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Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:33:57 +0100

 



Differential dendritic cells responses to infection with various serotypes of shigella

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of immune response with the ability to affect both the innate and adaptive immune responses and are abundant in the gut mucosa. The severity of shigellosis varies with the serotype involved with S. dysenteriae (SD) producing the severest infections and complications with S. sonnei (SS) being at other end of spectrum usually causing mild self-limiting diarrhea. While shigellae are known to induce the apoptosis of mature DCs, there is no information in cytokine milieu of DCs incubated with different serotypes of Shigellae. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Zinc restores altered intestinal ion-transport,barrier functions and counteract inflammatory mediators induced by Shigella infection in T84 cells

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: In recent years Zinc(Zn) has emerged as a major anti-diarrheal therapeutic and preventive strategy in the current management of diarrhea;however the mechanisms behind this protective effect are yet to be elucidated. We investigated the potential benefits of Zn in restoring paracellular and transcellular ion transport by modulating tight junction protein expression and chloride(Cl-)secretion altered upon Shigella infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular serogrouping of serologically atypical shigella isolates from South India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Shigellae are the causative agents of bacillary dysentery, represents a significant public health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. New serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are not uncommon and are reported from different parts of the world. Notably, atypical Shigella exhibit greater antibiotic resistance than typical Shigella serotypes and also found to harbour integrons which has the ability to acquire resistance genes. The purpose of this work was to amplify rfb regions (contains the genes coding for the enzymes responsible for O-antigen synthesis) of non-agglutinating Shigella isolates to characterize these by endonuclease restriction and to study the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (AMR). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases...



The emergence of cotrimoxazole and quinolone resistance in Shigella sonnei

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: The emergence of cotrimoxazole resistance has been a dominant and consistent character in our isolates of Shigella sonnei. To study the behaviour of these emerging strains and characterise mechanisms of resistance to cotrimoxazole & ciprofloxacin the following study was performed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antibiotic susceptibility profile of enteric organisms from healthy individuals in a tertiary institution in Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The world health organization has declared antibiotic resistance as a pandemic which calls for urgent attention. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheal patients in Nigeria has been reported to be on the increase (Iwalokun et al., 2001; Yah et al., 2007; Kimang’a, 2012). M. morganii had been previously implicated in nosocomial infections, sepsis and other infections (Singla et al., 2010) . M. morganii has been reported to possess resistance plasmid which is of great importance when implicated in infections. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Demonstration of horizontal gene transfer of fluoroquinolone resistance by plasmids in clinical isolates of shigella spp. and salmonella spp.

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study was aimed to investigate the horizontal transfer of fluoroquinolone resistant gene harbouring plasmid from multi-drug resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Fluoroqunilone resistance in Shigella over a decade In India: Do we have Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance?

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The qnr gene family consists of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that confer low level resistance to nalidixic acid and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. At our tertiary care referral centre in Chandigarh, which caters to a large population of 5 neighboring states, antibiotic resistance in Shigella is being constantly monitored (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



A screening algorithm for diagnosing bacterial gastroenteritis by real-time PCR in combination with guided culture

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

We have introduced a real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./ Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples in our routine laboratory. This new approach showed consistent results, with minimal inter-sample variation. When compared to conventional culture, the hands-on time decreased by 13h/week, and the median turnaround time drastically shortened from 73h to 29h (p (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)



Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity and chemical characterisation of Erythrina stricta Roxb. (Fabaceae)

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Seven compounds, including a new chromanone, were isolated from the antimicrobial dichloromethane extract of the stem bark of E. stricta. Six of the seven compounds showed antibacterial and/or antioxidant activities. These findings provide support for the customary (traditional and contemporary) use of E. stricta bark for the treatment of skin and wound infections. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



Emergence of a Multidrug-Resistant Shiga Toxin-Producing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Lineage in Diseased Swine in Japan [Clinical Veterinary Microbiology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) are important causes of diarrhea and edema disease in swine. The majority of swine-pathogenic E. coli strains belong to a limited range of O serogroups, including O8, O138, O139, O141, O147, O149, and O157, which are the most frequently reported strains worldwide. However, the circumstances of ETEC and STEC infections in Japan remain unknown; there have been few reports on the prevalence or characterization of swine-pathogenic E. coli. In the present study, we determined the O serogroups of 967 E. coli isolates collected between 1991 and 2014 from diseased swine in Japan, and we found that O139, O149, O116, and OSB9 (O serogroup of Shigella boydii type 9) were the predominant serogroups. We further analyzed th...



Evaluation of Luminex xTAG Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel Assay for Detection of Multiple Diarrheal Pathogens in Fecal Samples in Vietnam [Bacteriology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Diarrheal disease is a complex syndrome that remains a leading cause of global childhood morbidity and mortality. The diagnosis of enteric pathogens in a timely and precise manner is important for making treatment decisions and informing public health policy, but accurate diagnosis is a major challenge in industrializing countries. Multiplex molecular diagnostic techniques may represent a significant improvement over classical approaches. We evaluated the Luminex xTAG gastrointestinal pathogen panel (GPP) assay for the detection of common enteric bacterial and viral pathogens in Vietnam. Microbiological culture and real-time PCR were used as gold standards. The tests were performed on 479 stool samples collected from people admitted to the hospital for diarrheal disease throughout Vietnam....

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Screening of Furanone in Cucurbita melo and Evaluation of its Bioactive Potential Using In Silico Studies

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The work presented here attempts to screen for the presence of 4-Hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone in fruits and also any bioactive potential present in the fruit extracts. Curcurbita melo was selected for the study, and the fruit was crushed, filtered and extracted with ethyl acetate as the solvent. The resulting extract was subjected to disk diffusion test using Kirby Bauer method for checking its antimicrobial potential. Melon extract showed promising results against different clinical pathogens, 19-mm zone being the largest against Klebsiella pneumoniae and 17 mm against Shigella dysenteriae. GC–MS data of the melon extract confirmed the existence of furanone derivative in the extract. To evaluate the antimicrobial activity, in silico studies were performed using...






Prevalence and trends of bacterial contamination in fresh fruits and vegetables sold at retail in Canada

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: September 2016 Source:Food Control, Volume 67 Author(s): Nelly Denis, Helen Zhang, Alexandre Leroux, Roger Trudel, Henri Bietlot In recent years, fresh fruits and vegetables have been linked to numerous foodborne illness outbreaks in different regions of the world, including in Canada. In light of rising concerns over the microbial safety of these commodities, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency conducted retail surveys to obtain information on the occurrence of bacterial pathogens in a wide range of produce available in the Canadian marketplace (local vs. imported, organic vs. conventional). Samples (n = 31,329) were collected across Canada over four years (2009–2013) and consisted of leafy vegetables (n = 12,073), leafy herbs (n = 6032), green onions (n ...



Knockdown of Five Genes Encoding Uncharacterized Proteins Inhibits Entamoeba histolytica Phagocytosis of Dead Host Cells [Fungal and Parasitic Infections]

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite that causes invasive amebiasis, which is endemic to many developing countries and characterized by dysentery and liver abscesses. The virulence of E. histolytica correlates with the degree of host cell engulfment, or phagocytosis, and E. histolytica phagocytosis alters amebic gene expression in a feed-forward manner that results in an increased phagocytic ability. Here, we used a streamlined RNA interference screen to silence the expression of 15 genes whose expression was upregulated in phagocytic E. histolytica trophozoites to determine whether these genes actually function in the phagocytic process. When five of these genes were silenced, amebic strains with significant decreases in the ability to phagocytose apoptotic host cells were prod...



Characterization of SlyA in Shigella flexneri Identifies a Novel Role in Virulence [Molecular Pathogenesis]

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we report the first analysis of SlyA in Shigella and show that (i) the slyA gene is transcribed and ultimately translated into protein, (ii) slyA promoter activity is maximal during stationary phase and is negatively autoregulated and positively regulated by the PhoP response regulator, (iii) the exogenous expression of slyA rescues transcription and virulence-associated deficiencies during virulence-repressed conditions, and (iv) the absence of slyA significantly decreases acid resistance, demonstrating a novel and important role in Shigella virulence. Cumulatively, our study illustrates unexpected parallels between the less conserved S. flexneri and S. Typhimurium slyA promoters as well as a unique role for SlyA in Shigella virulence that has not been described previously ...

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Investigations of the effectiveness of nanoemulsions from sage oil as antibacterial agents on some food borne pathogens

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: September 2016 Source:LWT - Food Science and Technology, Volume 71 Author(s): Roya Moghimi, Atousa Aliahmadi, David Julian McClements, Hasan Rafati There is growing interest in the development of natural antimicrobials to preserve foods. In this research, Sage (Salvia officinalis) essential oil was converted into a nanoemulsion using nonionic surfactants (Tween 80, Span 80) and high-intensity sonication. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil nanoemulsions (d ≈ 222 nm) was compared to that of pure essential oil against food-borne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysentery, and Salmonella typhi) using minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentration (MIC and MBC) methods. The antibacterial activity of the nanoemulsion was four-times higher than the bul...



The Public Health Problem of OTC Antibiotics in Developing Nations

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Antibiotic resistance is an increasing threat to global health,1 with existing evidence linking this to their widespread use.2 Genetic mutations and acquisition of resistant genes followed by selection of resistant variants are two of the underlying mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance. This has been noted with increasing frequency in developing countries for several bacterial species including Neisseria, Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella and Shigella.3 Unregulated distribution of antibiotics, which make the easily accessible over-the-counter (OTC) in these countries, is a major factor. (Source: Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy)



Genomic study of epidemic dysentery reveals how Europe exported a scourge worldwide

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute) The largest genetic study on the bacterium responsible for epidemic dysentery has revealed that the Shigella dysenteriae pathogen, which remains a real scourge in Africa and Asia, probably originated in Europe. This research, which was carried out by scientists from the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and Institut Pasteur in Paris, also charts the development of the pathogen's resistance to antibiotics, and is published in the journal Nature Microbiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Shiga Toxin 1-Producing Shigella sonnei Infections, California, United States, 2014-2015.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 15:37:03 +0100

Authors: Lamba K, Nelson JA, Kimura AC, Poe A, Collins J, Kao AS, Cruz L, Inami G, Vaishampayan J, Garza A, Chaturvedi V, Vugia DJ Abstract Shiga toxins (Stx) are primarily associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Stx production by other shigellae is uncommon, but in 2014, Stx1-producing S. sonnei infections were detected in California. Surveillance was enhanced to test S. sonnei isolates for the presence and expression of stx genes, perform DNA subtyping, describe clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of case-patients, and investigate for sources of infection. During June 2014-April 2015, we identified 56 cases of Stx1-producing S. sonnei, in 2 clusters. All isolates encoded stx1 and produced active Stx1. Multiple pulsed-fiel...



What is Shigella? Everything you need to know about the bacterial infection from SEX

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 14:57:00 +0100

POSTERS warning about a serious bacterial gut infection caught by faeces getting into people's mouths during sex have been published by the government. (Source: Daily Express - Health)

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Crystal structure of the substrate-recognition domain of the Shigella E3 ligase IpaH9.8

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Infectious diseases caused by bacteria have significant impacts on global public health. During infection, pathogenic bacteria deliver a variety of virulence factors, called effectors, into host cells. The Shigella effector IpaH9.8 functions as an ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinating the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO)/IKK-γ to inhibit host inflammatory responses. IpaH9.8 contains leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) involved in substrate recognition and an E3 ligase domain. To elucidate the structural basis of the function of IpaH9.8, the crystal structure of the LRR domain of Shigella IpaH9.8 was determined and this structure was compared with the known structures of other IpaH family members. This model provides insights into the structural features involved in substrate specificity. (Source: Act...



Wound healing property of isolated compounds from Boesenbergia kingii rhizomes

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion B. kingii is responsible for wound healing property via antioxidative effect, stimulation of fibroblast proliferation and migration as well as enhancement of collagen production. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



Gallesia integrifolia (Spreng.) Harms: In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities and mode of action

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion HEGi is safe at the dose tested when used acutely, and it presented broad antibacterial effect, which support its traditional use in the treatment of bacterial infections. It contains well known important phytochemicals, recognized to be active against bacterial pathogens in vitro and might be collectively responsible for the antibacterial activity of HEGi. It is bacteriostatic in nature, with membrane perturbation being one of it mode of action. HEGi represent a potential phytotherapic antibacterial agent. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Shigella flexneri Dissemination

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Hervé Agaisse (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella prepared for WHO PD-VAC.

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Mani S, Wierzba T, Walker RI Abstract Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while w...

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Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 12:08:08 +0100

F.-X. Campbell-Valois, Stéphanie M. Pontier (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



Molecular characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella strains isolated in Tehran, Iran

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, molecular mechanisms of resistance to quinolones were identified in 6 of 23 Shigella isolates. Other possible mechanisms of resistance should also be investigated for better characterisation of quinolone-resistant Shigella isolates. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)



Molecules, Vol. 21, Pages 331: Review on a Traditional Herbal Medicine, Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali): Its Traditional Uses, Chemistry, Evidence-Based Pharmacology and Toxicology

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Eurycoma longifolia Jack (known as tongkat ali), a popular traditional herbal medicine, is a flowering plant of the family Simaroubaceae, native to Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam and also Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. E. longifolia, is one of the well-known folk medicines for aphrodisiac effects as well as intermittent fever (malaria) in Asia. Decoctions of E. longifolia leaves are used for washing itches, while its fruits are used in curing dysentery. Its bark is mostly used as a vermifuge, while the taproots are used to treat high blood pressure, and the root bark is used for the treatment of diarrhea and fever. Mostly, the roots extract of E. longifolia are used as folk medicine for sexual dysfunction, aging, malaria, cancer, diabetes, anxiety, aches, constipation, exercise recove...



Key step in process of Shigella infection identified

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 18:58:48 +0100

Researchers have discovered a key mechanism used by Shigella to delivery proteins into target host cells. Their findings may apply to additional bacterial species, including those responsible for typhoid fever, bubonic plague and many hospital-acquired pneumonias. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)



Mass. General research team identifies key step in process of Shigella infection

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(Massachusetts General Hospital) Researchers from the Massachusetts General Hospital Division of Infectious Diseases have discovered a key mechanism used by Shigella to delivery proteins into target host cells. Their findings may apply to additional bacterial species, including those responsible for typhoid fever, bubonic plague and many hospital-acquired pneumonias. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

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'World's Loneliest Chimp,' Abandoned On A Small Island, Gets Cuddly Teddy Bear

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 20:01:23 +0100

(function(d, s, id) { var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; if (d.getElementById(id)) return; js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_US/sdk#xfbml=1&version=v2.3"; fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs);}(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk'));Posted by SOS PONSO on Thursday, February 25, 2016 The "world's loneliest chimp" just got a warm and fuzzy gift. Ponso was one of 20 chimps that were dumped on a tiny island off the Ivory Coast by the New York Blood Center, a medical testing company, in the early 1980s, the Humane Society of the United States told The Huffington Post. According to SOS PONSO -- a Facebook page which advocates for the chimp -- Ponso is the sole survivor.  The rest of the 19 monkeys died of starvation and ...



A Novel Small RNA Regulates Tolerance and Virulence in Shigella flexneri by Responding to Acidic Environmental Changes

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Ligui Wang, Guang Yang, Lihua Qi, Xiang Li, Leili Jia, Jing Xie, Shaofu Qiu, Peng Li, RongZhang Hao, Zhihao Wu, Xinying Du, Wuju Li, Hongbin Song (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



Spa47 is an oligomerization‐activated type three secretion system (T3SS) ATPase from Shigella flexneri

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Protein Science)



Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential, the medicinal and pharmacological potential of the SAB plant remains to be established. Further studies on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the SAB plants will not only advance our knowledge of ethnobotany and ethnomedicine, but may also improve the health and knowledge of the local people. (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



HPLC–DAD–MS identification of polyphenols from Passiflora leschenaultii and determination of their antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 February 2016 Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry Author(s): Saravanan Shanmugam, Iniyavan Murugaiyan, Bruno dos Santos Lima, Mairim Russo Serafini, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Parimelazhagan Thangaraj Passion fruit (Passiflora leschenaultii DC), an endemic species to peninsular India, is traditionally used to treat various ailments such as dysentery, urinary stone disease and wounds. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic activities and chemical composition of leaf extracts of P. leschenaultii. Bioactive secondary metabolites such as total phenolics, tannins and flavonoids were quantified. Antioxidant activities were determined b...

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Highlights of the 8th International Conference on Vaccines for Enteric Diseases: The Scottish Encounter to Defeat Diarrheal Diseases.

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Tennant SM, Steele AD, Pasetti MF Abstract Infectious diarrhea is a leading cause of morbidity and of mortality; the burden of disease affects individuals of all ages but particularly young children, especially those living in poor, endemic regions. It is also a health concern for international travelers to these areas. Experts on vaccines and enteric infections and advocates for global health improvement gathered in Scotland from July 8 to 10, 2015, to discuss recent advances in the assessment and understanding of the burden of enteric diseases and progress in the development and implementation of strategies to prevent these infections. Highlights of the meeting included description of advances in molecular assays to estimate pathogen-specific prevalence, methods to model...



Pathogenic Gut Flora in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions This study showed that patients with CHF may have intestinal overgrowth of pathogenic bacteria and Candida species and increased IP associated with clinical disease severity, venous blood congestion, and inflammation. (Source: JACC: Heart Failure)



Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. (Source: Clinical Infectious Diseases)



The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet [Genomics, Proteomics, and Metabolomics]

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the HPD altered the colonic microbial community, shifted the metabolic profile, and affected the host response in the colons of rats toward an increased risk of colonic disease. (Source: Journal of Nutrition)

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Effect of dietary protein sources on the small intestine microbiome of weaned piglets based on high‐throughput sequencing

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, dietary protein source had significant effects on the small microbiome of weaned piglets. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Letters in Applied Microbiology)



The genomic signatures of Shigella evolution, adaptation and geographical spread

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Microbiology 14, 235 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrmicro.2016.10 Authors: Hao Chung The, Duy Pham Thanh, Kathryn E. Holt, Nicholas R. Thomson & Stephen Baker Shigella spp. are some of the key pathogens responsible for the global burden of diarrhoeal disease. These facultative intracellular bacteria belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae, together with other intestinal pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The genus Shigella comprises (Source: Nature Reviews Microbiology)



Salmonella serotypeTyphi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 08:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)



Incidence rates and clinical Symptoms of Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Shigella infections in China, 1998–2013

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 08:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Salmonella has been identified as the third-most frequent cause of diarrhea from 1998–2006, as the second-most frequent cause from 2006–2010, and as the most frequent cause from 2011–2013, which was mainly due to a sharp decrease of V. parahaemolyticus infections in 2011–2013. Salmonella strains collected in 2011–2013 showed high susceptibility to imipenem (100%) and meropenem (100%), whereas susceptibilities for ampicillin (39%) and piperacillin (40%) were low. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)



Salmonella serotypeTyphi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 08:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)

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Incidence rates and clinical Symptoms of Salmonella, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Shigella infections in China, 1998–2013

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 08:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Salmonella has been identified as the third-most frequent cause of diarrhea from 1998–2006, as the second-most frequent cause from 2006–2010, and as the most frequent cause from 2011–2013, which was mainly due to a sharp decrease of V. parahaemolyticus infections in 2011–2013. Salmonella strains collected in 2011–2013 showed high susceptibility to imipenem (100%) and meropenem (100%), whereas susceptibilities for ampicillin (39%) and piperacillin (40%) were low. (Source: The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries)



Safer chemsex: consideration of Shigella.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 14:35:03 +0100

Authors: Bains M, Crook P, Field N, Hughes G PMID: 26917637 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The British Journal of General Practice)



Long-term Clinical Course of Post-infectious Irritable Bowel Syndrome after Shigellosis: A 10-year Follow-up Study.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 16:15:02 +0100

Conclusions: Patients who were infected by Shigella sonneiexperienced significantly increased risk of IBS until 3 years after shigellosis, and modestly increased risk until 8 years, but showed similar risk of IBS with uninfected controls 10 years post-infection. PI-IBS is quite a chronic disorder, and follows a long-term natural course. PMID: 26908484 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility)



Zambia: New Malaria Drug Elating

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 10:50:57 +0100

[Times of Zambia] Malaria killed the Scottish explorer David Livingstone, who also suffered from dysentery, on May 1, 1873 at the age of 60 in Chief Chitambo's Village in the then Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia). (Source: AllAfrica News: Malaria)



Nigeria: Suspected Typhoid Fever, Dysentery Kills 13 in Abuja

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 05:37:54 +0100

[Premium Times] The executive secretary of the Federal Capital Territory Primary Health Care Development Board, Rilwanu Muhammad, said unknown disease suspected to be typhoid fever or shigella dysentery had killed 13 people in Saburi community of AMAC in Abuja. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)

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Spectrum of Imported Infectious Diseases: A Comparative Prevalence Study of 16,817 German Travelers and 977 Immigrants from the Tropics and Subtropics.

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study demonstrates a large spectrum of imported IDs among returning German travelers and immigrants, which varies greatly based not only on travel destination and origin of immigrants, but also on type of travel. PMID: 26903611 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)



Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Distrutti E, Monaldi L, Ricci P, Fiorucci S Abstract In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, S...



Ethnomedical and ethnobotanical investigations on the response capacities of guinean traditional health practioners in the management of outbreaks of infectious diseases: the case of the ebola virus epidemic

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions It is worth to document all available knowledge on the traditional management of EVD-like symptoms in order to evaluate systematically the anti-Ebola potential of Guinean plant species. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



HPLC-DAD-MS identification of polyphenols from Passiflora leschenaultii and determination of their antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 February 2016 Source:Arabian Journal of Chemistry Author(s): Shanmugam Saravanan, Murugaiyan Iniyavan, Bruno dos Santos Lima, Mairim Russo Serafini, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo, Narendra Narain, Lucindo José Quintans-Júnior, Thangaraj Parimelazhagan Passion fruit (Passiflora leschenaultii DC), an endemic species to peninsular India, is traditionally used to treat various ailments such as dysentery, urinary stone disease and wounds. The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic activities and chemical composition of leaf extracts of P. leschenaultii. Bioactive secondary metabolites like total phenolics, tannins and flavonoids were quantified. Antioxidant activities were determined by D...



Tetrandrine – A molecule of wide bioactivity

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 February 2016 Source:Phytochemistry Author(s): N. Bhagya, K.R. Chandrashekar Stephania tetrandra and other related species of Menispermaceae form the major source of the bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid – tetrandrine. The plant is extensively referenced in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia for its use in the Chinese medicinal system as an analgesic and diuretic agent and also in the treatment of hypertension and various other ailments, including asthma, tuberculosis, dysentery, hyperglycemia, malaria, cancer and fever. Tetrandrine, well-known to act as a calcium channel blocker, has been tested in clinical trials and found effective against silicosis, hypertension, inflammation and lung cancer without any toxicity. Recently, the efficacy of tetrandrine was...

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Prevalence and virulence factors of Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhoea in Rosario, Argentina.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides initial data on the prevalence and distribution in a wide variety of Shigella strains of the set, sen, ipaH, virA and ial genes. PMID: 26902216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Synthesis of newer 1,2,3-triazole linked chalcone and flavone hybrid compounds and evaluation of their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kant R, Kumar D, Agarwal D, Gupta RD, Tilak R, Awasthi SK, Agarwal A Abstract The present study was carried out in an attempt to synthesize a new class of antimicrobial and antiplasmodial agents by copper catalyzed click chemistry to afford 25 compounds 10-14(a-e) of 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole derivatives of chalcones and flavones. The structures of the newly synthesized compounds were established by elemental analysis, IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and Mass spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella boydii, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and antifungal activity against (Candida...



Synergistic and Additive Antimicrobial Activities of Curcumin, Manuka Honey and Whey Proteins

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Antimicrobial activity of curcumin, Manuka honey (MH, Leptospermum scoparium) and Whey protein isolate (WPI) and their synergistic and/or additive effects were tested against various Gram positive and negative bacterial strains for development of functional foods. Curcumin and MH each displayed 100% inhibition against all the tested strains of bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of curcumin and honey against different strains ranged from 100 to 250 µg/mL and 5–20% respectively. Except Bacillus subtilis, all other tested pathogens were completely inhibited by the mixture of subinhibitory concentrations of curcumin and MH. At these levels, the mixture of MH and WPI was more effective against Streptococcus pyogenes, Shigella soneii and Proteus vulgaris. Mixture o...



Experimental infection of conventional pigs with a ‘Brachyspira hampsonii’ isolate recovered from a migrating waterfowl in Spain

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aims at investigating whether a ‘B. hampsonii’ isolate recovered from a migrating waterfowl was capable of colonizing pig intestines, inducing clinical signs of dysentery and being transmitted among pigs. Eleven 7 week-old pigs were randomly assigned into two separate groups which were orally administered an avian isolate of ‘B. hampsonii’ (inoculated group, n=5) or BHI broth (control group, n=6). After inoculation, three pigs from the control group were placed in the inoculated pen and served as sentinel pigs. Our results show the capacity of this avian ‘B. hampsonii’ isolate to colonize the large intestine of pigs and to be transmitted among pigs. According to this, migrating birds could play a role in the epidemiology of ‘B. hampsonii’ as a possible source of ...



Purification and characteristics of a novel bacteriocin produced by Enterococcus faecalis L11 isolated from Chinese traditional fermented cucumber.

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Enterocin L11 is a novel broad-spectrum Class II bacteriocin produced by E. faecalis L11, and may have potential as a food biopreservative. PMID: 26875092 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biotechnology Letters)

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Establishment and Application of a Visual DNA Microarray for the Detection of Food-borne Pathogens.

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 14:55:02 +0100

Authors: Li Y Abstract The accurate detection and identification of food-borne pathogenic microorganisms is critical for food safety nowadays. In the present work, a visual DNA microarray was established and applied to detect pathogens commonly found in food, including Salmonella enterica, Shigella flexneri, E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes in food samples. Multiplex PCR (mPCR) was employed to simultaneously amplify specific gene fragments, fimY for Salmonella, ipaH for Shigella, iap for L. monocytogenes and ECs2841 for E. coli O157:H7, respectively. Biotinylated PCR amplicons annealed to the microarray probes were then reacted with a streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and nitro blue tetrazolium/5-bromo-4-chloro-3'-indolylphosphate, p-toluidine salt (NBT/BCIP); t...



Bioinformatics analyses of Shigella CRISPR structure and spacer classification

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to analyze the features of Shigella CRISPR structure and classify the spacers through bioinformatics approach. Among 107 Shigella, 434 CRISPR structure loci were identified with two to seven loci in different strains. CRISPR-Q1, CRISPR-Q4 and CRISPR-Q5 were widely distributed in Shigella strains. Comparison of the first and last repeats of CRISPR1, CRISPR2 and CRISPR3 revealed several base variants and different stem-loop structures. A total of 259 cas genes were found among these 107 Shigella strains. The cas gene deletions were discovered in 88 strains. However, there is one strain that does not contain cas gene. Intact clusters of cas genes were found in 19 strains. From comprehensive analysis of sequence signature and BLAST and CRISPRTarget score, the 708 spacers were ...



Interactions between Shigella flexneri and the Autophagy Machinery

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 22:35:22 +0100

Sina Krokowski, Serge Mostowy (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 22:35:22 +0100

Mariette Bonnet, Guy Tran Van Nhieu (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



TLR activation by Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens (GMMA) from lipid A mutants of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis.

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Rossi O, Caboni M, Negrea A, Necchi F, Alfini R, Micoli F, Saul A, MacLennan CA, Rondini S, Gerke C Abstract Invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease is a neglected disease with high mortality in children and HIV-positive individuals in Sub-Saharan Africa primarily caused by African-specific strains of Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis. A vaccine is under development using GMMA (Generalized Modules for Membrane Antigens) from S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis containing lipid A modifications to reduce potential in vivo reactogenicity. GMMA with penta-acylated lipid A showed the greatest reduction of cytokine release from human peripheral blood monocytes compared to GMMA with wild-type lipid A. Deletion of lipid A modification genes msbB and pa...

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Evaluation of the Safety, Tolerability and Immunogenicity of an Oral, Inactivated Whole Cell Shigella flexneri 2a Vaccine in Healthy Adult Subjects.

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Chakraborty S, Harro C, DeNearing B, Bream J, Bauers N, Dally L, Flores J, Van de Verg L, Sack DA, Walker R Abstract Shigella causes high morbidity and mortality worldwide but there is yet no licensed vaccine for shigellosis. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a formalin-inactivated whole cell Shigella flexneri 2a vaccine, Sf2aWC, given orally to adult volunteers.In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 82 subjects were randomized to receive three doses of vaccine in dose escalation (2.6±0.8 x 10(8); 10(9); 10(10) and 10(11) vaccine particles (vp)/mL). Vaccine safety was actively monitored and antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses were determined in serum, antibody in lymphocyte supernatant (ALS) and fecal samples. Cytokines were measured i...



Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 09:35:50 +0100

Yahan Wei, Erin R. Murphy (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



[Molecular characterization of Shigella sonnei isolates recovered by the Laboratory Surveillance Program for Acute Diarrheal Disease in Colombia].

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 02:05:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The genotypic database for Shigella sonnei isolates was established using pulsed field gel electrophoresis including the 42 unique patterns identified in this study. PMID: 26849701 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedica : Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud)



Clinical implications of reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in paediatric Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri infections

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions We found that below the CLSI breakpoint, there was no association between MIC and clinical outcome in paediatric shigellosis infections. However, S. flexneri patients had worse clinical outcomes when treated with gatifloxacin in this study regardless of MIC. Additionally, Shigella harbouring the qnrS gene are able to replicate efficiently in high concentrations of ciprofloxacin and we hypothesize that such strains possess a competitive advantage against fluoroquinolone-susceptible strains due to enhanced shedding and transmission. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)



Enhanced NOx removal performance and microbial community shifts in an oxygen-resistance chemical absorption–biological reduction integrated system

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 April 2016 Source:Chemical Engineering Journal, Volume 290 Author(s): Wei Li, Meifang Li, Lei Zhang, Jingkai Zhao, Yinfeng Xia, Nan Liu, Sujing Li, Shihan Zhang The chemical absorption–biological reduction (CABR) integrated process, which employed ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate as a solvent, is promising for NO x removal. However, oxygen in the flue gas has a great potential to retard the NO x removal. In this work, an oxygen-resistance CABR system inoculated with enriched culture was established. It features a shorter start-up period and a better performance of NO x removal compared with the conventional CABR system. The microbial community shifts in taxa and diversity in response to oxygen were also investigated. High-throughput sequencing analysis s...

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Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli May Account for Uncultured Shigella.

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Okeke IN, Aboderin AO, Opintan JA PMID: 26843611 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene)



Antimicrobial Properties of a Potential Probiotic Lactobacillus from Thai Newborn Feces.

Sat, 30 Jan 2016 10:15:04 +0100

CONCLUSION: The active isolate could potentially be used as a probiotic to prevent and treat enteric infections. PMID: 26817219 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet)



Evaluation of the C-Terminal Fragment of Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNAc Lectin Intermediate Subunit as a Vaccine Candidate against Amebic Liver Abscess

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions/Significance Immunobiochemical characterization strongly suggests the potential of recombinant Igl, especially the C-terminal fragment, as a vaccine candidate against amoebiasis. Moreover, protection through Th2-cell participation enabled effective humoral immunity against amebic liver abscesses. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)



Riboregulators: Fine-Tuning Virulence in Shigella

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Megan E. Fris, Erin R. Murphy (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell‐Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild‐type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL‐12p70, IL‐1β and IL‐23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN‐γ, IL‐10 and IL‐17 in LTSH‐primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell‐mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum I...

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IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 164: Patterns of Bacillary Dysentery in China, 2005–2010

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Although the incidence of bacillary dysentery in China has been declining progressively, a considerable disease burden still exists. Few studies have analyzed bacillary dysentery across China and knowledge gaps still exist in the aspects of geographic distribution and ecological drivers, seasonality and its association with meteorological factors, urban-rural disparity, prevalence and distribution of Shigella species. Here, we performed nationwide analyses to fill the above gaps. Geographically, we found that incidence increased along an east-west gradient which was inversely related to the economic conditions of China. Two large endemically high-risk regions in western China and their ecological drivers were identified for the first time. We characterized seasonality of bacillary dysenter...



Ultrasensitive Detection of Shigella Species in Blood and Stool

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 18:42:07 +0100

Analytical ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04242 (Source: Analytical Chemistry)



Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 23:20:16 +0100

Hiroshi Ashida, Chihiro Sasakawa (Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology)



Impacts of Typhoon ‘Koppu’ on Infectious Diarrhea in Guangdong Province, China

Sun, 24 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aims to quantify the impact of typhoon ‘Koppu’ on infectious diarrhea in Guangdong, China in 2009. Rate ratios (RRs) were calculated by comparing person-time of infectious diarrhea cases between typhoon period and reference period. RRs of dysentery and other infectious diarrhea increased to a maximum of 1.12 (95% CI, 0.86-1.47), 1.10 (95% CI, 1.00-1.20) on the fifth lag day respectively. Children under 5 years were more vulnerable to infectious diarrhea, especially to other infectious diarrhea [RR: 1.21 (1.07-1.36) Vs. 1.03 (0.89-1.82)] after typhoon compared with people aged >5 years when RRs were at maximum. A mildly increased risk of infectious diarrhea was not only observed in great damaged regions, but also in other areas. (Source: Biomedical and Environmental Sc...



A preliminary evaluation of cytotoxicity, antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of Polygonum hydropiper L. ethanolic leaf extract

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we analyze the cytotoxicity property of aerial parts of the plant along with antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity. Methods: Cytoxicity was determined by brine shrimp lethality assay and antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observing decreases in abdominal writhings in intraperitoneally administered acetic acid-induced pain model in mice. Results: Administration of ethanol extract of leaf led to dose-dependent and significant reductions in blood glucose levels in glucose-loaded mice. Blood sugar levels of the tested mice were reduced significantly by 48.8, 51.5, 54.1, 58.2 % (p  (Source: Epidemiologic Perspectives and Innovations)

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Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats.

Fri, 22 Jan 2016 09:39:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID: 26788089 [PubMed] (Source: Archives of Medical Science)



Flavonoids of Polygonum hydropiper L. attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory injury via suppressing phosphorylation in MAPKs pathways

Fri, 22 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Polygonum hydropiper L. is widely used as a traditional remedy for the treatment of dysentery, gastroenteritis. It has been used to relieve swelling and pain, dispel wind and remove da... (Source: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine)



Development of a multi-pathogen enrichment broth for simultaneous growth of five common foodborne pathogens.

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 12:23:02 +0100

In conclusion, SSSLE was capable of supporting the growth of five target pathogens concurrently. The new broth formulated in this study has the potential of saving time, efforts and costs in multi-pathogen enrichment procedures. PMID: 26782652 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology)



Haemolytic uraemic syndrome with peripheral gangrene and Kawasaki disease in a 15-month-old child.

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 23:14:03 +0100

Authors: Krishnamurthy S, Jagadeesh A, Chandrasekaran V, Mahadevan S, Rajesh NG Abstract A 15-month-old boy presented with atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome (HUS) (without antecedent diarrhoea or dysentery) following a gluteal abscess and subsequently developed digital gangrene. During plasma infusion therapy for HUS, the clinical features of Kawasaki disease (KD) evolved. Intravenous immunoglobulin and aspirin therapy led to resolution of the KD. The case is notable for development of digital gangrene, a rare phenomenon described with HUS, as well as the development of features of KD. This is the first report of atypical HUS in association with peripheral gangrene and KD. The possible pathophysiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID: 26752398 [PubMed - as supplied by publi...



[Burden of salmonellosis and shigellosis in four departments of Guatemala, 2010].

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 10:52:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Salmonellosis and shigellosis are a major public health problem in the departments studied and in Guatemala. Burden of disease from these pathogens is higher than that reported by SIGSA. PMID: 26758224 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pan American Journal of Public Health)

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Survival mechanism of Escherichia coli O157:H7 against combined treatment with acetic acid and sodium chloride.

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 08:28:03 +0100

Authors: Lee SY, Kang DH Abstract The combination of salt and acid is commonly used in the production of many foods, including pickles and fermented foods. However, in our previous studies, the addition of salt significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in laboratory media and pickled cucumbers. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the mechanism by which salt confers resistance against acetic acid in E. coli O157:H7. The addition of high concentrations (up to 9% or 15% [w/v]) of salt increased the resistance of E. coli O157:H7 to acetic acid treatment. Combined treatment with acetic acid and salt showed varying results among different bacterial strains (an antagonistic effect for E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella and a synergisti...



PI5P Triggers ICAM-1 Degradation in Shigella Infected Cells, Thus Dampening Immune Cell Recruitment

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment. Graphical abstract Teaser Boal et al. show that Shigella’s meta-effector IpgD triggers, via PI5P production, the internalization and degradation of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1 in infected intestinal cells, thereby reducing neutrophil recruitment both in vitro and in vivo. Their results uncover a strategy of immune evasion used by this pathogen. (Source: Cell Reports)



India’s Children: Plagued by Preventable Diseases from Poor Sanitation

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 05:46:32 +0100

Though the state of Karnataka in India counts for a higher Human Development Index of 0.478 against the national average of 0.472 in the subcontinent, the continued deficit in water and sanitation continues and the children there are bearing the brunt of the lack of infrastructure. Coupled with the so called Godzilla El Nino of […] (Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health)



Antimicrobial resistance and genetic diversity of shigella sonnei isolates from romania.

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 03:25:18 +0100

ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE AND GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SHIGELLA SONNEI ISOLATES FROM ROMANIA. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 2015 Jan-Jun;74(1-2):26-32 Authors: Cristea D, Oprea M, Ciontea AS, Usein CR Abstract Although not endemic in the European Union and European Economic Area, shigellosis is included among the priority food- and waterborne diseases carefully surveyed by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. From 2010 to 2012, 1018 cumulated confirmed shigellosis cases were reported to the European Surveillance System by Romania. This retrospective study aimed to provide insights into the antibiotic resistance and genetic diversity of a set of Shigella sonnei isolates recovered during that period. A total of 59 S. sonnei isolates were subjected to antimic...



Evaluation of anti-bacterial effects of some novel thiazole and imidazole derivatives against some pathogenic bacteria.

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 03:20:11 +0100

CONCLUSION: The anti-bacterial effect of the synthesized thiazole derivative on Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus mirabilis and Listeria monocytogenes was proven. However, its inhibition effect against Shigella dysenteriae was more than that against the others. Many in-vitro and in-vivo experiments are required to evaluate the effects of this compound on the bacteria and the human body. PMID: 26719785 [PubMed] (Source: Iranian Journal of Microbiology)

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Resin glycosides from Ipomoea wolcottiana as modulators of the multidrug resistance phenotype in vitro

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016 Source:Phytochemistry Author(s): Berenice Corona-Castañeda, Daniel Rosas-Ramírez, Jhon Castañeda-Gómez, Manuel Alejandro Aparicio-Cuevas, Mabel Fragoso-Serrano, Gabriela Figueroa-González, Rogelio Pereda-Miranda Recycling liquid chromatography was used for the isolation and purification of resin glycosides from the CHCl3-soluble extracts prepared using flowers of Ipomoea wolcottiana Rose var. wolcottiana. Bioassay-guided fractionation, using modulation of both antibiotic activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Gram-negative bacteria and vinblastine susceptibility in breast carcinoma cells, was used to isolate the active glycolipids as modulators of the multidrug resistance phenotype. An ester-type dimer, wolcottine I,...



At the crossroads: communication of bacteria‐containing vacuoles with host organelles

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Cellular Microbiology)



Neither plague nor malaria, but dysentery as a cause of death for St. Louis

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology)



Screening and discovery of lineage-specific mitosomal membrane proteins in Entamoeba histolytica

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 11 January 2016 Source:Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology Author(s): Herbert J. Santos, Kenichiro Imai, Yuki Hanadate, Yoshinori Fukasawa, Toshiyuki Oda, Fumika Mi-ichi, Tomoyoshi Nozaki Entamoeba histolytica, an anaerobic intestinal parasite causing dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses in humans, possesses highly reduced and divergent mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs) called mitosomes. This organelle lacks many features associated with canonical aerobic mitochondria and even other MROs such as hydrogenosomes. The Entamoeba mitosome has been found to have a compartmentalized sulfate activation pathway, which was recently implicated to have a role in amebic stage conversion. It also features a unique shuttle system via Tom60, which d...



A novel enterocin T1 with anti- Pseudomonas activity produced by Enterococcus faecium T1 from Chinese Tibet cheese

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract An enterocin-producing Enterococcus faecium T1 was isolated from Chinese Tibet cheese. The enterocin was purified by SP-Sepharose and reversed phase HPLC. It was identified as unique from other reported bacteriocins based on molecular weight (4629 Da) and amino acid compositions; therefore it was subsequently named enterocin T1. Enterocin T1 was stable at 80–100 °C and over a wide pH range, pH 3.0–10.0. Protease sensitivity was observed to trypsin, pepsin, papain, proteinase K, and pronase E. Importantly, enterocin T1 was observed to inhibit the growth of numerous Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Staph...

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Characterization of the Shigella and Salmonella Type III Secretion System Tip-Translocon Protein-Protein Interaction by Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement.

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kaur K, Chatterjee S, De Guzman RN Abstract Many Gram-negative pathogens such as Shigella and Salmonella assemble the type III secretion system (T3SS) to inject virulence proteins directly into eukaryotic cells to initiate infectious diseases.The needle apparatus of the T3SS consists of a base, an extracellular needle, a tip protein complex, and a translocon.The atomic structure of the assembled tip complex and the translocon is unknown.Here, we show by NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) that the mixed α-β domain at the distal region of the Shigella and Salmonella tip proteins interact with the N-terminal ectodomain of their major translocon proteins.Our results reveal the binding surfaces involved in the tip-translocon protein-protein interaction and provide ...



Etiology and Epidemiology of Diarrhea in Hospitalized Children from Low Income Country: A Matched Case-Control Study in Central African Republic

Tue, 05 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Shigella/EIEC, Cryptosporidium parvum/hominis were found to be positively associated with severe diarrhea: while Giardia intestinalis was found negatively associated. Most attributable episodes of severe diarrhea were associated with rotavirus, highlighting the urgent need to introduce the rotavirus vaccine within the CAR’s Expanded Program on Immunization. The development of new medicines, vaccines and rapid diagnostic tests that can be conducted at the bedside should be high priority for low-resource countries. (Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases)



In vitro Activity of Gepotidacin, a Novel Triazaacenaphthylene Bacterial Topoisomerase Inhibitor, Against a Broad Spectrum of Bacterial Pathogens.

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Biedenbach DJ, Bouchillon SK, Hackel M, Miller LA, Scangarella-Oman NE, Jakielaszek C, Sahm DF Abstract Gepotidacin inhibits bacterial DNA replication through a mode different from fluoroquinolones. Gepotidacin and comparators were tested by broth and agar dilution against clinical isolates. In vitro activity of gepotidacin was comparable against MSSA and MRSA (MIC90, 0.5 μg/mL). Gepotidacin MIC90s (μg/mL) were S. pyogenes (0.25), E. coli (2) M. catarrhalis (≤0.06), S. pneumoniae (0.25), H. influenzae (1), C. perfringens (0.5) and Shigella spp. (1), including levofloxacin-resistant subsets. Gepotidacin warrants further investigation for clinical development. PMID: 26729499 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy)



Ultrafiltration and Microarray Detect Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Li X, Harwood VJ, Nayak B, Weidhaas J Abstract Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated fresh and marine water and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of > 95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of t...