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MedWorm: Polio provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Polio category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:30:31 +0100


Guillain–Barré syndrome in Bangladesh: The role TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success to eradicate poliomyelitis, however, Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is frequently diagnosed. GBS is an autoimmune mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system preceded by infections. Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as the predominant cause of antecedent infection in GBS. C. jejuni lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces antibodies cross-reactive with gangliosides and has shown to be involved in peripheral nerve damage. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Polio eradication: End game and beyond

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: In 2013, the target of polio eradication was broadened to include wild and vaccine polioviruses. In the “Polio Eradication and End Game Strategic Plan 2013-18” eradication refers to wild polioviruses (WPVs) and end game refers to managing all risks from vaccine polioviruses. WPVs can be eradicated using oral poliovaccine (OPV). Inactivated poliovaccine (IPV) is necessary to eradicate vaccine polioviruses. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Integrated human and animal vaccination delivery to Nomadic Fulani communities in Northern Nigeria 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Nigeria remains the only African country yet to interrupt transmission of wild polio virus and has a high incidence of childhood vaccine preventable diseases. Routine immunization (RI) services have not achieved sufficient coverages in remote rural settings especially among nomadic Fulani pastoralist. The high mobility and dispersion of these pastoralists makes easily missed by healthcare services yet these pastoralist often seek medical care for their animals regardless of the cost. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Polio eradication initiatives, a critical data analysis, District Khairpur, Sindh Pakistan, 2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: By the end of 2014 Polio outbreaks were reported in 04 bordering districts of Khairpur. Pre, process and post campaign prime indicators were reviewed in the light of National Emergency Action Plan (NEAP) strategy for Polio Eradication innitiatives (PEI) to find and fill the gaps through appropriate recommendations to minimize the risk of virus circulation in 2015. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

The impact of increased use of ASHAs on rural immunization coverage in India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are located in rural Indian villages to promote positive health behaviors and facilitate better health care utilization, including vaccination. We calculated the average coverage of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccine (BCG); Diphtheria, Pertussis, and Tetanus vaccine (DPT); polio vaccine; measles vaccine, and full vaccine coverage (BCG, 3 doses of DPT, 3 doses of polio, and measles vaccine) across districts in India, and evaluated the impact of expanded ASHA presence on changes in district-level vaccine coverage. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Campylobacter jejuni infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: An emerging cause of acute flaccid paralysis after the eradication of poliomyelitis in Bangladesh

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success with the eradication of poliomyelitis. However, non-polio acute flaccid paralysis and its clinical presentation as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is still frequently diagnosed. GBS has a diverse clinical phenotype that varies according to geography. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the predominant bacterial infection preceding GBS. The purpose of the study was to define the clinical phenotype of GBS and the relation with preceding C. jejuni infection and anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM1, GD1 and GQ1b) in a large GBS cohort from Bangladesh. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Evaluation of Ondo State acute flaccid paralysis surveillance system (2009-2013)

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is a clinical syndrome with infectious and non-infectious causes. AFP surveillance is the gold standard for detection of poliomyelitis cases and surveillance during polio outbreaks. Ondo state AFP surveillance system was evaluated to describe the key attributes and the process of operation, to determine the efficiency and effectiveness of the surveillance system and to make appropriate recommendations for improving the surveillance system. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Challenges of Polio Vaccination

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 04:41:42 +0100

Noted religious scholar Maulana Samiul Haq administers oral polio vaccine to children. Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Ashfaq YusufzaiPESHAWAR, Pakistan, Mar 29 2016 (IPS)Pakistan and Afghanistan, the two remaining polio-endemic countries, have joined forces to eradicate poliomyelitis by vaccinating their children in synchronised campaigns. The two neighbouring countries — sharing a 2,400 kms long and porous border — have been bracketed as the stumbling block in the way of the global polio eradication drive. These militancy-riddled countries have been tackling Taliban’s opposition to the administration of oral polio vaccine (OPV) to children.Peshawar, the capital of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), one of Pakistan’s four provinces along with the adjacent Federally Administered Tribal...

Zambia: 'New Polio Vaccine Is More Effective'

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 07:21:57 +0100

[Times of Zambia] GOVERNMENT has said the new Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) to be introduced to 18 month-old babies this year, will be more effective than the oral vaccine. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Importation and outbreak of wild polioviruses from 2000 to 2014 and interruption of transmission in Cameroon

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In 1988, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) with the initial objective to interrupt wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission worldwide by the year 2000. The main strategies for the eradication program are the use of extensive immunization campaigns with live-attenuated oral polio vaccine (OPV) and the surveillance of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. Considerable progress has been registered towards the interruption of WPV transmission worldwide. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)

Liberia: Polio Vaccination Campaign Begins Today

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:23:38 +0100

[NEWS] The National Deputy Program Manager for Expanded Immunization at the Ministry of Health Adolpus T. Clarke has disclosed that a nationwide immunization campaigh against polio would begin today, March 25, 2016. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

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Nigeria: Ending Polio Will Bring Wider Benefits

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 14:11:08 +0100

[allAfrica] Nigeria has seen a year and a half with no child paralysed by wild poliovirus. This is a remarkable achievement, taking the world one step closer to reaching eradication once and for all. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

He Looks At Tuberculosis Death Toll And Wonders Why You're Not Worried

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:00:22 +0100

Aaron Motsoaledi is tired of delivering the same spiel over and over again. No matter how many times the charismatic health minister of South Africa speaks out, people don’t seem to grasp the threat presented by tuberculosis, now the No. 1 infectious killer in the world. “People think it’s a curable disease that’s been there for ages, so what’s new? I think that’s the mentality,” Dr. Motsoaledi told The Huffington Post. As chair of the Stop TB Partnership, a group of public and private leaders hosted through the United Nations Office for Project Service, he has seen the eyes of bureaucrats around the world glaze over when he brings up TB. And yet 4,100 people die every day from the disease. His own country is one of the hardest hit. Motsoaledi...

Characterization of outbreak response strategies and potential vaccine stockpile needs for the polio endgame

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Following successful eradication of wild polioviruses and planned globally-coordinated cessation of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), national and global health leaders may need to respond to outbreaks from reint... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)

The inconvenient truth of vaccine refusal

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 13:30:07 +0100

Follow me at @drClaire When I talk to parents who are hesitant about vaccines, what they most want to talk to me about are possible side effects of the vaccine. They worry about everything from fevers and soreness to additives to possible links to autism. They rarely worry about the diseases that vaccines prevent—and that’s what worries me most of all. It is the inconvenient truth of vaccine refusal: when you don’t get vaccinated against an illness, you are more likely to catch it. A study just released in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) makes this very clear. Researchers looked at information about recent measles and pertussis outbreaks. They found that unvaccinated people made up the majority of those who caught measles and a large proportion of those who cau...

[Correspondence] Is introduction of IPV “Good news for billions of children”?

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:07:51 +0100

Mass worldwide vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) has resulted in a steep decrease in polio infections and associated paralysis. Since the world is now close to eradicating polio, vaccine-derived polio constitutes an increasing proportion of overall polio infections. From this perspective, introduction of the more expensive inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) solves a problem as emphasised in the Comment by Kimberley Thompson.1 (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

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[Correspondence] Is introduction of IPV “Good news for billions of children”? – Author's reply

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:07:51 +0100

The decision to globally coordinate cessation of use of the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV), starting with serotype 2 between April 15 and April 30, 2016 (with expected cessation of serotypes 1 and 3 after certification of the world as free of wild polioviruses of those serotypes), represents a crucial step in the effort to end all cases of poliomyelitis.1 After all use of OPV ends, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) will represent the only option available to protect people from any potential risks of re-introduction of polioviruses. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)

Crippling violence: conflict and incident polio in Afghanistan - Norris A, Hachey K, Curtis A, Bourdeaux M.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 19:34:31 +0100

BACKGROUND: Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question. METHODS: We examine the geographical relationship between viole... (Source: SafetyLit)

Long-term follow-up of patients with prior polio over a 17-year period.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:48:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: More than half of the patients with prior polio had died between 1995 and 2012. These patients were, on average, older than patients surviving in 2012. When interviewed in 2012 most of the patients felt progressively worse, with poor mobility and increased muscle weakness. PMID: 26983649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine)

Surgery of the airway: historic notes.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 22:38:02 +0100

Authors: Cooper JD Abstract Prior to the 20(th) century, the need for surgical procedures on the airway was infrequent and consisted mainly of tracheostomy to relieve airway obstruction or repair of tracheal injuries such as lacerations. Even the ability of tracheal suture lines to heal primarily was viewed with concern due to the rigidity of the tracheal wall, its precarious blood supply and uncertainty as to whether the cartilage components could heal without complications. In the 20(th) century the evolution of tracheal procedures on major airways evolved to meet the challenges provided by the expanding fields of thoracic surgery and advent of mechanical respiratory support with its associated complications. In the first half of the century lobar and lung resections done for tub...

Injection Site Lichenoid Dermatitis Following Pneumococcal Vaccination: Report and Review of Cutaneous Conditions Occurring at Vaccination Sites

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Dermatoses at the injection sites of vaccines can be granulomatous, immunity-related conditions, infections, lichenoid, neutrophilic, or pseudolymphomatous. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common vaccination site-associated malignancies; however, melanoma and sarcomas (dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma) are also smallpox vaccine-related site neoplasms. A cutaneous immunocompromised district that is created by vaccine-induced local immunologic changes is hypothesized to be the pathogenesis of vaccination site reactions. (Source: Dermatology and Therapy)

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Challenges to health workers and their opinions about parents' refusal of oral polio vaccination in the Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province, Pakistan.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Khan TM, Khayam SM Abstract A qualitative study design was adapted to explore the challenges faced by health workers (HWs) during the polio health campaign. In addition, HWs' opinions about the factors causing parents to refuse oral polio vaccination (OPV) were also explored. Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were held (from 1st January 2015-31st March 2015) with the HWs who participated in the OPV campaigns in the polio red zones of Khyber Pakhtoon Khawa (KPK) province of Pakistan, namely Kohat (FG 1), Domel and Bannu (FG 2), Hangoo (FG 3), and Peshawar (FG 4). A total of N=42 HWs (10-11 in each FG) agreed to participate in this study. Overall, HWs disclosed that public attitude and harsh behaviour towards the HWs and security threats are the two main challenges they fa...

First Mention: The Unfolding of Polio

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 18:52:25 +0100

In The Times, it began with an 1857 article on graduation at New-York Medical College. The prize for best thesis went to one on infantile paralysis. (Source: NYT Health)

So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries – Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has b... (Source: BMC Medicine)

Changing oral vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine might increase mortality

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 12–18 March 2016 Source:The Lancet, Volume 387, Issue 10023 Author(s): Eleanor N Fish, Kate L Flanagan, David Furman, Sabra L Klein, Tobias R Kollmann, Dorthe L Jeppesen, Ofer Levy, Arnaud Marchant, Siva Namachivayam, Mihai G Netea, Magdalena Plebanski, Sarah L Rowland-Jones, Liisa K Selin, Frank Shann, Hilton C Whittle (Source: The Lancet)

[Correspondence] Changing oral vaccine to inactivated polio vaccine might increase mortality

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 06:34:04 +0100

We, the undersigned, write as physicians and scientists committed to optimising the beneficial effects of vaccines to reduce infant mortality worldwide. In settings with high childhood mortality, live vaccines such as oral polio vaccine (OPV), BCG vaccine, and measles vaccine might have heterologous (non-specific) effects that reduce mortality from diseases other than poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, and measles, respectively, whereas inactivated vaccines might increase all-cause mortality.1 The importance of these effects is controversial. (Source: LANCET)

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What happened to the CDC's courage on guns?

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:11:01 +0100

As director of the Centers for Disease Control, Dr. Tom Frieden has tweeted and talked about everything from AIDS to obesity to mosquitoes in Hawaii, the overuse of antibiotics, polio in Pakistan, Ebola, sanitation services in East Africa, ambulances in Sierra Leone, premature babies, sexually transmitted diseases, flu shots and World Toilet Day. (Source: - Health)

Nigeria: Rotary President Wants Nigeria to Sustain Polio Status

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 12:23:16 +0100

[Guardian] President, Rotary International Ravi Ravidran, yesterday urged Nigeria to sustain the polio-free status it has attained in the last one and a half years. He commended the country's resilience and passion in using the experiences learnt to tackle threats to public health. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Cameroon: Littoral Region - Over 690,000 Children to Be Vaccinated Against Poliomyelitis

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 09:05:42 +0100

[Cameroon Tribune] The campaigns which targets children of 0-5 years in the Littoral will run from March 10-12. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Nigeria: Buhari Receives Award for Commitment to Ending Polio

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 06:46:56 +0100

[CAJ News] Abuja -The Rotary has presented President Muhammadu Buhari with its Polio Eradication Champion Award in recognition of his and government's efforts to keep Nigeria polio-free. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Nigeria: State Not Free From Polio Yet - Rotary International

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 05:41:59 +0100

[Daily Trust] Nigeria can not be said to be free from polio disease yet despite not recording any new case in the past 18 months, Rotary International President Ravi Ravindran has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

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Nigeria: Rotary Club Reinstates Commitment Against Polio

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 05:33:50 +0100

[This Day] As part of efforts to sustain Nigeria's status as a Polio-free nation, Rotary Club International, has announced the commencement of a project towards contributing to the global eradication of polio. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Principles of artificial ventilation

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016 Source:Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine Author(s): Ben Brown, Justin Roberts The application of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) during the 1952 Copenhagen polio epidemic led to the development of the world's first intensive care unit. The requirement for ventilatory support is the most common indication for intensive therapy unit (ITU) admission and is a defining feature of the speciality. Ventilator technology continues to develop and there are many ways to deliver IPPV. The variety of modes of ventilation is increasingly complex and expanding, without evidence that any one mode is associated with improved outcome. Ventilatory support is part of the treatment for a range of conditions including acute respir...

Nigeria: Buhari Wins Polio Eradication Champion Award

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 14:12:37 +0100

[Premium Times] In acknowledgment of his government's efforts to keep Nigeria polio-free, Rotary ( Wednesday presented President Muhammadu Buhari with its Polio Eradication Champion Award. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Kenya: Kabonokia Sect Members Flee Their Homes in Tharaka-Nithi to Avoid Polio Vaccination

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 10:57:50 +0100

[Nation] Members of the Kabonokia sect from Tharaka-Nithi have fled their homes in a bid to avoid polio vaccination for their children, citing their religious beliefs which are against the use of conventional medicine. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Parental Vaccine Hesitancy in Quebec (Canada)

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 16:00:05 +0100

This study aims to contribute to the ongoing reflections on tools and indicators of vaccine hesitancy by providing results of a survey on knowledge, attitudes and beliefs (KAB) of parents in Quebec (Canada). We have compared KAB of parents according to: 1) self-reported vaccination status of their child and 2) hesitation during the vaccination decision. Methods Data were collected through the 2014 Quebec study on vaccination against seasonal influenza and pneumococcal infections, a biennial repeated cross-sectional study in the province of Quebec, Canada. This paper presents the results pertaining to parents’ KAB about vaccination; the full report can be found elsewhere.15 Data were collected through a computer-assisted telephone interview survey conducted between March 18 and April 2...

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Botswana: Response to HPV Vaccine Campaign Positive

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 10:56:41 +0100

[Botswana Daily News] Masunga -Since the introduction of the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccine campaign, North East District parents have been supportive in order for their young girls to get the possible help. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Nigeria: Jigawa LG Immunises 65,061 Children Against Polio

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 08:50:36 +0100

[Daily Trust] A total of 65, 061 children were immunised against polio virus in Miga Local Government Area of Jigawa during the last round of polio immunisation. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Nigeria: War Against VPD - After Polio, Measles Should Be Next

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 05:38:23 +0100

[Leadership] When the World Health Organization (WHO) declared Nigeria polio-free, it was celebrated after fighting the battle since 1976. This battle also forced the federal government to set up the National Programme on Immunization (NPI) in the same year. Though the effort failed woefully but in 1979 it was reactivated, leading to the emergence of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI).The same can be done to other Vaccine Preventable Diseases (VPD), ODIRI UCHENUNU writes. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Has India Really Been Rendered Free of Polio?

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Homoeopathic Links 2016; 29: 050-052DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572336Polio means paralysis may be cause by polio virus hominis, which is said to be a type of enterovirus, or by trauma sustained by the main motor nerves of the extremities. The result is always in the form of acute or instantaneous flaccid paralysis in both the cases. Despite having been declared polio-free in the early months of 2014, evidence shows that polio is not in fact eradicated from Udham Singh Nagar, or indeed throughout India.[...]Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Homoeopathic Links)

Spillover effect of HIV-specific foreign aid on immunization services in Nigeria

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions HIV-specific aid had a negative spillover effect on immunization services in Nigeria over the study period. Donors may need to rethink their funding strategies in favour of more horizontal approaches. (Source: International Health)

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Southern Africa: Angola Eligible for WHO's Polio-Free Certificate

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 08:42:31 +0100

[ANGOP] Luau -Angola could soon get the World Health Organisation (WHO)'s poliomyelitis-free certificate. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Nigeria: Plateau Immunizes 700,000 Children Against Polio

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 05:47:01 +0100

[Premium Times] The Plateau State government on Wednesday said it immunised 700,000 children under the age of five against polio virus. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Sierra Leone: '72 Percent Susceptible Persons Infected With Polio Have No Symptoms'

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 13:14:50 +0100

[Concord] Deputy Programme Manager of Child Health/Expanded Programme on Immunization in the Ministry of Health and Sanitation has revealed that up to about 72% of susceptible persons infected with polio show no symptoms at all. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Kenya: Ministry Targets 1.8 Million Children in Polio Vaccination Drive

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 06:59:52 +0100

[Nation] Close to two million children under the age of five in 13 counties are targeted in a new polio vaccination campaign. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

GlaxoSmithKline fined less than $100,000 for killing 14 babies during vaccine trials

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

(NaturalNews) In reacting to recent news that pharmaceutical giant GlaxoSmithKline accidentally dumped 12 gallons of live, concentrated polio virus into a Belgian river, it is important to remember that the company has a long history of safety violations in its vaccine business. In... (Source:

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The Role of the Nervous System in the Pathophysiology of Psoriasis: A Review of Cases of Psoriasis Remission or Improvement Following Denervation Injury

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract As most efforts in the last decade have focused on the immunologic basis of inflammatory skin disease, there has been less emphasis on the role of the nervous system in the disease process of psoriasis. Evidence in support of the neurocutaneous pathway has come from observations of patients experiencing unilateral improvement and even complete remission following nerve damage in the affected dermatomal region. The aim of this review was to investigate the role of neuropeptides in the intricate pathophysiology of psoriasis. The PubMed database was searched for individual case reports or case series that reported clearance or significant improvement in psoriatic disease in patients following documented nerve injury. A total of 11 cases were found that reported improvement o...

Statement on the 8th IHR Emergency Committee meeting regarding the international spread of poliovirus

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 15:36:00 +0100

The eighth meeting of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005) (IHR) regarding the international spread of poliovirus was convened via teleconference by the Director-General on 12 February 2016. As with the seventh meeting, the Emergency Committee reviewed the data on circulating wild poliovirus as well as circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPV). The latter is particularly important as cVDPVs reflect serious gaps in immunity to poliovirus due to weaknesses in routine immunization coverage in otherwise polio-free countries. In addition, it is essential to stop type 2 cVDPVs in advance of the globally synchronized withdrawal of type 2 OPV in April 2016. The following IHR States Parties submitted an update on the implementation of the Temporary Reco...

Cameroon: Polio Vaccination Campaign Rounds Off

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 13:25:35 +0100

[Cameroon Tribune] Children between 0-5 years across the country were administered the oral vaccine over the weekend. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Nigeria: Nigeria Gets Global Praise for Stopping Polio

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 11:51:15 +0100

[Guardian] - WHO urges continued immunisation of children (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

The Development of Surveillance Systems

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health meant the systematic reporting of infecti...

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Nigeria: Sokoto Tackles Polio Vaccine Rejection, One Million Immunized Against Measles

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 13:48:04 +0100

[Daily Trust] Sokoto -One million children have been immunised against measles and other child killer diseases in the last three months in Sokoto State, Commissioner of Health, Dr. Shehu Kakale has said. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

A human quadrupedal gait following poliomyelitis: From the Dercum-Muybridge collaboration (1885)

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Despite Dercum's assertion to the contrary, the limb placement pattern of the boy with a pathologic quadrupedal gait after poliomyelitis was not the typical gait of a primate quadruped, but rather was the typical gait sequence for normal human developmental and volitional quadrupedal gaits. (Source: Neurology)

The Development of Surveillance Systems.

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Henderson DA Abstract Surveillance systems in public health practice have increased in number and sophistication with advances in data collection, analysis, and communication. When the Communicable Disease Center (now the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) was founded some 70 years ago, surveillance referred to the close observation of individuals with suspected smallpox, plague, or cholera. Alexander Langmuir, head of the Epidemiology Branch, redefined surveillance as the epidemiology-based critical factor in infectious disease control. I joined Langmuir as assistant chief in 1955 and was appointed chief of the Surveillance Section in 1961. In this paper, I describe Langmuir's redefinition of surveillance. Langmuir asserted that its proper use in public health me...

Zimbabwe: Africa Urged to Increase Investment in Immunisation

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 05:30:08 +0100

[The Herald] Roselyne Sachiti -African countries, especially those that have attained middle class status have been urged to increase investment in immunisation and start making preparations to finance activities from their own national budgets and move from donor dependence. According to a new report "Fulfilling a promise: Ensuring immunisation for all in Africa" issued here by the World Health Organisation's Regional Office for Africa and the Eastern Mediterranean region ahead of the first ever Ministerial Conference on Immunisation i (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Zimbabwe: Remain Vigilant On Polio Vaccination - WHO Boss

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 04:56:53 +0100

[The Herald] African countries have been called upon to remain vigilant in polio eradication efforts so that the continent can be officially certified polio-free come 2017. Addressing delegates at the official opening of the first-ever Ministerial Conference on Immunisation in Africa, here, yesterday, World Health Organisation Africa Region Director Dr Matshidiso Moeti said to secure a polio-free future, African countries should take several important steps. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

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Circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus – Lao People’s Democratic Republic

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Between 6 and 16 February 2016, the National IHR Focal Point (NFP) of Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) notified WHO of 3 additional cases of vaccine-derived poliovirus type 1 (VDPV1). Neither of the two cases received oral polio vaccine (OPV). On 3 February 2016, the National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan reported that stool samples for both cases tested positive for type 1 circulating vaccine-derived polio virus (cVDPV1). There is no epidemiological link between the two cases. (Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks)

Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of pentavalent vaccine Quinvaxem in a compact prefilled auto-disabled (cPAD) injection system versus single-dose vials in healthy infants: a phase 3, open-label, randomized, parallel-group, non-inferiority study

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Immunization is a cost-effective and life-saving intervention that prevents an estimated two to three million deaths every year from vaccine-preventable diseases.1,2 The aim of the World Health Organization (WHO) Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) is to protect children against life-threatening diseases like tuberculosis, diphtheria, neonatal tetanus, whooping cough, poliomyelitis, and measles, as well as hepatitis B3 and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib).4 According to the WHO, approximately 22.6 million children worldwide did not receive the full three doses of diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis (DTP3) vaccine in 2012. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Sierra Leone: Over 1.4 Million Children to Benefit From Polio Vaccination

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 08:38:52 +0100

[Sierra Leone Government] Freetown -One million four hundred and ninety three thousand seven hundred and eighty-five children from 0-59 months are to benefit from Polio vaccination countrywide. The Immunization starts from Friday February 26 to Monday February 29, 2016. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Africa: Nigeria - Keeping Polio At Bay Through Door-to-Door Visits

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 08:41:27 +0100

[IFRC] For the past two decades, Nigeria has been pursuing the eradication of polio. About 15 years ago, the perception around the world was that Nigeria, the most populated country in Africa, would be the last country to eradicate polio. Today, Nigeria has successfully reached zero cases of polio, and, in 2015, the World Health Organization announced the paralyzing disease was no longer endemic in the country. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

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What happened to the CDC's courage on guns?

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 13:21:36 +0100

As director of the Centers for Disease Control, Dr. Tom Frieden has tweeted and talked about everything from AIDS to obesity to mosquitoes in Hawaii, the overuse of antibiotics, polio in Pakistan, Ebola, sanitation services in East Africa, ambulances in Sierra Leone, premature babies, sexually transmitted diseases, flu shots and World Toilet Day. (Source: - Health)

Nigeria: 'Kogi Will Be Free of Polio in Six Years'

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 08:17:36 +0100

[Vanguard] Mrs Blessing Ameh, Health Educator, Kogi State Ministry of Health, said on Saturday that the state was free of polio for upward of six years without new cases. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Nigeria: Kogi Free of Polio in Six Years - Official

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 05:47:22 +0100

[Guardian] Mrs Blessing Ameh, Health Educator, Kogi State Ministry of Health, said on Saturday that the state was free of polio for upward of six years without new cases. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

Current views and advances on Paediatric Virology: An update for paediatric trainees.

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 10:15:03 +0100

Authors: Mammas IN, Greenough A, Theodoridou M, Kramvis A, Christaki I, Koutsaftiki C, Koutsaki M, Portaliou DM, Kostagianni G, Panagopoulou P, Sourvinos G, Spandidos DA Abstract Paediatric Virology is a bold new scientific field, which combines Paediatrics with Virology, Epidemiology, Molecular Medicine, Evidence-based Medicine, Clinical Governance, Quality Improvement, Pharmacology and Immunology. The Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on Saturday October 10, 2015 in Athens, Greece, provided an overview of recent views and advances on viral infections occurring in neonates and children. It was included in the official programme of the 20th World Congress on Advances in Oncology and the 18th International Symposium on Molecular Medicine, which attracted over 500 del...

Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 22:56:03 +0100

Authors: Blake IM, Chenoweth P, Okayasu H, Donnelly CA, Aylward RB, Grassly NC Abstract As the global eradication of poliomyelitis approaches the final stages, prompt detection of new outbreaks is critical to enable a fast and effective outbreak response. Surveillance relies on reporting of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases and laboratory confirmation through isolation of poliovirus from stool. However, delayed sample collection and testing can delay outbreak detection. We investigated whether weekly testing for clusters of AFP by location and time, using the Kulldorff scan statistic, could provide an early warning for outbreaks in 20 countries. A mixed-effects regression model was used to predict background rates of nonpolio AFP at the district level. In Tajikistan and Congo, te...

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Falls in Korean polio survivors: incidence, consequences, and risk factors - Nam KY, Lee S, Yang EJ, Kim K, Jung SH, Jang SN, Han SJ, Kim WH, Lim JY.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 19:34:53 +0100

Falls and fall-related injuries are important issue among polio survivors. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of, and consequences and factors associated with falls among Korean polio survivors. A total of 317 polio survivors particip... (Source: SafetyLit)

Africa: Africa - Now Is the Time to Reach Every Child With Life-Saving Vaccines

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 10:53:39 +0100

[Ethiopian Herald] Africa has an incredible opportunity to provide a better life for each and every child, and we know exactly how to seize it, provide universal access to immunization across the continent to protect them from vaccine preventable diseases. We have seen the trans-formative impact of efforts to reach more children with life-saving vaccines. Child deaths in Africa fell by half over the past generation, in large part due to the use of high impact interventions such as immunization. Polio, a disease that once par (Source: AllAfrica News: Pregnancy and Childbirth)

Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB) in viral infections.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Malinowska M, Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej P, Tokarz-Deptuła B, Deptuła W Abstract During reaction to stress caused by viral infection, RNA granules are formed in order to protect mRNA. Stress granules (SG) and processing bodies (PB) provide cell homeostasis and mRNA stability. They are formed, for example, during polio virus and MRV (mammalian orthoreovirus) infections. Some viruses, such as influenza virus and HTLV-1 (Human T-lymphotropic virus 1), block the formation of granules. In addition, there are viruses like West Nile Virus, Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) or human Herpes viruses, which influence the functioning of the granules. PMID: 26894234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Acta Biochim Pol)

The antiviral potency of Fagus sylvatica 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Pujol CA, Damonte EB, Turjan J, Yanbo KZ, Capek P Abstract Herpes simplex virus belongs to Herpesviridae family and causes infection of humans from ancient times. 4OMe-glucuronoxylans as the renewable biopolymers can be promising glycomaterials for various applications in pharmacy. Control enzymatic degradation of the native 4OMe-glucuronoxylan (GX1) followed by targeted sulfation procedure afforded a range of 4OMe-glucuronoxylan sulfates differed in the degree of sulfation (10-16%) and molecular mass (21,000-5,000g/mol; GXS1>GXS2>GXS3>GXS4). Antiviral activity tests on GXS1-4 against herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 revealed the positive effect of all compounds against strains of herpes virus. Of them, the compounds GXS1 and GXS4 were shown to be the most...

World Health Organization responds to growing health needs in Yemen, calls for increased access

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 09:16:04 +0100

17 February 2016 Despite facing significant challenges as a result of the ongoing conflict in Yemen, WHO continues to respond to the increasing health needs of millions of people across the country. Since the beginning of the crisis, WHO has reached more than seven million people in 23 governorates through the provision of medicines, medical supplies, mobile medical teams and mobile clinics. More than five million children below the age of five have been vaccinated against polio, measles and rubella by WHO and partners. WHO has also provided more than 19 million litres of safe water and one million litres of fuel to health facilities and camps hosting internally displaced persons. In Taiz governorate, where hundreds of thousands of people are virtually cut off from humanitarian aid, WHO h...

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Struggling to be part of Swedish society: Strategies used by immigrants with late effects of polio.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 05:56:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The strategies revealed that the participants strive to participate in occupations and society. This study reinforces the importance of occupation for immigrants with disability. The results highlight the need for adequate health care and rehabilitation but should also alert other social institutions. PMID: 26107773 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy)

The Guardian view on cancer cures: not the only killer disease | Editorial

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 15:27:47 +0100

The billions that go into trying to find a cure might save more lives if they were spent on better understanding heart and lung diseaseAccording to the Office for National Statistics’ mortality figures, cancers vie for first place with heart and circulation diseases. But spending on the search for a cancer cure and the medication bill for its victims dwarfs the research into any other disease. It overwhelms the attempt to stamp out some of the common diseases that still blight parts of the developing world, such as the $5bn that the polio eradication campaign is raising.Cancer has an extraordinary grip on the western imagination. In some ways, that is unsurprising. It often seems to strike its victims young and to kill them slowly. And over the past couple of decades the new genre of can...

Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:23:02 +0100

Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled t...

Muscle weakness and perceived disability of upper limbs in persons with late effects of polio

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Persons with prior polio and muscle weakness in their upper limbs perceive difficulties to use their arms in daily life, especially when performing activities above their head and strenuous household or leisure activities. The fair to moderate correlations of muscle strength with self-perceived disability imply that the weakness can only partially explain the perceived disabilities of arm, shoulder and hand. Other factors are therefore important to consider in the rehabilitation of persons with late effects of polio and upper limb disability. (Source: PMandR)

The predictive link between matrix and metastasis

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: February 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, Volume 11 Author(s): LE Barney, LE Jansen, SR Polio, S Galarza, ME Lynch, SR Peyton Cancer spread (metastasis) is responsible for 90% of cancer-related fatalities. Informing patient treatment to prevent metastasis, or kill all cancer cells in a patient's body before it becomes metastatic is extremely powerful. However, aggressive treatment for all non-metastatic patients is detrimental, both for quality of life concerns, and the risk of kidney or liver-related toxicity. Knowing when and where a patient has metastatic risk could revolutionize patient treatment and care. In this review, we attempt to summarize the key work of engineers and quantitative biologists in developing strategies and model systems...

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Muscle weakness and perceived disability of upper limbs in persons with late effects of polio

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Muscle weakness in one or both upper limbs is common in persons with prior polio, but there is very limited knowledge how it influences daily life. (Source: PM and R)

Despite threats, thousands join anti-polio drive in Pakistan, a last bastion of the disease

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 17:23:16 +0100

KARACHI/ISLAMABAD (Reuters) - More than 100,000 health workers fanned out across Pakistan on Monday, stepping up a drive to eliminate the polio virus this year from one of its last bastions, despite continuing militant threats to vaccination teams. (Source: Reuters: Health)

Nigeria: FG Receives U.S.$0.29 Billion Health Equipment From AfDB

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 06:45:36 +0100

[Vanguard] The Federal Government has received a donation of health equipment valued at US$290,000 from the African Development Bank (AfDB) as support to address the current health challenges in the country, even as Nigeria pledged tyo ensure that it eradicates polio. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Notes from the Field: Circulating Vaccine-Derived Poliovirus Outbreaks - Five Countries, 2014-2015.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 11:37:02 +0100

Authors: Morales M, Nnadi CD, Tangermann RH, Wassilak SG Abstract In 2015, wild poliovirus (WPV) transmission was identified in only Afghanistan and Pakistan (1). The widespread use of live, attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been key in polio eradication efforts. However, OPV use, particularly in areas with low vaccination coverage, is associated with the low risk for emergence of vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPV), which can cause paralysis (2). VDPVs vary genetically from vaccine viruses and can cause outbreaks in areas with low vaccination coverage. Circulating VDPVs (cVDPVs) are VDPVs in confirmed outbreaks. Single VDPVs for which the origin cannot be determined are classified as ambiguous (aVDPVs), which can also cause paralysis. Among the three types of WPV, type ...

End of Year 2015 in Polio Endemic Pakistan: Yet Another Beginning Towards End

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Food and Environmental Virology)

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Fatigue in motor neuron diseases

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 06:20:00 +0100

Motor neuron diseases as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and post polio syndrome are characterized by prominent muscular weakness and severe motor disability. The prevalence of fatigue in motor neuron diseases is remarkably high, and may contribute significantly to patients’ disability and a poor quality of life. Despite its high prevalence, fatigue is an understudied clinical problem in motor neuron diseases and is often overlooked.This presentation will attempt to explain the pathogenic mechanisms of muscle fatigue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and post polio syndrome, to cover the various methods of quantification of fatigue that measure both subjective and physiologic components, and to summarize the evidence regarding therapeutic interventions that can be used in order to minimize ...

Your NEJM Group Today: Push to End Polio, Oxygen Saturation Targets in Preemies, Connecticut Primary Care Opportunities (FREE)

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

By the Editors NEJM Group offers so many valuable resources for practicing clinicians. Here's what we chose for you today:NEJM Audio Interview: … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

Inactivated polio vaccine introduction in south Asia—1 year on

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016 Source:The Lancet Global Health Author(s): Andreas Hasman, Gaurav Garg, Douglas J Noble (Source: The Lancet Global Health)

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A World Free of Polio — The Final Steps

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 22:00:25 +0100

New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 374, Issue 6, Page 501-503, February 2016. (Source: New England Journal of Medicine)

The Many Harms of Politicizing Fetal Tissue Research to Attack Abortion Rights

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 20:28:35 +0100

Fetal tissue research has led to major advances in human health, including the virtual elimination of diseases such as polio, measles and rubella in the United States. However, according to a new analysis in the Guttmacher Policy Review, this critical avenue of medical research now finds itself at the center of a political firestorm instigated by antiabortion activists and lawmakers, who are using it to attack abortion rights generally and the leading reproductive health provider Planned Parenthood in particular. (Source: The Guttmacher Institute)

WHO welcomes unprecedented international support for Syrians

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 06:21:56 +0100

10 February 2016 – The World Health Organization welcomes the unprecedented support shown by countries participating in the "Supporting Syrians and the Region Conference" in London on 4 February, during which more than US$ 10 billion was pledged to provide humanitarian aid to people affected by the Syrian crisis over the coming 5 years. “Countries have recognized the extent of this humanitarian catastrophe,” said Dr Ala Alwan, WHO Regional Director for the Eastern Mediterranean. “This generous donor support will ensure life-saving activities for millions of people inside Syria. It will also provide much needed support to refugees and host communities in neighbouring countries, where the demand for health services is placing an enormous strain on public health infrastructure.”  ...

Faster Detection of Poliomyelitis Outbreaks to Support Polio Eradication

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 05:00:00 +0100

I. M. Blake et al. (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal)

Experiences and perspectives of patients with post-polio syndrome and therapists with exercise and cognitive behavioural therapy

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Many persons affected with poliomyelitis develop post-polio syndrome (PPS) later in their life. Recently, the effectiveness of Exercise Therapy (ET) and Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) for PPS has been eva... (Source: BMC Neurology)

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Nigeria: Nigeria Cracked Polio. So Why Does It Have 3.5 Million Unvaccinated Babies?

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 14:43:56 +0100

[The Conversation Africa] Over 20 million children across the globe have not been vaccinated against measles, tetanus, rubella or polio. Half of them come from ten countries, five of which are in Africa. (Source: AllAfrica News: Polio)

The Cancer Moonshot Could Depend Most on You

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 18:45:18 +0100

In his State of the Union address, President Barack Obama announced that Vice President Joe Biden would lead an effort toward a "moonshot" cure for cancer. More recently, Vice President Biden met with health care leaders at the World Economic Forum in Davos to build momentum for the initiative, and later will meet with agency officials and Cabinet members about how the federal government can fund more research and treatment. This is an ambitious task, to say the least, especially for a disease whose "cure" is often regarded as synonymous with an impossible dream. Cancer kills more than half a million Americans every year -- more than 1,600 every day. About half of men and a third of women will be diagnosed with the disease in their lifetimes. As an oncologist, I have had to give my...

The Global Polio Eradication Initiative: Progress, Lessons Learned, And Polio Legacy Transition Planning [Strengthening Immunization Programs]

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The world is closer than ever to achieving global polio eradication, with record-low polio cases in 2015 and the impending prospect of a polio-free Africa. Tens of millions of volunteers, social mobilizers, and health workers have participated in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative. The program contributes to efforts to deliver other health benefits, including health systems strengthening. As the initiative nears completion after more than twenty-five years, it becomes critical to document and transition the knowledge, lessons learned, assets, and infrastructure accumulated by the initiative to address other health goals and priorities. The primary goals of this process, known as polio legacy transition planning, are both to protect a polio-free world and to ensure that investments in ...

Publicly Available Online Tool Facilitates Real-Time Monitoring Of Vaccine Conversations And Sentiments [Attitudes Toward Vaccination]

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We describe a publicly available platform for monitoring vaccination-related content, called the Vaccine Sentimeter. With automated data collection from 100,000 mainstream media sources and Twitter, natural-language processing for automated filtering, and manual curation to ensure accuracy, the Vaccine Sentimeter offers a global real-time view of vaccination conversations online. To assess the system’s utility, we followed two events: polio vaccination in Pakistan after a news story about a Central Intelligence Agency vaccination ruse and subsequent attacks on health care workers, and a controversial episode in a television program about adverse events following human papillomavirus vaccination. For both events, increased online activity was detected and characterized. For the first ...

Since The Start Of The Vaccines For Children Program, Uptake Has Increased, And Most Disparities Have Decreased [Children's Vaccination In The United States]

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examined the impact that this intervention had on race and ethnicity–related and income-related disparities for diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis, measles-mumps-rubella, and polio vaccinations, using data from the National Immunization Survey, 1995–2013. Vaccination rates increased across all races, ethnicities, and income groups following the introduction of the Vaccines for Children program. Disparities among race and ethnic groups narrowed considerably over time since the introduction of the vaccine program, although income-related disparities changed at different rates within racial and ethnic groups and in some cases increased. Government interventions aimed solely at reducing certain financial barriers to vaccination may fail to address other important asp...

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Beating Polio [Book Reviews]

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Health Affairs)

Polio-Like Illness Associated With Outbreak of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in Children

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Poliomyelitis is a historically devastating neurological complication of poliovirus infection. Poliovirus vaccines have decreased the incidence of poliomyelitis to 209 global cases in 2014, with new cases of acute flaccid myelitis primarily associated with nonpolio enteroviruses. Recently, during outbreaks of enterovirus D68 throughout North America and Europe, cases of acute flaccid myelitis have been reported, suggesting another nonpolio enterovirus associated with acute flaccid myelitis. The authors describe 3 patients diagnosed with acute flaccid myelitis during a province-wide outbreak of enterovirus D68 with the virus detected in 2 of the patients. Given the significant morbidity associated with acute flaccid myelitis and potential for nonpolio enterovirus to cause outbreaks, prompt ...

Nigeria: How Govt Can Deliver On the Promise of Good Primary Care

Sun, 07 Feb 2016 06:30:03 +0100

[The Conversation Africa] Nigeria has repeatedly been lauded for the detailed prevention strategy and considerable resources it pumped into its polio campaign. It is also praised for managing to contain the Ebola virus within three months of the outbreak in 2014. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

Ultraviolet blood irradiation: Is it time to remember “the cure that time forgot”?

Sun, 07 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 5 February 2016 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology Author(s): Ximing Wu, Xiaoqing Hu, Michael R. Hamblin Ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) was extensively used in the 1940s and 1950s to treat many diseases including septicemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis, arthritis, asthma and even poliomyelitis. The early studies were carried out by several physicians in USA and published in the American Journal of Surgery. However with the development of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined and it has now been called “the cure that time forgot”. Later studies were mostly performed by Russian workers and in other Eastern countries, and the modern view in Western countries is that UBI remains highly controversial. This review discusses th...

Polio Vaccine Hesitancy in the Networks and Neighborhoods of Malegaon, India

Sat, 06 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The finding on social and spatial clustering of vaccine-refusing households could be leveraged to tailor communication strategies to improve vaccine acceptance and community perceptions of immunization programs for polio and other vaccine preventable diseases. (Source: Social Science and Medicine)

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