Subscribe: MedWorm: Rabies
Added By: Feedage Forager Feedage Grade B rated
Language: English
christmas presents  dog  health  human  january sales  medworm sponsor  rabies virus  rabies  sales find  source  study  virus 
Rate this Feed
Rate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feedRate this feed
Rate this feed 1 starRate this feed 2 starRate this feed 3 starRate this feed 4 starRate this feed 5 star

Comments (0)

Feed Details and Statistics Feed Statistics
Preview: MedWorm: Rabies

MedWorm: Rabies provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Rabies category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 12:11:50 +0100


Rabies: One Health in action

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:41 +0100

Abstract: The control of rabies, where successful, is built on a One Health paradigm. In many instances, the control of human disease rests on programs designed to limit canine rabies. Early rabies programs were not only One Health based but simultaneously helped define, develop and operationalize the concept of One Health. The development of rabies control programs in the United States will be examined with a particular emphasis on the development of different elements of the One Health paradigm. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Vaccination of stray dogs against rabies is an effective strategy to reduce the risk of human rabies

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Human Rabies is mainly infected through the dog bites in Sri Lanka. Mass vaccination against rabies and surgical sterilization are new strategies implemented for control of rabies in stray dogs after 2006 instead of mass culling. WHO recommends 70% vaccination coverage for eradication of rabies in dog population. Objectives were to survey stray dog population in Municipality, Dehiwala area (21km2) and to assess the effect of two consecutive mass vaccination of them against rabies. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Rabies encephalitis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Rabies is an acute infection of the nervous system in human and animals caused by rabies virus. Transmission usually occurs via a bite of an infected animal; transmission via aerosols and by tissue or organ transplantation are rare. Worldwide, endemic dog rabies is responsible for the vast majority of human cases, particularly in Asia and Africa. There are about 60,000 fatal human cases annually, and almost half are in children. Dog rabies can become well controlled by mass vaccination of dogs, which has proved to be very successful in Latin America. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Expression of glycoprotein gene of Rabies virus and evaluation of recombinant protein for seromonitoring of vaccinal antibodies in dogs

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: In India, control of rabies in dogs by massvaccination is the practical approach. Currently, viable infectious Rabies virus (RABV) dependent and laborious Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (RFFIT) is employed in selected laboratories in India to monitor the vaccinal antibodies. This situation demands an alternative rapid, sensitive, specific and user friendly test. Hence, this study was undertaken to express the recombinant glycoprotein (rRVL-G) of Dr. Larghi's strain of RABV and evaluate it's diagnostic potential. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Genetic variability of the G-L intergenic region sequences of Indian rabies virus strains circulating in animals

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The evolutionary studies of rabies virus (RABV) have targeted the N or G gene, or recently the G-L intergenic region sequencess. Among these, G-L intergenic region is considered as the most variable since it is not subjected to immunological selective pressure. The present study was undertaken to understand the genetic variability of RABV in animals in India based on the G-L intergenic region (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in Nepal

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Rabies is endemic and priority zoonotic disease in Nepal. Death of 150 people and 200 animals has been reported annually in this country however molecular epidemiology of rabies has not been well understood. A study was performed by analyzing 10 rabid animal's brain samples (7 dogs, 1 goat, 1 buffalo and 1 alpaca) collected in Nepal from 2011-2012 to know the circulating clade of Rabies virus in Nepal. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Healthcare worker exposure to solid organ recipients with Rabies virus disease: An infection control perspective

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study reviews the intervention and outcome following an infection control investigation of two solid organ recipients who developed RVD from a single donor. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Rabies virus infection: Role of the rabies virus phosphoprotein in producing neuronal injury mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Our previous work in a mouse model of experimental rabies showed neuronal process degeneration in association with severe clinical disease. Cultured adult rodent dorsal root ganglion neurons infected with the challenge virus standard-11 (CVS) strain of rabies virus (RABV) showed axonal swellings and reduced axonal growth with evidence of oxidative stress. We have shown that CVS infection results in increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial Complex I activity. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

7 Expert-Backed Tips For Staying Healthy On Your Next Big Trip

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 10:00:44 +0100

As spring approaches, you may be thinking about this year’s summer getaway. Or maybe you’re an Type A planner who is already booking a Thanksgiving or Christmas trip. Whatever your travel style, here's something you probably haven't considered: How to stay healthy while abroad. While you probably won’t make a Pinterest board of vaccinations with the same enthusiasm as you pin must-eat pastries and stylish travel outfits, taking care of your health on a trip might just save your life. Here are seven tips to help keep your vacations as stress- and sickness-free as possible:  1. First, call your doctor. Your first call while planning a trip should be to a health care provider who can advise you on vaccinations, medication and other pertinent factors -- like your itinera...

Molecular Characterization of Canine Rabies Virus, Mali, 2006–2013

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

A. Traoré et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

Willingness to Pay for Dog Rabies Vaccine and Registration in Ilocos Norte, Philippines (2012)

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study also investigated some of the determinants of individuals’ willingness to pay (WTP). Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to 300 households in 17 municipalities (out of a total of 21) selected through a multi-stage cluster survey technique. At the time of the survey, Ilocos Norte had a population of approximately 568,017 and was predominantly rural. The Contingent Valuation Method was used to elicit WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration. A ‘bidding game’ elicitation strategy that aims to find the maximum amount of money individuals were willing to pay was also employed. Data were collected using paper-based questionnaires. Linear regression was used to examine factors influencing participants’ WTP for dog rabies vaccination and registration....

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

A Case of Fatal Human Rabies Caused by Tricolored Bat-Associated Rabies Virus Presenting Like Serotonin Syndrome.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present a case of human rabies without a clear exposure history that masqueraded as serotonin syndrome. PMID: 27001756 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg)

Every rabies death is a veterinary and health system failure until proven otherwise.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Durrheim DN PMID: 27013435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

Toxoplasmosis may lead to road kills of persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) in Golestan national park, Iran - Namroodi S, Gholami A, Shariat-Bahadori E.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 19:34:31 +0100

Three Persian leopards ( Panthera pardus saxicolor) that died from car accidents in Golestan National Park, Iran, were examined for Toxoplasma gondii and rabies virus infection. Acute T. gondii infection was diagnosed in two Persian leopards but no rabies ... (Source: SafetyLit)

Human Rabies - Missouri, 2014.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 02:32:01 +0100

Authors: Pratt PD, Henschel K, Turabelidze G, Grim A, Ellison JA, Orciari L, Yager P, Franka R, Wu X, Ma X, Wadhwa A, Smith TG, Petersen B, Shiferaw M Abstract On September 18, 2014, the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services (MDHSS) was notified of a suspected rabies case in a Missouri resident. The patient, a man aged 52 years, lived in a rural, deeply wooded area, and bat sightings in and around his home were anecdotally reported. Exposure to bats poses a risk for rabies. After two emergency department visits for severe neck pain, paresthesia in the left arm, upper body tremors, and anxiety, he was hospitalized on September 13 for encephalitis of unknown etiology. On September 24, he received a diagnosis of rabies and on September 26, he died. Genetic sequencing tests...

Efficacy of Favipiravir (T-705) in Rabies Postexposure Prophylaxis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report for the first time the efficacy of favipiravir (T-705) against RABV in vitro and in vivo. T-705 produced a significant, 3–4 log10 reduction in the multiplication of street and fixed RABV strains in mouse neuroblastoma Neuro-2a cells, with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations of 32.4 µM and 44.3 µM, respectively. T-705 significantly improved morbidity and mortality among RABV-infected mice when orally administered at a dose of 300 mg/kg/day for 7 days, beginning 1 hour after inoculation. T-705 significantly reduced the rate of virus positivity in the brain. Furthermore, the effectiveness of T-705 was comparable to that of equine rabies virus immunoglobulin for postexposure prophylaxis. Collectively, our results suggest that T-705 is active against RABV and may ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Mammalian Bites In The Emergency Department: Recommendations For Wound Closure, Antibiotics, And Postexposure Prophylaxis (Trauma CME)

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 20:07:38 +0100

In this issue of Emergency Medicine Practice, we take an in-depth look at the management of mammalian-bite wounds, including the timing of wound closure, the use of prophylactic antibiotics, and the latest recommendations for rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). (Source: Emergency Medicine Practice)

Human Rabies — Missouri, 2014

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 13:00:40 +0100

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)

Retrospective diagnosis of two rabies cases in humans by high throughput sequencing

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Rabies virus (RABV) is a neurotropic virus of the order Mononegavirales, family Rhabdoviridae and genus Lyssavirus. In addition to RABV, the Lyssavirus genus includes 11 virus species: Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV), Duvenhage virus (DUVV), European bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2 (EBLV1 and 2), Aravan virus (ARAV), Khujand virus (KHUV), Irkut virus (IRKV), Lagos bat virus (LBV), Mokola virus (MOKV), West Caucasian bat virus (WCBV) and Shimoni bat lyssavirus (SHIBV). All lyssaviruses cause acute progressive encephalitis (rabies) in mammals, and a fatal outcome is typically observed. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)

Developmental Sculpting of Intracortical Circuits by MHC Class I H2-Db and H2-Kb

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Synapse pruning is an activity-regulated process needed for proper circuit sculpting in the developing brain. Major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are regulated by activity, but little is known about their role in the development of connectivity in cortex. Here we show that protein for 2 MHCI molecules H2-Kb and H2-Db is associated with synapses in the visual cortex. Pyramidal neurons in mice lacking H2-Kb and H2-Db (KbDb KO) have more extensive cortical connectivity than normal. Modified rabies virus tracing was used to monitor the extent of pyramidal cell connectivity: Horizontal connectivity is greater in the visual cortex of KbDb KO mice. Basal dendrites of L2/3 pyramids, where many horizontal connections terminate, are more highly branched and have elevated spine density ...

A recombinant rabies virus carrying GFP between N and P affects viral transcription in vitro

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study indicates HEP-Flury as valid vector to express exogenous genes between N and P. (Source: Virus Genes)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Mixed Methods Survey of Zoonotic Disease Awareness and Practice among Animal and Human Healthcare Providers in Moshi, Tanzania

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions This study revealed differences in knowledge of different zoonoses and low case report frequencies of brucellosis, leptospirosis, and Q fever. There was a lack of known diagnostic services for leptospirosis and Q fever. These findings emphasize a need for improved diagnostic capacity alongside healthcare provider education and improved clinical guidelines for syndrome-based disease management to provoke diagnostic consideration of locally relevant zoonoses in the absence of laboratory confirmation. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Epidemiological characteristics of rabies in Zambia: A retrospective study (2004–2013)

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This study reveals increasing trends in reported dog bites and rabies. The increase could be a case of improved reporting due to change in health policies or indeed high incidence necessitated by change in ecosystem. Moreover, the risk of dog bites and confirmed rabies seem to be established in selected provinces. A more detailed epidemiological design is warranted to establish such increases in risk. (Source: Clinical Epidemiology and Global Health)

Laboratory twinning to build capacity for rabies diagnosis

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In 2009, the UK's OIE Reference Laboratory for rabies, based at the APHA in Weybridge, was awarded a project to twin with the Changchun Veterinary Research Institute in the People's Republic of China to help the institute develop the skills and methods necessary to become an OIE Reference Laboratory itself. Here, Tony Fooks, Trevor Drew and Changchun Tu describe the OIE's twinning project and the success that has since been realised in China (Source: Veterinary Record)

Campaign to eliminate human rabies deaths by 2030

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A GLOBAL campaign to eliminate human deaths from canine-transmitted rabies by 2030 was launched at the House of Lords in London on February 24. The End Rabies Now campaign is calling on donor countries and international agencies to set aside more funding for dog vaccinations in their global health spending programmes. ‘Fifty years ago as a student, I learnt that the key to controlling human rabies is controlling dog rabies,’ said veterinary peer Lord Trees, who hosted the launch with Lord Crisp, a former chief executive of the National Health Service. ‘It is time we got on with it and vaccinated dogs to eliminate this terrible human disease which, every year, kills four times as many people as the Ebola outbreak of 2014.’ The Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Rabies transmission risks during peripartum - Two cases and a review of the literature.

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report two cases of probable rabies in near-term/at-term pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. One baby was delivered by caesarean section and the other one vaginally. Both received post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), including RIG and vaccine and both are alive and healthy, at 9 and 24 months, respectively. We found 14 other published cases of infants born from rabid mothers. One confirmed case of rabies transmission occurred. The other children born from rabid mothers, with or without caesarean section, did not acquire rabies, and were still healthy at the time of reporting, with or without post-exposure prophylaxis. Mother-to-child transmission of rabies is possible, but rare, because rabies virus is not present in blood and exposure of the baby's mucosa to maternal infectious ...

Synonymous codon usage pattern in glycoprotein gene of rabies virus.

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Morla S, Makhija A, Kumar S PMID: 26945626 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Gene)

Theranostics: Optical Imaging and Gene Therapy with Neuroblastoma‐Targeting Polymeric Nanoparticles for Potential Theranostic Applications (Small 9/2016)

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Ligand‐modified, gene‐loaded nanoparticles (NPs) are designed and prepared as a tumor‐targeting theranostic agent by I. C. Kwon, K. Y. Lee, and co‐workers. The nanoparticles offer neuroblastoma‐specific in‐vivo optical imaging, and adding a therapeutic gene cocktail into the NPs could play a critical role for gene‐therapy‐based on RNAi. On page 1201, dye‐labeled NPs are modified with rabies virus glycoprotein peptide to enhance the receptor‐mediated uptake by neuroblastoma, and an siRNA cocktail is loaded into the NPs, inducing RNA interference and significantly suppressing tumor growth in a mouse model. (Source: Small)

Development of broad‐spectrum human monoclonal antibodies for rabies post‐exposure prophylaxis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we identified two broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies that represent a valid and affordable alternative to RIG in rabies PEP. Memory B cells from four selected vaccinated donors were immortalized and monoclonal antibodies were tested for neutralizing activity and epitope specificity. Two antibodies, identified as RVC20 and RVC58 (binding to antigenic site I and III, respectively), were selected for their potency and broad‐spectrum reactivity. In vitro, RVC20 and RVC58 were able to neutralize all 35 rabies virus (RABV) and 25 non‐RABV lyssaviruses. They showed higher potency and breath compared to antibodies under clinical development (namely CR57, CR4098, and RAB1) and commercially available human RIG. In vivo, the RVC20–RVC58 cocktail protected Syrian ham...

Rabies: Knowledge and Practices Regarding Rabies in Rural Communities of the Brazilian Amazon Basin

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The objective was to evaluate the local knowledge and practices related to the disease. We found a highly significant difference (p (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

The potential lethal consequences of rabies vaccine avoidance and dog smuggling in Europe

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Journal of Infection)

Rabies: Knowledge and Practices Regarding Rabies in Rural Communities of the Brazilian Amazon Basin

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The objective was to evaluate the local knowledge and practices related to the disease. We found a highly significant difference (p (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Reducing Cost of Rabies Post Exposure Prophylaxis: Experience of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions/Significance Government hospitals in Pakistan are generally underfinanced and cannot afford treatment of the enormous burden of dog bite victims. Hence, patients are either not treated at all, or asked to purchase their own vaccine, which most cannot afford, resulting in neglect and high incidence of rabies deaths. TRC-id regimen reduced the cost of vaccine to 1/5th of Essen regimen and is strongly recommended for institutions with large throughput. Training ED staff would save lives through a safe, effective and affordable technique. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Diary of a parliamentary intern

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Parliamentary intern Anthony Ridge has been researching neglected tropical diseases and uses rabies control as an example of how veterinary services can benefit the health and welfare of animals and people. (Source: Veterinary Record)

Rabishield: First fast-acting anti-rabies drug set for India launch

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 07:18:50 +0100

RMAb has been developed by Pune-based Serum Institute of India (SII) and US-based Mass Biologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School. (Source: The Economic Times Healthcare and Biotech News)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Well: Staying Healthy While Traveling the Globe

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 16:39:08 +0100

Drink bottled water, take Pepto-Bismol preventively and avoid hungry lions. (Source: NYT)

Dog Demography, Animal Bite Management and Rabies Knowledge-Attitude and Practices in the Awash Basin, Eastern Ethiopia

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The study highlighted overall poor disease knowledge, severe under-reporting of human rabies cases, lack of record keeping and poor collaboration between the public and animal health sectors and communities in rabies control. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

CXCL10 and blood-brain barrier modulation in rabies virus infection.

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 01:39:02 +0100

Authors: Gnanadurai CW, Fu ZF PMID: 26895109 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Knowledge of Rabies Prevention in Vietnamese Public Health and Animal Health Workers

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 00:20:03 +0100

This study provides important baseline data in a relatively unexplored area of research that can focus future interventions and research. (Source: Zoonoses and Public Health)

Suspected Rabies in Humans and Animals, Laikipia County, Kenya.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 22:56:03 +0100

Authors: Obonyo M, Akoko JM, Orinde AB, Osoro E, Boru WG, Njeru I, Fèvre EM PMID: 26890989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)

Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura Following Postexposure Rabies Prophylaxis

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 10:35:01 +0100

No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology)

Animal Bites and Rabies Prophylaxis in Rural Children: Indian Perspective

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A prospective observational study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital to study clinicoepidemiological profile of potentially rabid animal bite cases from rural India. Total of 308 children (median age 6 years) admitted to hospital, were recruited over 1 year and followed up till completion of antirabies vaccine course. Dog was the commonest (77.27%) offending animal. Of the exposures, 66.88% were scratches, 88.96% were unprovoked and 27.27% were categorized as Class III. The median times to wound toileting and reporting to health facility were 1 and 6 h, respectively. Majority received prompt PEP in hospital, and RIG was administered in 34.55% of Class II and 90.48% of Class III exposures. Compared with their older counterparts, children aged <5 years suffered more bites on face a...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Pattern of animal bites and post exposure prophylaxis in rabies: a five year study in a tertiary care unit in Sri Lanka - Kularatne SA, Ralapanawa DM, Weerakoon K, Bokalamulla UK, Abagaspitiya N.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 06:34:49 +0100

BACKGROUND: Rabies is a global problem which occurs in more than 150 countries and territories including Sri Lanka, where human deaths from rabies are in decline whilst resources incurred for prevention of rabies are in sharp incline over the years. In thi... (Source: SafetyLit)

Support for rabies control and prevention in Africa

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

MARIAN Horzinek, the first veterinarian to be made a fellow of the Stellenbosch Institute for Advanced Study (STIAS), is to support the work of the African Small Companion Animal Network (AFSCAN) in rabies control as part of a project that he is undertaking. Professor Emeritus Horzinek was made a fellow of the STIAS in 2014. The institute, which is based in the Stellenbosch region of South Africa, aims to nurture and encourage leading scholars and researchers to find innovative and sustainable solutions to global issues and, in particular, those affecting Africa. Fellows of the institute undertake three-month projects supporting a range of themes relating to development in Africa. Dr Horzinek's project will support the theme ‘Health in transition’. ‘Almost all human death...

Molecular genetic characterization of rabies virus glycoprotein gene sequences from rabid dogs in Bangkok and neighboring provinces in Thailand, 2013–2014

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Because of its association with dogs, rabies virus (RABV) is still endemic in Thailand, where it is a serious public health problem. The genetic characterization of RABV in Thailand is limited. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of RABV in the endemic area. Viral RNA from 48 brain specimens from rabid dogs, collected in Bangkok and seven neighboring provinces in 2013–2014, was extracted and sequenced. The complete rabies glycoprotein (G) gene sequences (1575 nt) were aligned, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed using the maximum-likelihood method. All of the Thai rabies virus isolates belonged to lyssavirus genotype 1 and clustered in the same lineage as isolates from South East Asia (SEA) and China. The Tha...

Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:23:02 +0100

Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled t...

Caring for patients with rabies in developing countries – the neglected importance of palliative care

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary Although limited publications address clinical management of symptomatic patients with rabies in intensive care units, the overwhelming majority of human rabies cases occur in the rural setting of developing countries where healthcare workers are few, lack training and drugs. Based on our experience, we suggest how clinicians in resource‐limited settings can make best use of essential drugs to provide assistance to patients with rabies and their families, at no risk to themselves. Comprehensive and compassionate patient management of furious rabies should aim to alleviate thirst, anxiety and epileptic fits using infusions, diazepam or midazolam and antipyretic drugs via intravenous or intrarectal routes. Although the patient is dying, respiratory failure must be avoided especiall...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Epidemiology, Impact and Control of Rabies in Nepal: A Systematic Review

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Brecht Devleesschauwer, Arjun Aryal, Barun Kumar Sharma, Anita Ale, Anne Declercq, Stephanie Depraz, Tara Nath Gaire, Gyanendra Gongal, Surendra Karki, Basu Dev Pandey, Sher Bahadur Pun, Luc Duchateau, Pierre Dorny, Niko Speybroeck Background Rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonosis belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases. Exposure to a rabid animal may result in a fatal acute encephalitis if effective post-exposure prophylaxis is not provided. Rabies occurs worldwide, but its burden is disproportionately high in developing countries, including Nepal. We aimed to summarize current knowledge on the epidemiology, impact and control of rabies in Nepal. Methods We performed a systematic review of international and national scientific literature and searched grey literatu...

Acute bilateral vestibulocochlear neuritis following cultured cell vaccine administration for rabies post-exposure prophylaxis

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Rabies is a zoonotic viral disease transmitted only in mammals, caused by RNA virus of the Family Rhabdoviridae, Genus Lyssavirus. The disease occurs in almost all continents and is responsible for approximately 55,000 to 70,000 deaths/year worldwide [1]. In Brazil, rabies is a public health concern with a total of 574 cases registered from 1990 to 2014 [2]. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)

Isatis indigotica root polysaccharides as adjuvants for an inactivated rabies virus vaccine.

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhang W, Zheng X, Cheng N, Gai W, Xue X, Wang Y, Gao Y, Shan J, Yang S, Xia X Abstract Adjuvants can enhance vaccine immunogenicity and induce long-term enhancement of immune responses. Thus, adjuvants are important for vaccine research. Polysaccharides isolated from select Chinese herbs have been demonstrated to possess various beneficial functions and excellent adjuvant abilities. In the present study, the polysaccharides IIP-A-1 and IIP-2 were isolated from Isatis indigotica root and compared with the common vaccine adjuvant aluminum hydroxide via intramuscular co-administration of inactivated rabies virus rCVS-11-G into mice. Blood was collected to determine virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) titers and B and T lymphocyte activation status. Inguinal lymph node samples w...

Surveillance of Canine Rabies in the Central African Republic: Impact on Human Health and Molecular Epidemiology

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Vianney Tricou, Julie Bouscaillou, Emmanuel Kamba Mebourou, Fidèle Dieudonné Koyanongo, Emmanuel Nakouné, Mirdad Kazanji Background Although rabies represents an important public health threat, it is still a neglected disease in Asia and Africa where it causes tens of thousands of deaths annually despite available human and animal vaccines. In the Central African Republic (CAR), an endemic country for rabies, this disease remains poorly investigated. Methods To evaluate the extent of the threat that rabies poses in the CAR, we analyzed data for 2012 from the National Reference Laboratory for Rabies, where laboratory confirmation was performed by immunofluorescence and PCR for both animal and human suspected cases, and data from the only anti-rabies dispensary of the country and only ...

Generation of Recombinant Rabies Viruses encoding NanoLuc Luciferase for Antiviral Activity Assays.

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, recombinant RABVs (rRABVs) encoding NanoLuc luciferase (NanoLuc) were generated to facilitate the screening of small compound libraries. NanoLuc expression was confirmed in single-step growth cures of virus infection and showed that the rRABVs were capable of viral replication without decrease of luciferase activity through ten serial passages. Furthermore, the rRABVs were able to quantify the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analogue ribavirin against RABV in vitro. These findings confirm the potential of the rRABV encoding NanoLuc system to facilitate screening of small compounds to inhibit RABV infection. PMID: 26869397 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Virus Research)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies i...

Rabies in the Baltic States: Decoding a Process of Control and Elimination

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Emmanuelle Robardet, Evelyne Picard-Meyer, Marianna Dobroštana, Ingrida Jaceviciene, Katrin Mähar, Zita Muižniece, Gediminas Pridotkas, Marius Masiulis, Enel Niin, Edvīns Olševskis, Florence Cliquet Rabies is a fatal zoonosis that still causes nearly 70, 000 human deaths every year. In Europe, the oral rabies vaccination (ORV) of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) was developed in the late 1970s and has demonstrated its effectiveness in the eradication of the disease in Western and some Central European countries. Following the accession of the three Baltic countries—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—to the European Union in 2004, subsequent financial support has allowed the implementation of regular ORV campaigns since 2005–2006. This paper reviews ten years of surveillance efforts and ...

[Epidemiological trends in bovine paralytic rabies in central Mexico, 2001-2013].

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 17:57:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Bovine paralytic rabies has spread to areas that were formerly free of the disease. Environmental characteristics and the altitude above sea level do not limit the appearance of cases. Constant monitoring should be conducted for early case detection. Vaccination should take place before the rainy season starts, without waiting for outbreaks to occur. PMID: 26837525 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)

Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which will be useful for planning and monitoring dog population management and rabies control program in the country. (Source: Preventive Veterinary Medicine)

Pattern of animal bites and post exposure prophylaxis in rabies: A five year study in a tertiary care unit in Sri Lanka

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Rabies is a global problem which occurs in more than 150 countries and territories including Sri Lanka, where human deaths from rabies are in decline whilst resources incurred for prevention of rabies are in s... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

MR imaging in rabies encephalitis: A rare entity

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Parveen Jassi, Ankur Attri, Ritu Dhawan, Chandan Kakkar, Kavita SaggarAnnals of Indian Academy of Neurology 2016 19(1):125-128 (Source: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology)

Towards Canine Rabies Elimination in South‐Eastern Tanzania: Assessment of Health Economic Data

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides valuable financial insights into programme managers and policymakers working towards rabies elimination. (Source: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases)

Acute vestibulocochlear neuritis following postexposure rabies prophylaxis

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The recent article by Mesquita et al. [1] published in this journal is very interesting. Their case developed acute bilateral vestibulocochlear neuritis following cultured cell vaccine administration for rabies postexposure prophylaxis. However, we have some comments regarding this article. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)

The Importance of Wild Canids in the Epidemiology of Rabies in Northeast Brazil: A Retrospective Study

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 19:20:06 +0100

Summary Rabies is an endemic disease in Brazil, where it is considered a serious public health problem. Although the number of human and dog‐transmitted cases has declined in recent decades, rabies in wildlife has emerged considerably. Among the sylvatic animals, wild canids have been considered important hosts of the rabies virus. We performed a retrospective study of reported cases of rabies in wild canids and human victims in Ceará state (Northeast Brazil) during 2003 to 2013. Information was provided by governmental laboratories involved in rabies detection and by the Ministry of Health. From January 2003 to December 2013, a total of 11 931 animal samples were examined for rabies. Positivity were detected in 438 samples (3.67%), of which 229 (52.28%) were domestic animals, 105 (23....

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Vaccine study shapes plan to wipe out rabies in free-roaming dogs

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:38:29 +0100

Rabies could be eradicated from street dogs in India with the help of a new smartphone app, a study has shown. Researchers are using the app to track free-roaming dogs that have been vaccinated against rabies. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

Towards a structural understanding of RNA synthesis by negative strand RNA viral polymerases.

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Reguera J, Gerlach P, Cusack S Abstract Negative strand RNA viruses (NSVs), which may have segmented (sNSV) or non-segmented genomes (nsNSV) are responsible for numerous serious human infections such as Influenza, Measles, Rabies, Ebola, Crimean Congo Haemorrhagic Fever and Lassa Fever. Their RNA-dependent RNA polymerases transcribe and replicate the nucleoprotein coated viral genome within the context of a ribonucleoprotein particle. We review the first high resolution crystal and cryo-EM structures of representative NSV polymerases. The heterotrimeric Influenza and single-chain La Crosse orthobunyavirus polymerase structures (sNSV) show how specific recognition of both genome ends is achieved and is required for polymerase activation and how the sNSV specific 'cap-snatch...

Suspected Rabies in Humans and Animals, Laikipia County, Kenya

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 05:00:00 +0100

M. O. Obonyo et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

A peptide-linked recombinant glucocerebrosidase for targeted neuronal delivery: Design, production, and assessment

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 10 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology, Volume 221 Author(s): Paul A. Gramlich, Wendy Westbroek, Ricardo A. Feldman, Ola Awad, Nicholas Mello, Mary P. Remington, Ying Sun, Wujuan Zhang, Ellen Sidransky, Michael J. Betenbaugh, Paul S. Fishman Although recombinant glucocerebrosidase (GCase) is the standard therapy for the inherited lysosomal storage disease Gaucher's disease (GD), enzyme replacement is not effective when the central nervous system is affected. We created a series of recombinant genes/proteins where GCase was linked to different membrane binding peptides including the Tat peptide, the rabies glycoprotein derived peptide (RDP), the binding domain from tetanus toxin (TTC), and a tetanus like peptide (Tet1). The majority of these proteins we...

Caring for rabies patients in developing countries ‐ the neglected importance of palliative care

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Bioecological Drivers of Rabies Virus Circulation in a Neotropical Bat Community

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions / significance We hypothesize that RABV circulation in French Guiana is mainly maintained in the pristine forest habitats that may provide sufficient food resources to allow vampire bats, the main prevalent species, to survive and RABV to be propagated. However, on the forest edge and in disturbed areas, human activities may induce more insidious effects such as defaunation. One of the ecological consequences is the disappearance of resources for tertiary or secondary consumers. Populations of vampires may then shift to alternative resources such as cattle, domestic animals and humans. Therefore, a good forest status, allowing both a dilution effect in highly rich bat communities and the maintenance of large populations of medium-sized and large mammals used as prey by vampires...

Rabies Virus CVS-N2cΔG Strain Enhances Retrograde Synaptic Transfer and Neuronal Viability

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016 Source:Neuron Author(s): Thomas R. Reardon, Andrew J. Murray, Gergely F. Turi, Christoph Wirblich, Katherine R. Croce, Matthias J. Schnell, Thomas M. Jessell, Attila Losonczy Virally based transsynaptic tracing technologies are powerful experimental tools for neuronal circuit mapping. The glycoprotein-deletion variant of the SAD-B19 vaccine strain rabies virus (RABV) has been the reagent of choice in monosynaptic tracing, since it permits the mapping of synaptic inputs to genetically marked neurons. Since its introduction, new helper viruses and reagents that facilitate complementation have enhanced the efficiency of SAD-B19ΔG transsynaptic transfer, but there has been little focus on improvements to the core RABV strain. ...

Aiming for elimination of dog-mediated human rabies cases by 2030

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A conference organised by the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Global Alliance for Rabies Control (GARC), in Geneva on December 10 to 11, 2015, saw delegates from nearly 100 countries meet to discuss the WHO's goal of eliminating dog-mediated human rabies by 2030 and work on a new framework to focus efforts towards achieving this goal. Suzanne Jarvis reports (Source: Veterinary Record)

The dilemma of managing human rabies encephalitis

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)

Human Rabies in India: An Audit from a Rabies Diagnostic Laboratory

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsIncreasing awareness about adequate post‐exposure prophylaxis, additional rabies diagnostic facilities, and enhanced human and animal rabies surveillance to indicate the true disease burden are essential to control this fatal disease.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Tropical Medicine and International Health)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Benefits of using heterologous polyclonal antibodies and potential application to new and undertreated infectious pathogens.

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Polyclonal antibodies have been successfully applied to rabies, envenomation and intoxication. Polyclonal production provides an exciting opportunity to revolutionise the prognosis of both longstanding neglected tropical diseases as well as emerging infectious threats to humans. PMID: 26802604 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

Anterograde or Retrograde Transsynaptic Circuit Tracing in Vertebrates with Vesicular Stomatitis Virus Vectors.

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 13:32:02 +0100

Authors: Beier KT, Mundell NA, Pan YA, Cepko CL Abstract Viruses have been used as transsynaptic tracers, allowing one to map the inputs and outputs of neuronal populations, due to their ability to replicate in neurons and transmit in vivo only across synaptically connected cells. To date, their use has been largely restricted to mammals. In order to explore the use of such viruses in an expanded host range, we tested the transsynaptic tracing ability of recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (rVSV) vectors in a variety of organisms. Successful infection and gene expression were achieved in a wide range of organisms, including vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms. Moreover, rVSV enabled transsynaptic tracing of neural circuitry in predictable directions dictated by the viral...

Human rabies transmitted by dogs: current status of global data, 2015.

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: PMID: 26775296 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)

Causes of encephalitis and encephalopathy in Brazilian equids

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The etiology of diseases that affect the central nervous system (CNS) of equids was investigated. Samples (n = 218) collected from equids showing clinical signs of nervous or behavioral changes were analyzed, of which 37 (17.0%) were positive for rabies, 13 (6.0%) for the presence of protozoans (one Sarcocystis neurona, 12 Toxoplasma gondii), three (1.4%) for equine herpesvirus type 1 myeloencephalophaty (EHM), and 24 (11%) for bacterial encephalitis. Histopathology of CNS revealed one (0.4%) case of cryptococcal myelomeningoencephalitis and 20 (9.2%) cases of leukoencephalomalacia (ELEM). (Source: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science)

Signature motifs of GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, a non-segmented negative strand RNA viral mRNA capping enzyme, domain in the L protein are required for covalent enzyme-pRNA intermediate formation

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The unconventional mRNA capping enzyme (GDP polyribonucleotidyltransferase, PRNTase; block V) domain in RNA polymerase L proteins of non-segmented negative strand (NNS) RNA viruses (e.g. rabies, measles, Ebola) contains five collinear sequence elements, Rx(3)Wx(3–8)xGxx(P/A) (motif A; , hydrophobic; , hydrophilic), (Y/W)GSxT (motif B), W (motif C), HR (motif D) and xxx(F/Y)Qxx (motif E). We performed site-directed mutagenesis of the L protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, a prototypic NNS RNA virus) to examine participation of these motifs in mRNA capping. Similar to the catalytic residues in motif D, G1100 in motif A, T1157 in motif B, W1188 in motif C, and F1269 and Q1270 in motif E were found to be essential or important for the PRNTase activity in the step of the covalent L...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Selected highlights from other journals

Thu, 07 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Accuracy of methods used to determine rabies vaccination coverage in dogs in Tanzania A. B. Minyoo, M. Steinmetz, A. Czupryna, M. Bigambo, I. Mzimbiri, G. Powell and others RABIES is considered by the World Health Organisation to be one of the neglected diseases of the developing world, yet, with effective vaccines and a single species reservoir host (the domestic dog), the disease is preventable through mass vaccination of dogs. To be successful, vaccination campaigns must routinely achieve 70 per cent coverage of the dog population. The aim of this study was to use a mass dog vaccination campaign in northern Tanzania to assess the accuracy of household questionnaires and transect surveys in estimating vaccination coverage compared to the ‘gold-standard’ village-wide census te...

A novel rabies vaccine based-on toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist PIKA adjuvant exhibiting excellent safety and efficacy in animal studies.

Tue, 05 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhang Y, Zhang S, Li W, Hu Y, Zhao J, Liu F, Lin H, Liu Y, Wang L, Xu S, Hu R, Shao H, Li L Abstract Vaccination alone is not sufficiently effective to protect human from post-exposure rabies virus infection due to delayed generation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies and weak cellular immunity. Therefore, it is vital to develop safer and more efficacious vaccine against rabies. PIKA, a stabilized chemical analog of double-stranded RNA that interacts with TLR3, was employed as adjuvant of rabies vaccine. The efficacy and safety of PIKA rabies vaccine were evaluated. The results showed that PIKA rabies vaccine enhanced both humoral and cellular immunity. After viral challenge, PIKA rabies vaccine protected 70-80% of animals, while the survival rate of non-adjuvant vacc...

Correction: Establishment of a Canine Rabies Burden in Haiti through the Implementation of a Novel Surveillance Program

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Ryan M Wallace, Hannah Reses, Richard Franka, Pierre Dilius, Natael Fenelon, Lillian Orciari, Melissa Etheart, Apollon Destine, Kelly Crowdis, Jesse D Blanton, Calvin Francisco, Fleurinord Ludder, Victor Del Rio Vilas, Joseph Haim, Max Millien (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)

Early postnatal maturation in vestibulospinal pathways involved in neck and forelimb motor control

Sat, 02 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Neurobiology)

Rabies prophylaxis for travellers.

Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Gozdas HT PMID: 26819368 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Netherlands Journal of Medicine)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Prioritization of zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam

Wed, 30 Dec 2015 08:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: This study is the first systematic and broad-based attempt to prioritize zoonotic diseases of public health significance in Vietnam using key stakeholders, and a comparative and transparent method. There is limited literature for policy makers and planners on this topic and the results of this study can be used to guide decision-making. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)

Profile of Cytokines and Chemokines Triggered by Wild-Type Strains of Rabies Virus in Mice.

Mon, 28 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Appolinário CM, Allendorf SD, Peres MG, Ribeiro BD, Fonseca CR, Vicente AF, de Paula Antunes JM, Megid J Abstract Rabies is a lethal infectious disease that causes 55,000 human deaths per year and is transmitted by various mammalian species, such as dogs and bats. The host immune response is essential for avoiding viral progression and promoting viral clearance. Cytokines and chemokines are crucial in the development of an immediate antiviral response; the rabies virus (RABV) attempts to evade this immune response. The virus's capacity for evasion is correlated with its pathogenicity and the host's inflammatory response, with highly pathogenic strains being the most efficient at hijacking the host's defense mechanisms and thereby increasing inflammation. The purpose of th...

Inactivation of rabies virus by hydrogen peroxide.

Sun, 27 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to investigate the ability of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to irreversibly inactivate rabies virus without affecting its antigenicity and immunogenicity in pursuit of finding safe, effective and inexpensive alternative inactivating agents. H2O2 3% rapidly inactivated a Vero cell adapted fixed rabies virus strain designated as FRV/K within 2h of exposure without affecting its antigenicity or immunogenicity. No residual infectious virus was detected and the H2O2-inactivated vaccine proved to be safe and effective when compared with the same virus harvest inactivated with the classical inactivating agent βPL. Mice immunized with H2O2-inactivated rabies virus produced sufficient level of antibodies and were protected when challenged with lethal CVS virus. These findings reinforce...

Kamada's rabies drug succeeds in trial

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 11:44:43 +0100

(Reuters) - Israeli drugmaker Kamada Ltd said its rabies therapy was found as effective as a reference drug in a large trial and it would file for a U.S. approval for the therapy by mid-2016. (Source: Reuters: Health)

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate - Virginia, 2015.

Tue, 22 Dec 2015 04:20:02 +0100

This report underscores the ongoing risk posed by U.S. importation of domestic animals that have not been adequately vaccinated against rabies. PMID: 26678293 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Difficulties in estimating the human burden of canine rabies.

Tue, 22 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article critically evaluates the potential sources of information on the number of human deaths attributable to canine rabies, and how we might improve the estimates required to move towards the goal of global canine rabies elimination. PMID: 26721555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Tropica)

Correlation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibition with TNF-α, caspase-1, FasL and TLR-3 in pathogenesis of rabies in mouse model

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The role of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1α/β (IL-1α/β), IL-6, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interferons, nitric oxide (NO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in pathogenesis of rabies is being actively pursued. Presently, levels of certain immune molecules in pathogenesis of rabies in mice have been investigated. CVS strain of rabies infection resulted in early increase in iNOS, TNF-α, caspase-1, Fas ligand (FasL) and toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) mRNA levels in brain, and nitric oxide levels in serum. The severity of clinical signs and microscopic lesions largely correlated with NO levels. Aminoguanidine (AG; iNOS inhibitor) decreased NO production with delay in development of clinical signs and increase in survival time. Prolo...

Intravenous administration of brain-targeted stable nucleic acid lipid particles alleviates Machado-Joseph disease neurological phenotype.

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Conceição M, Mendonça L, Nóbrega C, Gomes C, Costa P, Hirai H, Moreira JN, Lima MC, Manjunath N, Pereira de Almeida L Abstract Others and we showed that RNA interference holds great promise for the treatment of dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disorders such as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), for which there is no available treatment. However, successful experiments involved intracranial administration of viral vectors and there is a need for a safer and less invasive procedure. In this work, we successfully generated stable nucleic acid lipid particles (SNALPs), incorporating a short peptide derived from rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG-9r) and encapsulating small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), which can target mutant ataxin-3. The developed formulation exhibited import...

Expression of rabies virus glycoprotein in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry)

A Case Report of Post Rabipur (Purified Chick Embryo Rabies Vaccine) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

Sun, 20 Dec 2015 21:07:04 +0100

Authors: Kumar R, Singh AK, Pradhan RN, Pathak VK Abstract Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that typically occurs following a viral infection or vaccination. The incidence of ADEM following vaccination has become very low since introduction of non-neural rabies vaccine and only few cases had been reported due to pure chick embryo derived rabies vaccine (PCERV). Here we are reporting a rare case of delayed post vaccinal ADEM. PMID: 26591130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India)

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Rabies--"Milwaukie Protocol".

Sun, 20 Dec 2015 21:07:04 +0100

Rabies--"Milwaukie Protocol". J Assoc Physicians India. 2015 Mar;63(3):143-4 Authors: Pai-Dhungat JV, Parikh F PMID: 26543994 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India)

Time to eliminate rabies

Sat, 19 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 19 December 2015–1 January 2016 Source:The Lancet, Volume 386, Issue 10012 Author(s): The Lancet (Source: The Lancet)

[Editorial] Time to eliminate rabies

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 17:25:14 +0100

On Dec 10, WHO and the World Organisation for Animal Health, in collaboration with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the Global Alliance for the Control of Rabies, launched a global framework to eliminate rabies by 2030. This initiative marks the first time that the human and animal health sectors have come together to adopt a common strategy to tackle this devastating, but massively neglected, disease. (Source: LANCET)

Rabies in a Dog Imported from Egypt with a Falsified Rabies Vaccination Certificate — Virginia, 2015

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 11:49:16 +0100

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)

Saliva and viral infections.

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 08:46:20 +0100

Authors: Corstjens PL, Abrams WR, Malamud D Abstract Over the last 10 years there have been only a handful of publications dealing with the oral virome, which is in contrast to the oral microbiome, an area that has seen considerable interest. Here, we survey viral infections in general and then focus on those viruses that are found in and/or are transmitted via the oral cavity; norovirus, rabies, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, herpes simplex viruses, hepatitis C virus, and HIV. Increasingly, viral infections have been diagnosed using an oral sample (e.g. saliva mucosal transudate or an oral swab) instead of blood or urine. The results of two studies using a rapid and semi-quantitative lateral flow assay format demonstrating the correlation of HIV anti-IgG/sIgA detection ...

MedWorm Sponsor Message: Directory of the best January Sales in the UK. Find the best Christmas presents too.

Transolfactory neuroinvasion by viruses threatens the human brain.

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 07:56:03 +0100

This article briefly summarizes the anatomy, physiology, and immunology of the olfactory system and presents a battery of neurovirulent viruses that may threaten the human brain by invading through this peripheral pathway, especially focusing on two of the most intensively studied viruses - HSV-1 and influenza A virus. Viruses may insidiously invade the olfactory neural network not only to precipitate encephalitis/encephalopathy but also to promote the development of neurodegenerative and demyelinating disorders. Substantial information obtained by analyzing human specimens is required to argue for or against this hypothesis. PMID: 26666182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Virologica)

Optimization of artificial neural network by genetic algorithm for describing viral production from uniform design data

Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Process Biochemistry Author(s): Maria Beatriz Takahashi, José Celso Rocha, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández Núñez This work objective was to define a modeling approach based on genetic algorithm (GA) for optimizing parameters of an artificial neural network (ANN); the latter describes rabies virus production in BHK-21 cells based on empirical data derived from uniform designs (UDs) with different numbers of experimental runs. The parameters considered for viral infection were temperature (34 and 37°C), multiplicity of infection (0.04, 0.07, and 0.1), infection, and harvest times (24, 48, and 72h), with virus production as the monitored output variable. A multilevel factorial experimental design was performed and used to train, v...

Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Mey C, Metlin A, Duong V, Ong S, In S, Horwood PF, Reynes JM, Bourhy H, Tarantola A, Buchy P Abstract This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region we...