but yaws has reappeared in recent years in Africa, Asia, and the western Pacific. (Source: LANCET)

Serologic cross-reactivity of syphilis, yaws, and pinta.

Tue, 15 Jan 2013 05:00:00 +0100

Authors: de Caprariis PJ, Della-Latta P PMID: 23317070 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Family Physician)

[Video] Eradicating Yaws in Congo

Mon, 17 Dec 2012 13:56:00 +0100

(Source: MSF Multimedia)

Republic of Congo: treating Pygmys for Yaws

Tue, 13 Nov 2012 16:37:25 +0100

MSF recently carried out a campaign to treat the disease known as yaws, which turned out to be both a logistical feat and a world first in medical terms. (Source: MSF News)

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[Video] Congo: Yaws in the Forest

Fri, 12 Oct 2012 15:29:00 +0100

(Source: MSF Multimedia)

Ghana: Red Alert! Yaws Resurrect in Ghana

Fri, 12 Oct 2012 14:45:53 +0100

[Public Agenda]If any Ghanaian had the notion that Yaws, a long-term chronic infection that mainly affects the skin, bones, and joints of the body, was no more, then he/she would have to rescind that idea and be on the alert because the disease is in existence. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Diagnosis of treponemal co‐infection in HIV‐infected West Africans

Thu, 20 Sep 2012 04:00:00 +0100

Conclusions  A high proportion of this HIV‐infected cohort showed evidence of treponemal infection. Both EIAs as well as the POCT were practical and effective at diagnosing treponemal co‐infection in this setting. RPR alone was unreliable at identifying active treponemal co‐infection, however might be useful in some settings where treponemal‐specific assays are unaffordable. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)

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Diagnosis of treponemal co‐infection in HIV‐infected West AfricansDiagnostic de la coinfection tréponémique chez les patients infectés par le VIH en Afrique de l’OuestDiagnóstico de coinfección con treponema en pacientes con VIH en África Occidental

Thu, 20 Sep 2012 04:00:00 +0100

Conclusions  A high proportion of this HIV‐infected cohort showed evidence of treponemal infection. Both EIAs as well as the POCT were practical and effective at diagnosing treponemal co‐infection in this setting. RPR alone was unreliable at identifying active treponemal co‐infection, however might be useful in some settings where treponemal‐specific assays are unaffordable. Objectifs:  Evaluer la performance de deux tests immunoenzymatiques (EIA), Murex et ICE et le test ‘Determine TP point‐of‐care (POCT)’ dans le diagnostic de l’infection tréponémique (syphilis ou pian) chez les patients fréquentant une grande clinique du VIH au Ghana; déterminer la prévalence de la coinfection tréponémique et caractériser les caractéristiques démographiques et cliniques ...

The expansion of HIV-1 in colonial Leopoldville, 1950s: driven by STDs or STD control?

Sat, 12 May 2012 04:00:00 +0100

Conclusions It is plausible that the exponential amplification of HIV-1 in Léopoldville occurred mostly parenterally in the 1950s and sexually in the 1960s. (Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections)

[World Report] WHO plans new yaws eradication campaign

Fri, 13 Apr 2012 07:30:04 +0100

A massive push to free the world from yaws failed in the 1950s and 1960s. But WHO, emboldened by new research findings, has agreed to launch a second attempt. John Maurice reports. (Source: LANCET)

Africa: Oral Antibiotics 'As Good As Penicillin' for Yaws Disease

Fri, 23 Mar 2012 08:06:01 +0100

[SciDev.Net] Jakarta - The WHO has announced that it will replace its current yaws disease strategy of using penicillin injections with administering oral antibiotics, as part of efforts to eradicate the disfiguring illness by 2020. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Oral antibiotics 'as good as penicillin' for yaws disease

Thu, 22 Mar 2012 16:44:22 +0100

The WHO has welcomed research that shows oral antibiotics are just as effective as penicillin injections in curing yaws disease. (Source: SciDev.Net)

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Yaws Cured With Single Dose of Oral Azithromycin Yaws Cured With Single Dose of Oral Azithromycin

Thu, 16 Feb 2012 20:54:31 +0100

A single dose of oral azithromycin is as good as intramuscularly injected benzathine benzylpenicillin for treating yaws. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Global Update: Azithromycin Is Found to Treat Yaws

Thu, 16 Feb 2012 20:20:05 +0100

One pill of azithromycin was found to cure yaws, a disease that often brings painless skin sores but also sometimes swelling, pain ans disfiguration. (Source: NYT)

Treating Yaws [Global Health]

Tue, 14 Feb 2012 05:00:00 +0100

(Source: JAMA)

Global Update: Azithromycin Is Found to Treat Yaws

Mon, 13 Feb 2012 22:30:57 +0100

One pill of azithromycin was found to cure yaws, a disease that often brings painless skin sores but also sometimes swelling, pain ans disfiguration. (Source: NYT Health)

[Articles] Single-dose azithromycin versus benzathine benzylpenicillin for treatment of yaws in children in Papua New Guinea: an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial

Sat, 28 Jan 2012 05:00:00 +0100

A single oral dose of azithromycin is non-inferior to benzathine benzylpenicillin and avoids the need for injection equipment and medically trained personnel. A change to the simpler azithromycin treatment regimen could enable yaws elimination through mass drug administration programmes. (Source: LANCET)

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[Comment] Oral azithromycin for treatment of yaws

Sat, 28 Jan 2012 05:00:00 +0100

Yaws—an infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum subsp pertenue—affects children and adults in poor rural communities in tropical countries, causing disfiguring lesions of the skin and bones. The yaws elimination programme coordinated by WHO in the 1950s and 1960s screened more than 160 million people, treated more than 50 million people with intramuscular injections of benzathine benzylpenicillin, and reduced the prevalence of yaws by more than 95%; however, yaws was not eliminated. This disease is now re-emerging (largely unnoticed) in parts of Africa, southeast Asia, and the Pacific islands. (Source: LANCET)

Neglected Yaws Disease - Changing Oral Antibiotic Administration Might Help Eliminate It

Thu, 12 Jan 2012 14:00:00 +0100

A tropical bacterial disease of the skin, bones and joints called Yaws has re-emerged in rural, tropical parts of Africa, Asia, and South America. According to a study by Dr Oriol Mitja at the Lihir Medical Center in Papua New Guinea published Online First in The Lancet, a simple regimen of oral azithromycin has proven to be just as effective at clearing infection as a traditional penicillin injection... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)

Africa: Yaws Treatment Study Prompts WHO Review

Wed, 11 Jan 2012 14:18:37 +0100

IRIN (Nairobi)-Findings that a one-time oral treatment to cure yaws, a neglected tropical disease, is as effective as the currently recommended penicillin injection have prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to convene a meeting on how the disease may be wiped out. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Yaws in the Western Pacific Region: A Review of the Literature

Thu, 22 Dec 2011 15:52:09 +0100

Until the middle of the 20th century, yaws was highly endemic and considered a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific Region (WPR), leading to intensive control efforts in the 1950s–1960s. Since then, little attention has been paid to its reemergence. Its current burden is unknown. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review, focusing on yaws in the South Pacific. Available records suggest that the region remains largely free of yaws except for Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. Many clinical cases reported recently were described as “attenuated”; advanced stages are rare. A single intramuscular injection of benzathine penicillin is still effective in curing yaws. In the Pacific, yaws may be amenable to elimination if adeq...

Genetic diversity inTreponema pallidum: implications for pathogenesis, evolution and molecular diagnostics of syphilis and yaws

Thu, 15 Dec 2011 22:35:24 +0100

Publication year: 2011Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Available online 14 December 2011David Šmajs, Steven J. Norris, George M. WeinstockPathogenic uncultivable treponemes, similar to syphilis-causingTreponemapallidumsubspeciespallidum,includeT. pallidumssp.pertenue,T.pallidumssp.endemicumandTreponemacarateum,which cause yaws, bejel and pinta, respectively. Genetic analyses of these pathogens revealed striking similarity among these bacteria and also a high degree of similarity to the rabbit pathogen,T. paraluiscuniculi, a treponeme not infectious to humans. Genome comparisons betweenpallidumand non-pallidumtreponemes revealed genes with potential involvement in human infectivity, whereas comparisons betweenpallidumandpertenuetreponemes identified genes possibly involved in ...

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Clinical outcome of skin yaws lesions after treatment with benzathinebenzylpenicillin in a pygmy population in Lobaye, Central African Republic

Thu, 15 Dec 2011 05:00:00 +0100

Background: Yaws is a bacterial skin and bone infectious disease caused by Treponema pallidum pertenue. It is endemic, particularly among pygmies in Central African Republic. To assess the clinical cure rate after treatment with benzathinepenicillin in this population, we conducted a cohort survey of 243 patients in the Lobaye region.Findings and conclusionThe rate of healing of lesions after 5 months was 95.9%. This relatively satisfactory level of therapeutic response implies that yaws could be controlled in the Central African Republic. Thus, reinforcement of the management of new cases and of contacts is suggested. (Source: BMC Research Notes)

Feasibility of non-coplanar tomotherapy for lung cancer stereotactic body radiation therapy.

Tue, 26 Jul 2011 01:45:44 +0100

Authors: Yang W, Jones R, Lu W, Geesey C, Benedict S, Read P, Larner J, Sheng K To quantify the dosimetric gains from non-coplanar helical tomotherapy (HT) arcs for stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) of lung cancer, we created oblique helical arcs by rotating patient's CT images. Ten, 20 and 30 degrees of yaws were introduced in the treatment planning for a patient with a hypothetical lung tumor at the upper, middle and lower portion of the right lung, and the upper and middle left lung. The planning target volume (PTV) was 43 cm(3). 60 Gy was prescribed to the PTV. Dose to organs at risk (OARs), which included the lungs, heart, spinal cord and chest wall, was optimized using a 2.5 cm jaw, 0.287 pitch and modulation factor of 2.5. Composite plans were generated by dose summatio...

Challenges in recognition and diagnosis of yaws in children in papua new Guinea.

Thu, 30 Jun 2011 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Mitjà O, Hays R, Lelngei F, Laban N, Ipai A, Pakarui S, Bassat Q Abstract. A global resurgence of yaws in developing countries highlights the need for reliable diagnostic criteria for this neglected infection. We conducted a clinical and serologic survey of 233 children less than 15 years of age who had clinically suspected yaws. A total of 138 (59%) cases were confirmed serologically, and 10 of 12 primary stage cases showed positive results for Treponema pallidum by a polymerase chain reaction assay that has not yet been validated for identification of yaws. A high proportion of cases (46%) were in the secondary stage; 92% of them had osteoarticular involvement, and only 24% had a Venereal Disease Research Laboratory titer greater than 1:32. PMID: 21734134 [PubMed - in p...

Outcome Predictors in Treatment of Yaws, O. Mitjà et al.

Fri, 20 May 2011 21:00:00 +0100

(Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

Etymologia: Yaws

Fri, 20 May 2011 21:00:00 +0100

(Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

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Secondary Yaws: An Endemic Treponemal Infection

Wed, 30 Jun 2010 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract:  (Source: Pediatric Dermatology)

Tropical STIs (excluding LGV)

Mon, 31 May 2010 14:37:59 +0100

Abstract: Chancroid and donovanosis are causes of genital ulceration found mainly in tropical areas. Chancroid ulcers are painful with a ragged edge and whitish base. Donovanosis ulcers are classically beefy-red and bleed to the touch. Chancroid was identified early on as a risk factor for HIV transmission amongst heterosexuals and this led to a renewed interest in genital ulcers. The incidence of both conditions has recently decreased significantly, while the incidence of genital herpes has increased. Improved control of all causes of genital ulceration should be a priority in countries where HIV and genital ulcers are prevalent. The non-venereal treponemal diseases include yaws, endemic syphilis and pinta. All three have similarities with venereal syphilis. A global eradication programme...

Africa: Killer Diseases of Continent's Poor

Wed, 31 Mar 2010 19:54:30 +0100

Sleeping sickness, elephantiasis, leprosy, helminthiasis, trachoma, leishmaniasis, Buruli ulcers, schistomiaisis and yaws are among neglected diseases that still ravage lives covertly as nations publicise tuberculosis, malaria and Aids. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Resurgence of yaws in Tanna, Vanuatu: time for a new approach?

Thu, 25 Mar 2010 06:51:13 +0100

Authors: Fegan D, Glennon MJ, Thami Y, Pakoa G Recent reports from the island of Tanna in Vanuatu suggest that yaws has resurged. We carried out a serological and clinical survey to determine the prevalence and clinical presentation of yaws on the island. A total of 306 random serum samples were tested for rapid plasma reagin and rapid diagnostic determine syphilis: 31.04% were positive for one or both tests; 39.8% of children surveyed in three schools had skin lesions consistent with yaws; and there were only two cases of secondary yaws osteitis and no cases of tertiary yaws. These results confirm that the disease has resurged but appears to be attenuated. Intramuscular benzathine penicillin is the currently recommended treatment for yaws. We suggest that a stat dose of oral azithromy...

The prevalence of common skin infections in four districts in Timor-Leste: a cross sectional survey

Wed, 10 Mar 2010 00:00:00 +0100

We examined the skin of 1535 participants aged between four months and 97 years. The majority of participants were male, aged between 11 and 20 years and had at least one condition of interest (56.0%, 56.0%, and 63.1%, respectively). Fungal infections were the most common presentation (39.0%) and males were more commonly affected than females (42.3% vs 34.0%, respectively, pvalue (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)

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Elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization.

Mon, 01 Mar 2010 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Narain JP, Dash AP, Parnell B, Bhattacharya SK, Barua S, Bhatia R, Savioli L The neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), which affect the very poor, pose a major public health problem in the South-East Asia Region of the World Health Organization (WHO). Although more than a dozen NTDs affect the region, over the past five years four of them in particular - leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) and yaws - have been targeted for elimination. These four were selected for a number of reasons. First, they affect the WHO South-East Asia Region disproportionately. For example, every year around 67% of all new leprosy cases and 60% of all new cases of visceral leishmaniasis worldwide occur in countries of the region, where as many as 850 million inhabitants are...

Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method.

Fri, 14 Aug 2009 11:15:01 +0100

Title: Prevalence study of yaws in the Democratic Republic of Congo using the lot quality assurance sampling method.Authors: Gerstl, Sibylle; Kiwila, Gédeon; Dhorda, Mehul; Lonlas, Sylvaine; Myatt, Mark; Ilunga, Benoît Kebela; Lemasson, Denis; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Guerin, Philippe J; Ferradini, LaurentAbstract: BACKGROUND: Until the 1970s the prevalence of non-venereal trepanomatosis, including yaws, was greatly reduced after worldwide mass treatment. In 2005, cases were again reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. We carried out a survey to estimate the village-level prevalence of yaws in the region of Equator in the north of the country in order to define appropriate strategies to effectively treat the affected population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a commun...

[Media Watch] Books: Manson's tropical diseases

Sun, 21 Jun 2009 23:00:00 +0100

What are tropical diseases? Patrick Manson, the father of tropical medicine, grappled with this question himself when he published the first edition of Tropical Diseases: A Manual of the Diseases of Warm Climates in 1898. This text, and the creation of courses in London and Liverpool, established tropical medicine as a discipline. In Manson's words: “the title [was] more convenient than accurate. If by ‘tropical diseases’ be meant diseases peculiar to, and confined to the tropics, then half a dozen pages might have sufficed for their description…if…the expression ‘tropical diseases’ be held to include all diseases occurring in the tropics, then the work would require to cover almost the entire range of medicine”. The volume dealt with the parasitic diseases malaria, bilharz...

Nocardial mycetoma: Diverse clinical presentations

Fri, 16 Jan 2009 04:12:33 +0100

Sharma Nand Lal, Mahajan Vikram K, Agarwal Santwana, Katoch Vishwa Mohan, Das Ram, Kashyap Meera, Gupta Poonam, Verma Ghanshyam KIndian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology 2008 74(6):635-640Nocardia spp are gram-positive, aerobic, acid-fast bacteria which exist as saprophytes in nature. Invasive disseminated infections are particularly common in immunocompromised or debilitated hosts. Superficial infections with Nocardia spp occur as a result of local trauma and contamination of the wound. Clinically, it presents as acute infection (abscesses or cellulitis), mycetoma, or sporotrichoid infection. Differential diagnosis includes eumycetoma, chromomycosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, sporotrichosis, tuberculosis, botryomycosis, syphilis, yaws, and neoplasia. Its diagnosis...

Yaws eradication: past efforts and future perspectives.

Tue, 01 Jul 2008 04:00:00 +0100

Authors: Asiedu K, Amouzou B, Dhariwal A, Karam M, Lobo D, Patnaik S, Meheus A PMID: 18670655 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization)

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The return of yaws.

Tue, 01 Jul 2008 04:00:00 +0100

Authors: Asiedu K PMID: 18670660 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Bulletin of the World Health Organization)

The sequence of the acidic repeat protein (arp) gene differentiates venereal from nonvenereal Treponema pallidum subspecies, and the gene has evolved under strong positive selection in the subspecies that causes syphilis

Sat, 28 Jun 2008 04:00:00 +0100

This study suggests that variations in the number and sequence of repeat motifs in the arp gene have clinical, epidemiological, and evolutionary significance. (Source: FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology)


Fri, 02 May 2008 07:00:00 +0100

Title: YawsCategory: Diseases and ConditionsCreated: 1/24/1999 9:48:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 5/2/2008 (Source: MedicineNet Liver General)

Elimination of yaws in India.

Fri, 11 Apr 2008 04:00:00 +0100

Authors: PMID: 18404831 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)

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Ghana: Lets Tackle the Yaws Menace Immediatelty

Wed, 21 Mar 2007 20:39:01 +0100

IT WAS all joy for the country when the World Health Organisation gave this country a clean bill as far as the eradication of the guinea worm disease was concerned. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Yaws makes a comeback

Sat, 03 Feb 2007 00:00:00 +0100

You've probably never heard of it, but yaws - a crippling disease that largely disappeared with the arrival of antibiotics - is spreading again (Source: New Scientist - Health)

Yaws disease in a wild gorilla population and its impact on the reproductive status of males

Thu, 01 Feb 2007 07:00:00 +0100

We evaluated the prevalence of skin lesions in a gorilla population in the Republic of Congo. The observed lesions were typical of yaws, a treponematosis described in gorillas and humans living in tropical regions. Among the 377 gorillas identified, 17% presented skin lesions, mainly on their faces. The worst cases presented physical handicaps because of the deep lesions. As in humans, lesions break out when individuals are young. Lesions were more prevalent among males than females above 8 years old. This sex-bias prevalence could result from the behavioral characteristics of males through a greater exposure to wounds. Lesions were also more prevalent in unmated adult males (either solitaries or those living in nonbreeding groups) than in males leading breeding groups. In the case of the ...

WHO revives efforts to eliminate forgotten disease

Thu, 25 Jan 2007 17:45:00 +0100

A neglected disease with a nearly forgotten name is making a comeback following a global control programme that almost eradicated it more than 40 years ago. Yaws, a disease which eats away at the skin, cartilage and bones of its victims (mostly children), is re-emerging in poor, rural and marginalized populations of Africa, Asia and South America. (Source: WHO news)

Molecular Evolution of the tprC, D, I, K, G, and J Genes in the Pathogenic Genus Treponema

Fri, 29 Sep 2006 06:00:00 +0100

We investigated the evolution of 6 genes from the Treponema pallidum repeat (tpr) gene family, which encode potential virulence factors and are assumed to have evolved through gene duplication and gene conversion events. The 6 loci (tprC, D, G, J, I, and K) were sequenced and analyzed in several members of the genus Treponema, including the 3 subspecies of human T. pallidum (T. pallidum subsp. pallidum, pertenue, and endemicum), Treponema paraluiscuniculi (rabbit syphilis), and the unclassified Fribourg-Blanc (simian) isolate. Phylogenetic methods, recombination analysis, and measures of nucleotide diversity were used to investigate the evolutionary history of the tpr genes. Numerous instances of gene conversion were detected by all 3 methods including both homogenizing gene conversion tha...

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Syphilis and the Nonvenereal Treponematoses: Nonvenereal Treponematoses

Thu, 08 Jun 2006 06:00:00 +0100

The nonvenereal treponematoses—yaws, endemic syphilis, and pinta—are a group of infections distributed throughout tropical and semitropical areas of the world.ACP Medicine Reference (Source: Medscape Infectious Diseases Headlines)

Endemic treponematosis: review and update.

Mon, 01 May 2006 04:00:00 +0100

Authors: Farnsworth N, Rosen T Despite major efforts to eradicate these disorders, yaws, bejel, and pinta (endemic treponematosis) remain serious health issues in many regions of the world. Aside from prominent skin manifestations, these diseases may also lead to significant osseous, neurologic, and ophthalmologic complications. Although progress has been made in differentiating the causative species in a research setting, a simple, specific, and sensitive diagnostic test remains elusive. Parenteral penicillin, in appropriate dosage, is the treatment of choice; alternative antibiotics such as tetracycline and erythromycin may also be effective. PMID: 16714199 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Clinics in Dermatology)