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MedWorm: Legionnaires' Disease



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Legionnaires' Disease category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 14:21:53 +0100

 



Using peptidoglican associated lipoprotein of legionella pneumophila as a urinary antigen for development of an indirect sandwich ELISA

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Urinary antigen testing has been proven to be the most powerful diagnostic method to detect Legionella antigen which is recognized as the causative agent of Legionnaires disease. L. pneumophila peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL) protein is a extremely conserved antigen among Legionella species. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Diversity of ribosomal 16S DNA‐ and RNA‐based bacterial community in an office building drinking water system

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:22:56 +0100

ConclusionsMicrobial communities differed between water and biofilms, between cold and hot water systems, locations in the building and between water rRNA and rDNA libraries, as shown by clear clusters in principal component analysis (PcoA). By using the rRNA method, we found that not all bacterial community members were active (e.g. Legionella spp.) while other members showed increased activity in some locations; e.g. Pseudomonas spp. in hot water circulations’ biofilm and order Rhizobiales and Limnohabitans spp. in stagnated locations’ water and biofilm. Significance and Impact of the StudyrRNA‐based methods may be better than rDNA‐based methods for evaluating human health implications as rRNA methods can be used to describe the active bacterial fraction. This study indicates tha...



Comparative Evaluation of the Novel bioNexia Legionella Test with the BinaxNOW Legionella Card Assay and the Sofia Legionella FIA Assay for Detection of Legionella pneumophila (Serogroup 1) Antigen in Urine Samples [Bacteriology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

A new immunochromatographic test (bioNexia Legionella; bioMérieux) for the detection of Legionella pneumophila urinary antigen was evaluated in 255 urine samples. The results were compared with those obtained by the BinaxNOW and Sofia Legionella tests. The novel test compared well with those currently in use. (Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology)



Patricia Pybus takes legal action against Travel Counsellors after Legionnaires' disease diagnosis

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 17:57:11 +0100

Patricia Pybus, 58, from Northallerton, North Yorkshire, said she fell ill at t the four-star Hotel Pulicinu and her condition worsened as she developed a persistent cough and chest pains. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Adult Respiratory Distress Disorder Due to Legionnaires Disease in Pregnancy: A Case Report.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 14:16:01 +0100

CONCLUSION: Successful treatment of Legionnaires disease requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and prompt empirical treatment when severe community-acquired pneumonia is encountered. In severe cases that are refractory to antimicrobial treatment, cesarean delivery may help resolve compromised maternal respiratory status. PMID: 26995895 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Reproductive Medicine)



Michigan's Legionnaires' death toll rises to 10

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 21:16:04 +0100

The death toll in one of the worst outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in U.S. history has risen to 10, according to the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)

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Metabolism of PHB in L. pneumophila [Microbiology]

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires disease, has a biphasic life cycle with a switch from a replicative to a transmissive phenotype. During the replicative phase, the bacteria grow within host cells in Legionella-containing vacuoles. During the transmissive phenotype and the postexponential (PE) growth phase, the pathogens express virulence factors, become flagellated, and leave the Legionella-containing vacuoles. Using 13C labeling experiments, we now show that, under in vitro conditions, serine is mainly metabolized during the replicative phase for the biosynthesis of some amino acids and for energy generation. During the PE phase, these carbon fluxes are reduced, and glucose also serves as an additional carbon substrate to feed the biosynthesis of poly-3-hydroxyb...



Under the Weather: Legionellosis and Meteorological Factors

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The incidence of legionellosis, caused by the bacteria Legionella which are commonly found in the environment, has been increasing in New Jersey (NJ) over the last decade. The majority of cases are sporadic with no known source of exposure. Meteorological factors may be associated with increases in legionellosis. Time series and case-crossover study designs were used to evaluate associations of legionellosis and meteorological factors (temperature (daily minimum, maximum, and mean), precipitation, dew point, relative humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed (daily maximum and mean), gust, and visibility). Time series analyses of multi-factor models indicated increases in monthly relative humidity and precipitation were positively associated with monthly legionellosis rate...



Two Cases of Hypophosphatemia with Increased Renal Phosphate Excretion in Legionella Pneumonia

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 18:08:43 +0100

We encountered 2 cases of hypophosphatemia due to Legionella pneumonia. Both cases showed increased urinary phosphate excretion and renal tubular dysfunction, which ameliorated with recovery from Legionella pneumonia. Serum fibroblast growth factor-23 level was suppressed, whereas serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. Delayed elevation of serum 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D levels was observed with improvement in renal tubular function. These findings suggested hypophosphatemia might be mediated by renal tubular dysfunction.Case Rep Nephrol Dial 2016;6:40-45 (Source: Case Reports in Nephrology and Dialysis)



Antimicrobial Activity of Indigowoad (Isatis indigotica Fort) and Plains Wild Indigo (Baptisia bracteata) Roots

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 16:34:35 +0100

Indigowoad Roots (IR) (Isatis indigotica Fort) and Plains Wild Indigo Roots (PWIR) (Baptisia bracteata) have been shown to be high in phenolic compounds and plants high in phenolic compounds often have beneficial health effects including antimicrobial activity. Indigowoad is a well-known medicinal plant as well as an edible plant root similar to daikon, sweet potatoes, yam, ginseng and carrots. Plains wild indigo roots, leaves and seeds have traditionally been used by native Americans for medicinal purposes and its extracts are consumed to enhance health. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of IR and PWIR was determined on five microbes (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella pneumophila sub sp., Pneumophila, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus mutans), as well as general...



Adult human metapneumonovirus (hMPV) pneumonia mimicking Legionnaire's disease

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We present a most unusual case of human metapneumonovirus pneumonia (hMPV) with some characteristic extrapulmonary findings characteristic of LD, e.g., relative bradycardia, as well as mildly elevated serum transaminases and hyphosphatemia. We believe this is the first reported case of hMPV pneumonia in a hospitalized adult that had some features of LD. (Source: Heart and Lung: The Journal of Acute and Critical Care)

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Michigan governor orders investigation into handling of water crisis

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 02:09:18 +0100

Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder on Friday ordered an investigation into the state's health department's handling of elevated lead levels among Flint residents and an increase in cases of Legionnaires' disease in Genesee County. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Crystal structures of Apo and GMP bound hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from Legionella pneumophila and the implications in gouty arthritis

Sun, 13 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): Nannan Zhang, Xiaojian Gong, Min Lu, Xiaofang Chen, Ximing Qin, Honghua Ge Hypoxanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) (EC 2.4.2.8) reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the 5-phophoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to hypoxanthine or guanine to form inosine monophosphate (IMP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in the purine salvage pathway. To investigate the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme in the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila, we determined the crystal structures of the L. pneumophila HGPRT (LpHGPRT) both in its apo-form and in complex with GMP. The structures reveal that LpHGPRT comprises a core domain and a hood domain whic...



Snyder calls for investigation of Michigan health department

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 22:37:33 +0100

LANSING, Mich. (AP) — Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder is calling for an investigation of how his health department handled the outbreak of Legionnaires' disease in the Flint area as well as reports of high lead levels among residents. (Source: U.S. News - Health)



The Rab-binding Profiles of Legionella Effectors [Microbiology]

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we defined a stringent subset of Rab GTPases targeted by SidM and LidA during infection, comprising of Rab1A, 1B, 6, and 10; in addition, LidA targets Rab14 and 18. Taken together, this study illustrates the power of this approach to profile the intracellular interactomes of bacterial effectors during infection. (Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry)

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Dendrimers and Polyamino-Phenolic Ligands: Activity of New Molecules Against Legionella pneumophila Biofilms

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 12:08:06 +0100

Elisa Andreozzi, Federica Barbieri, Maria F. Ottaviani, Luca Giorgi, Francesca Bruscolini, Anita Manti, Michela Battistelli, Luigia Sabatini, Anna Pianetti (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)



Crystal structures of Apo and GMP bound hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase from Legionella pneumophila and the implications in gouty arthritis

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): Nannan Zhang, Xiaojian Gong, Min Lu, Xiaofang Chen, Ximing Qin, Honghua Ge Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) (EC 2.4.2.8) reversibly catalyzes the transfer of the 5-phophoribosyl group from 5-phosphoribosyl-alpha-1-pyrophosphate (PRPP) to hypoxanthine or guanine to form inosine monophosphate (IMP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP) in the purine salvage pathway. To investigate the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme in the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila, we determined the crystal structures of the L. pneumophila HGPRT (LpHGPRT) both in its apo-form and in complex with GMP. The structures reveal that LpHGPRT comprises a core domain and a hood domain which ...



Mutagenic and chemical analyses provide new insight into enzyme activation and mechanism of the type 2 iron-sulfur l-serine dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Xu XL, Grant GA Abstract The crystal structure of the Type 2 l-serine dehydratase from Legionella pneumophila (lpLSD), revealed a "tail-in-mouth" configuration where the C-terminal residue acts as an intrinsic competitive inhibitor. This pre-catalytic structure undergoes an activation step prior to catalytic turnover. Mutagenic analysis of residues at or near the active site cleft is consistent with stabilization of substrate binding by many of the same residues that interact with the C-terminal cysteine and highlight the critical role of certain tail residues in activity. pH-rate profiles show that a residue with pK of 5.9 must be deprotonated and a residue with a pK of 8.5 must be protonated for activity. This supports an earlier suggestion that His 61 is the likely cata...



Feature selection and validated predictive performance in the domain of Legionella pneumophila: a comparative study

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Genetic comparisons of clinical and environmental Legionella strains form an essential part of outbreak investigations. DNA microarrays often comprise many DNA markers (features). Feature selection and the dev... (Source: BMC Research Notes)



Legionnaires' disease: New drug class offers potential new treatment for lethal bacteria

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 23:40:53 +0100

A new class of drugs has shown promise for treating the bacteria that cause legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

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New drug class offers potential new treatment for lethal bacteria

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(Walter and Eliza Hall Institute) A new class of drugs has shown promise for treating the bacteria that cause legionnaires' disease, a potentially fatal lung infection. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Community-acquired pneumonia by Legionella pneumophila. Do we need to include new recommendations for inflammatory bowel disease patients under immunomodulators?

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 13:41:02 +0100

We present the case of a community-acquired pneumonia by Legionella Pneumophila in a 31-year-old patient with Crohn's disease under anti-TNF agents. Following this and other similar cases reported in literature, we propose to include recommendations to prevent this infection in patients starting treatment with immunosuppressant drugs through simple measures regarding the control of water in the patients' home. PMID: 26937888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas)



Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Critically Ill Patient Following Severe Legionella Pneumonia with Multiple Organ Failure.

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 12:00:02 +0100

Authors: Nakashima K, Aoshima M, Suzuki F, Watanabe J, Otsuka Y Abstract A 68-year-old man visited an emergency department complaining of dyspnea. He was diagnosed to have Legionella pneumonia with multiple organ failure. Although his multiple organ failure improved, he suffered from persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea with continuous minor bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed a longitudinal ulcer of the rectum, below the peritoneal reflection. He was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. Antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was initiated. He finally underwent a colostomy after a bowel stricture caused an intestinal outlet obstruction, which made oral intake impossible. Based on the present case, we believe that CMV colitis must be considered as one of the differential diagnoses...



FDA Drug Safety Communication: Drug labels for the Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) blockers now include warnings about infection with Legionella and Listeria bacteria

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 13:50:00 +0100

[9-07-2011] The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is informing healthcare professionals that the Boxed Warning for the entire class of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNFα) blockers has been updated to include the risk of infection from two bacterial pathogens, Legionella and Listeria. (Source: FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research - What's New)



Comparison of serological methods with PCR-based methods for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia caused by atypical bacteria

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Chlamydophila pneumoniae is traditionally based on cultures and serology, which have special requir... (Source: Journal of Negative Results in BioMedicine)

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Wayne State to evaluate possible link between Flint water system and health problems

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) Wayne State University announced today that it has formed the Flint Area Community Health and Environment Partnership. The research group, led by Wayne State researchers specializing in environmental engineering and public health, will conduct an independent study to evaluate the possible association between changes in Flint's water system and public health, specifically the recent Legionnaires' disease outbreak. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



The CpxRA Two‐Component System Contributes to Legionella pneumophila Virulence

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Overview of the CpxRA regulon and its role in L. pneumophila virulence. We identified the CpxRA system to be essential for survival in protozoa, but not in human macrophages. Expression of cpxRA, genetically organized in an operon structure with three other genes lpg1439‐1441, is subjected to positive autoregulation and negative regulation by an unknown factor. Transcriptomic analyses expanded the list of CpxRA regulon members to include Type II secretion system substrates and additional Dot/Icm effectors. (Source: Molecular Microbiology)



Active and Adaptive Legionella CRISPR‐Cas reveals a recurrent challenge to the pathogen.

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ABSTRACT CRISPR‐Cas systems are widely recognized as critical genome defense systems that protect microbes from external threats such as bacteriophage infection. Several isolates of the intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila possess multiple CRISPR‐Cas systems (Type I‐C, Type I‐F, and Type II‐B), yet the targets of these systems remain unknown. With the recent observation that at least one of these systems (II‐B) plays a non‐canonical role in supporting intracellular replication, the possibility remained that these systems are vestigial genome defense systems co‐opted for other purposes. Our data indicate this is not the case. Using an established plasmid transformation assay, we demonstrate Type I‐C, I‐F, and II‐B CRISPR‐Cas provide protection against spacer...



We Helped Uncover the Health Crisis in Flint. Here's What We Learned

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 18:14:55 +0100

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)



Flint water: Gov's staff knew of Legionnaires' cases a year ago

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 14:14:33 +0100

The Michigan governor's office was earlier warned about not calling drinking water in Flint safe because of an increase in Legionnaires' disease cases in the county -- nearly a full year before the governor publicly disclosed the emergency, according to documents released this week. (Source: CNN.com - Health)

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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: A Salvage Option for Severe Legionella Pneumonia

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:34:23 +0100

No abstract available (Source: Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice)



[Newsdesk] Crisis in Flint: lead and Legionnaires' disease

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 02:20:41 +0100

The woes of the US city of Flint are being compounded by a surprising rise in Legionnaires' disease. Roxanne Nelson reports. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



Michigan Legionnaires' deaths were preventable, official says

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 13:45:11 +0100

Residents of Flint, Michigan, began getting gravely ill and in some cases dying in summer 2014 in one of the worst outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in U.S. history, and a county health director says attempts to find the source were hampered when the state wouldn't request federal assistance. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Michigan officials deliberately blocked investigation into water contamination while poisoning children en masse

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 06:00:00 +0100

(NaturalNews) In an extremely unsettling report by Reuters it seems that Michigan officials were actually aware of a serious problem with the water supply in the city of Flint but took measures to block an investigation into an outbreak of Legionnaire's disease.The U.S. Environmental... (Source: NaturalNews.com)



Group: More Emails Show Michigan Officials Dismissed Concern About Flint Water

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 23:07:22 +0100

BLACKSBURG, Va. - The research team that exposed the dangerous levels of lead in the drinking water in Flint, Mich., on Feb. 4 released more emails obtained from Michigan state officials that indicate that in January 2015, an environmental health inspector for the county in which the city is located filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request with state environmental officials for information about the water supply system the city was using because of an increase in local cases of Legionnaire's disease. (Source: LexisNexis® Mealey's™ Emerging Toxic Torts Legal News)

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New protocol to detect three species of Legionella in just eight hours

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 14:03:52 +0100

An innovative protocol for the detection of the three most prevalent Legionella species has been developed, enabling the source of the infection to be located in just eight hours. The breakthrough lies in the combined use of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (Multiplex PCR) and pre-treatment with propidium monoazide (PMA). (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Legionella modulates the host{#x2019}s sphingolipids [Microbiology]

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Autophagy is an essential component of innate immunity, enabling the detection and elimination of intracellular pathogens. Legionella pneumophila, an intracellular pathogen that can cause a severe pneumonia in humans, is able to modulate autophagy through the action of effector proteins that are translocated into the host cell by the pathogen’s... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)



Exclusive: Michigan Legionnaires' deaths were preventable, official says

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 14:35:16 +0100

Residents of Flint, Michigan, began getting gravely ill and in some cases dying in summer 2014 in one of the worst outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in U.S. history, and a county health director says attempts to find the source were hampered when the state wouldn't request federal assistance. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



What is Legionnaires' Disease?

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 05:51:01 +0100

Authors: PMID: 26871677 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)



Michigan Legionnaires' deaths were preventable, official says

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 06:00:00 +0100

Residents of Flint, Michigan, began getting gravely ill and in some cases dying in summer 2014 in one of the worst outbreaks of Legionnaires' disease in U.S. history, and a county health director says attempts to find the source were hampered when th... (Source: WDSU.com - Health)

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Michigan warning on Flint Legionnaires' outbreak came late

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 23:46:24 +0100

DETROIT (Reuters) - State officials knew about an outbreak of Legionnaires' disease and its suspected link to water system issues in impoverished Flint, Michigan, at least 10 months before a public announcement was made, documents released on Friday showed. (Source: Reuters: Health)



Rapid quantification method for Legionella pneumophila in surface water.

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wunderlich A, Torggler C, Elsässer D, Lück C, Niessner R, Seidel M Abstract World-wide legionellosis outbreaks caused by evaporative cooling systems have shown that there is a need for rapid screening methods for Legionella pneumophila in water. Antibody-based methods for the quantification of L. pneumophila are rapid, non-laborious, and relatively cheap but not sensitive enough for establishment as a screening method for surface and drinking water. Therefore, preconcentration methods have to be applied in advance to reach the needed sensitivity. In a basic test, monolithic adsorption filtration (MAF) was used as primary preconcentration method that adsorbs L. pneumophila with high efficiency. Ten-liter water samples were concentrated in 10 min and further reduced t...



Fast label-free detection of Legionella spp. in biofilms by applying immunomagnetic beads and Raman spectroscopy.

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kusić D, Rösch P, Popp J Abstract Legionellae colonize biofilms, can form a biofilm by itself and multiply intracellularly within the protozoa commonly found in water distribution systems. Approximately half of the known species are pathogenic and have been connected to severe multisystem Legionnaires' disease. The detection methods for Legionella spp. in water samples are still based on cultivation, which is time consuming due to the slow growth of this bacterium. Here, we developed a cultivation-independent, label-free and fast detection method for legionellae in a biofilm matrix based on the Raman spectroscopic analysis of isolated single cells via immunomagnetic separation (IMS). A database comprising the Raman spectra of single bacterial cells captured and separated...



Legionella thermalis sp. nov., isolated from hot spring water in Tokyo, Japan

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ABSTRACT Strain L‐47T of a novel bacterial species belonging to the genus Legionella was isolated from a sample of hot spring water from Tokyo, Japan. The 16S rRNA gene sequences (1,477bp) of this strain (accession number: AB899895) had less than 95.0% identity with other Legionella species. The dominant fatty acids of strain L‐47T were a15:0 (29.6%) and the major ubiquinone was Q‐12 (71.1%). It had a G+C content of 41.5 mol%. The taxonomic description of Legionella thermalis sp. nov. is proposed to be type strain L‐47T (=JCM 30970T =KCTC 42799T). (Source: Microbiology and Immunology)



[Persistant Legionella pneumophila and Enterococcus faecium pulmonary infection: Look for an abscess!]

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Gavand PE, Janssen R, Martin A, Ledoux MP, Schneider F PMID: 26874909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)

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Legionellosis in Transplantation

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Legionella species are emerging opportunistic pathogens in hematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplant recipients, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The clinical and radiological features of Legionella infections can mimic other opportunistic pathogens in these profoundly immunocompromised patients. Diagnosis in transplant patients is challenging as non-pneumophila Legionella infections, for which these patients are at risk, cannot be identified using the urinary antigen test. Changes in management of transplant recipients and changes in Legionella epidemiology suggest that the number of transplant patients potentially exposed to Legionella spp. may be on the rise. Yet, evidence-based, transplant-specific guidelines for managing ...



IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 211: Cultural and Molecular Evidence of Legionella spp. Colonization in Dental Unit Waterlines: Which Is the Best Method for Risk Assessment?

Sat, 06 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Legionella spp. are ubiquitous in aquatic habitats and water distribution systems, including dental unit waterlines (DUWLs). The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Legionella in DUWLs and tap water samples using PMA-qPCR and standard culture methods. The total viable counts (TVCs) of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria in the samples were also determined. Legionella spp. were detected and quantified using the modified ISO 11731 culture method. Extracted genomic DNA was analysed using the iQ-Check Quanti Legionella spp. kit, and the TVCs were determined according to the ISO protocol 6222. Legionella spp. were detected in 100% of the samples using the PMA-qPCR method, whereas these bacteria were detected in only 7% of the samples using the culture method. The number of co...



Emails Reveal Early Suspicions of a Flint Link to Legionnaires’ Disease

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 01:45:35 +0100

Emails indicate that county health officials were concerned last March about a wave of Legionnaires’ cases, and were at the time raising the possibility of a link to the Flint River. (Source: NYT Health)



Michigan officials warned of water, Legionnaires' link

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 01:18:31 +0100

Governor said he had learned of the spike in Legionnaires' cases just days before going public in January; but emails show his office knew in March (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)



Michigan emails show officials knew of Flint water disease risk

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:35:21 +0100

(Reuters) - Emails between high-ranking Michigan state officials show they knew about an uptick in Legionnaires' disease and it could be linked to problems with Flint water long before Governor Rick Snyder said he got information on the outbreak. (Source: Reuters: Health)

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Michigan Officials Aware of Legionnaires’ Disease in Flint Drinking Water

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 19:54:00 +0100

LANSING, Mich. (AP) — High-ranking officials in Michigan Gov. Rick Snyder's administration were aware of a surge in Legionnaires' disease potentially linked to Flint's water long before the governor reported the increase to the public last month, internal emails show. When he disclosed the spike in Legionnaires' cases on Jan. 13, Snyder said he had learned about it just a couple of days earlier. But emails obtained by the liberal group Progress Michigan through public-records requests and shared with The Associated Press show Snyder's own office was aware of the outbreak since last March. At the time, others in the administration were scrambling to respond to suggestions that bacteria in the city's new water source, the Flint River, could be the culprit. The outbreak was also well know...



Person-to-Person Transmission of Legionnaire's Disease ReportedPerson-to-Person Transmission of Legionnaire's Disease Reported

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:09:37 +0100

The caretaker of an infected family member developed and then died from the disease; sample analysis suggested a rare case of person-to-person transmission. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)



[Comment] New antibiotic development: the need versus the costs

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In 1950, picromycin was the first approved macrolide antibiotic to be isolated, followed by erythromycin in 1952. Since then, more than 200 similar products have been developed. New semi-synthetic derivatives have advantages over erythromycin in terms of acid stability, side-effects, and drug interactions. Because of their good activity against all major respiratory pathogens, especially against atypical pathogens such as Mycoplasma and Legionella species, macrolides soon became one of the most prescribed antibiotics in outpatient populations. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



Culture positivity and bacterial burden thresholds for Legionella in hospital water: Proceed with caution

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016 Source:American Journal of Infection Control Author(s): Brooke K. Decker, Cornelius J. Clancy (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)

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The Legionella pneumophila CpxRA two‐component regulatory system: new insights into CpxR's function as a dual regulator and its connection to the effectors regulatory network

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we expanded the pool of L. pneumophila CpxR‐regulated genes to 38, including 27 effector‐encoding genes. Our study demonstrates for the first time that the CpxR dual regulator has different requirements for activation and repression of target genes. These differences include the positioning of the CpxR regulatory element relative to the promoter element, and the effect of CpxR phosphate donors on the expression of CpxR target genes. In addition, unlike most response regulators, a mutant form of the L. pneumophila CpxR which cannot be phosphorylated was found to self‐interact, and to repress gene expression similarly to wild‐type CpxR, even though its ability to activate gene expression was reduced. Moreover, the CpxRA TCS was found to activate the expression of LetE ...



Heated birthing pools as a source of Legionnaires' disease

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 21:34:34 +0100

Research Articles S. L. COLLINS, B. AFSHAR, J. T. WALKER, H. AIRD, F. NAIK, F. PARRY-FORD, N. PHIN, T. G. HARRISON, V. J. CHALKER, S. SORRELL, T. CRESSWELL, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 144 Issue 04, pp 796-802Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)



Diagnostic Accuracy of PCR Alone and Compared to Urinary Antigen Testing for Detection of Legionella spp.: a Systematic Review [Bacteriology]

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease (LD) is based on the isolation of Legionella spp., a 4-fold rise in antibodies, a positive urinary antigen (UA), or direct immunofluorescence tests. PCR is not accepted as a diagnostic tool for LD. This systematic review assesses the diagnostic accuracy of PCR in various clinical samples with a direct comparison versus UA. We included prospective or retrospective cohort and case-control studies. Studies were included if they used the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention consensus definition criteria of LD or a similar one, assessed only patients with clinical pneumonia, and reported data for all true-positive, false-positive, true-negative, and false-negative results. Two reviewers abstracted data independently. Risk of bias was assessed using Q...



Microbiological diagnosis and molecular typing of Legionella strains during an outbreak of legionellosis in Southern Germany.

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Essig A, von Baum H, Gonser T, Haerter G, Lück C Abstract An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires' disease with 64 reported cases occurred in Ulm/Neu-Ulm in the South of Germany in December 2009/January 2010 caused by Legionella (L.) pneumophila serogroup 1, monoclonal (mAb) subtype Knoxville, sequence type (ST) 62. Here we present the clinical microbiological results from 51 patients who were diagnosed at the University hospital of Ulm, the results of the environmental investigations and of molecular typing of patients and environmental strains. All 50 patients from whom urine specimens were available were positive for L. pneumophila antigen when an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) was used following concentration of those urine samples that tested initially negativ...



Construction of recombinant Mip-FlaA dominant epitope vaccine against Legionella pneumophila and evaluation of the immunogenicity and protective immunity

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:35:01 +0100

Abstract Legionnaires’ disease, a kind of systemic disease with pneumonia as the main manifestation, is caused by Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila). In order to prevent the disease, we optimized Mip and FlaA, the virulence factors of L. pneumophila, to design recombinant Mip-FlaA dominant epitope vaccine against the pathogen. Firstly, the coding sequences of mip and flaA were optimized by DNAStar software and Expasy protein analysis system, and then, the tertiary structure and function of recombinant Mip-FlaA were predicted by PHYRE2 Protein Fold Recognition Server. After that, the optimized mip, flaA and mip-flaA were cloned, expressed and purified, and the proteins were used as dominant epitope vaccines to immunize BABL/c mice. Moreover, the IgG titers, histological cha...

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Legionella effectors reflect strength in diversity

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Genetics 48, 115 (2016). doi:10.1038/ng.3492 Author: Iñaki Comas The Legionella genus includes opportunistic human pathogenic species that invade human cells using effector proteins that evolved during association with their natural amoeba hosts. A new study compares the genomes of 41 Legionella species to identify nearly 6,000 effectors, providing insight into these species' evolution and pathogenic lifestyles. (Source: Nature Genetics)



Flint hospital reports finding Legionnaires' bacteria in water

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 03:13:19 +0100

A hospital in Flint, Michigan, reported Friday that low levels of Legionnaires' disease bacteria were discovered in its water system. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Bacterial genomics: Legionella's toolbox of effectors

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Microbiology 14, 133 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.8 Author: Ursula Hofer Genome analysis of 38 different Legionella species has identified a vast repertoire of effectors, many of which are species-specific and were probably acquired from amoeba hosts or co-infecting pathogens. (Source: Nature Reviews Microbiology)



​Flint hospital suspected river, Legionnaires' link

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 06:11:43 +0100

At least 87 Legionnaires' cases, including at least nine deaths, confirmed in Genesee County since city switched to Flint River for water (Source: Health News: CBSNews.com)



Flint hospital finds Legionnaires' bacteria in water

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 04:42:31 +0100

A hospital in Flint, Michigan, reported Friday that low levels of Legionnaires' disease bacteria were discovered in its water system. The discovery came after the city switched its water supply. (Source: WDSU.com - Health)

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Microbiological burden in Nepalese hospital air culture

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 15:10:59 +0100

Conclusion S. aureus , Micrococcus , CONS, Bacillus , Pseudomonas , yeast, and Acinetobacter were the most common organisms detected. (Source: Australasian Medical Journal - AMJ)



Legionnaires' Disease Outbreak at a Long-Term Care Facility Caused by a Cooling Tower Using an Automated Disinfection System--Ohio, 2013.

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 14:46:02 +0100

This article describes the investigation of the outbreak and identification of the outbreak source, a cooling tower using an automated biocide delivery system. In total, 39 outbreak LD cases were identified; among these, six patients died. Water samples from a cooling tower were positive for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, reactive to monoclonal antibody 2, with matching sequence type to a patient isolate. An electronic control system turned off cooling tower pumps during low-demand periods, preventing delivery of disinfectant by a timed-release system, and leading to amplification of Legionella in the cooling tower. Guidelines for tower maintenance should address optimal disinfection when using automated systems. PMID: 26738313 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Environment...



Officials Investigate If Legionnaires Outbreak in Flint Linked to Water Crisis

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 12:10:10 +0100

There have been 87 cases since 2014, health officials said. (Source: ABC News: Health)



National Guard, FEMA Respond to Flint Water Crisis

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 13:38:00 +0100

FLINT, Mich. (AP) — Members of the Michigan National Guard began arriving in Flint on Wednesday for briefings on the drinking water crisis just as state health officials reported a spike in Legionnaires' disease cases in the county where the city is located. Gov. Rick Snyder activated the National Guard late Tuesday, and Lt. Col. William Humes confirmed about a half-dozen representatives arrived Wednesday morning. They are part of a larger contingent of Guardsmen who will help distribute bottled water, filters and other supplies to residents. Flint's tap water became contaminated with too much lead after the city switched its water supply in 2014 to save money while under state financial management. Local officials first declared a public health emergency in October in response to test...



Amid water crisis, Flint learns of Legionnaires' disease spike

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 12:28:05 +0100

Residents of Flint, Michigan, learned Wednesday that the brown, smelly tap water they've been drinking may be more dangerous than they thought. (Source: CNN.com - Health)

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Legionnaires' Disease Compounds Flint's Lead Poisoning Water Crisis

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 12:00:00 +0100

A new threat--Legionnaires' disease--faces Flint, Mich., residents, who still can’t drink their water due to the totally avoidable water danger risk of lead poisoning. There have been 87 cases of Legionnaires’ disease and 10 deaths reported in Genesee County from June 2014 to November 2015, a marked increase from the normal 6-13 cases per year. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)



Legionnaires' spike in Michigan county dealing with water crisis

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 22:49:54 +0100

(Reuters) - The Michigan county already reeling from lead-contaminated drinking water in the city of Flint has seen a spike of Legionnaires' disease resulting in 10 deaths that may or may not be related to the water crisis, officials said on Wednesday. (Source: Reuters: Health)



Legionnaires' disease cases spike in Flint

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 20:01:22 +0100

Residents of Flint, Michigan, already reeling because of lead contamination in their drinking water, got more disturbing news on Wednesday. Gov. Rick Snyder announced the number of cases of Legionnaires' disease has spiked in Genesee County in the two... (Source: WDSU.com - Health)



At the crossroads: communication of bacteria‐containing vacuoles with host organelles

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cellular Microbiology)



Prevalence and distribution of Legionella spp in potable water systems in Germany, risk factors associated with contamination, and effectiveness of thermal disinfection

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions There is relevant exposure to Legionella spp in the community. Water systems are not always up to current technical standards. Although microbiological risk assessment remains a challenge, there is a case for monitoring for Legionella spp outside of hospitals. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)

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Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water. PMID: 26757724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Archives of Microbiology)



Rapid detection and typing of pathogenic non-pneumophila spp. isolates using a multiplex real-time PCR assay

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We developed a single tube multiplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the rapid detection and typing of 9 non-pneumophila Legionella spp. isolates that are clinically relevant. The multiplex assay is capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. longbeachae, L. feeleii, L. anisa, L. parisiensis, L. tucsonensis serogroup (sg) 1 and 3, and L. sainthelensis sg 1 and 2 isolates. Evaluation of the assay with nucleic acid from each of these species derived from both clinical and environmental isolates and typing strains demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity when tested against 43 other Legionella species. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)



Genomic analysis of 38 Legionella species identifies large and diverse effector repertoires

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Genetics 48, 167 (2016). doi:10.1038/ng.3481 Authors: David Burstein, Francisco Amaro, Tal Zusman, Ziv Lifshitz, Ofir Cohen, Jack A Gilbert, Tal Pupko, Howard A Shuman & Gil Segal (Source: Nature Genetics)



Rapid detection and typing of pathogenic nonpneumophila spp. isolates using a multiplex real-time PCR assay

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We developed a single tube multiplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the rapid detection and typing of 9 nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates that are clinically relevant. The multiplex assay is capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. longbeachae, L. feeleii, L. anisa, L. parisiensis, L. tucsonensis serogroup (sg) 1 and 3, and L. sainthelensis sg 1 and 2 isolates. Evaluation of the assay with nucleic acid from each of these species derived from both clinical and environmental isolates and typing strains demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity when tested against 43 other Legionella spp. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)



Rapid detection and typing of pathogenic nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates using a multiplex real-time PCR assay

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We developed a single tube multiplex real-time PCR assay that allows for the rapid detection and typing of 9 nonpneumophila Legionella spp. isolates that are clinically relevant. The multiplex assay is capable of simultaneously detecting and discriminating L. micdadei, L. bozemanii, L. dumoffii, L. longbeachae, L. feeleii, L. anisa, L. parisiensis, L. tucsonensis serogroup (sg) 1 and 3, and L. sainthelensis sg 1 and 2 isolates. Evaluation of the assay with nucleic acid from each of these species derived from both clinical and environmental isolates and typing strains demonstrated 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity when tested against 43 other Legionella spp. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)

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Hospital-wide Eradication of a Nosocomial Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Outbreak

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. This study provides an exemplar for the use of clinical and genomic epidemiological methods together with a program of rapid, effective remedial biofilm, plumbing and water treatment to characterize and eliminate a L. pneumophila population responsible for nosocomial infections. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)



Ultrafiltration and Microarray Detect Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Li X, Harwood VJ, Nayak B, Weidhaas J Abstract Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated fresh and marine water and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of > 95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of t...



Hospital water and prevention of waterborne infections

Tue, 29 Dec 2015 04:43:34 +0100

The hospital water system may constitute a reservoir for microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Legionella pneumophila, Acinetobacter spp., mycetes, non-tubercular mycobacteria, and so on, which can cause healthcare-associated infections. Indeed, it has been revealed that 20–50% of cases of nosocomial colonization/infection due to P. aeruginosa are sustained by waterborne strains. Waterborne infections can be spread not only through the ingestion of contaminated water but also by contact with or the inhalation of aerosols. Immunocompromised patients are particularly susceptible to infection by such microorganisms, many of which are multi-resistant to antibiotics. Healthcare effects range from colonization of the airways and uri...



The Legionella pneumophila CpxRA two‐component regulatory system ‐ New insights into CpxR's function as a dual regulator and its connection to the effectors regulatory network

Tue, 29 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Abbreviated Summary In this study we identified numerous effector‐encoding genes regulated by the Legionella pneumophila CpxRA two‐component system (TCS) and performed an in‐depth characterization of this regulatory system. Our analyses resulted in the finding of several remarkable differences between the ways by which this TCS activates and represses its target genes. In addition, we linked the CpxRA TCS, via the LetE connector protein, to the regulatory network that controls the expression of effector‐encoding genes. (Source: Molecular Microbiology)



Lysine11-Linked Polyubiquitination of the AnkB F-Box Effector of Legionella pneumophila [Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions]

Mon, 28 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The fate of the polyubiquitinated protein is determined by the lysine linkages involved in the polymerization of the ubiquitin monomers, which has seven lysine residues (K6, K11, K27, K29, K33, K48, and K63). The translocated AnkB effector of the intravacuolar pathogen Legionella pneumophila is a bona fide F-box protein, which is localized to the cytosolic side of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) and is essential for intravacuolar proliferation within macrophages and amoebae. The F-box domain of AnkB interacts with the host SCF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase that triggers the decoration of the LCV with K48-linked polyubiquitinated proteins that are targeted for proteasomal degradation. Here we report that AnkB becomes rapidly polyubiquitinated within the host cell, and this modification is in...

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Application of standardized multiplex PCR for detection of molecular markers of Legionella pneumophila isolates from hospital environmental samples

Fri, 25 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May–August 2015 Source:Journal of Patient Safety & Infection Control, Volume 3, Issue 2 Author(s): A. Valavane, R. Chaudhry, B. Dhawan, A. Kapil, S. Arya, P. Malhotra (Source: Journal of Patient Safety and Infection Control)



Legionnaires' Disease in South Africa, 2012-2014.

Thu, 24 Dec 2015 04:04:03 +0100

Authors: Wolter N, Carrim M, Cohen C, Tempia S, Walaza S, Sahr P, de Gouveia L, Treurnicht F, Hellferscee O, Cohen AL, Benitez AJ, Dawood H, Variava E, Winchell JM, von Gottberg A Abstract During June 2012-September 2014, we tested patients with severe respiratory illness for Legionella spp. infection and conducted a retrospective epidemiologic investigation. Of 1,805 patients tested, Legionella was detected in samples of 21 (1.2%); most were adults who had HIV or tuberculosis infections and were inappropriately treated for Legionella. PMID: 26692504 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases)



Comparison of Legionella longbeachae and Legionella pneumophila cases in Scotland; implications for diagnosis, treatment and public health response.

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Cameron RL, Pollock KG, Lindsay DS, Anderson E Abstract The reported incidence of Legionnaires' disease caused by Legionella longbeachae has increased since 2008 in Scotland. While microbiological and epidemiological studies have identified exposure to growing media as a risk factor for infection, little is known about the differences regarding disease risk factors, clinical features and outcomes of infection with L. longbeachae when compared with L. pneumophila. A nested case-case study was performed comparing 12 L. longbeachae cases with 25 confirmed L. pneumophila cases. Fewer L. longbeachae infected patients reported being smokers (27 % [95 % CI 2 %-52 %] vs. 68 % [95 % CI 50 %-86 %], p=0.034) but more L. longbeachae patients experienced breathlessness (67 % [95 % CI 4...



IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 58: Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

Tue, 22 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)



Pathway analysis using 13C‐glycerol and other carbon tracers reveals a bipartite metabolism of Legionella pneumophila

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. The facultative intracellular bacterium Legionella pneumophila causes the severe pneumonia Legionnaireś disease. Extra‐ and intracellularly, L. pneumophila primarily metabolizes amino acids, but ‐ as we show here by using a new defined growth medium and a method termed isotopologue profiling ‐ also glycerol. The pathogen employs a bipartite metabolism, where glycerol and carbohydrates like glucose are mainly fed into energy‐consuming synthetic processes, while amino acids such as serine serve as major energy supply. (Source: Molecular Microbiology)

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Serological and molecular identification of Legionella spp. isolated from water and surrounding air samples in Italian healthcare facilities.

Mon, 21 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The application of the SBT method allowed to verify the homology among Legionella strains from water samples and the surrounding air. The results showed that the same Lpn strains were present in the air and water samples, and a new Legionella strain was identified. PMID: 26717079 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Environmental Research)



Legionella pneumophila, armed to the hilt: justifying the largest arsenal of effectors in the bacterial world.

Sat, 19 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ensminger AW Abstract Many bacterial pathogens use dedicated translocation systems to deliver arsenals of effector proteins to their hosts. Once inside the host cytosol, these effectors modulate eukaryotic cell biology to acquire nutrients, block microbial degradation, subvert host defenses, and enable pathogen transmission to other hosts. Among all bacterial pathogens studied to date, the gram-negative pathogen, Legionella pneumophila, maintains the largest arsenal of effectors, with over 330 effector proteins translocated by the Dot/Icm type IVB translocation system. In this review, I will discuss some of the recent work on understanding the consequences of this large arsenal. I will also present several models that seek to explain how L. pneumophila has acquired and sub...



In sílico identification and characterization of putative Dot/Icm secreted virulence effectors in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015 Source:Microbial Pathogenesis Author(s): Álvaro Labra, Oscar Arredondo-Zelada, Patricio Flores-Herrera, Sergio H. Marshall, Fernando A. Gómez Piscirickettsia salmonis seriously affects the Chilean salmon industry. The bacterium is phylogenetically related to Legionella pneumophila and Coxiella burnetii, sharing a Dot/Icm secretion system with them. Although it is well documented that L. pneumophila and C. burnetii secrete different virulence effectors via this Dot/Icm system in order to attenuate host cell responses, to date there have been no reported virulence effectors secreted by the Dot/Icm system of P. salmonis. Using several annotations of P. salmonis genome, here we report an in silico analyses of 4 putative Dot/Icm effec...



The adenoviral infections in children admitted to hospital with pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or respiratory viral infections.

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 04:16:45 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The percent of ADV infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) caused by neither RSV or hMPV is 14.2%. ADV is most frequently encountered in the 6 months - 2 years and then 2 - 5 years groups, but the most severe pneumonia forms can be seen in the 6 months - 2 years group. In children < 6 months with acute bronchiolitis ADV was not found to be an etiologic agent. PMID: 22838216 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology)



Water heater temperature set point and water use patterns influence Legionella pneumophila and associated microorganisms at the tap - Rhoads WJ, Ji P, Pruden A, Edwards MA.

Fri, 11 Dec 2015 21:16:33 +0100

BACKGROUND: Lowering water heater temperature set points and using less drinking water are common approaches to conserving water and energy; yet, there are discrepancies in past literature regarding the effects of water heater temperature and water use pat... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))

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Diagnostic Utility of Splenial Lesions in a Case of Legionnaires' Disease due to Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 2.

Sun, 06 Dec 2015 14:48:03 +0100

Authors: Tomizawa Y, Hoshino Y, Sasaki F, Kurita N, Kawajiri S, Noda K, Hattori N, Amemura-Maekawa J, Kura F, Okuma Y Abstract We herein report the case of a 49-year-old man with clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) associated with Legionnaires' disease due to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 2. Past reports suggest that Legionella infection is frequent in cases of MERS-associated pneumonia. Obtaining an early diagnosis of legionella infection is a challenge, especially if a Legionella pneumophila serogroup other than serogroup 1 contains the causative agent. In this case, the splenial lesion played an important role in recognizing the legionella infection. We suggest that legionella infection should be considered as a differential di...



Characteristic Predictors that Increase the Pretest Probability of Legionnaires Disease: "Don't Order a Test Just Because You Can" Revisited.

Fri, 04 Dec 2015 12:40:05 +0100

Characteristic Predictors that Increase the Pretest Probability of Legionnaires Disease: "Don't Order a Test Just Because You Can" Revisited. South Med J. 2015 Dec;108(12):761 Authors: Cunha BA PMID: 26630900 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Southern Medical Journal)



Identification of regions within the Legionella pneumophila VipA effector protein involved in actin binding and polymerization and in interference with eukaryotic organelle trafficking

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The Legionella pneumophila effector protein VipA is an actin nucleator that co‐localizes with actin filaments and early endosomes in infected macrophages and which interferes with organelle trafficking when expressed in yeast. To identify the regions of VipA involved in its subcellular localization and functions, we ectopically expressed specific VipA mutant proteins in eukaryotic cells. This indicated that the characteristic punctate distribution of VipA depends on its NH2‐terminal (amino acid residues 1–133) and central coiled‐coil (amino acid residues 133–206) regions, and suggested a role for the COOH‐terminal (amino acid residues 206–339) region in association with actin filaments and for the NH2‐terminal in co‐localization with early endosomes. Co‐immunop...



Evolution of the methyl directed mismatch repair system in Escherichia coli.

Wed, 02 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Putnam CD Abstract DNA mismatch repair (MMR) repairs mispaired bases in DNA generated by replication errors. MutS or MutS homologs recognize mispairs and coordinate with MutL or MutL homologs to direct excision of the newly synthesized DNA strand. In most organisms, the signal that discriminates between the newly synthesized and template DNA strands has not been definitively identified. In contrast, Escherichia coli and some related gammaproteobacteria use a highly elaborated methyl-directed MMR system that recognizes Dam methyltransferase modification sites that are transiently unmethylated on the newly synthesized strand after DNA replication. Evolution of methyl-directed MMR is characterized by the acquisition of Dam and the MutH nuclease and by the loss of the MutL end...



The Salmonella effector SteA binds phosphatidylinositol 4‐phosphate for subcellular targeting within host cells

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cellular Microbiology)

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Legionella prevalence and risk of legionellosis in Hungarian hospitals.

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Barna Z, Kádár M, Kálmán E, Róka E, Szax AS, Vargha M Abstract Nosocomial legionellosis is a growing concern worldwide. In Hungary, about 20% of the reported cases are health-care associated, but in the absence of legal regulation, environmental monitoring of Legionella is not routinely performed in hospitals. In the present study, 23 hospitals were investigated. The hot water distribution system was colonized by Legionella in over 90%; counts generally exceeded the public health limit value. Hot water temperature was critically low in all systems (<45 °C), and large differences (3-38 °C temperature drop) were observed within buildings, indicating insufficient circulation. Most facilities were older than 30 years (77%); however, new systems (n = 3) were also show...