Subscribe: MedWorm: Smallpox
http://www.medworm.com/rss/medicalfeeds/infectiousdiseases/Smallpox.xml
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
Tags:
disease  diseases  health  infectious  january sales  message directory  smallpox vaccine  smallpox  source  vaccination  vaccine  virus 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: MedWorm: Smallpox

MedWorm: Smallpox



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Smallpox category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:30:22 +0100

 



This Disease Can Still Get You Quarantined For Months -- And It's On The Rise

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 17:08:03 +0100

In August 2014, Kate O’Brien, a 34-year-old media producer from Brooklyn, found out she was expecting her second child. She was ecstatic. But this pregnancy didn't proceed like the first. For the next few months, O'Brien had a cold she couldn't shake. She woke up in the middle of the night drenched in sweat. She wanted to blame it on her pregnancy, yet she kept losing weight. She could barely eat. She coughed up balls of bloody mucus. Her throat burned. None of her doctors could figure out what was wrong. A physician sent her to Mount Sinai West Hospital in Manhattan in January 2015, when, at five months pregnant, she still couldn't gain any weight. "No one likes a skinny pregnant lady," she said. O'Brien expected to stay at the hospital overnight. She didn’t get a chance to sa...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




He Looks At Tuberculosis Death Toll And Wonders Why You're Not Worried

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:00:22 +0100

Aaron Motsoaledi is tired of delivering the same spiel over and over again. No matter how many times the charismatic health minister of South Africa speaks out, people don’t seem to grasp the threat presented by tuberculosis, now the No. 1 infectious killer in the world. “People think it’s a curable disease that’s been there for ages, so what’s new? I think that’s the mentality,” Dr. Motsoaledi told The Huffington Post. As chair of the Stop TB Partnership, a group of public and private leaders hosted through the United Nations Office for Project Service, he has seen the eyes of bureaucrats around the world glaze over when he brings up TB. And yet 4,100 people die every day from the disease. His own country is one of the hardest hit. Motsoaledi...



Use of Vaccinia Virus Smallpox Vaccine in Laboratory and Health Care Personnel at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses - Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2015.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 02:32:01 +0100

Authors: Petersen BW, Harms TJ, Reynolds MG, Harrison LH Abstract On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e.g., monkeypox, cowpox, and variola) (recommendation category: A, evidence type 2 [Box]). Health care personnel (e.g., physicians and nurses) who currently treat or anticipate treating patients with vac...






CDC Publishes Smallpox Vaccine Recommendations (FREE)

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

By the Editors The CDC has published updated guidelines on using vaccinia … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)



Injection Site Lichenoid Dermatitis Following Pneumococcal Vaccination: Report and Review of Cutaneous Conditions Occurring at Vaccination Sites

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Dermatoses at the injection sites of vaccines can be granulomatous, immunity-related conditions, infections, lichenoid, neutrophilic, or pseudolymphomatous. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common vaccination site-associated malignancies; however, melanoma and sarcomas (dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma) are also smallpox vaccine-related site neoplasms. A cutaneous immunocompromised district that is created by vaccine-induced local immunologic changes is hypothesized to be the pathogenesis of vaccination site reactions. (Source: Dermatology and Therapy)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Toward High-Reliability Vaccination Efforts in the United States

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Infectious disease eradication is a major public health achievement. Smallpox is the only human infectious disease that has been eliminated by deliberate intervention, and this was accomplished using strategic global immunization efforts. The public generally understands that effective vaccination is a key component of infectious disease prevention and eradication; for example, there has been substantial recent public interest in vaccination for emerging global health threats such as avian influenza, Ebola, and Zika virus. (Source: JAMA)



An inquiry into the causes and effects of the variolae (or Cow‐pox. 1798)

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Few papers have had a greater impact on the health of the human species than the simple, yet elegant, observations and clinical trials of Edward Jenner with what was at the time called the Cow Pox. In fact, this was a naturally attenuated rodent (probably rat) pox that could infect horses and, through farriers and farm hands, dairy cattle. While commonly called the Cow Pox at the time, Jenner's transmission studies between humans used infectious materials from horses. His methods provided protection from the serious effects of smallpox infections. In 1977, smallpox was considered to be eradicated, although people continue to be infected by pox viruses from other mammalian species. We consider this to be our ‘favorite historical paper’ because it emphasizes careful clinical obs...



'Collapse' simulator reveals how YOU could cause the end of the world

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 17:00:15 +0100

Players of the simulator type in their postcode to become 'patient zero' and spread smallpox through their neighbourhood such as in London, for example. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



The Development of Surveillance Systems

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infecti...



From Smallpox to Big Data: The Next 100 Years of Epidemiologic Methods

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

For more than a century, epidemiology has seen major shifts in both focus and methodology. Taking into consideration the explosion of "big data," the advent of more sophisticated data collection and analytical tools, and the increased interest in evidence-based solutions, we present a framework that summarizes 3 fundamental domains of epidemiologic methods that are relevant for the understanding of both historical contributions and future directions in public health. First, the manner in which populations and their follow-up are defined is expanding, with greater interest in online populations whose definition does not fit the usual classification by person, place, and time. Second, traditional data collection methods, such as population-based surveillance and individual interviews, have b...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




The Development of Surveillance Systems.

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Henderson DA Abstract Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health me...



LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papill...



Role of Adenovirus Species and Type on Virologic Response to Brincidofovir

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 10:35:25 +0100

Human adenoviruses (AdVs) are nonenveloped, double-stranded DNA viruses, divided into seven major species based on clinical, virologic, and DNA sequence properties. Species are designated A through G, with >60 distinct types, e.g., AdV species C type 5, or AdV-C5. Although normally associated with mild symptoms in otherwise healthy individuals, AdV infection can be life threatening in immunocompromised patients, especially children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Brincidofovir (BCV) is in development for the prevention of cytomegalovirus, the treatment of AdV in allogeneic HCT recipients, and the treatment of smallpox. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)



Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:23:02 +0100

Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled t...



Systems biology informs vaccine immunogenicity [Immunology and Inflammation]

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Vaccines are the most efficient way to control and eradicate infectious diseases. The smallpox vaccine has led to the eradication of variola virus, which has been the cause of a high number of human casualties for many years in the not so distant past. Other viral vaccines that have not... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




WHO Director-General launches the European Medical Corps

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 10:00:00 +0100

When I was a young medical doctor I used to deliver babies. The baby we are delivering today is a very healthy baby. The response to the Ebola outbreak in West Africa has likely been the most intense logistical operation against an infectious disease since smallpox was pushed down to its last case in the Horn of Africa in 1979. (Source: WHO Director-General speeches)



‘Til Poison Phosphorous Brought them Death’: A potentially occupationally-related disease in a post-medieval skeleton from north-east England.

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:International Journal of Paleopathology, Volume 13 Author(s): Charlotte A. Roberts, Anwen Caffell, Kori L. Filipek-Ogden, Rebecca Gowland, Tina Jakob This paper describes the pathological changes observed on the skeleton of a c.12–14 year old person buried in a north-east England Quaker cemetery dated to AD 1711–1857. Bone formation (woven and lamellar) and destruction are present mainly on the mandible, clavicles, sternum and scapulae, long bones of the right arm, left ribs, spine, ilia, and the femora and tibiae. Differential diagnoses of tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases, smallpox, actinomycosis, neoplastic disease, and “phossy jaw” are considered. While the pathological changes could represent all previously described diseases a...



John Fewster and smallpox vaccination--author's reply.

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:53:02 +0100

Authors: Thurston L, Williams G PMID: 26827388 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh)



John Fewster and smallpox vaccination.

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:53:02 +0100

Authors: Boylston AW PMID: 26827387 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh)



A generalized-growth model to characterize the early ascending phase of infectious disease outbreaks

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Our findings reveal significant variation in epidemic growth patterns across different infectious disease outbreaks and highlights that sub-exponential growth is a common phenomenon, especially for pathogens that are not airborne. Sub-exponential growth profiles may result from heterogeneity in contact structures or risk groups, reactive behavior changes, or the early onset of interventions strategies, and consideration of “deceleration parameters” may be useful to refine existing mathematical transmission models and improve disease forecasts. (Source: Epidemics)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




In this issue

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Immunology 16, 69 (2016). doi:10.1038/nri.2016.11 When Edward Jenner introduced vaccination against smallpox in 1796 — which led ultimately to the worldwide eradication of the disease by 1979 — he understood almost nothing about the immune mechanisms responsible for the health benefits. We now know that vaccination, which has revolutionized modern (Source: Nature Reviews Immunology)



Thymic stromal lymphopoietin and IL-33 promote skin inflammation and vaccinia virus replication in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Eczema vaccinatum (EV) is a life-threatening complication of exposure to smallpox vaccination in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) characterized by dissemination of vaccinia virus (VV) in the skin and internal organs.1 We have shown that BALB/c mice inoculated with VV at sites of allergic skin inflammation elicited by epicutaneous sensitization with ovalbumin (OVA) exhibit features of EV.2 They include satellite lesions and VV dissemination to internal organs. EV features were absent in mice inoculated with VV in control skin epicutaneously sensitized with saline, suggesting that allergic skin inflammation predisposes to VV dissemination,2 which is consistent with the known role of the TH2 cytokine IL-4 in promoting VV dissemination. (Source: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology...



Position on reproductive donors and smallpox vaccine: a committee opinion

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Although there is presently no definitive evidence linking vaccinia virus transmission through reproductive cells, the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology (SART) and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) accordingly recommend that assisted reproductive technology (ART) practitioners consider deferring individuals who are planning on donating gametes for reproductive use (reproductive donors) who have recently received smallpox vaccine or contracted symptomatic vaccinia virus infection through close contact with a vaccine recipient (until after the vaccine or infectious scab has spontaneously separated). (Source: Fertility and Sterility)



Immunomodulating Drugs Based on Poxviral Proteins

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract An unusually high production of cytokines or chemokines as well as increased complement activation can drive development of chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases. State-of-the-art biological therapies, recombinant receptors, or specific antibodies that target immune and inflammatory mediators are now effectively used. However, these newer drugs are not equally effective for all patients and can cause adverse effects, making the search for new immunomodulatory proteins of great importance. The poxviruses—first and foremost, the variola (smallpox) virus, which is highly pathogenic in man—code for numerous highly evolved and extraordinarily effective immunomodulatory proteins that bind cytokines, chemokines, and proteins of the complement system. The discovery of ...



[Editorial] Guinea worm disease nears eradication

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 06:20:07 +0100

Only two infectious diseases have ever been eradicated: smallpox, of which the last naturally transmitted case occurred in 1977, and rinderpest, a disease of cattle and related ungulates, officially declared eradicated in 2011. This year might see a remarkable doubling in the list of eradicated diseases, with both polio (about which we wrote in the August, 2015, issue) and guinea worm no longer being naturally transmitted. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




The Pathogenesis and Immunobiology of Mousepox.

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 12:15:02 +0100

Authors: Sigal LJ Abstract Ectromelia virus is a mouse-specific orthopoxvirus that, following footpad infection or natural transmission, causes mousepox in most strains of mice, while a few strains, such as C57BL/6, are resistant to the disease but not to the infection. Mousepox is an acute, systemic, highly lethal disease of remarkable semblance to smallpox, caused by the human-specific variola virus. Starting in 1929 with its discovery by Marchal, work with ECTV has provided essential information for our current understanding on how viruses spread lympho-hematogenously, the genetic control of antiviral resistance, the role of different components of the innate and adaptive immune system in the control of primary and secondary infections with acute viruses, and how the mechanisms ...



A lack of Fas/FasL signalling leads to disturbances in the antiviral response during ectromelia virus infection

Mon, 18 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, our results demonstrate that during ECTV infection, Fas/FasL can regulate development of tolerogenic DCs and Tregs, leading to an ineffective immune response. (Source: Archives of Virology)



Why Curing Cancer Is Not a ‘Moonshot’

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 17:10:24 +0100

Here are some things that have been compared to moonshots: Google Books, nuclear fusion, Google Glass, artificial brains, drone delivery, getting from New York to London in one hour, a really big home run. Here are some things that actually are moonshots: going to the moon. Of all of the metaphors that have gotten shiny at the elbows, it’s the beleaguered “moonshot” that may be the worst. President Obama rolled it out again during his final State of the Union address when, expressing a desire to cure cancer once and for all, he called for a moonshot to get the job done. The audience applauded as audiences always do at moonshots, and it’s hard not to. The term evokes one of America’s finest and boldest moments, when the Soviet Union beat us into space with Sput...



An Inquiry into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae (or Cow‐Pox. 1798)

Wed, 06 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Experimental Dermatology)



Gleditsia species: An ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological review

Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions On the basis of preliminary research on Gleditsia genus it could be stated that saponins investigations may be more promising in future. Although 32 compounds of 67 identified compounds were saponins, modern pharmacological research on saponins were not a priority in Gleditsia species. Therefore, more bioactive experiments and in-depth mechanisms of action are required for elucidating their roles in physiological systems. Moreover, the present review also highlights that analgesic, anti-tumor and anti-HIV activities should have priority in saponins research. Additionally, it is imperative to explore more structure–activity relationships and possible synergistic actions of triterpenoid saponins for revaluating their pharmacological activities. Graphical abstract (Source: Journ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Scientists learn how poxviruses defeat the body's host defense

Thu, 10 Dec 2015 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio) Research shows how smallpox, a feared bioterrorism agent, and other poxviruses overcome the defenses of their hosts. Implications extend to cancer therapy, said a senior author of the work, conducted at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)



Lessons from a modern review of the smallpox eradication files

Thu, 10 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: JRSM)



Smallpox, Anthrax, and the Historiography of Cutaneous Diseases

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The eradication of smallpox is one of the great success stories of modern medicine. As the clinical memory of smallpox fades from the imagination of both the public mind and the medical community, it is helpful to recall that in many ways even its distant past remains shrouded in mystery. (Source: JAMA Dermatology)



An examination of John Fewster's role in the discovery of smallpox vaccination.

Mon, 30 Nov 2015 21:38:02 +0100

Authors: Thurston L, Williams G Abstract Edward Jenner is recognised today as the father of vaccination but, as this paper explores, he was not the only Gloucestershire doctor to be linked to this discovery. John Fewster, a local surgeon and apothecary, is also said to have experimented with vaccination, many years before Jenner. This claim is made in a letter addressed to John Coakley Lettsom, written by John Player, a Quaker farmer. Player describes in detail Fewster's realisation that cowpox could be used to protect against smallpox. This letter is frequently cited but has not previously been subjected to critical analysis. We have identified several inconsistencies, including conflicting dates and a possible ulterior motive in that Player's son was to marry Fewster's daughter. ...



Viral Skin Diseases.

Mon, 30 Nov 2015 02:50:19 +0100

Authors: Ramdass P, Mullick S, Farber HF Abstract In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. PMID: 26612372 [PubMed - in process...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




EPIPOX: Immunoinformatic Characterization of the Shared T-Cell Epitome between Variola Virus and Related Pathogenic Orthopoxviruses.

Sun, 29 Nov 2015 04:28:02 +0100

Authors: Molero-Abraham M, Glutting JP, Flower DR, Lafuente EM, Reche PA Abstract Concerns that variola viruses might be used as bioweapons have renewed the interest in developing new and safer smallpox vaccines. Variola virus genomes are now widely available, allowing computational characterization of the entire T-cell epitome and the use of such information to develop safe and yet effective vaccines. To this end, we identified 124 proteins shared between various species of pathogenic orthopoxviruses including variola minor and major, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, and we targeted them for T-cell epitope prediction. We recognized 8,106, and 8,483 unique class I and class II MHC-restricted T-cell epitopes that are shared by all mentioned orthopoxviruses. Subsequently, we ...



Viral Skin Diseases

Wed, 25 Nov 2015 03:18:43 +0100

In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. (Source: Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice)



Identifying and Reducing Remaining Stocks of Rinderpest Virus.

Sun, 22 Nov 2015 13:16:18 +0100

Authors: Hamilton K, Visser D, Evans B, Vallat B Abstract In 2011, the world was declared free from rinderpest, one of the most feared and devastating infectious diseases of animals. Rinderpest is the second infectious disease, after smallpox, to have been eradicated. However, potentially infectious rinderpest virus material remains widely disseminated among research and diagnostic facilities across the world and poses a risk for disease recurrence should it be released. Member Countries of the World Organisation for Animal Health and the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations are committed to destroying remaining stocks of infectious material or ensuring that it is stored under international supervision in a limited number of approved facilities. To facilitate th...



Modernizing stockpiles of medical countermeasures against smallpox: Benefits, risks, and knowledge gaps.

Sat, 21 Nov 2015 07:44:06 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the very low likelihood for a smallpox outbreak, the potentially large consequences combined with the protective effect of vaccination make maintenance of the smallpox vaccine stockpile justified and valuable. For vaccination in the face of a smallpox outbreak, a high efficacy rather than a lowered rate of adverse effects would maximize the number of lives saved. PMID: 26312493 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Disaster Medicine)



Happy Birthday to Michael Collins, a Poet Among the Astronauts

Fri, 30 Oct 2015 14:20:31 +0100

If an uninteresting word ever passed Michael Collins’ lips, no one was ever around to hear it. That’s saying something because Collins, who turns 85 on October 31, was a NASA astronaut—part of the third group of spacemen selected for the program, in 1963—and astronauts were not known for their lyricism. They were test pilots, engineers, military men, and for them, poetry was not remotely part of the mission. Now and again one of them would be pressed for something lyrical, as was Neil Armstrong, Collins’ commander on the Apollo 11 mission. Apollo 11 was the first lunar landing and Armstrong would be the first down the ladder and onto the moon, so the words he’d use to mark the moment were a matter of much speculation. Armstrong did a serviceable job with...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




White House Issues Recommendations on Improving Biosafety at Federal Labs

Fri, 30 Oct 2015 14:00:00 +0100

Incidents with dangerous pathogens such as anthrax, bird flu and smallpox prompted calls for greater transparency and accountability  -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com (Source: Scientific American - Official RSS Feed)



[Obituary] J Donald Millar

Fri, 30 Oct 2015 12:00:21 +0100

Physician and epidemiologist who led smallpox eradication efforts in Africa. Born on Feb 27, 1934, in Newport News, VA, USA, he died from kidney failure on Aug 30, 2015, at his home in Murrayville, GA, USA, age 81 years. (Source: LANCET)



Further Assessment of Monkeypox Virus Infection in Gambian Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) Using In Vivo Bioluminescent Imaging

Fri, 30 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Elizabeth A. Falendysz, Juan G. Lopera, Faye Lorenzsonn, Johanna S. Salzer, Christina L. Hutson, Jeffrey Doty, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Darin S. Carroll, Jorge E. Osorio, Tonie E. Rocke Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods. We inoculated three...



White House issues report on improving biosafety at federal labs

Thu, 29 Oct 2015 23:45:25 +0100

CHICAGO (Reuters) - The White House issued a 187-page report on Thursday designed to improve biosafety following a series of safety breaches at federal laboratories charged with handling dangerous pathogens such as anthrax, bird flu and smallpox. (Source: Reuters: Health)



Introduction.

Tue, 13 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Saijo M Abstract The Japanese Society for Vaccinology (JSV) is an academic organization with approximately 1000 members, who work to combat infectious disease outbreak, to develop vaccines, to look into the basic fundamentals of vaccinology, immunology, and infectious diseases, to clarify the epidemiology, and to produce vaccines. JSV has been established in 1997. Although JSV is still young scientific community in the field of a broad-range vaccinology in Japan, we believe that Japanese scientists in the field of vaccinology have contributed to combating or managing the infectious diseases and promotion of the basic research in vaccinology. Prof. M. Takahashi developed a highly attenuated varicella vaccine in the 1970s. Prof. S. Hashizume developed a highly attenuated sma...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Binding-Induced DNA Nanomachines Triggered by Proteins and Nucleic Acids.

Mon, 12 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhang H, Lai M, Zuehlke A, Peng H, Li XF, Le XC Abstract We introduce the concept and operation of a binding-induced DNA nanomachine that can be activated by proteins and nucleic acids. This new type of nanomachine harnesses specific target binding to trigger assembly of separate DNA components that are otherwise unable to spontaneously assemble. Three-dimensional DNA tracks of high density are constructed on gold nanoparticles functionalized with hundreds of single-stranded oligonucleotides and tens of an affinity ligand. A DNA swing arm, free in solution, is linked to a second affinity ligand. Binding of a target molecule to the two ligands brings the swing arm to AuNP and initiates autonomous, stepwise movement of the swing arm around the AuNP surface. The movement of t...



Freeze-dried live attenuated smallpox vaccine prepared in cell culture "LC16-KAKETSUKEN": Post-marketing surveillance study on safety and efficacy compliant with Good Clinical Practice.

Thu, 08 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The present post-marketing surveillance study compliant with Good Clinical Practice demonstrated the efficacy and safety of the smallpox vaccine LC16-KAKETSUKEN in an adult population. LC16-KAKETSUKEN is the sole currently available licensed smallpox vaccine for both adult and pediatric populations. PMID: 26455406 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



Biopower, Normalization, and HPV: A Foucauldian Analysis of the HPV Vaccine Controversy

Tue, 06 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article utilizes the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization to give an analysis of the debate surrounding the controversial administration of the HPV vaccine to adolescents. My intention is not to solve the problem, rather to utilize a Foucauldian framework to bring various facets of the issue to light, specifically the way the vaccine contributes to strategies of power in reference to how young adults develop within relationships of power. To begin, the article provides an overview of the Foucauldian concepts of biopower and normalization, including how these two strategies of power were present in the administration of the smallpox vaccine in the 19th century. Next, information about HPV and the history of the current controversy in the United States is presented. Lastly...



From Smallpox to Big Data: The Next 100 Years of Epidemiologic Methods.

Tue, 06 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Gange SJ, Golub ET Abstract For more than a century, epidemiology has seen major shifts in both focus and methodology. Taking into consideration the explosion of "big data," the advent of more sophisticated data collection and analytical tools, and the increased interest in evidence-based solutions, we present a framework that summarizes 3 fundamental domains of epidemiologic methods that are relevant for the understanding of both historical contributions and future directions in public health. First, the manner in which populations and their follow-up are defined is expanding, with greater interest in online populations whose definition does not fit the usual classification by person, place, and time. Second, traditional data collection methods, such as population-based s...



Speaking Freely of Guns

Sun, 04 Oct 2015 15:19:58 +0100

I am about to speak freely of guns, because I can. When I do, many of you will no doubt be inclined to mutter "amen," quietly to yourselves. Others of you will no doubt feel compelled to throw up all over me, as you have done under similar circumstances before. I expect to hear preferentially from the latter group, because they seem perennially inclined to shout; but frankly, Scarlet, I don't give a damn. Whatever their current predilection for projectile vomiting, I was there first. I am sickened and disgusted by us. But first things first. Before speaking freely of guns, I am inclined to speak freely of speaking freely, again because I can. I can, because of the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. I think we should spend a little time there, before wading into weeds for the sake o...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Zeroing in on zoster: A tale of many disorders produced by one virus

Fri, 02 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

While herpes zoster infection has been recognized since antiquity, chickenpox (varicella) was confused with smallpox until the 1800s, when both illnesses became better understood. In the 20th century, varicella zoster virus (VZV) was shown to cause varicella upon primary (first-time) infection and herpes zoster (shingles) after reactivation of latent VZV. Scientific progress over the past 50 years has rapidly advanced the understanding and prevention of disease produced by VZV. Combined imaging and virological studies continue to reveal the protean neurological, ocular and visceral disorders produced by VZV. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)



Lessons from a modern review of the smallpox eradication files.

Fri, 02 Oct 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Metzger WG, Köhler C, Mordmüller B PMID: 26432815 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: J R Soc Med AND (has...)



---

Thu, 24 Sep 2015 20:57:00 +0100

OCTOBER FLU VACCINE CLINICS ARE NOW SCHEDULED.TO MAKE AN APPOINTMENT PLEASE CALL THE OFFICE AT                                                               630.717.2300-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Know how we like to buy fruit scented soaps so our kids will want to wash their hands?  It’s a great incentive especially if it gets them to do it without nagging!With these yummy smelling things comes the temptation for kids to eat it.  Poison control centers have seen a 400% increase to their call centers nationwide from children ingesting hand sanitizer, detergent or other che...



New clues on the history of the smallpox vaccine virus

Tue, 22 Sep 2015 21:06:48 +0100

Given the fear that the variola virus could be reintroduced to humans in weaponized form, new generations of smallpox vaccines are highly needed. A new study provides fresh insights on the relationship among the vaccinia strains used to eradicate smallpox in the world and indicates that differently than previously thought, the Dryvax virus that led to the second-generation of smallpox vaccine in the USA is closely related to the Brazilian strain and might as well have come from the French and not the British. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Need, Greed, and GMOs: Genuflection in All the Wrong Directions

Tue, 22 Sep 2015 20:12:25 +0100

Images of scientists inserting eye-of-newt genes into escarole, or wool-of-bat genes into watercress stalk the nightmares of pure food proponents, and up to a point-- rightly so. Even if the intentions of those tinkering with foods are good- such as putting antifreeze genes from amphibians into oranges so they are not destroyed by an early frost- the law of unintended consequences pertains. There is ample reason, in principle, to be wary of Frankenfoods. There may be reason in epidemiology as well. We are substantially uncertain about why rates of gluten intolerance and celiac disease are rising; genetic modification of food may be a factor. Some go so far as to declare modern wheat a 'poison,' lest sugar get all that negative attention. The hyperbole is unwarranted in both cases, but the...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




New clues on the history of the smallpox vaccine virus

Tue, 22 Sep 2015 04:00:00 +0100

(Publicase Comunicação Científica) Given the fear that the variola virus could be reintroduced to humans in weaponized form, new generations of smallpox vaccines are highly needed. A new study provides fresh insights on the relationship among the vaccinia strains used to eradicate smallpox in the world and indicates that differently than previously thought, the Dryvax virus that led to the second-generation of smallpox vaccine in the USA is closely related to the Brazilian strain and might as well have come from the French and not the British. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Dr. Carson and Dr. Paul: Pandering to Anti-Vaxxers?!? Really?!?

Fri, 18 Sep 2015 21:01:16 +0100

Being a pediatrician and a public health advocate, there were several things that bothered me about Wednesday night's "debate" about vaccines. Let's start with the first part of Jake Tapper's question: "Dr. Carson, Donald Trump has publicly and repeatedly linked vaccines, childhood vaccines, to autism, which, as you know, the medical community adamantly disputes." Mr. Tapper, there is no dispute. The medical community has repeatedly disproven any links between childhood vaccines and autism. We did our job. It's time to do yours as a journalist. The next part of your question to Dr. Carson, "Should Mr. Trump stop saying this?" is irrelevant: EVERYONE should stop saying vaccines and autism are linked. To his credit, Dr. Ben Carson, a pediatric neurosurgeon, meandered his way to a decent com...



Evaluating anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies in individuals from Brazilian rural areas prior to the bovine vaccinia era.

Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Figueiredo Pde O, Silva-Fernandes AT, Mota BE, Costa GB, Borges IA, Ferreira PC, Abrahão JS, Braga EM, Kroon EG, Trindade Gde S Abstract Vaccinia virus naturally circulates in Brazil and is the causative agent of a zoonotic disease known as bovine vaccinia (BV). We retrospectively evaluated two populations from the Amazon and Southeast Regions. BV outbreaks had not been reported in these regions before sample collection. Neutralising antibodies were found in 13 individuals (n = 132) with titres ranging from 100 ≥ 6,400 neutralising units/mL. Univariate analysis identified age and vaccination as statistically significant risk factors in individuals from the Southeast Region. The absence of detectable antibodies in vaccinated individuals raises questions about the protect...



The Tortoise and the Hare: Guinea Worm, Polio and the Race to Eradication

Mon, 31 Aug 2015 11:00:54 +0100

Introduction Smallpox is no longer with us. Rinderpest, a measles-like virus of cattle, was formally declared extinct in 2011.1 What other diseases might follow? This paper looks at some clear candidates that were due for eradication this year and explores the chances of success and remaining obstacles for guinea worm and polio. The race is on. The classic fable of Æsop is known almost universally by both children and adults. Somehow the tale of an overconfident hare losing a race to a much maligned and slower tortoise has entered our consciousness, although the exact moral lesson is ambiguous. Should we accept the conventional wisdom that ‘slow and steady wins the race’ or is the salient lesson one of not taking on a challenge when filled with hubris; or is it a cautionary tale abo...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




[Comment] Interim results from a phase 3 Ebola vaccine study in Guinea

Sat, 29 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In today's Lancet, Ana Maria Henao-Restrepo and an international collaboration that included WHO, Médecins Sans Frontières, Guinean authorities, and others report1 the interim results of the Ebola, ça Suffit (“Ebola, that's enough”) trial. This trial was done in Guinea and was designed to test the safety and efficacy of rVSV-ZEBOV, a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-vectored vaccine that expresses Zaire Ebola virus surface glycoprotein. The novel study design was based on the ring-vaccination strategy used in the final stages of the smallpox eradication campaign, ensuring that participants were at appreciable risk of Ebola virus infection even though the epidemic was beginning to wane. (Source: LANCET)



Recent advances in the study of live attenuated cell-cultured smallpox vaccine LC16m8.

Tue, 25 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Eto A, Saito T, Yokote H, Kurane I, Kanatani Y Abstract LC16m8 is a live, attenuated, cell-cultured smallpox vaccine that was developed and licensed in Japan in the 1970s, but was not used in the campaign to eradicate smallpox. In the early 2000s, the potential threat of bioterrorism led to reconsideration of the need for a smallpox vaccine. Subsequently, LC16m8 production was restarted in Japan in 2002, requiring re-evaluation of its safety and efficacy. Approximately 50,000 children in the 1970s and about 3500 healthy adults in the 2000s were vaccinated with LC16m8 in Japan, and 153 adults have been vaccinated with LC16m8 or Dryvax in phase I/II clinical trials in the USA. These studies confirmed the safety and efficacy of LC16m8, while several studies in animal models h...



Sex difference in immune response to vaccination: A participant-level meta-analysis of randomized trials of IMVAMUNE(®) smallpox vaccine.

Tue, 25 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Our results show statistically significant differences in response to IMVAMUNE comparing healthy, vaccinia-naïve men with women and suggest that sex should be considered in further development and deployment of IMVAMUNE and other MVA-based vaccines. PMID: 26319063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



Escape of pathogens from the host immune response by mutations and mimicry. Possible means to improve vaccine performance

Mon, 24 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

To date, no effective vaccine has been developed against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV 1), Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV) or Plasmodium falciparum. The vaccine strains of influenza A virus have to be changed yearly to protect against the ever evolving virus population. In contrast, vaccines against most other RNA viruses (poliovirus, measles virus, Hepatitis A and B viruses, smallpox virus, etc), which are based on strains used for decades, show no loss of efficacy. A high rate of genetic variation (mutations and recombinations) is generally suggested to account for the escape of certain pathogens from host immune response and to be the major obstacle to the development of effective vaccine [1]. (Source: Medical Hypotheses)



Jimmy Carter Wants To See The Last Guinea Worm Die Before He Does

Fri, 21 Aug 2015 18:43:45 +0100

When former President Jimmy Carter announced Thursday that his cancer had spread to his brain, he also revealed he had some unfinished business he wants to see through.  "I would like to see Guinea worm completely eradicated before I die," the philanthropist said. "I'd like for the last Guinea worm to die before I do." Carter went on to explain that there are currently only 11 cases of dracunculiasis, or guinea worm disease, in the world. That's a precipitous drop from 3.5 million cases across 21 countries in 1986, when he first set out to conquer the disease through his nonprofit organization the Carter Center.  Guinea worm disease is caused by a parasite that people ingest by drinking contaminated water. In the body, the resulting guinea worm can grow up to one meter&...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Myocarditis and the military patient

Thu, 20 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Myocarditis, simply defined as inflammation of the heart muscle, is a commonly encountered cardiac disease in primary and secondary care, both in the UK and on Operational deployments. In the UK Armed Forces, myocarditis results in deaths as well as the premature termination of military careers on medical grounds. The aetiology is usually the result of a number of infectious aetiologies with viruses being the most common pathogens in the vast majority of cases. However, it may also be the result of autoimmune activation, chemical or pharmacological toxins, environmental insult or hypersensitivity reactions. Particular aetiologies that are more likely to be seen in a military population are discussed and include certain infections, smallpox vaccine, and hyperthermia and hypothermia. The cli...



UCLA faculty voice: A win for vaccines, but worries remain

Fri, 07 Aug 2015 19:52:16 +0100

UCLA Dr. Nina Shapiro Dr. Nina Shapiro is director of pediatric otolaryngology (ear, nose and throat conditions) at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and a professor of head and neck surgery. This op-ed was published July 23 in the Wall Street Journal. In a growing number of states, parents can no longer refuse to immunize their children due to conflicting “personal beliefs” — at least not if they want their children to attend school. California recently joined West Virginia and Mississippi in requiring a medical exemption from a physician to permit a child to enter school without being immunized. Gov. Jerry Brown signed the controversial bill, SB277, last month. Most of us rejoice, yet there is still reason to worry that exemptions will proliferate along with preventabl...



Scientists hail '100% effective' Ebola vaccine

Mon, 03 Aug 2015 15:13:00 +0100

"Ebola vaccine is 'potential game-changer'," says BBC News, while the Daily Mail cites a "100% effective jab" for the disease. These headlines stem from early results of a trial investigating the effects of an Ebola vaccine during the most recent outbreak of the virus in west Africa.Researchers gave the Ebola virus vaccine to thousands of people in Guinea who'd had close contact with an infected individual – a process called "ring vaccination". Half the sample were given the vaccine immediately, while the other half were given the vaccine after a delay of three weeks.The early results, published in The Lancet and publicised by the World Health Organization (WHO), showed the vaccine had 100% effectiveness when given immediately. Nobody developed Ebola symptom...



Vaccinia virus strain LC16m8 defective in the B5R gene keeps strong protection comparable to its parental strain Lister in immunodeficient mice.

Sat, 01 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: LC16m8 with truncated B5 protein has an activity to induce immunity, such as innate immunity and subsequent cell-mediated and humoral immunity almost completely comparable to the activity of its parental strain Lister. PMID: 26241947 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



The Effect of Preventive Immunization on the Incidence of Allergic Conditions.

Sat, 01 Aug 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Dulny G, Sybilski AJ, Zalewska M, Raciborski F, Komorowski J, Piekarska B, Lipiec A, Samoliński B Abstract  The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of preventive immunization on the incidence of allergies in Poland.18617 (53.8% female, 24.2% 6-7 years old, 25.4% 13-14 years old, 50.4% 20-44 years old) were selected by stratified cluster sampling method in 8 cities and 1 rural area. 4783 of whom underwent objective outpatient screening assessments. Study subjects were evaluated for any association  between  preventive  immunization  against  rubella,  measles,  typhoid  fever, smallpox and incidence of atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma.There was no increased risk of allergy incidence in the majority of vaccinated subjectsagainst rubella, ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Why Techno-Optimism Is Dangerous

Fri, 31 Jul 2015 13:54:36 +0100

How do you envisage life 200 years from now? Suppose that we manage an effective response to climate change, we don't nuke ourselves and we aren't obliterated by Skynet. Technological progress is likely to be the salient feature of your forecast. It is a constant of human history. And it seems to be accelerating. You might imagine a future that includes companion robots, cures for cancer and holidays on Jupiter's moons. This seems like a future in which everyone will be much better off. This general view about technological progress has been endorsed by thinkers including Matt Ridley, David Deutsch, K. Eric Drexler and Peter Diamandis. These techno-optimists do acknowledge dangers. But they find reassurance in a dependable habit of technological progress to clean up after itself. The Indus...



This Is How Nigeria Beat Polio

Fri, 24 Jul 2015 17:39:54 +0100

It’s easy not to notice a negative. A house burns down on your block and it’s all you can talk about. But a house doesn’t burn down? Where’s the news? Still, absence can be the stuff of headlines, and that fact has rarely been truer than it is in Nigeria today—where health officials are celebrating a full year without a single case of polio. A polio-free Nigeria means a polio-free Africa, since it was the only country left of the 47 on the continent where the crippling disease was still endemic. The virus, which as recently as 1988 was endemic in 128 countries, crippling 350,000 children per year, has now been cornered in just two places—Afghanistan and Pakistan, and it’s barely hanging on there. Wipe polio out in those last two redoubts and it wil...



Smallpox Vaccination of Laboratory Workers at US Variola Testing Sites.

Fri, 24 Jul 2015 09:42:40 +0100

Authors: Medcalf S, Bilek L, Hartman T, Iwen PC, Leuschen P, Miller H, O'Keefe A, Sayles H, Smith PW Abstract To evaluate the need to revaccinate laboratory workers against smallpox, we assessed regular revaccination at the US Laboratory Response Network's variola testing sites by examining barriers to revaccination and the potential for persistence of immunity. Our data do not provide evidence to suggest prolonging the recommended interval for revaccination. PMID: 26196153 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)



Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

Fri, 24 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Rodrigues AF, Soares HR, Guerreiro MR, Alves PM, Coroadinha AS Abstract Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuat...



Comparison of lyophilized versus liquid modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) formulations and subcutaneous versus intradermal routes of administration in healthy vaccinia-naïve subjects.

Wed, 01 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Transitioning to a lyophilized formulation, which has a longer shelf life, will not negatively impact immunogenicity. In a situation where insufficient vaccine is available, ID vaccination could be used, increasing the number of available doses of vaccine in the SNS 5-fold (i.e., from 20 million to 100 million doses). PMID: 26143613 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




George Washington, Public Health Activist

Wed, 01 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

George Washington is familiar as America’s Revolutionary War general and inaugural president. But less known is that Washington, while audaciously battling the British Army, simultaneously waged a behind-the-scenes public health campaign against a serious, sinister, and pathological threat to American military readiness: smallpox. (Source: JAMA Dermatology)



Jerry Brown Must Sign the California Vaccine Bill

Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:41:33 +0100

California does not often make common cause with Mississippi and West Virginia. America’s blue-red divide doesn’t come any wider than it does between the liberal laboratory of the Pacific West and the conservative cornerstones of the old south. But with a single signature on a single bill, California Gov. Jerry Brown could ensure that the largest state in the nation joins the two far smaller ones in what ought to be a simple, primal mission: keeping children healthy. The pending bill, which passed the California legislature with bipartisan majorities and now rests on Brown’s desk, is known simply as SB277 and it does a straightforward job—removing the religious and personal belief exemptions that allow parents to refuse to vaccinate their children. The legislation l...



Why Jerry Brown Was Right to Sign the California Vaccine Bill

Tue, 30 Jun 2015 15:41:33 +0100

Updated: June 30, 2015, 2:32 PM EDT California does not often make common cause with Mississippi and West Virginia. America’s blue-red divide doesn’t come any wider than it does between the liberal laboratory of the Pacific West and the conservative cornerstones of the old south. But with a single signature on a single bill, California Gov. Jerry Brown ensured that the largest state in the nation joined the two far smaller ones in what ought to be a simple, primal mission: keeping children healthy. The law, which passed the California legislature with bipartisan majorities, does a straightforward job—removing the religious and personal belief exemptions that allowed parents to refuse to vaccinate their children. The legislation leaves standing the medical exemption—...



Anti-TNFSF Ligand Activity of Cellular and Viral TNFRs [Microbiology]

Thu, 25 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We report the first comprehensive study of the functional and binding properties of these four vTNFRs, providing an explanation for their expression profile among different poxviruses. In addition, the vTNFRs activities were compared with the hTNFR2 used in the clinic. Interestingly, CrmB from variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, is the most potent TNFR of those tested here including hTNFR2. Furthermore, we demonstrate a new immunomodulatory activity of vTNFRs, showing that CrmB and CrmD also inhibit the activity of lymphotoxin β. Similarly, we report for the first time that the hTNFR2 blocks the biological activity of lymphotoxin β. The characterization of vTNFRs optimized during virus-host evolution to modulate the host immune response provides relevant information about the...



The normative authority of the World Health Organization

Fri, 19 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The World Health Organization (WHO) was born after the devastation of World War II, as a normative agency endowed with unprecedented constitutional powers. But even as it has achieved stunning successes, such as the eradication of smallpox, it has failed to live up to the exalted expectations of the postwar health and human rights movement – exemplified most recently by its inadequate response to the Ebola epidemic. Our aim is to offer innovative ideas for restoring the Organization to its leadership position by exercising its normative authority, even as it faces a crowded and often chaotic global health architecture. (Source: Public Health)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




BoHV-4-Based Vector Single Heterologous Antigen Delivery Protects STAT1(-/-) Mice from Monkeypoxvirus Lethal Challenge

Thu, 18 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Valentina Franceschi, Scott Parker, Sarah Jacca, Ryan W. Crump, Konstantin Doronin, Edguardo Hembrador, Daniela Pompilio, Giulia Tebaldi, Ryan D. Estep, Scott W. Wong, Mark R. Buller, Gaetano Donofrio Monkeypox virus (MPXV) is the etiological agent of human (MPX). It is an emerging orthopoxvirus zoonosis in the tropical rain forest of Africa and is endemic in the Congo-basin and sporadic in West Africa; it remains a tropical neglected disease of persons in impoverished rural areas. Interaction of the human population with wildlife increases human infection with MPX virus (MPXV), and infection from human to human is possible. Smallpox vaccination provides good cross-protection against MPX; however, the vaccination campaign ended in Africa in 1980, meaning that a large proportion of the ...



Modeling the Effect of Herd Immunity and Contagiousness in Mitigating a Smallpox Outbreak

Tue, 16 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

We describe contagiousness parametrically using a novel method of distributing an assumed R-value over the disease course based on the relative rates of daily viral shedding from human and animal studies of cognate orthopoxvirus infections. Our results suggest that vaccination prophylaxis is sufficient to control the outbreak when caused either by a minimally contagious virus or when a very high percentage of the population receives prophylaxis. As vaccination coverage of the affected population decreases below 70%, vaccine prophylaxis alone is progressively less capable of controlling outbreaks, even those caused by a less contagious virus (R0 less than 4). In these scenarios, tecovirimat treatment is required to control the outbreak (total number of cases under an order of magnitude more...



[Lessons learnt from the German smallpox outbreaks after World War II].

Wed, 10 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The data analyzed provide valuable information for today's outbreak response planning and counter bioterrorism preparedness. PMID: 26059691 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz)



Hippocrates on Pediatric Dermatology

Mon, 08 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Hippocrates of Kos is well known in medicine, but his contributions to pediatric dermatology have not previously been examined. A systematic study of Corpus Hippocraticum was undertaken to document references of clinical and historical importance of pediatric dermatology. In Corpus Hippocraticum, a variety of skin diseases are described, along with proposed treatments. Hippocrates rejected the theory of the punishment of the Greek gods and supported the concept that dermatologic diseases resulted from a loss of balance in the body humors. Many of the terms that Hippocrates and his pupils used are still being used today. Moreover, he probably provided one of the first descriptions of skin findings in smallpox, Henoch–Schönlein purpura (also known as anaphylactoid purpura, purpur...



Preparedness for a Smallpox Pandemic in Japan: Public Health Perspectives

Wed, 03 Jun 2015 15:36:17 +0100

Miscellaneous Yasumasa Nishiyama, Susumu Matsukuma, Takuya Matsumura, Yasuhiro Kanatani, Tomoya Saito, Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness, Volume 9 Issue 02, pp 220-223Abstract (Source: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




[The late media emergency of smallpox vaccine, news coverage of Spanish press (1999-2004)].

Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The alarm raised around the smallpox vaccination was a media phenomenon due to political strategy issues rather than a real public health problem. PMID: 26032996 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia)



Risks Associated With Smallpox Vaccination in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Sun, 24 May 2015 15:34:37 +0100

CONCLUSION: The overall risk associated with maternal smallpox vaccination appears low. No association between smallpox vaccination and spontaneous abortion, preterm birth, or stillbirth was identified. First-trimester vaccination was associated with a small increase in congenital defects, but the effect size was small and based on limited data. Fetal vaccinia appears to be a rare consequence of maternal smallpox vaccination but is associated with a high rate of fetal loss. PMID: 26000516 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Obstetrics and Gynecology)



[Epidemiology of Ebola virus disease and of other highly contagious, life-threatening diseases with low incidence in Germany].

Fri, 22 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ehlkes L, Kreuels B, Schwarz NG, May J Abstract Apart from sporadic exported cases, the occurrence of Ebola Marburg and Lassa virus diseases is limited to the African continent. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever occurs in Southeastern Europe but, so far, not in Germany. Other hemorrhagic fever disease-viruses occur in distinct regions in South America. Pulmonary plague is the bacterial infectious disease with the most contagious and lethal course and it is endemic to Madagascar and East Africa, but also occurs in other countries (e.g. India, USA). Monkey pox epidemics have occurred in remote areas of the Congo Basin. Such outbreaks could potentially become more common with the discontinuation of the cross-protective smallpox vaccination. The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome...



Deaths following vaccination: What does the evidence show?

Thu, 21 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Miller ER, Moro PL, Cano M, Shimabukuro T Abstract Vaccines are rigorously tested and monitored and are among the safest medical products we use. Millions of vaccinations are given to children and adults in the United States each year. Serious adverse reactions are rare. However, because of the high volume of use, coincidental adverse events including deaths, that are temporally associated with vaccination, do occur. When death occurs shortly following vaccination, loved ones and others might naturally question whether it was related to vaccination. A large body of evidence supports the safety of vaccines, and multiple studies and scientific reviews have found no association between vaccination and deaths except in rare cases. During the US multi-state measles outbreak of ...



[Perspectives] Morals, microbes, and methods

Fri, 08 May 2015 18:00:35 +0100

There is an apocryphal quote from former US Surgeon General William H Stewart, who is said to have proclaimed in a 1967 speech that it was “time to close the book on infectious diseases”. Although there is no evidence that Stewart ever said any such thing, it is true that, dazzled by advances in antibiotics and vaccines, especially the beginning of the worldwide eradication of smallpox, there were many in the late 1960s in medicine, nursing, and public health who would have endorsed such a view. (Source: LANCET)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Vaccines in dermatology

Wed, 06 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Mitali M Shah, Aishani C Shah, Rashmi S Mahajan, Freny E BilimoriaIndian Journal of Dermatology 2015 60(3):276-279A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a specific disease. More than two centuries have passed since the first successful vaccine for smallpox was developed. We've come a long way since. Today's vaccines are among the 21 st century's most successful and cost-effective public health tools for preventing diseases. (Source: Indian Journal of Dermatology)



Using the Ground Squirrel (Marmota bobak) as an Animal Model to Assess Monkeypox Drug Efficacy

Tue, 05 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Summary In experiments to study the sensitivity of ground squirrels (Marmota bobak) to monkeypox virus (MPXV) at intranasal challenge, expressed pox‐like clinical symptoms (hyperthermia, lymphadenitis, skin rash all over the body and mucous membranes and others) were observed 7–9 days post‐infection. The 50% infective dose (ID50) of MPXV for these marmots determined by the presence of clinical signs of the disease was 2.2 log10 PFU. Some diseased marmots (about 40%) died 13–22 days post‐infection, and the mortality rate was weakly dependent on MPXV infective dose. Lungs with trachea were primary target organs of marmots challenged intranasally (with ~30 ID50). The pathogen got to secondary target organs of the animals mainly via the lymphatic way (with replication in bifurcatio...



Rubella Eliminated From The Americas, Thanks To MMR Vaccine

Sun, 03 May 2015 04:52:39 +0100

First we wiped out smallpox in North and South America. Then we rid the Americas of polio. Now, for the third time, the Americas are the first region in the world to eliminate yet another disease through vaccines: rubella. After 15 years of a widespread vaccination campaign with the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)



House on Fire: The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox

Fri, 01 May 2015 05:00:00 +0100

No abstract available (Source: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine)



Laboratory-acquired vaccinia virus infection in a recently immunized person - massachusetts, 2013.

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Hsu CH, Farland J, Winters T, Gunn J, Caron D, Evans J, Osadebe L, Bethune L, McCollum AM, Patel N, Wilkins K, Davidson W, Petersen B, Barry MA Abstract On November 26, 2013, the CDC poxvirus laboratory was notified by the Boston Public Health Commission (BPHC) of an inadvertent inoculation of a recently vaccinated (ACAM2000 smallpox vaccine) laboratory worker with wild type vaccinia virus (VACV) Western Reserve. A joint investigation by CDC and BPHC confirmed orthopoxvirus infection in the worker, who had reported a needle stick in his thumb while inoculating a mouse with VACV. He experienced a non-tender, red rash on his arm, diagnosed at a local emergency department as cellulitis. He subsequently developed a necrotic lesion on his thumb, diagnosed as VACV infection. Thr...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.




Smallpox: 12 000 Years From Plagues to Eradication

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The Variola virus is the causative agent of smallpox—a simple yet deadly single-stranded DNA virus that is part of the family Poxviridae and has been a menace of the Earth since before recorded history, dating back to about 10 000 bc. Smallpox has continued to play an intimate role in shaping human society, from ancient times as a plague of the world to modern times where the threat of smallpox use in bioterrorism looms. Variola primarily attacks the skin, leading to an impressive characteristic maculopapular eruption that can encompass the entire body and leading to a presumptive clinical diagnosis. Thus, it was once the deadliest dermatological ailment. Let us take a journey through time and explore how this virus has shaped human history and culture. (Source: JAMA Dermatology)



Vaccination‐Related Side Effects, Humoral Immunity, and Adverse Events during the Civilian Smallpox Vaccination Campaign, Arkansas, 2003

Fri, 01 May 2015 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsProminent side effect profiles and adverse events among study participants seem to support individual and institutional reluctance to vaccinate civilians in the absence of smallpox reemergence. (Source: Public Health Nursing)



Jefferson Parish school officials combat childhood immunization issues

Mon, 27 Apr 2015 23:00:00 +0100

Approximately 4,700 students are enrolled in about seven dozen public schools in Jefferson Parish, and while most of the children attending class are vaccinated against diseases like mumps and smallpox, it's not the case for everyone. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)



Smallpox Vaccination of Laboratory Workers at US Variola Testing Sites

Wed, 22 Apr 2015 04:00:00 +0100

S. Medcalf et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)



Book details misconceptions about smallpox's role in Native depopulation

Tue, 21 Apr 2015 04:00:00 +0100

(University of Kansas) As part of his new book, 'Cherokee Medicine, Colonial Germs: An Indigenous Nation's Fight against Smallpox, 1518-1824,' a University of Kansas history professor disputes the idea that infectious diseases themselves gave Europeans an advantage over Native-Americans because indigenous peoples did not have the right medicine or knowledge base to fight these new diseases, such as smallpox. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.