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MedWorm: Tuberculosis



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Tuberculosis category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:30:10 +0100

 



Challenges in the management of opportunistic infections: Focus on Southeast Asia

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:41 +0100

Abstract: Late presenters into HIV care remain common in South East Asia. In an analysis of more than 3700 patients in an Asian observational cohort, more than 72% were late presenters ie presenting into HIV care for the first time with CD4 of < 200 cells/mm3 or with an AIDS defining illness. Consequently physicians in South East Asia continue to manage patients who present with a myriad of opportunistic infections including toxoplasmosis, CMV infection, disseminated fungal infections and tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Cryptococcal meningitis and beyond - Management of select opportunistic infections in Sub-Saharan Africa

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:41 +0100

Abstract: In sub-Saharan Africa, despite successful scale-up of ART programmes, opportunistic infections remain a frequent cause of morbidity, hospitalization and death. Factors that contributed to this are delays to HIV diagnosis, late engagement in ART care, difficulties with ART adherence and many patients not remaining engaged in care. Although tuberculosis is the most frequent HIV co-infection in the region, other opportunistic infections also result in considerable morbidity and mortality. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Tuberculosis/HIV co-infection

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:41 +0100

Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) is the only opportunistic infection, which is transmissible to the healthy immunocompetent host. HIV is the most important known risk factor that promotes progression to active TB in people with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The lifetime risk of tuberculosis in immunocompetent persons is 5% to 10%, but in HIV positive patients, there is a 5% to 15% annual risk of developing active TB disease. During the past two decades, TB has become the major opportunistic infection complicating the HIV epidemic worldwide, especially in Asia and Africa. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Streptococcal lymphatic metastasis: Bacterial close encounters of the fourth kind

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:41 +0100

Abstract: Anatomists of the 17th century described the milky ‘vasa lymphatica’ as the fourth kind of vessel, the first three kinds being arteries, veins and nerves which were, at the time, considered as such. The subsequent centuries demonstrated a role for these in transport of interstitial fluid and cells, as well as a conduit for larger molecules and tumour metastasis. Long recognised as a barrier or as a conduit for infectious pathogens travelling within leukocytes, research has focussed on the interaction of the lymphatic system with intracellular microbes; from plague and tuberculosis, to viruses and parasites. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Murine model of tuberculous meningitis: New insight into understanding pathological complications of the disease

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Tuberculous meningitis is most severe presentation of tuberculosis that causes mortality in one-third of the affected patients. Though an age old disease; it still remains an inefficiently treated infection of human brain. Main reason behind is less known pathophysiology of the disease which is due to limited studies in developing proper experimental model. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Modeling of cerebral tuberculosis in BALB/c mice using clinical strain from patients with CNS -TB infection

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

This study describes development of a TBM animal model in mice using C3 strain isolated from CSF of TBM patients which can be used to study pathogenesis of C3 strain in mice. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Rapid diagnostic point of care tests in resource limited settings

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: One of the definitions of diagnostic point of care testing is provision of laboratory testing at or near the site of patient care. It has the potential to minimise the time to obtain the result of the test, which expedites the diagnosis and initiation of the treatment especially in resource-limited settings where health care infrastructure is weak and access to quality and timely medical care represents a challenge. It is estimated, that introduction of rapid, laboratory-independent diagnostic tests for four diseases (syphilis, malaria, tuberculosis and bacterial pneumonia) in developing countries could prevent more than 1.2 million deaths annually. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Tuberculosis: Challenges and Solutions for the 21st Century

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: (no abstract received from presenter) (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Impact of Type I IFN dysregulation in M. tuberculosis infection on T cell responses

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: It is only recently that the role of Type I Interferon (IFN) α/β signalling in tuberculosis (TB) is being appreciated. An exaggerated Type I IFN induced response is associated with TB disease severity. However, the mechanisms by which an elevated IFN response impacts TB disease severity are not clear. It is also unclear whether type I IFN induced responses modulate regulatory T (Treg) cell function in tuberculosis. The specific objectives of our study therefore were to firstly, validate the Type I Interferon driven gene signature in blood of Indian patients with active TB and identification of unique gene signatures that help characterise latent and active tuberculosis using RNA (transcriptome) sequencing which has not been carried out so far. (Source: International Journal o...



Performance evaluation of AnyplexII MTB/MDR/XDR for detection of first and second-line drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: The Anyplex™ MTB/MDR/XDR (Seegene) detection assay is a real-time multiplex PCR that can detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and resistance to first line drugs (Rifampicin (RIF) and Isoniazid (INH)) and second-line drugs (Fluoroquinolone and injectables). Currently rapid diagnosis of drug resistance is performed through molecular assays that have limited detection probes. Anyplex assay has a high number of probes that are used to detect first and second-line drugs. We compared the performance of Anyplex™ MTB/MDR/XDR with culture and Genotype MTBDRplus 2.0 (Hain Lifescience)for detection of M.tb drug-resistance to first and second-line drugs. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular evidence of melioidosis among patients suspected for tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. It is endemic in South East Asia and Northern Australia. Clinical manifestation of the infection mimics tuberculosis (TB) by causing acute to sub-acute to chronic disease. We aimed to detect the presence of B. pseudomallei among patients suspected with tuberculosis using a nested Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and to analyze its risk factors. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Evolutionary patterns of T cell epitopes in mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is an obligate, persistent, intracellular human pathogen. Host immune pressure and associated Mtb immune evasion that drive the evolution of Mtb, is crucial for diagnosing and designing effective vaccine. Human T cell responses are essential for containment of Mtb through secretion of IFNγ and TNFα, previous studies have shown that Mtb T cell epitopes (TCEs) are hyperconserved, suggesting there is little evidence for immune selection pressure and indicating that antigenic variation may contribute to bacterial persistence. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Evaluation of novel rapid bead based method for capturing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the major global health problems. The diagnosis of TB relies primarily on the identification of acid fast bacilli (AFB) by microscopy. Microscopic examination of direct specimen smear stained with Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining and studies have found this assay to be less sensitive. TB-Beads can be used as an alternative to centrifugation for concentration of TB bacilli. The current study intends to compare the conventional specimen pre-treatment with the novel technique of sample pre-treatment based on magnetic beads in single tube. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in children: Special considerations

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Tuberculosis is amongst the top 10 causes of mortality in children worldwide. Despite this fact, pediatric TB is not a priority in most national health programmes. In view of current Millennium Development Goals recommending a scale-up of pediatric TB detection and management globally, there is a dire need to improve pediatric TB programmes in high-burden countries. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Advances in the understanding and management of drug-resistant tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Tuberculosis is the leading infectious cause of death worldwide, with 9.6 million cases and 1.5 million deaths in 2014. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates 480,000 cases were multidrug-resistant (MDR). Less than half of the patients entered into treatment for MDR-TB successfully complete that treatment, due primarily to high rates of mortality and loss to follow-up. These in turn reflect weaknesses in current treatment regimens and national tuberculosis programs, coupled with operational treatment challenges. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Translating genomics research into control of MDR tuberculosis: Lessons learned and future prospects

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: The global MDR-TB caseload is increasingly driven by primary transmission of MDR-TB in high burden countries. Control will require interruption of transmission through earlier detection, effective outbreak investigation, detailed resistance testing to guide tailored treatment for patients with highly resistant TB and development and rapid access to better drugs. Genomics research and the application of technologies enabled through genomic research and technological innovation can play a critical role in each of these areas. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Diagnostic advances in assessing drug resistant tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: (no abstract received from presenter) (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Identification of B cell epitopes of in vivo expressed RD proteins in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Despite the newer advances in the field of TB diagnostics, there is still a need to develop a rapid, easy and specific diagnostic test which can be used in the primary health care settings. ELISA based assays satisfy these criteria, but due to the lack of appropriate and specific biomarkers, no specific ELISA based assay has been designed for the diagnosis of TB. Earlier we identified some specific region of difference (RD) genes that were up regulated in the sputum samples of PTB patients but not in disease controls by mycobacterial whole genome microarray analysis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Diagnosis of Iranian MSMD patients in a proliferation and cytokine production setting

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare inheritance syndrome, characterized by a disseminated infection in children following BCG vaccination performed at their birth time. In the infected children with MSMD, there is a susceptibility to systemic infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Next generation sequencing targeting drug resistance conferring genes in rapid detection of Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the public health crisis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. The emergence of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant TB (XDR-TB) has affected disease management. There is a need for rapid, accurate diagnosis of TB and initiation of appropriate treatment. We have performed whole genome analysis for evaluation of drug resistance conferring mutations early in the clinical isolates from patients who fail Anti-tubercular treatment (ATT). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular biology technique combined with Fine needle aspiration cytology revealing the diagnostic dilemma in tubercular lymphadenitis cases

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Extra-pulmonary Tuberculosis in the form of tubercular lymphadenitis (TBLN) accounts for 30-40% of Tuberculosis cases. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis is not always associated with the clinical symptoms like fever, cough, weight loss etc which makes its diagnosis difficult. Moreover, conventional investigations like culture and Ziehl Neelsen staining (ZN) used for providing the bacteriological evidence of TBLN have their own limitations. These cases therefore remain undiagnosed and become worse when left untreated. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Mycobacterial esat-6 like protein alters antigen presentation and mediates intracellular survival in a NO and P38 dependent manner

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Early secretory antigenic target (Esat-6) protein coded by esxA is known for its significant role in virulence and T-cell antigenic determination for Tuberculosis. There are at least 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins encoded in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome; and many of their functions remains uncharacterized. Here we investigated a mechanism by which a member of Mtb ESAT-6 like family proteins alters antibacterial defense mechanism of macrophages by blocking antigen presentation and on the other hand facilitates bacterial persistence inside the macrophages. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



pncA mutations in mycobacterium tuberculosis is a strong predictor of poor treatment outcome in the therapy of multidrug resistant tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Despite the widely accepted association between Pyrazinamide (PZA) resistance and mutations in pncA and rpsA gene, it remained unknown about the clinical value of PZA genotypic drug susceptibility testing(DST) for multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment, especially in the resource-limited area, where the PZA phenotypic DST is difficult to be implemented. Thus this study was aimed at evaluating the role of PZA genotypic DST in predicting poor treatment outcome in a MDR-TB treatment cohort. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Genotyping of mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from patients with pulmonary drug resistant tuberculosis in Ukraine

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: The epidemiological situation of tuberculosis in Ukraine is extremely unfavorable – about 40 thousand people become sick on tuberculosis each year and about 10 thousand patients die. Changing of the contemporary socio-economic and environmental conditions plays an important role in the deterioration of the tuberculosis epidemic situation. Moreover drug resistance of M.tuberculosis is one of the main factors limiting the effectiveness of TB treatment. Due to the development of molecular genetics it has become possible to conduct genetic typing of bacteria, which allows distinguishing between different strains of the pathogen isolated from TB patients. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Spatial analysis of patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis between 2009 and 2012 in Eastern China

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study aims to analyze the spatial distribution of patients with multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, to identify hotspot that may be subject to clustering of transmission, and provide a theoretical basis for the further study of the risk factors of tuberculosis and its prevention and control strategy. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Emergence of multidrug-resistance in tuberculosis cases: Role of risk factors

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: In 2013, 6.1 million tuberculosis (TB) cases were reported to WHO. Of these, 5.7 million were people newly diagnosed and another 0.4 million were already on treatment. Globally, 3.5% of new and 20.5% of previously treated TB cases were estimated to have had multidrug resistant (MDR) - TB. The previous treatment for TB is the strongest risk factor for development of MDR-TB. The current scenario states that even treatment naïve patients are also at risk. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Prevalence of tuberculosis among pregnant women in high burden setting in Sudan using Interferon gamma (IFN- ɣ) releasing assay (IGRA)

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a significant contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality in eastern Sudan. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Synthesis, ADME and antimycobacterial studies of a novel series of 2-thiazolylimino-5-arylidene-4-thiazolidinone derivatives

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The emergence of multi-drug resistant and extensively drug-resistant cases of tuberculosis has lead to the search for new structural classes of antituberculosis drugs that can be effective against these strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb). There are many reports on antimycobacterial screening of compounds containing the 4-thiazolidinone moiety. The 5-arylidene moiety in the 2-heteroarylimino-5-benzylidene-4-thiazolidinone scaffold plays an important role in antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Drug-resistant tuberculosis in children less than 5 years old with culture positive mycobacterium tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Diagnosis of paediatric tuberculosis remains a challenge due to the difficulty in obtaining samples from children and the low sensitivity of culture confirmation. Drug resistance in TB continues to be a significant challenge in South Africa. Microbiologic confirmation of tuberculosis in children is necessary to exclude drug-resistant tuberculosis in face of the high multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) rates reported in the adult population. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Increasing tuberculosis yield from investigation of contacts of smear positive TB cases through engagement of civil society organizations: Active TB case finding in Mombasa, Kenya

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) still remains a public health challenge post 2015 in developing countries. Kenya notified 89,211 TB cases in 2014. This excludes about 20% of the TB cases that are missed annually by the health system (World Health Organization). Mombasa County notified 4,726 TB cases resulting in a TB case notification rate of 469 per 100,000 populations in 2014. This is far above the national average of 208/100,000. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Spatial and temporal dynamics of the cases of tuberculosis in the zone of farming health of Pendjwa, Province of Bandundu/RDC, 2009-2013

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Enclosed to the north extreme of the Province of Bandundu, the zone of farming health of Pendjwa (ZSR) is one most affected by the Tuberculosis (TBC) mainly at the Pygmy populations. This survey aims This survey aims to identify the areas of health (AH) of persistence of the vestigial cases of TBC in order to propose adjustments adapted to struggle against the tuberculosis in this ZSR. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Genotypes of mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from blood of active tuberculosis patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteremia is a key event in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and development of extrapulmonary TB. Genotyping of M. tuberculosis isolates is useful for surveying the dynamics of TB infection, identifying new outbreaks, and preventing the disease. We attempted to estimate the prevalence of M. tuberculosis bacteremia and its genotypes. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The urgency of effective antitubercular drug development – new promising structures derived from natural terpenoids

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Despite the availability of highly efficacious treatment for decades, tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem. The widespread transmission of resistant variants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which does not respond to any of the commercial drugs, threatens health security of both developed and developing world. The urgent need of new antimycobacterial agents and development pathways is becoming more and more apparent. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Orbital tuberculosis: Clinical and microbiology profile

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

In this study we have reviewed the clinical and microbiology features of orbital tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Repurposing of old drugs: Identification of novel sila analogues of rimonabant as potent antitubercular agents

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by various strains of mycobacteria, the most common one being Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Almost one-third of the total world population is infected by Mtb and it is the second leading cause of death due to an infectious agent. Medications are known for treating TB, but they take long time and development of resistance to known antibiotics is another serious problem. In view of all these challenges, there is a need to develop new drug candidates with novel mechanisms for treating tuberculosis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Comparative analysis of the host mediated antigen-specific responses In Indian cohorts with different TB infected states

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the world's deadliest communicable diseases. In 2014, 9.6 million people developed TB and 1.5 million died from the disease. Emergence of MDR or XDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), coupled with the lack of effective vaccines and sensitive diagnostic kits has severely compromised the control of global TB epidemic. Although, (∼90%) infected subjects are able to contain infection in a sub-clinical dormant stage known as latent TB infection (LTBI) which constitutes 1/3rd of the world's population, ∼10% of immunocompetent infected individuals progress towards active disease during their life-time. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Paradoxical reaction (PR) in HIV negative patients with tuberculosis: Case series

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: PR, an entity with an incidence of 10-15%, is an exuberant inflammatory reaction resulting in clinical or radiological worsening after initiation of appropriate ATT in the absence of disease relapse, drug resistance or presence of another diagnosis. This is well described in the HIV infected as IRIS but with scarce data in the non-immunocompromised individuals. This is a case control study which elaborates on the incidence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of patients with paradoxical worsening in tuberculous lymphadenitis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Validation of non-uniform illumination correction techniques in microscopic digital TB images using image sharpness measures

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease for which an early diagnosis is essential to control the disease. The microscopy-based TB screening is the conventional method employed for TB identification in sputum smears. Fluorescence microscopy-based diagnosis provides improved sensitivity and benefits large number of TB burdened communities across the globe. Microscopic images are often corrupted by intensity variations because of inherent imperfections of the image formation process. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Mycobacterial dormancy associated proteins: Role in the survival of bacteria under stress conditions

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the cause of tuberculosis in humans, is present approximately in one third of the world's population, mostly in a dormant state. The proteins encoded by the dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) are mainly responsible for survival of the bacilli in a latent form. To maintain latency, mycobacteria orchestrate a balanced interplay of different cytokines secreted by immune cells during the granulomatous stage. The function of most of the DosR regulon proteins of M. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Determinants of MDR-TB in a district tuberculosis centre of a metropolitan city: A case - control study

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is of growing health concern globally and in India. MDR-TB is defined as Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to Isoniazid and Rifampicin. The current prevalence of MDR-TB in India is 2.3% (ranging from1.8%-2.8%)and 17.2% (ranging from 14.9%-19.5%) among newly diagnosed and previously treated cases respectively. Increased cost, more side effects and longer duration of treatment makes MDR-TB management a great challenge. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Identification of new efflux pump proteins from multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and screening for peptide based efflux pump inhibitors

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The alarming increase in the rate of HIV-related TB, pediatric TB, latent TB, Multi Drug Resistant (MDR) and Extensively Drug Resistant (XDR) TB pose serious problem around the world. The treatment for tuberculosis requires very long duration with combination of antibiotics (6-8 months for new cases and 18-24 months for MDR TB). Two mechanisms are thought to be involved in the natural drug resistance of mycobacteria: the mycobacterial cell wall permeability barrier and active multidrug efflux pumps. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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TRUNCATE-TB: an innovative trial design for drug-sensitive tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The number of potential regimens of drug treatment for TB is vast, meaning that evaluating each new treatment against a control in separate two-arm trials requires a huge amount of resources. There is, therefore, a need for innovative trial designs that can evaluate drug regimens simultaneously. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Cellular iron status affects drug susceptibilities and biofilm formation of mycobacterium

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Continuous and widespread usage of antitubercular drugs leading Multi-Drug Resistance (MDR) acquired by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) demands immediate search for novel targets and mechanisms. The ability of MTB to adapt the hostile environment is essential for its survival and confers the basis of successful infection. A crucial condition that MTB must overcome during the establishment of infection within the host is iron limitation, since iron not freely available is required by both bacteria and humans. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Outcomes of multidrug resistant tuberculosis treatment among human immunodeficiency virus co-infected patients taking anti-retroviral treatment at Sizwe Tropical Disease Hospital Johannesburg, South Africa

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study determined predictors of mortality and treatment failure among MDR-TB-HIV co-infected patients on ART. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Interferon Gamma Release Assay (IGRA) friend or foe - Clinical application of IGRA in a tuberculosis endemic country

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Though IGRA has been compared to tuberculin skin test, there is scarce clinical data in India regarding correlation of IGRA for diagnosis of active or latent tuberculosis. The role of IGRA for diagnosis of latent tuberculosis and initiation of prophylaxis in an endemic country has often been questioned. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



A study on factors influencing management and outcomes of tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis is a matter of Public Health remains a devastating disease throughout the world. The fact that it remains the eighth leading cause of death in the world speaks to the challenges facing practitioners and public health officials as they try to control a disease. Education and awareness regarding TB is essential along with adequate TB management, which helps to decrease morbidity and mortality associated with it. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Insertion Sequence IS6110 mapping, a tool to characterise TB strains into genetic lineages

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) along with HIV infection is the major cause of mortality worldwide including the 29 million people in Nepal. The steady rise in the number of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) TB cases in the last few years has increased the challenges facing the scientists and health professionals alike. With no previous epidemiological data available on transmission patterns of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) in Nepal, the focus of this study is to categorise the TB samples for the first time using IS6110 fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) PCR into different genetic lineages. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of MTBDRplus VER 2.0 line probe assay for the detection of MDR-TB in sputum samples referred to National TB Reference Laboratory, Ethiopian Public Health Institute

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Multi drug resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) is more difficult to diagnose and treat, leading to high mortality. Accurate and rapid detection of MDR-TB is critical for timely initiation of treatment. Evaluating new drug resistance diagnostic tools such as Genotype MTBDRplus VER 2.0 assay offer opportunity to scale up drug susceptibility testing(DST) capacity in Ethiopia. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Trend of multidrug resistance extra pulmonary tuberculosis cases presenting to a teriary care hospitals in Northern part of India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major public health problem in India. Extra pulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) among MDR-TB is contributing to the burden of disease and does not receive specific attention in international control strategies. The aim of this study is to investigate trends and patterns of MDR-TB from clinical isolates from EPTB cases in Northern India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Thyroid tuberculosis: report of a case and review of literature

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: thyroid tuberculosis is a rare disease, this is the probably the polymorphic clinical presentation and confusing with other thyroid diseases including cancer and thyroid hemorrhagic cysts. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Predictors, outcome, profile of anti-tubercular drug induced hepatitis – A prospective nested case - control study in a South Indian tertiary hospital

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem . The first line anti-tubercular drugs are hepatotoxic. Despite adequate knowledge, we are still unable to predict anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI) before initiation of treatment. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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The referral pathway of presumptive drug resistant tuberculosis in the urban poor areas of Metro Manila, Philippines

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTP) guidelines emphasize that all presumptive Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (DRTB) with history of previous tuberculosis (TB) treatment and with Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) contacts should be screened for MDR. Due to lack of tools to identify the referral outcome of presumptive DRTB, the RJPI developed an MDRTB Presumptive Masterlist to account referrals from health center to MDR treatment center. The study aims to understand gaps in the referral pathway experienced by Local Government Units (LGUs) and Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) from initial consultation until initiation of treatment. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Effects of motivational interviewing on the treatment adherence of Tuberculosis patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis is one of the deadly diseases worldwide (Enarson, 2000). The WHO reported that one third (1/3) of the world's population is infected with TB. It is curable; however, if left untreated may be fatal. Non-adherence is one of the barriers in eliminating TB. Adherence declines due to lack of motivation of patients to complete their treatment (Pagulayan, 2008). Motivation affects self-efficacy of patients to adhere to their treatment (Treasure, 2004). Hence, modification on the attitude and behavior of patients may enhance treatment adherence (Dela Cruz, 2002). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The acceptability and feasibility of chemical prophylaxis for schoolchildren and adolescents with latent tuberculosis infection in Shanghai, China: A qualitative study

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: China has the 2nd highest burden of tuberculosis (TB). More about 40-45% of population were infected with TB and most of them were latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). However, with better socioeconomic status, the prevalence of LTBI in Shanghai is relatively lower, especially among children. The contact history with TB patients would increase the risk of LTBI, and about 20% children contacts had a positive T-SPOT.TB result in shanghai. Children with LTBI could contribute to the pool of individuals with LTBI from which future active TB cases will arise. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Prevalence of culture-positive mycobacteria among suspected cases of pulmonary tuberculosis in Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Northern, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major cause of death and disability globally. Microscopy of Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) is the routine method of diagnosis of tuberculosis in many developing countries and although faster and cheaper, requires a high bacterial load to obtain a positive result. The advent of Gen-Xpert has revolutionized diagnosis of tuberculosis though Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT) are not often captured by this technology. The Gene-Xpert cannot also be used for follow up. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Phytochemical and antimycobacterial analysis of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Annona muricata Linn (Soursop)

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Against the backdrop evidenced in the threat Tuberculosis poses to developing economies, especially its prevalence among people in their productive (15-45) years; this preliminary study examined the phytochemical constituents and antimycobacterial effect of four (4) aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the fruit skin (epicarp) and leaf of Annona muricata Linn. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Confirmation of silent mutations in the rpoB gene locus of M. tuberculosis isolates using pyrosequencing and phenotypic DST

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: More than 95% cases of rifampicin resistance in M.tuberculosis strains can be attributed to mutations in 81-bp hotspot region of rpoB gene locus called Rifampicin Resistance Determining Region. These mutations can be detected by rapid molecular diagnostic techniques such as Line Probe Assay (LPA), but detection of silent mutations on LPA may not necessarily confer rifampicin resistance and result in false rifampicin resistance reporting. These silent mutations can be confirmed by phenotypic Drug Sensitivity Testing (DST) and/or by DNA sequencing. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Analysis on direct medical costs and compensation for whole course of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Shanghai

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: To describe the overall direct medical costs and the compensation from health insurance systems and the TB control projects, and analyze the economic burden for the whole course of treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients in Shanghai. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Mycobacterium tuberculosis acetyltransferase reduces the oxidative stress response through expression of peroxisomal membrane transporter protein

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) survives inside the macrophages by manipulating the host immune responses. Mtb cell-wall associated glycoproteins play an important role in initiation of host-pathogen interactions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Cholecalciferol adjunctive therapy in active tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Vitamin D enhances immune responses to tubercle bacillus. The aim of our study was to demonstrate whether or not use of cholecalciferol as supplement to patients with TB may be improved clinical outcome. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in clinical specimens of HIV-infected patients at Instituto de Infectologia Emilio Ribas, São Paulo-Brazil

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the most common infection among HIV patients. Currently, the TB diagnosis is still based on the clinical presentation, radiographic findings and microbiological results. Considering the complexities of treating HIV/TB co-infection,TB diagnosis requires the availability of diagnostic tools that allow the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) and drug resistance in clinical samples. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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GeneXpert detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum collected and transported in a molecular transport medium

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The Cepheid GeneXpert (Xpert) System is a WHO-endorsed, widely utilized molecular diagnostic platform for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampin (RIF) detection. In spite of global success, several challenges remain, especially the need for safe, cost-effective transport/shipping, and improved MTB detection sensitivity. PrimeStore Molecular Transport Medium® (PS-MTM) was developed for specimen inactivation and DNA/RNA stabilization at ambient temperature for downstream molecular applications. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Real-time PCR of whole blood specimens transported in PrimeStore MTM® to detect and monitor MTB bacteremia

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is an important cause of bacteremia and sepsis in HIV patients residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Many patients with MTB sepsis go undiagnosed and die within 18 days of presentation, making culture inadequate for detecting MTB in the blood. Objective: To determine the feasibility of ambient temperature transport of blood in PrimeStore MTM® to a distant lab for real-time PCR detection of MTB bacteremia and to monitor clearance of MTB from the blood after therapy. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Intranasal delivery of antituberculosis agents in a murine tuberculosis model

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The use of aerosol delivery of antimycobacterial agents for the therapy of tuberculosis in mice has not been well studied. Aerosol therapy in mice is problematic due to the high cost of the required apparatus. The purpose of this study was to explore the efficacy of intranasal (IN) administration (as a surrogate for aerosol delivery) of isoniazid (INH) and rifalazil (RZL) in a murine tuberculosis model compared to oral delivery. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Role of PCR for diagnosing male genital tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Background: Diagnosis of male genital tuberculosis is difficult because clinical features and imaging findings are non-specific and conventional laboratory methods are time-consuming and almost non-contributory. It is important to have the diagnostic method that has high sensitivity and specificity. Hence, this study was done to see the utility of tissue and semen PCR in diagnosis of male genital tuberculosis and its comparison with histopathological examination (HPE). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Hospital based prospective observational case study to evaluate the prevalance of diabetes mellitus among tuberculosis patients in a tertiary care hospital, in India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is recognised as an important risk factor to tuberculosis (TB). India has high TB burden, along with rising DM prevalence. The recent change in life style of people of India and westernization of food habits has contributed much to make India the diabetes capital of world. Rapid urbanization has resulted in crowding of cities and has led to rapid spread of infections. So in a majorly immunocompromised India because of DM, TB is a common infectious disease. Thus DM and TB affect each other. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of Xpert MTB/RIF identified rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Little is known on prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) in Bukavu. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Pharmacists contributing to the WHO Stop TB theme: “Find, Treat, Cure Everyone”

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Community Pharmacists, being first point of contact for people with symptoms are in the suitable position to detect the chest symptomatic cases. Since couple of years, pharmacists are being trained by Indian Pharmaceutical Association (IPA) jointly with Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) and with support of Lilly MDR TB Partnership. IPA has been working in state of Maharashtra in various districts as well as spreading this work to other states namely Madhya Pradesh, Goa, Tamilnadu and Gujarat. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Clinical profile and evaluation of diagnostic tests in culture positive childhood tuberculosis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) ranks among the ten major causes of mortality among children. The diagnosis of childhood TB remains quite challenging. Mycobacterial culture is the gold standard in diagnosis; however, positive cultures are seen only in 50%. The aim was to study the clinical profile and sensitivity of other diagnostic tests in culture-proven tuberculosis in children. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



New antibacterial agents targeting mycobacterial the ATP synthase

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: A set of 700 compounds found active after the whole cell screening of 20,000 compounds library against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was screened in the ATP synthase assay. Three compounds showed promising IC50 and were further evaluated in the time kill assay and combination studies with first line anti-TB drugs against M tuberculosis H37Rv. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against HepG-2 cell lines (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Early cardiac safety of the 9-11 month Short course regimen for MDR-TB treatment

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Only 48% of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) patients worldwide receive successful outcomes. Shorter, more effective regimens are required. The cardiac safety of the 9-11 month “Bangladesh regimen” has been largely unstudied. The regimen was piloted in Uzbekistan and as per WHO recommendations, electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring was performed in the early phase of treatment. We aim, in this interim analysis, to describe the early cardiac safety of this regimen. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Seventeen years of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Argentinian children

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt) that are resistant to antimycobacterial agents (DR-TB) is a worldwide problem of which the magnitude has not been well described specially in pediatric patients. TB susceptibility surveillance and risk factors for DR-TB are important issues to consider at the moment of pediatric TB treatment. OBJECTIVE: To asses the prevalence of DR- TB in children, and identify clinical features, risk factors, and outcome of pediatric patients with DR-TB. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Predictors of adherence to isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV patients in Ethiopia: A prospective cohort study

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study aimed to identify predictors of HIV patients’ adherence to IPT. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Association between BCG scars and risk of tuberculosis transmission among household contacts of active tuberculosis patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Recognized risk factors do not explain the full variability of transmission for tuberculosis. Analyses of other host and environmental risk factors are required, including the bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, whose effect for tuberculosis transmission is currently understood to be limited. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Association of interleukin-18 gene polymorphism with susceptibility to visceral leishmaniasis in endemic area of Bihar, an Indian population

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Interleukin 18 (IL-18) is a cytokine that mediates Th1 response by inducing interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) production in T cells and natural killer cells. Genetic polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene have been found to be associated with its expression in cancer, tuberculosis, HBV infection and various other diseases. Lower plasma level of IL-18 in visceral leishmaniasis patients might be associated with polymorphisms in the coding gene. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



TB outbreak investigation in a faith based boarding school: Challenges and control measures

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis burden in UK is unacceptably high compared to similar countries. TB outbreaks in schools are extremely complex and present public health challenges. 7 cases of TB were notified at a faith based female boarding school in a UK city over 5 years. We aim to describe this challenging outbreak investigation. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Quantifying tuberculosis burden and underrepresentation in Malaysia, 1990-2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis continues to be the leading infectious disease threat in Malaysia. With recent spikes of burden following the newly intensified case finding programme introduced since year 2011 we estimated how much the national data reflected the actual burden hence objectively quantified the underrepresentation by using mathematical modelling technique. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Accuracy of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay compared to the “gold standard” AFB culture in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in children in India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study assessed the performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay against the AFB culture and clinical case definitions of intrathoracic and extrathoracic tuberculosis(TB), and against type of specimen tested. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Is the QuantiFERON-TB Gold test (QFT) better than the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in diagnosing active and latent tuberculosis in BCG-vaccinated children?

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

This study was done to compare the QFT and TST in the diagnosis of active and latent TB in predominantly BCG-vaccinated children. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Utility of the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube test (QFT) compared with the Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) in diagnosing tuberculosis in Indian children with malnutrition: A prospective study

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Interferon-gamma release assays like the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-tube test(QFT) that measure immune response to M.tuberculosis antigens have advantages over the traditional tuberculin skin test(TST) that gives false-positive results in BCG-vaccinated children due to common antigens in BCG and tuberculin, and false-negative results in malnourished children due to anergy. This prospective study was done to compare the efficacy of the QFT versus the TST in diagnosing tuberculosis(TB) in children with a high incidence of malnutrition. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Mixed infection of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in domestic livestock species of North India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Bovine tuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium bovis) and paratuberculosis (caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis) are most significant mycobacterial diseases of animals; causing huge economic losses to livestock production and also have significant impact to human health, worldwide. In India, limited information is available about the status of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in domestic livestock species. Present study was aimed to investigate the status of mixed infection of bovine tuberculosis and paratuberculosis in domestic livestock species of North India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Cross-species transmission of mycobacterium tuberculosis in mahouts and captive elephants: Implications to health policy

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: There are nearly a thousand captive Asian elephants and not less than 3,000 mahouts in southern India. In the hands-on and open systems of captive elephant management, diseased mahouts and captive elephants could present the risk of cross-species tuberculosis transmission. With the help of evidence based results, we intend to formulate specific policy guidelines, which can suggest locally relevant preventive and control measures to help mitigate the risk of cross-species infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The serum Th1 and Th2 cytokines levels in active tuberculosis patients before and after 2 month anti-TB treatment

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health burden in China. It is generally thought that while B cell- and antibody-mediated immunity plays an important role in host defense against extracellular pathogens. Given the role of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in providing protection against TB, this study aims to investigate the levels, impact factors and variations of T helper 1 (Th1) (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL)-2), and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) cytokines in pulmonary TB patients before and the end of 2 month anti-TB treatment. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Latent tuberculosis infection among close contacts of non-residential pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Shanghai, China

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

This study aimed to understand the prevalence of LTBI in close contacts of non-residential PTB patients, and to identify the risk factors associated with LTBI in Shanghai. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Knowledge of health care workers on TB and DOTS strategy in PHC facilities in Katsina State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis kills millions of people around the world, and also it threatens the livelihoods of families and communities worldwide with developing countries the hardest hit where 95% of all new TB cases and 99% of deaths occur. A critical strategy for successful TB control is the prompt, appropriate and complete treatment of all patients diagnosed with active disease. This cannot be achieved if health care workers’ knowledge of the disease is deficient or national treatment protocols are not followed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Patients satisfaction with TB DOTS services in PHC facilities in Katsina State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

This study demonstrates the perception of patients utilizing DOTS services in primary health care facilities in Katsina state and how it relates to their level of satisfaction. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Biological evaluation of a novel nitroimidazooxazole derivative, IIIM-MCD-019 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its in vivo efficacy

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: One of the nitroimidazo-oxazole derivatives, IIIM-MCD-019 discovered in-house was assessed for detailed biological activities against various strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Further, in-vitro studies such as synergistic activity, intracellular MIC, time kill kinetics, cell cytotoxicity, microsomal stability and pharmacokinetics were performed. In-vivo efficacy of the compound was tested alone and in combination. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Diagnosis of human tuberculosis: identification of new biomarker(s) and biosignature(s)

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Globally, human tuberculosis (TB), continues to be one of the deadliest public health problem, despite some recent ground success. According to Global TB Report 2014 World over, TB is showing a gradual declining trend, and during the period 2000 to 2013, an estimated 37 million lives were saved largely due to improvements in its diagnosis and treatment. Nevertheless, because deaths due to TB are considered preventable, it is only necessary that work must continue to further improve on both these fronts. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Interleukin-6: a potential biomarker of the success of tuberculosis treatment

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: The present measure of the success of TB treatment is fraught with problems. A cytokine biomarker(s), a qualitative and quantitative reflection of the treatment success, is thus warranted. Because TB treatment is expected to affect macrophage and mycobacteria interactions and, consequently cytokine(s) elaboration, a biomarker(s) seems crucial to assess its success. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular characterization of mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated in India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

In this study we executed genotyping of M. tuberculosis complex clinical isolates from different geographical regions of India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Prevalence and predictors of tuberculosis among adults with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection not only presents a challenge in diagnosis and therapy but also constitutes a high burden on healthcare systems. A survey was designed to study the prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculosis among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) for the detection and differentiation of mycobacterium tuberculosis and NTM in sputum and culture

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Early detection and differentiation between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the atypical Mycobacteria play an important role in the treatment and management of patients. We have recently developed ID-FISH Mycobacterium genus specific and MTB complex specific Combo Test Kit (M-genus-TB kit) that detects viable Mycobacteria and differentiates MTB complex from NTM on a single smear using Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH) technique. The test can be performed on processed sputum samples, liquid cultures, and solid cultures. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Ocular tuberculosis masquerading as retinoblastoma in a young boy

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

We report a case of intra ocular tuberculosis in a young boy who presented with ocular discomfort and blurring of vision and was diagnosed as retinoblastoma preoperatively. Child underwent enucleation and a diagnosis of tuberculosis was made postoperatively. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Diagnostic performance of RT-qPCR method by targeting 85B mRNA in the laboratory diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection: A preliminary study in Turkish patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

In this study, we used the mRNA coding for 85B antigen complex which is present in all mycobacteria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Uniting to end TB in England

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Public Health England (PHE) is celebrating the strong progress in implementing the national strategy to eradicate tuberculosis (TB) from England. (Source: NHS Networks)



Number of U.S. tuberculosis cases increased in 2015

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 21:22:58 +0100

For the first time in 20 years, incidence of tuberculosis in the United States increased slightly in 2015, according to investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. In 2015,... (Source: Internal Medicine News)

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Vietnam’s Battle With Tuberculosis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 20:29:59 +0100

A country’s stunning progress against tuberculosis may be threatened by reduced support for a health care system stretched thin. (Source: NYT Health)



Urine-Based Assay Cuts Mortality in African Trial of HIV-TBUrine-Based Assay Cuts Mortality in African Trial of HIV-TB

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:39:01 +0100

A commercially available urine-based assay reduced eight-week mortality among inpatients with HIV and suspected tuberculosis (TB) in a randomized clinical trial involving 10 hospitals in Africa. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)



Fri-04 genitourinary tuberculosis: from mummies to modern day

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:11 +0100

Tuberculosis (TB) affects one-third of the world population, with genitourinary manifestations occurring in an estimated 4-20 percent of individuals with a pulmonary infection. Involvement of the genitourinary tract accounts for 40 percent of extra-pulmonary TB cases, second only to lymph node involvement. Given the ancient history of tuberculosis dating as far back as 9,000 BC, genitourinary manifestations of TB have invariably been present for thousands of years prior to G. L. Bayle first classic description in 1810. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-02 pcr in genito urinary tuberculosis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

The detection of bacterial genome has gained enormous importance over the last decade in the diagnosis and management of mycobacterial infections. It is opined that the high sensitivity of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is particularly useful in paucibacillary situations like genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB). We performed a prospective study to evaluate the role of PCR in the detection of mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) in patients with clinically suspected GUTB and compared its sensitivity and specificity with histopathology and culture. (Source: The Journal of Urology)