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MedWorm: Cytomegalovirus provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Cytomegalovirus category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:34:11 +0100



Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important pathogen in transplant patients. Sensitive and rapid turnaround quantitative PCR based monitoring coupled with the availability of effective antiviral therapy has reduced the overall burden of CMV disease after transplantation. However, in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, the increasing use of new donor and stem cell sources present new challenges in the prevention and treatment of CMV. Gastrointestinal disease is now the most common end-organ manifestation of CMV infection after HSCT, whereas pneumonia remains associated with high mortality. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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HIV missed …CMV shows the way

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

We present a case of transplacentally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child who presented with disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

HLA-C*07 allele group confers protection against cytomegalovirus retinitis development among Brazilian AIDS patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Even though antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis (R-CMV), this disorder continues to be a considerable cause of visual impairment among AIDS patients. The incidence of R-CMV is increasing in young patients outside the first world who, despite the control of HIV-1 viremia, are blind, either because retinitis has not been diagnosed or has incorrectly been treated. An insertion/deletion fragment at the 3’untranslated region of the HLA-C gene has been associated with progression to AIDS after HIV infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Inhibition of CCL2 dependent human cytomegalovirus replication by tricin

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a widespread opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. So, HCMV infection is still associated with severe morbidity and mortality. HCMV can enhance the expression of a CC chemokines, CCL2 and CCL5. HCMV infection is presumed to contribute to atherosclerosis, where chemokines may have a pathogenic role. Elevated levels of CCL2 are observed in atherosclerotic plaques, where macrophages with the expression of a specific receptor for CCL2, CCR2, abundantly infiltrate. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Viral etiology of anterior uveitis in immunocompetent patients in North India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Uveitis is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Among various forms, the anterior uveitis is most common. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are known to cause anterior uveitis. However, recent studies have also reported the role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the causation of anterior uveitis in immunocompetent individuals. The present study aimed to study the prevalence of HSV-1, VZV and HCMV in patients presenting with anterior uveitis in a tertiary care hospital in North India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Distribution of Cytomegalovirus DNA Load in the Inflamed Colon of Ulcerative Colitis Patients

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Authors: Sylvie Pillet, Nicolas Williet, Anne Pouvaret, Emilie Del Tedesco, Pierre Saint-Sardos, Bruno Pozzetto & Xavier Roblin (Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology)

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Cytomegalovirus Infection in Children after Bone Marrow Transplantation: Risk factors, Clinical aspects and Outcomes

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Antigenemia-guided pre-emptive strategy with ganciclovir was very affective and CMV reactivation tended not to affect the outcome in our study cohort. (Source: Pediatric Infectious Disease)

Steroid-refractory inflammatory bowel disease is a risk factor for CMV infection.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection should be suspected in steroid-resistant UC and CD. Antiviral treatment improved the clinical outcome in steroid-resistant IBD cases with serum CMV DNA levels above 1000 copies/mL. PMID: 27010142 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)

Therapy Modalities for Antibody Mediated Rejection in Renal Transplant Patients.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:12:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: AMR leads to progressive loss of renal function and has low graft survival. More effective treatment alternatives are needed for this clinical issue. PMID: 27002854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery)


Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:43:53 +0100

In the article, “Disseminated Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Presenting as Severe Sepsis in a Preterm Neonate,” Hebbal et al, J Pediatr 2016;170:339, the authors inadvertently misspelled the name of the fifth author, which should have been Stefan H.F. Hagmann, MD, MSc. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)

Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle Disease Virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Jingping Ge, Ying Liu, Liying Jin, Dongni Gao, Chengle Bai, Wenxiang Ping Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncat...

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Cytomegalovirus Infection in Pediatric Renal Transplantation and the Impact of Chemoprophylaxis With (Val-)Ganciclovir

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 16:43:21 +0100

Conclusion: Antiviral chemoprophylaxis with VGCV or GCV in recipients with a high or moderate CMV risk is associated with a better preservation of transplant function. Hence, the prevention of CMV replication in this patient population has the potential to improve transplant outcome. (Source: Transplantation)

Risk Factors and Clinical Features of Cytomegalovirus Disease in Children Receiving Anticancer Chemotherapy

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 07:43:43 +0100

This study was conducted to identify risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and demonstrate the spectrum of CMV disease in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A total of 289 children who received chemotherapy and were tested for CMV infection were included in the study. CMV antigenemia and DNAemia were determined by identifying the pp65 antigen in leukocytes and performing real-time PCR. CMV disease was diagnosed by tissue biopsy, culture, or ophthalmic examination. Of the 289 children, CMV infection was demonstrated in 46 patients (15.9%). Young age at cancer diagnosis was the risk factor for CMV infection by multivariate analysis (7 mo vs. 7 y, P (Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology)

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia in Children: Mayo Clinic Experience

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 07:43:43 +0100

We studied 35 pediatric patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia seen at Mayo Clinic from 1994 to 2014. The median age was 10.0 years and 65.7% were males. Most had warm antibodies (80.0%) and some secondary to viral (14.3%) or autoimmune disorders (31.4%). Seven (20.0%) patients presented with Evans syndrome, 3 of whom also had common variable immunodeficiency. The median hemoglobin at diagnosis was 6.1 g/dL and 62.8% patients required red cell transfusions. The severity of anemia was worse among children below 10 years (median 5.5 vs. 7.0 g/dL, P=0.01). Steroid was the initial treatment for 88.5% patients, with overall response rate of 82.7% (68.5% complete, 14.2% partial) and median response duration of 10.7 months (range, 0.2 to 129.7+ mo). After median follow-up of 26.6 months, 8 (22...

Cytomegalovirus retinitis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present a case of CMV retinitis and the full treatment course with fundus pictures. Case report A 32-year-old man visited our department and presented with floaters in the right eye for a week. Ophthalmoscope examination showed retinal whitening and haemorrhages in the right eye and normal fundus in the left eye (figure 1). We checked his HIV antibody, venereal disease research laboratory, rapid plasma regain, IgG and IgM for Toxoplasma gondii, basic blood chemistry and complete blood... (Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal)

Id: 31: viral cytomegalovirus in granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We present a rare case of CMV gastritis in an asymptomatic patient with history of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis on immunosuppressant. Case presentation A 62-year-old Hispanic female with past medical history of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, hypertension and End Stage Renal Disease on hemodialysis, was evaluated for chronic anemia. Review of symptoms was negative for diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, melena or hematochezia. Her medications included Furosemide, Amlodipine, Metoprolol, Prednisone and Cyclophosphamide. Physical exam was remarkable for pallor, normal oropharynx and negative for lymphadenopathy. Abdomen was soft, non-tender, non-distended, with normal bowel sounds. Rectal exam revealed external hemorrhoids, guaiac positive brown stools. Pertinent laboratory da...

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Id: 37: silent but deadly cytomegalovirus triggering autoimmune hepatitis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Discussion Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis of unknown cause. The most supported pathogenesis of AIH postulates that a combination of environmental triggers, failure of immune system tolerance and a genetic predisposition that may induce a T cell–mediated immune attack against the liver. Case studies in the literature report AIH being triggered by virus and drugs. There is evidence of cross-reactivity between anti-LKM1 and antibodies against homologous regions of cytomegalovirus (exon CMV130-135). This case could explain an association between cytomegalovirus infection and autoimmune hepatitis. As clinicians, it is difficult to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis because its presentation can be acute, severe, asymptomatic or chronic. Diagnosis requ...

A trapping ligand antagonist peptide H22-LP inhibition of human cytomegalovirus infection

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion These results demonstrated that H22-LP could inhibit HCMV by direct interaction with the viral particle. (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)

The Natural History of Human Polyomaviruses and Herpesviruses in Early Life--The Rhea Birth Cohort in Greece

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Sparse data exist on the patterns and determinants of acquisition of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in childhood. We measured immunoglobulin G seroreactivity against 10 polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, HPyV10) and 5 herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 8) using multiplex serology on blood samples collected at birth (cord blood, n = 626) and at follow-up at 3 years (n = 81) and 4 years (n = 690) of age among the Rhea birth cohort recruited in Greece from pregnant women in 2007–2008. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to identify determinants of seropositivity at age 4. Seroprevalence of polyomaviruses ranged from 38.5% to 99.8% in cord blood and...

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Cytomegalovirus, and Human Immunodeficiency Viruses in Multitransfused Thalassemic Children in Upper Egypt.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 21:00:01 +0100

Conclusion. The frequency of TTIs, especially HCV, is considerably high among Egyptian children with thalassemia major. It is therefore important to implement measures to improve blood transfusion screening, such as polymerase chain reaction, in order to reduce TTIs from blood donor units. PMID: 26989417 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Hematology)

Long-term follow-up of cytomegalovirus retinitis in non-HIV immunocompromised patients: clinical features and visual prognosis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

To evaluate clinical features and long-term visual outcome of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to determine factors that predict visual outcome. (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)

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Gianotti-crosti syndrome as presenting sign of cytomegalovirus infection: a case report and a critical appraisal of its possible cytomegalovirus etiology.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a self-limiting, mostly childhood-appearing, cutaneous eruption with a characteristic symmetrical acral distribution. The original cases, described by Gianotti in 1955, were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but, afterwards, other viral and bacterial infections, as well as immunizations, have been related with its etiology. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of them, but only a few cases have been observed and more frequently in children than in adults [1,2]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)

Cytomegalovirus Pneumonia after Anti-CC-chemokine Receptor 4 Monoclonal Antibody (Mogamulizumab) Therapy in an Angioimmunoblastic T-cell Lymphoma Patient.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 23:15:02 +0100

Authors: Ishii Y, Itabashi M, Numata A, Yamamoto W, Motohashi K, Hagihara M, Matsumoto K, Fujisawa S Abstract Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive T-cell lymphoma. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with AITL. He received 6 cycles of CHOP therapy, but showed progressive disease. Subsequently, he received ESHAP chemotherapy; however, it was not effective. He received mogamulizumab (an anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody). After 4 cycles, his respiratory condition worsened and he was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. Despite antiviral and antibiotic therapy, he died. We speculate that the combination of progressive lymphoma with mogamulizumab and chemotherapy likely caused CMV pneumonia. Because mogamulizumab therapy causes immunosuppression, if CMV pneumon...

Cytomegalovirus IgM Seroprevalence among Women of Reproductive Age in the United States

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Chengbin Wang, Sheila C. Dollard, Minal M. Amin, Stephanie R. Bialek Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seropreval...

Impact of Persistent Cytomegalovirus Infection on Dynamic Changes in Human Immune System Profile

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decrea...

Relationship of NKG2C Copy Number with the Distribution of Distinct Cytomegalovirus-Induced Adaptive NK Cell Subsets.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Muntasell A, Pupuleku A, Cisneros E, Vera A, Moraru M, Vilches C, López-Botet M Abstract CD94/NKG2C and lack of FcεRγ (FcRγ) expression are considered markers of the adaptive NK cell response to human CMV (HCMV) infection. Despite the fact that FcRγ(-) and NKG2C(bright) NK cells share some phenotypic, epigenetic, and functional features, their relationship remains unclear. To address this issue, a systematic analysis of NKG2C(bright) and FcRγ expression was carried out in NK cells from a cohort of healthy young adults (n = 81) considering NKG2C copy number, previously related to the magnitude of NKG2C(+) NK cell expansion. NKG2C(bright) and FcRγ(-) NK cells coincided in a subgroup of HCMV(+) individuals, pointing to a common host-virus interaction pattern. Even thou...

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Cytomegalovirus and Mucoepidermoid carcinoma: A possible causal relationship? A pilot study.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:22:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The purpose of the study was to explore the role of CMV in the development of MEC, as it might help to exploit this etiological agent as a therapeutic target. Similar to human papillomavirus (HPV), these might identify a subset of neoplasms with a varied biological behavior and alternative therapies. However, this vision is obscured by contradicting evidence in the literature. As of today, surgery remains the only best possible management for these patients unless proven otherwise. PMID: 26980959 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology)

Evaluation of Cytomegalovirus Reactivation and Tolerability in Seropositive Umbilical Cord Transplant Patients after Implementation of an Intensive Prevention Strategy

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The results from this study indicated that the intensive prevention strategy was well tolerated, significantly delayed CMV reactivation, and patients had less CMV disease. (Source: Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy)

Impact of Pharmacist Involvement in Early Identification and Enrollment in Patient Assistance Programs on CMV Outcomes in Transplantation

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Early identification and enrollment of patients in PAPs reduces the incidence of CMV viremia. Pharmacists play a crucial role in this process. (Source: Journal of Pharmacy Practice)

Cytomegalovirus Meningitis in an Infant with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A 35-day-old female with severe combined immunodeficiency developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) meningitis before undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Strategies for timely diagnosis of neonates with congenital or acquired CMV infection and prevention of CMV acquisition in the era of universal newborn severe combined immunodeficiency screening are needed. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)

Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 21:57:03 +0100

This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness. PMID: 26974302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)

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Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes Associated with Cytomegalovirus Colitis in Patients with Acute Severe Ulcerative Colitis

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 19:35:06 +0100

Conclusions: CMV colitis often occurs in ASUC, particularly in patients who have recently been treated with high-dose steroids and have a higher Mayo score on admission. Patients with ASUC and CMV colitis seem to have a poorer prognosis, as indicated by the greater need for rescue therapy. (Source: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases)

Cutaneous involvement by cytomegalovirus in a renal transplant recipient as an indicator of severe systemic infection

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 18:08:06 +0100

Abstract Cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic virus that commonly affects immunosuppressed patients. Cutaneous involvement by this virus is rare and occurs in significantly immunocompromised hosts, with a poor prognosis. Skin ulcers may represent the first sign of systemic infection by cytomegalovirus in these patients. Herein, a case of a systemic infection by Cytomegalovirus presenting as genital and oral ulcers in a kidney-transplant recipient is reported. (Source: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia)

Awareness of cytomegalovirus and risk factors for susceptibility among pregnant women, in Montreal, Canada

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The objectives of this study were ... (Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth)

Efficacy and safety of topical ganciclovir in the management of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related anterior uveitis

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Topical ganciclovir may be beneficial in reducing the frequency of recurrence in patients with CMV anterior uveitis, but it was not statistically associated with prolonging the time-to-recurrence. The time-to-quiescence was also not significantly affected by topical ganciclovir. Prospective studies with a larger number of patients would be required to verify our findings. (Source: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection)

Association of cytomegalovirus infection with hypertension risk: a meta-analysis.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a significant association between CMV and EH, which indicates that CMV infection is a possible cause of EH. PMID: 26980213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)

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Extracellular Calpain/Calpastatin Balance is Involved in the Progression of Pulmonary Hypertension.

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that calpastatin limits PH severity via extracellular mechanisms. They suggest a new approach to the development of treatments for PH. PMID: 26974350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)

Fungal, Viral, and Parasitic Pneumonias Associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text (Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)

Low-Dose Valacyclovir for Cytomegalovirus Infection Prophylaxis After a Heart Transplant.

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we hypothesized that daily use of low-dose valacyclovir (1000 mg/d) is not only sufficient for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis but also beneficial in terms of cost. PMID: 26976362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)

The etiology of congenital nephrotic syndrome: current status and challenges.

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 19:04:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: At present, the main challenge in CNS is to identify the cause of disease for individual patients. To make a definitive diagnosis, with the exclusion of infection-related CNS and maternal-associated disorders, pathology, family history, inheritance mode, and other accompanying congenital malformations are sometimes, but not always, useful indicators for diagnosing genetic CNS. Next-generation sequencing would be a more effective method for diagnosing genetic CNS in some patients, however, there are still some challenges with next-generation sequencing that need to be resolved in the future. PMID: 26961288 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Pediatrics : WJP)

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Dendritic-tumor cell hybrids induce tumor-specific immune responses more effectively than the simple mixture of dendritic and tumor cells

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions These data show the superiority of DC-tumor cell hybrids over their simple mixture as T-cell stimulators. Hybrids expressed more co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, induced higher antigen-specific T-cell expansion and were the only cells able to induce IFN-γ–producing antigen-specific T cells. Thus, these data offer further support for cancer immunotherapeutic approaches using DC-tumor cell hybrids. (Source: Cytotherapy)

Applying lessons learned from cytomegalovirus infection in transplant patients to vaccine design.

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Blanco-Lobo P, Bulnes-Ramos A, McConnell MJ, Navarro D, Pérez-Romero P Abstract Studies in transplant recipients over the past decade aiming to characterize the immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication have provided insights that can be used to guide CMV vaccine development. These studies have characterized multiple aspects of the immune response to virus infection in humans, and have identified immunologic variables that correlate with the ability to control virus replication. These findings can be used to guide vaccine development by informing decisions regarding antigen selection and the type of immune response that must be elicited by these antigens to promote protective immunity. In addition, these studies have provided information that could aid in the i...

Viruses, Vol. 8, Pages 73: Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell’s nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized p...

Cytomegalovirus-Related Hospitalization Is Associated With Adverse Outcomes and Increased Health-Care Resource Utilization in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Cheng Zhang, Somashekar G Krishna, Alice Hinton, Razvan Arsenescu, Edward J Levine & Darwin L Conwell (Source: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology)

Successful treatment with foscarnet for ganciclovir‐resistant cytomegalovirus infection in a kidney transplant recipient: A case report

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious complication following solid organ transplantation. Ganciclovir (GCV)‐resistant CMV infection may be fatal, and is difficult to treat whilst avoiding allograft rejection. A 31‐year‐old woman received a second ABO‐incompatible kidney transplant, from her father. Induction therapy consisted of basiliximab and rituximab followed by maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone. Her CMV serostatus was D+/R‐ at second transplant and she received prophylactic low‐dose valganciclovir (VGCV). BK polyoma virus nephropathy (BKVN) developed 7 months after transplant concurrent with CMV hepatitis and retinitis. VGCV was increased to a therapeutic dose combined with reduce...

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AABB Committee Report: reducing transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus infections.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: AABB, Clinical Transfusion Medicine Committee, Heddle NM, Boeckh M, Grossman B, Jacobson J, Kleinman S, Tobian AA, Webert K, Wong EC, Roback JD Abstract Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV) is often asymptomatic, but certain patient populations, such as very low birth weight neonates, fetuses requiring intrauterine transfusion, pregnant women, patients with primary immunodeficiencies, transplant recipients, and patients receiving chemotherapy or transplantation for malignant disease, may be at risk of life-threatening CMV infection. It is unclear whether leukoreduction of cellular blood components is sufficient to reduce TT-CMV or whether CMV serological testing adds additional benefit to leukoreduction. The AABB CMV Prevention Work Group commissioned a systema...

Replication-defective lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus vectors expressing guinea pig cytomegalovirus gB and pp65 homologs are protective against congenital guinea pig cytomegalovirus infection.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. PMID: 26973071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)

Sweet's syndrome: a retrospective study of 90 cases from a tertiary care center

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsTo the best of the present authors' knowledge, this is the largest series of SS to be reported. Clinical presentations are similar to those described in the literature. Colchicine was efficient and facilitates the reduced use of corticosteroids. The association between SS and neoplasms should be considered in the context of vesiculobullous lesions. (Source: International Journal of Dermatology)

Analysis of cellular and humoral immune responses against cytomegalovirus in patients with autoimmune Addison’s disease

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD) is caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Variants of genes encoding immunologically important proteins such as the HLA molecules are strongly associated with ... (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)

A Cytomegalovirus Peptide-Specific Antibody Alters Natural Killer Cell Homeostasis and Is Shared in Several Autoimmune Diseases.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Liu Y, Mu R, Gao YP, Dong J, Zhu L, Ma Y, Li YH, Zhang HQ, Han D, Zhang Y, McInnes IB, Zhang J, Shen B, Yang G, Li ZG Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV), a ubiquitous beta-herpesvirus, has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, the direct role of hCMV in inducing autoimmune disorders remains unclear. Here we report the identification of an autoantibody that recognizes a group of peptides with a conserved motif matching the Pp150 protein of hCMV (anti-Pp150) and is shared among patients with various autoimmune diseases. Anti-Pp150 also recognizes the single-pass membrane protein CIP2A and induces the death of CD56(bright) NK cells, a natural killer cell subset whose expansion is correlated with autoimmune disease. Consistent with this finding, the per...

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CMV and NK Cells: An Unhealthy Tryst?

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Söderberg-Nauclér C Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with autoimmune diseases, but linking this common virus to disease pathology has been difficult. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Liu et al. (2016) identify a CMV-cross-reactive autoantibody that also recognizes CIP2A on natural killer cells, possibly affecting their function in autoimmune patients. PMID: 26962939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)

Sequence analysis of two variable cytomegalovirus genes for distinction between transfusion- and breast milk-transmitted infections in a very-low-birthweight infant.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the pathogenic CMV strain was transmitted through breast milk, which is consistent with the claims that transfusion-transmitted CMV infection due to leukoreduced blood products is uncommon. PMID: 26968830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)

Life-threatening ADEM in an immunocompetent pregnant woman with concomitant asymptomatic Cytomegalovirus infection

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system [1]. A monophasic abnormal autoimmune reaction directed against normal brain tissue has been proposed as the primary pathogenesis. Here, we present a life-threatening case of ADEM in a pregnant woman. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)

Toxoplasmosis, Parvovirus, and Cytomegalovirus in Pregnancy

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article reviews the modes of transmission as well as maternal and neonatal effects of each of these infections. In addition, the article outlines recommended testing, fetal surveillance, and treatment where indicated. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)

Abundant cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactive clonotypes in the CD8+ T cell receptor alpha repertoire following allogeneic transplantation

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is potentially curative, but associated with post‐transplantation complications, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. An effective immune response requires T cells recognizing CMV epitopes via their T cell receptors (TCRs). Little is known about the TCR repertoire, in particular the TCR‐α repertoire and its clinical relevance in patients following stem cell transplantation. Using next‐generation sequencing we examined the TCR‐α repertoire of CD8+ T cells and CMV‐specific CD8+ T cells in four patients. Additionally, we performed single‐cell TCR‐αβ sequencing of CMV‐specific CD8+ T cells. The TCR‐α composition of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐A*0201 CMVpp65– and CMVIE‐specific T cells was oligoclonal and defined...

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Association of cumulative steroid dose with risk of infection after treatment for severe acute graft-versus-host disease

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to characterize the incidence and risk factors of invasive fungal disease, cytomegalovirus infection, other viral diseases, and gram-negative rod infection after glucocorticoid treatment for severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and to elucidate the associations of cumulative steroid dose with the risks of individual infections. The study cohort included 91 consecutive patients who developed maximum grade III-IV acute GVHD at our center. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)

Sinopulmonary Complications in Subjects With Primary Immunodeficiency.

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Sinopulmonary complications are common in subjects with primary immunodeficiency. They can be serious and continue to occur even after proper treatment is initiated. The pulmonologist should play an important role in the management of subjects with primary immunodeficiency disorder. PMID: 26957648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)

Viral exposures and MS outcome in a prospective cohort of children with acquired demyelination

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with increased multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. Recently, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been proposed as a protective factor against MS development. We determined EBV, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and CMV seroprevalence in 247 prospectively followed children with acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Remote EBV infection was more common in children with MS than those with monophasic ADS while CMV infection was more common in children with monophasic ADS. Children displaying evidence of remote EBV without CMV infection were at highest risk of subsequent MS diagnosis. Viral infection repertoire detected at ADS provides important prognostic information. (Source: Multiple Sclerosis)

Human cytomegalovirus-encoded US28 may act as a tumor promoter in colorectal cancer.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: US28 expression is predictive of poor prognosis and may promote CRC. PMID: 26973417 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)

Improvement of the cytotoxic T lymphocyte response against hepatocellular carcinoma by transduction of cancer cells with an adeno-associated virus carrying the interferon-γ gene.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 05:15:02 +0100

In conclusion, it was shown that the transduction of Hep3B with rAAV/AFPp-IFN-γ upregulated the expression of HLA-A2 and improved the sensitivity to CTL response. PMID: 26936017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Medicine Reports)

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In Response to: Jeon and Lee's 'Cytomegalovirus Retinitis in a Human Immunodeficiency Virus-negative Cohort: Long-term Management and Complications'.

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 19:37:02 +0100

Authors: Babu K, Sajid S PMID: 26943724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)

Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Critically Ill Patient Following Severe Legionella Pneumonia with Multiple Organ Failure.

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 12:00:02 +0100

Authors: Nakashima K, Aoshima M, Suzuki F, Watanabe J, Otsuka Y Abstract A 68-year-old man visited an emergency department complaining of dyspnea. He was diagnosed to have Legionella pneumonia with multiple organ failure. Although his multiple organ failure improved, he suffered from persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea with continuous minor bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed a longitudinal ulcer of the rectum, below the peritoneal reflection. He was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. Antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was initiated. He finally underwent a colostomy after a bowel stricture caused an intestinal outlet obstruction, which made oral intake impossible. Based on the present case, we believe that CMV colitis must be considered as one of the differential diagnoses...

Identification and Analysis of the Porcine MicroRNA in Porcine Cytomegalovirus-Infected Macrophages Using Deep Sequencing

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we obtained the miRNA expression profiles of PCMV-infected porcine macrophages via high-throughput sequencing. The comprehensive analysis of miRNA profiles showed that 239 miRNA database-annotated and 355 novel pig-encoded miRNAs were detected. Of these, 130 miRNAs showed significant differential expression between the PCMV-infected and uninfected porcine macrophages. The 10 differentially expressed pig-encoded miRNAs were further determined by stem-loop reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the results were consistent with the high-throughput sequencing. Gene Ontology analysis of the target genes of miRNAs in PCMV-infected porcine macrophages showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs are mainly involved in immune and metabolic processes. This is the fir...

Prevalence and genotype distribution of cytomegalovirus UL55 sequence in renal transplant recipients in north west of Iran

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionIncidence of viremia was higher in the first six months after the transplantation compared with the later stages. Moreover, CMV gB1 and mixed genotype infection were more common in our recipients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)

Acute Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis in an Immunocompetent Host as a Reason for Upper Right Abdominal Pain

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 13:35:26 +0100

Cytomegalovirus infections are widely distributed with a seroprevalence of up to 100%. The majority of the cases take a silent course or deal with unspecific clinical symptoms. Complications in immunocompetent patients are rare but may affect the liver and lead up to an acute organ failure. In this case report, we describe a 35-year-old immunocompetent female with an acute cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute hepatitis with ongoing upper right abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. Upper right abdominal pain is a common symptom with a wide range of differential diagnoses. If common reasons can be excluded, we want to sensitize for cytomegalovirus infection as a minor differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent patients.Case Rep Gastroenterol (Source: Case Reports in Gastroentero...

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Discovery of Potent, Orally Bioavailable Inhibitors of Human Cytomegalovirus

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 05:43:48 +0100

ACS Medicinal Chemistry LettersDOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00064 (Source: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters)

An Interferon Regulated MicroRNA Provides Broad Cell-Intrinsic Antiviral Immunity through Multihit Host-Directed Targeting of the Sterol Pathway

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study, therefore, advances the general concept of broad antiviral defense through multihit targeting of a single host pathway. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Monitoring After Liver Transplantation: Comparison of CMV Pp65 Antigenemia Assay with Real-Time PCR Calibrated to WHO International Standard.

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 18:16:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare CMV AG and real-time PCR (calibrated to the WHO standard) results in a large number of recipients after liver transplantation. Use of this technique may provide useful information for the management of CMV infection. PMID: 26927444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Transplantation)

MCMV exploits the spleen as a transfer hub for systemic dissemination upon oronasal inoculation.

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhang S, Xiang J, Theuns S, Desmarets LM, Trus I, Nauwynck HJ Abstract Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice is a commonly used animal model for studying human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. In our previous studies, a mouse model based on an oronasal MCMV infection was set up for mimicking a natural infection, and the spleen was hypothesized to regulate viremia and virus dissemination to distal organs such as submandibular glands. Here, the role of the spleen during an MCMV infection was investigated by the comparison of intact and splenectomized Balb/c mice. Both highly passaged MCMV Smith and low passaged MCMV HaNa1 were used. Various samples were collected at 7, 14, and 21days post inoculation (dpi) for analyses by virus isolation/titration, co-cultivation...

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Frosted Branch Angiitis in Pediatric Dyskeratosis Congenita: A Case Report

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

Abstract: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, usually presented with abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia. The main cause of mortality in DC is immunodeficiency and vital infection. DC involves multisystem, but retinal involvements are rare. Herein, we report an unusual case of pediatric DC suffering from frosted branch angiitis (FBA) after recovery of mycoplasma pneumonia. Cytomegalovirus infection and cytokine changes were found relevant to the onset of FBA. Despite corticosteroids, antiviral medication, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient ended in poor vision with optic atrophy. This case implies that pediatricians should be aware of FBA as a rare retinal manifestation in children with DC and bone m...

Regulation of alveolar septation by microRNA-489

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

MicroRNAs (miRs) are small conserved RNA that regulate gene expression. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA profiles during mouse lung development indicated a role for multiple miRNA, including miRNA-489. miR-489 increased on completion of alveolar septation [postnatal day 42 (P42)], associated with decreases in its conserved target genes insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) and tenascin C (Tnc). We hypothesized that dysregulation of miR-489 and its target genes Igf1 and Tnc contribute to hyperoxia-induced abnormal lung development. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to normoxia (21%) or hyperoxia (85% O2) from P4 to P14, in combination with intranasal locked nucleic acid against miR-489 to inhibit miR-489, cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV)-miR-489 to overexpress miR-489, or empty vector. Hyperoxia reduce...

A cluster of 3′ coterminal transcripts from US12–US17 locus of human cytomegalovirus

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, the transcription pattern and characteristics of HCMV US12–US17 gene region were studied extensively. Twenty-three clones harboring US12 cDNA sequence were screened out from a late cDNA library of an HCMV clinical isolate, Han. Using a set of US12–US17 gene-specific probes, six transcripts from US12–US17 locus were detected by northern blot at late kinetics of the clinical isolate. One additional transcript was found in late RNA of HCMV strain AD169. No evidence showing these transcripts contain introns by reverse transcription PCR. 3′ and 5′ termini of these transcripts were confirmed by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. A novel protein-coding region was predicted in the shorter US14 transcript with an alternative in-frame 5′ translation initiation site compared...

Cytomegalovirus disease is associated with higher all‐cause mortality after lung transplantation despite extended antiviral prophylaxis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsDespite extended prophylaxis, LT patients remain at risk of CMV infection and disease. CMV remains associated with increased mortality after transplantation. (Source: Clinical Transplantation)

Novel insights into the early histopathogenesis of immunodeficiency‐associated Burkitt lymphoma: A case report of Burkitt microlymphoma arising within HIV lymphadenitis

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsEarly histopathogenesis of HIV‐associated BL occurred as nests of EBV‐positive Burkitt cells within prominent monocytoid B‐cell areas in our case. The results equip the pathologist to identify a very subtle Burkitt microlymphoma which would allow for prompt and appropriate chemotherapeutic intervention and may promote research into the possible relationship between monocytoid B cells and BL.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Histopathology)

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Human cytomegalovirus antiviral drug resistance in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: current state of the art

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The significant clinical impact of HCMV infection and progression to HCMV disease among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients has been reduced by prophylactic, preemptive, and curative treatments using ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir. Resistance to (val)ganciclovir results from mutations localized in HCMV UL97 gene (encoding the pUL97 phosphotransferase), UL54 gene (encoding the pUL54 DNA polymerase), or both genes, whereas foscarnet and cidofovir resistance results from mutations localized within UL54 gene only. This review is focused on HCMV antiviral drug resistance, including the functions of tar...

The cell biology of cytomegalovirus: implications for transplantation

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)

Plasma IgG antibody against cytomegalovirus but not herpes simplex virus is associated with recurrence of atrial fibrillation after catheter ablation

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study sought to determine the role of viral pathogens, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), in AF recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation in a strictly selected patient population. A total of 4148 patients undergoing AF catheter ablation were screened for structural heart diseases and known risk factors for AF, and the resultant 103 patients (74 paroxysmal and 29 persistent) were recruited. Pre-ablation clinical and laboratory data and viral-specific IgG antibody levels were compared with those in 72 healthy control subjects. Plasma concentrations of the antibodies were all significantly elevated in AF patients (P < 0.001 vs. control). During a mean follow-up of 12.8 ± 7.0 months, 29 (28.2%) patients had AF recurrence. Patients who experi...

Topical cidofovir-induced acute kidney injury in two severely immunocompromised patients with refractory multidrug-resistant herpes simplex virus infections

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We present two cases of multidrug-resistant herpes simplex virus infections that responded to topical cidofovir therapy yet resulted in irreversible acute kidney injury. (Source: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice)

The viral G protein-coupled receptor ORF74 unmasks phospholipase C signaling of the receptor tyrosine kinase IGF-1R.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we examined the effect of the constitutively active viral ORF74 on human IGF-1R signaling. Constitutive and CXCL1-induced ORF74 signaling did not transactivate IGF-1R. In contrast, IGF-1 stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activation in an ORF74-dependent manner without affecting chemokine binding to ORF74. Inhibition of constitutive ORF74 activity by mutagenesis or the inverse agonist CXCL10, or neutralizing IGF-1R with an antibody or silencing IGF-1R expression using siRNA inhibited PLC activation by IGF-1. Transactivation of ORF74 in response to IGF-1 occurred independently of Src, PI3K, and secreted ORF74 ligands. Furthermore, tyrosine residues in the carboxyl-terminus and intracellular loop 2 of ORF74 are not essential for IGF-1-induced PLC activation. Interestingly, PLC ac...

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Ocular Manifestations in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in the Pre-HAART Versus the HAART Era in the North Indian Population.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 14:09:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: While the introduction of HAART has resulted in a major impact on the overall health of patients with HIV, the spectrum of ocular disease remains largely unchanged in developing countries such as India. PMID: 26910292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)

HCMV gB Palmitoylation [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Herpesviruses are a large order of animal enveloped viruses displaying a virion fusion mechanism of unusual complexity. Their multipartite machinery has a conserved core made of the gH/gL ancillary complexes and the homo-trimeric fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB). Despite its essential role in starting the viral infection, gB interaction with membrane lipids is still poorly understood. Here, evidence is provided demonstrating that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gB depends on the S-palmitoylation of its endodomain for an efficient interaction with cholesterol-rich membrane patches. We found that, unique among herpesviral gB proteins, the HCMV fusion factor has a Cys residue in the C-terminal region that is palmitoylated and mediates methyl-β-cyclodextrin-sensitive self-association of purifi...

Cytomegalovirus‐Associated CD4+CD28null Cells in NKG2D‐Dependent Glomerular Endothelial Injury and Kidney Allograft Dysfunction

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study suggests an important role for this atypical cytotoxic CD4+CD28null cell subset in kidney transplantation and points to strategies that may minimize the impact on clinical outcomes. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)

Generation of Complex Azabicycles and Carbobicycles from Two Simple Compounds in a Single Operation through a Metal-Free Six-Step Domino Reaction.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Bock CM, Parameshwarappa G, Bönisch S, Neiss C, Bauer W, Hampel F, Görling A, Tsogoeva SB Abstract Aza- and carbobicyclic compounds possess favorable pharmaceutical properties, but they are difficult to access. Herein, we demonstrate an unprecedented organocatalytic two component six-step chemodivergent domino reaction, which provides a straightforward, sustainable and atom economical route to difficult-to-access complex bicyclic architectures: azabicycles and carbobicycles, whose ratios can be controlled by the applied electrophiles and catalysts. Detailed NMR and X-ray studies on the structures and relative stereochemistry of selected compounds are presented. Mechanistic investigations of the chemoselective branching step have been carried out with DFT methods in conju...

A fatal case of DRESS induced by strontium ranelate associated with HHV-7 reactivation

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 19:07:08 +0100

We report the first case of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) following strontium ranelate (SR) treatment associated with systemic human HHV-7 reactivation. DRESS syndrome is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction presenting as a diffuse maculopapular skin rash with fever, hematological abnormalities (leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and/or atypical lymphocytosis), and multiorgan involvement. In our patient, diagnosis of DRESS was confirmed by the presence of six of the seven diagnostic criteria established in 2006 by the Japanese Research Committee on Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction: maculopapular skin rash developing at least 3 weeks after starting therapy with a limited number of drugs, prolonged clinical symptoms after discontinuation of the causative drug, l...

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Guillain–Barré syndrome complicating dengue fever: Two case reports

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 November 2015 Source:Tzu Chi Medical Journal Author(s): Yang Liang Boo, Mohd Azman M. Aris, Pek Woon Chin, Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Hamidon Basri, Fan Kee Hoo Guillain–Barré syndrome is a rare neurological manifestation associated with dengue infection. More common antecedent infections include Campylobacter jejuni and Cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we report two cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome complicating dengue infection. (Source: Tzu Chi Medical Journal)

The “ABC” of Virus‐Specific T Cell Immunity in Solid Organ Transplantation

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Transplant patients are at increased risk of viral complications due to impaired control of viral replication, resulting from HLA mismatching between graft and host and the immunosuppression needed to avert alloimmune reactions. In the past decade, quantitative viral load measurements have become widely available to identify patients at risk and to inform treatment decisions with respect to immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral therapies. Because viral loads are viewed as the result of viral replication and virus‐specific immune control, virus‐specific T cell monitoring has been explored to optimize management of adenovirus, BK polyomavirus and cytomegalovirus (“ABC”) in transplant patients. Although most studies are descriptive using different technologies, the overall results sho...

Further studies on the role of the residue 890 cysteine to tyrosine mutation in the M70 primase ORF of the temperature‐sensitive mutant (tsm5) of murine cytomegalovirus

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)

Clinical Characteristics and Postoperative Complications of Patients Undergoing Emergency Surgery for Ulcerative Colitis.

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 20:16:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Emergency surgeries were associated with frequent postoperative complications. For refractory severe ulcerative colitis, cytomegalovirus involvement should be determined and prolonged steroid therapy is associated with postoperative complications; therefore, early treatment decisions are important. PMID: 26902015 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hepato-Gastroenterology)

Impact of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Severe Hepatitis C Recurrence in Patients Undergoing Liver Transplantation

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 07:07:31 +0100

Conclusions: Our results support an association between CMV D+/R− serodiscordance and severe HCV recurrence in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV liver disease. (Source: Transplantation)

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Impact of Rabbit Antithymocyte Globulin Dose on Long-term Outcomes in Heart Transplant Patients

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 07:07:31 +0100

Conclusions: These retrospective data suggest that a cumulative rATG dose of 4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg may offer a better risk-benefit ratio than lower or higher doses, with acceptable rates of infection and posttransplant malignancy. Prospective trials are needed. (Source: Transplantation)

Coordinated expansion of both memory T cells and NK cells in response to CMV infection in humans

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: European Journal of Immunology)

Effect of mTORC1/mTORC2 inhibition on T cell function: potential role in graft‐versus‐host disease control

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, the current study shows, for the first time, the immunosuppressive ability of CC214‐1 on T lymphocytes and illustrates the role of CC214‐2 in the allogeneic transplantation setting as a possible GvHD prophylaxis agent. (Source: British Journal of Haematology)

Transfusion of CMV‐unselected blood components may lead to inappropriate donor selection for patients subsequently undergoing allogeneic stem cell transplant

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsPassive transfer of CMV IgG is an unanticipated consequence of transfusion of CMV‐U products and has the potential to cause morbidity. Inaccurate recording of serostatus pre‐transplant has wider implications for data reporting on transplant outcomes. When transfusing CMV‐U components pre‐transfusion CMV IgG samples must be taken and transfusion history must be considered when interpreting results. (Source: Transfusion Medicine)

Visual sensory and ocular motor function in children with polymicrogyria: relationship to magnetic resonance imaging

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions All children with PMG had recordable visual function either by visual acuity or VEP testing, however the majority did not show longitudinal improvement in acuity. Seizures may impose limits on visual acuity development. Children with cytomegalovirus-related PMG, microcephaly, and developmental delay can have normal visual acuity. Children with a recordable VEP but without visually guided behaviors may have a defect in sensorimotor transformation. (Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus)

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Guillain‐Barré syndrome associated with resistant cytomegalovirus infection after face transplantation

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)

When polymerase chain reaction does not help: cytomegalovirus pneumonitis associated with very low or undetectable viral load in both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage samples after lung transplantation

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)

Coordinated expansion of both memory T cells and NK cells in response to CMV infection in humans.

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26910859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Immunology)

Human cytomegalovirus UL49 encodes an early, virion-associated protein essential for virus growth in human foreskin fibroblasts

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Despite recent results of deletion experiments showing that open reading frame (ORF) UL49 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential, the expression, function and functional location of its encoded protein remain unknown. We generated an antibody specific for pUL49 to investigate the protein product encoded by the UL49 ORF and identified its function in HCMV-infected host foreskin fibroblasts. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of HCMV strain Towne (pRV-Towne) and the UL49-deleted mutant pRV-delUL49Towne were used to observe virus growth by plaque assay. Using a UL49-protein-binding antibody, we located pUL49 in the fibroblast cytoplasm. pUL49 exhibited expression kinetics resembling those of the class β-2 proteins and was detected in the virion tegument. Followin...

Frosted Branch Angiitis Associated with Cytomegalovirus Retinitis

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 03:35:22 +0100

A 41-year-old man with AIDS presented with decreased vision in the left eye; he denied other symptoms. Medications included efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine, and his CD4 cell count was 31 cells/μL. He had been diagnosed 8 months previously with acute retinal necrosis in the right eye, with no light perception. Examination of the left eye showed minimal inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous. Ophthalmoscopy showed hemorrhagic papillitis, retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, and diffuse vascular sheathing. (Source: Ophthalmology)

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