Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:34:11 +0100
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100Abstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains an important pathogen in transplant patients. Sensitive and rapid turnaround quantitative PCR based monitoring coupled with the availability of effective antiviral therapy has reduced the overall burden of CMV disease after transplantation. However, in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) patients, the increasing use of new donor and stem cell sources present new challenges in the prevention and treatment of CMV. Gastrointestinal disease is now the most common end-organ manifestation of CMV infection after HSCT, whereas pneumonia remains associated with high mortality. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100We present a case of transplacentally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a child who presented with disseminated cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100Background: Even though antiretroviral therapy has reduced the incidence of cytomegalovirus retinitis (R-CMV), this disorder continues to be a considerable cause of visual impairment among AIDS patients. The incidence of R-CMV is increasing in young patients outside the first world who, despite the control of HIV-1 viremia, are blind, either because retinitis has not been diagnosed or has incorrectly been treated. An insertion/deletion fragment at the 3’untranslated region of the HLA-C gene has been associated with progression to AIDS after HIV infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a widespread opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised individuals. So, HCMV infection is still associated with severe morbidity and mortality. HCMV can enhance the expression of a CC chemokines, CCL2 and CCL5. HCMV infection is presumed to contribute to atherosclerosis, where chemokines may have a pathogenic role. Elevated levels of CCL2 are observed in atherosclerotic plaques, where macrophages with the expression of a specific receptor for CCL2, CCR2, abundantly infiltrate. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: Uveitis is the leading cause of blindness worldwide. Among various forms, the anterior uveitis is most common. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are known to cause anterior uveitis. However, recent studies have also reported the role of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the causation of anterior uveitis in immunocompetent individuals. The present study aimed to study the prevalence of HSV-1, VZV and HCMV in patients presenting with anterior uveitis in a tertiary care hospital in North India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Authors: Sylvie Pillet, Nicolas Williet, Anne Pouvaret, Emilie Del Tedesco, Pierre Saint-Sardos, Bruno Pozzetto & Xavier Roblin (Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusions Antigenemia-guided pre-emptive strategy with ganciclovir was very affective and CMV reactivation tended not to affect the outcome in our study cohort. (Source: Pediatric Infectious Disease)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100CONCLUSIONS: CMV infection should be suspected in steroid-resistant UC and CD. Antiviral treatment improved the clinical outcome in steroid-resistant IBD cases with serum CMV DNA levels above 1000 copies/mL. PMID: 27010142 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:12:02 +0100CONCLUSION: AMR leads to progressive loss of renal function and has low graft survival. More effective treatment alternatives are needed for this clinical issue. PMID: 27002854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery)
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:43:53 +0100In the article, “Disseminated Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Presenting as Severe Sepsis in a Preterm Neonate,” Hebbal et al, J Pediatr 2016;170:339, the authors inadvertently misspelled the name of the fifth author, which should have been Stefan H.F. Hagmann, MD, MSc. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Jingping Ge, Ying Liu, Liying Jin, Dongni Gao, Chengle Bai, Wenxiang Ping Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncat...
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 16:43:21 +0100Conclusion: Antiviral chemoprophylaxis with VGCV or GCV in recipients with a high or moderate CMV risk is associated with a better preservation of transplant function. Hence, the prevention of CMV replication in this patient population has the potential to improve transplant outcome. (Source: Transplantation)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 07:43:43 +0100This study was conducted to identify risk factors for cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and demonstrate the spectrum of CMV disease in children receiving anticancer chemotherapy without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A total of 289 children who received chemotherapy and were tested for CMV infection were included in the study. CMV antigenemia and DNAemia were determined by identifying the pp65 antigen in leukocytes and performing real-time PCR. CMV disease was diagnosed by tissue biopsy, culture, or ophthalmic examination. Of the 289 children, CMV infection was demonstrated in 46 patients (15.9%). Young age at cancer diagnosis was the risk factor for CMV infection by multivariate analysis (7 mo vs. 7 y, P (Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 07:43:43 +0100We studied 35 pediatric patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia seen at Mayo Clinic from 1994 to 2014. The median age was 10.0 years and 65.7% were males. Most had warm antibodies (80.0%) and some secondary to viral (14.3%) or autoimmune disorders (31.4%). Seven (20.0%) patients presented with Evans syndrome, 3 of whom also had common variable immunodeficiency. The median hemoglobin at diagnosis was 6.1 g/dL and 62.8% patients required red cell transfusions. The severity of anemia was worse among children below 10 years (median 5.5 vs. 7.0 g/dL, P=0.01). Steroid was the initial treatment for 88.5% patients, with overall response rate of 82.7% (68.5% complete, 14.2% partial) and median response duration of 10.7 months (range, 0.2 to 129.7+ mo). After median follow-up of 26.6 months, 8 (22...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100We present a case of CMV retinitis and the full treatment course with fundus pictures. Case report A 32-year-old man visited our department and presented with floaters in the right eye for a week. Ophthalmoscope examination showed retinal whitening and haemorrhages in the right eye and normal fundus in the left eye (figure 1). We checked his HIV antibody, venereal disease research laboratory, rapid plasma regain, IgG and IgM for Toxoplasma gondii, basic blood chemistry and complete blood... (Source: Postgraduate Medical Journal)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100We present a rare case of CMV gastritis in an asymptomatic patient with history of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis on immunosuppressant. Case presentation A 62-year-old Hispanic female with past medical history of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis, hypertension and End Stage Renal Disease on hemodialysis, was evaluated for chronic anemia. Review of symptoms was negative for diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, melena or hematochezia. Her medications included Furosemide, Amlodipine, Metoprolol, Prednisone and Cyclophosphamide. Physical exam was remarkable for pallor, normal oropharynx and negative for lymphadenopathy. Abdomen was soft, non-tender, non-distended, with normal bowel sounds. Rectal exam revealed external hemorrhoids, guaiac positive brown stools. Pertinent laboratory da...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Discussion Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis of unknown cause. The most supported pathogenesis of AIH postulates that a combination of environmental triggers, failure of immune system tolerance and a genetic predisposition that may induce a T cell–mediated immune attack against the liver. Case studies in the literature report AIH being triggered by virus and drugs. There is evidence of cross-reactivity between anti-LKM1 and antibodies against homologous regions of cytomegalovirus (exon CMV130-135). This case could explain an association between cytomegalovirus infection and autoimmune hepatitis. As clinicians, it is difficult to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis because its presentation can be acute, severe, asymptomatic or chronic. Diagnosis requ...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusion These results demonstrated that H22-LP could inhibit HCMV by direct interaction with the viral particle. (Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Sparse data exist on the patterns and determinants of acquisition of polyomaviruses and herpesviruses in childhood. We measured immunoglobulin G seroreactivity against 10 polyomaviruses (BKPyV, JCPyV, KIPyV, WUPyV, MCPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, TSPyV, HPyV9, HPyV10) and 5 herpesviruses (Epstein Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 8) using multiplex serology on blood samples collected at birth (cord blood, n = 626) and at follow-up at 3 years (n = 81) and 4 years (n = 690) of age among the Rhea birth cohort recruited in Greece from pregnant women in 2007–2008. We used Poisson regression with robust variance to identify determinants of seropositivity at age 4. Seroprevalence of polyomaviruses ranged from 38.5% to 99.8% in cord blood and...
Sun, 20 Mar 2016 21:00:01 +0100Conclusion. The frequency of TTIs, especially HCV, is considerably high among Egyptian children with thalassemia major. It is therefore important to implement measures to improve blood transfusion screening, such as polymerase chain reaction, in order to reduce TTIs from blood donor units. PMID: 26989417 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Hematology)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100To evaluate clinical features and long-term visual outcome of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and to determine factors that predict visual outcome. (Source: American Journal of Ophthalmology)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a self-limiting, mostly childhood-appearing, cutaneous eruption with a characteristic symmetrical acral distribution. The original cases, described by Gianotti in 1955, were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but, afterwards, other viral and bacterial infections, as well as immunizations, have been related with its etiology. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of them, but only a few cases have been observed and more frequently in children than in adults [1,2]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 23:15:02 +0100Authors: Ishii Y, Itabashi M, Numata A, Yamamoto W, Motohashi K, Hagihara M, Matsumoto K, Fujisawa S Abstract Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive T-cell lymphoma. A 63-year-old man was diagnosed with AITL. He received 6 cycles of CHOP therapy, but showed progressive disease. Subsequently, he received ESHAP chemotherapy; however, it was not effective. He received mogamulizumab (an anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody). After 4 cycles, his respiratory condition worsened and he was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia. Despite antiviral and antibiotic therapy, he died. We speculate that the combination of progressive lymphoma with mogamulizumab and chemotherapy likely caused CMV pneumonia. Because mogamulizumab therapy causes immunosuppression, if CMV pneumon...
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100by Chengbin Wang, Sheila C. Dollard, Minal M. Amin, Stephanie R. Bialek Cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgM indicates recent active CMV infection. CMV IgM seroprevalence is a useful marker for prevalence of transmission. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III 1988–1994, we present estimates of CMV IgM prevalence by race/ethnicity, provide a comparison of IgM seroprevalence among all women and among CMV IgG positive women, and explore factors possibly associated with IgM seroprevalence, including socioeconomic status and exposure to young children. There was no difference in IgM seroprevalence by race/ethnicity among all women (3.1%, 2.2%, and 1.6% for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black and Mexican American, respectively; P = 0.11). CMV IgM seropreval...
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100In this study we report the variation of blood cell count along with anti-HCMV IgG and T cell responses to pp-65 and IE-1 antigens, that occurred after an interval of five years in a cohort of 25 seropositive healthy adults. We found increased anti-viral IgG antibody responses and intracellular interferon-gamma secreting CD8+ T cell responses to pp-65: a result consistent with memory inflation. With the only exception of shortage in naive CD8+ T cells most memory T cell subsets as well as total CD8+ T cells, T cells, lymphocytes, monocytes and leukocytes had increased. By contrast, none of the cell types tested were found to have increased in 14 subjects stably seronegative. Rather, in addition to a shortage in naive CD8+ T cells, also memory T cell subsets and most other cell types decrea...
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Muntasell A, Pupuleku A, Cisneros E, Vera A, Moraru M, Vilches C, López-Botet M Abstract CD94/NKG2C and lack of FcεRγ (FcRγ) expression are considered markers of the adaptive NK cell response to human CMV (HCMV) infection. Despite the fact that FcRγ(-) and NKG2C(bright) NK cells share some phenotypic, epigenetic, and functional features, their relationship remains unclear. To address this issue, a systematic analysis of NKG2C(bright) and FcRγ expression was carried out in NK cells from a cohort of healthy young adults (n = 81) considering NKG2C copy number, previously related to the magnitude of NKG2C(+) NK cell expansion. NKG2C(bright) and FcRγ(-) NK cells coincided in a subgroup of HCMV(+) individuals, pointing to a common host-virus interaction pattern. Even thou...
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:22:02 +0100CONCLUSION: The purpose of the study was to explore the role of CMV in the development of MEC, as it might help to exploit this etiological agent as a therapeutic target. Similar to human papillomavirus (HPV), these might identify a subset of neoplasms with a varied biological behavior and alternative therapies. However, this vision is obscured by contradicting evidence in the literature. As of today, surgery remains the only best possible management for these patients unless proven otherwise. PMID: 26980959 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusion The results from this study indicated that the intensive prevention strategy was well tolerated, significantly delayed CMV reactivation, and patients had less CMV disease. (Source: Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusion: Early identification and enrollment of patients in PAPs reduces the incidence of CMV viremia. Pharmacists play a crucial role in this process. (Source: Journal of Pharmacy Practice)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100A 35-day-old female with severe combined immunodeficiency developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) meningitis before undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Strategies for timely diagnosis of neonates with congenital or acquired CMV infection and prevention of CMV acquisition in the era of universal newborn severe combined immunodeficiency screening are needed. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)
Tue, 15 Mar 2016 21:57:03 +0100This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness. PMID: 26974302 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Tue, 15 Mar 2016 19:35:06 +0100Conclusions: CMV colitis often occurs in ASUC, particularly in patients who have recently been treated with high-dose steroids and have a higher Mayo score on admission. Patients with ASUC and CMV colitis seem to have a poorer prognosis, as indicated by the greater need for rescue therapy. (Source: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases)
Tue, 15 Mar 2016 18:08:06 +0100Abstract Cytomegalovirus is an opportunistic virus that commonly affects immunosuppressed patients. Cutaneous involvement by this virus is rare and occurs in significantly immunocompromised hosts, with a poor prognosis. Skin ulcers may represent the first sign of systemic infection by cytomegalovirus in these patients. Herein, a case of a systemic infection by Cytomegalovirus presenting as genital and oral ulcers in a kidney-transplant recipient is reported. (Source: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia)
Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100The objectives of this study were ... (Source: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth)
Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusions Topical ganciclovir may be beneficial in reducing the frequency of recurrence in patients with CMV anterior uveitis, but it was not statistically associated with prolonging the time-to-recurrence. The time-to-quiescence was also not significantly affected by topical ganciclovir. Prospective studies with a larger number of patients would be required to verify our findings. (Source: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection)
Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSIONS: The results showed a significant association between CMV and EH, which indicates that CMV infection is a possible cause of EH. PMID: 26980213 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift)
Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100(Source: eLife)
Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSION: These results indicate that calpastatin limits PH severity via extracellular mechanisms. They suggest a new approach to the development of treatments for PH. PMID: 26974350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Am J Respir Cell Mol...)
Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article reviews the clinical presentation; approach to diagnosis; and management of fungal, viral, and parasitic pneumonias that can develop in patients with HIV including respiratory disease caused by Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Histoplasma, Coccidioides, Cytomegalovirus, Toxoplasma, and Strongyloides. Because clinical symptoms and radiographic patterns are often insensitive at distinguishing these pulmonary infections, this review particularly focuses on specific host risk factors and diagnostic testing to consider when approaching HIV patients with respiratory illness.[...]Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals:Table of contents | Abstract | Full text (Source: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine)
Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we hypothesized that daily use of low-dose valacyclovir (1000 mg/d) is not only sufficient for cytomegalovirus prophylaxis but also beneficial in terms of cost. PMID: 26976362 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)
Sat, 12 Mar 2016 19:04:02 +0100CONCLUSION: At present, the main challenge in CNS is to identify the cause of disease for individual patients. To make a definitive diagnosis, with the exclusion of infection-related CNS and maternal-associated disorders, pathology, family history, inheritance mode, and other accompanying congenital malformations are sometimes, but not always, useful indicators for diagnosing genetic CNS. Next-generation sequencing would be a more effective method for diagnosing genetic CNS in some patients, however, there are still some challenges with next-generation sequencing that need to be resolved in the future. PMID: 26961288 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Pediatrics : WJP)
Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusions These data show the superiority of DC-tumor cell hybrids over their simple mixture as T-cell stimulators. Hybrids expressed more co-stimulatory and MHC molecules, induced higher antigen-specific T-cell expansion and were the only cells able to induce IFN-γ–producing antigen-specific T cells. Thus, these data offer further support for cancer immunotherapeutic approaches using DC-tumor cell hybrids. (Source: Cytotherapy)
Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Blanco-Lobo P, Bulnes-Ramos A, McConnell MJ, Navarro D, Pérez-Romero P Abstract Studies in transplant recipients over the past decade aiming to characterize the immune response to cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication have provided insights that can be used to guide CMV vaccine development. These studies have characterized multiple aspects of the immune response to virus infection in humans, and have identified immunologic variables that correlate with the ability to control virus replication. These findings can be used to guide vaccine development by informing decisions regarding antigen selection and the type of immune response that must be elicited by these antigens to promote protective immunity. In addition, these studies have provided information that could aid in the i...
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell’s nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized p...
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Cheng Zhang, Somashekar G Krishna, Alice Hinton, Razvan Arsenescu, Edward J Levine & Darwin L Conwell (Source: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology)
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common infectious complication following solid organ transplantation. Ganciclovir (GCV)‐resistant CMV infection may be fatal, and is difficult to treat whilst avoiding allograft rejection. A 31‐year‐old woman received a second ABO‐incompatible kidney transplant, from her father. Induction therapy consisted of basiliximab and rituximab followed by maintenance immunosuppression with tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and methylprednisolone. Her CMV serostatus was D+/R‐ at second transplant and she received prophylactic low‐dose valganciclovir (VGCV). BK polyoma virus nephropathy (BKVN) developed 7 months after transplant concurrent with CMV hepatitis and retinitis. VGCV was increased to a therapeutic dose combined with reduce...
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: AABB, Clinical Transfusion Medicine Committee, Heddle NM, Boeckh M, Grossman B, Jacobson J, Kleinman S, Tobian AA, Webert K, Wong EC, Roback JD Abstract Transfusion-transmitted cytomegalovirus (TT-CMV) is often asymptomatic, but certain patient populations, such as very low birth weight neonates, fetuses requiring intrauterine transfusion, pregnant women, patients with primary immunodeficiencies, transplant recipients, and patients receiving chemotherapy or transplantation for malignant disease, may be at risk of life-threatening CMV infection. It is unclear whether leukoreduction of cellular blood components is sufficient to reduce TT-CMV or whether CMV serological testing adds additional benefit to leukoreduction. The AABB CMV Prevention Work Group commissioned a systema...
Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSIONS: The rLCMV-gB vaccine significantly improved pup survival and also increased pup weights and gestation time. The gB vaccine was also more effective at decreasing viral load in dams and pups and limiting congenital transmission. Thus, rLCMV vectors that express CMV antigens may be an effective vaccine strategy for congenital CMV infection. PMID: 26973071 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)
Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionsTo the best of the present authors' knowledge, this is the largest series of SS to be reported. Clinical presentations are similar to those described in the literature. Colchicine was efficient and facilitates the reduced use of corticosteroids. The association between SS and neoplasms should be considered in the context of vesiculobullous lesions. (Source: International Journal of Dermatology)
Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Autoimmune Addison’s disease (AAD) is caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Variants of genes encoding immunologically important proteins such as the HLA molecules are strongly associated with ... (Source: Journal of Translational Medicine)
Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Liu Y, Mu R, Gao YP, Dong J, Zhu L, Ma Y, Li YH, Zhang HQ, Han D, Zhang Y, McInnes IB, Zhang J, Shen B, Yang G, Li ZG Abstract Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV), a ubiquitous beta-herpesvirus, has been associated with several autoimmune diseases. However, the direct role of hCMV in inducing autoimmune disorders remains unclear. Here we report the identification of an autoantibody that recognizes a group of peptides with a conserved motif matching the Pp150 protein of hCMV (anti-Pp150) and is shared among patients with various autoimmune diseases. Anti-Pp150 also recognizes the single-pass membrane protein CIP2A and induces the death of CD56(bright) NK cells, a natural killer cell subset whose expansion is correlated with autoimmune disease. Consistent with this finding, the per...
Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Söderberg-Nauclér C Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been associated with autoimmune diseases, but linking this common virus to disease pathology has been difficult. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Liu et al. (2016) identify a CMV-cross-reactive autoantibody that also recognizes CIP2A on natural killer cells, possibly affecting their function in autoimmune patients. PMID: 26962939 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cell Host and Microbe)
Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the pathogenic CMV strain was transmitted through breast milk, which is consistent with the claims that transfusion-transmitted CMV infection due to leukoreduced blood products is uncommon. PMID: 26968830 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Transfusion)
Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100The acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system . A monophasic abnormal autoimmune reaction directed against normal brain tissue has been proposed as the primary pathogenesis. Here, we present a life-threatening case of ADEM in a pregnant woman. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)
Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article reviews the modes of transmission as well as maternal and neonatal effects of each of these infections. In addition, the article outlines recommended testing, fetal surveillance, and treatment where indicated. (Source: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine)
Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Summary Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is potentially curative, but associated with post‐transplantation complications, including cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. An effective immune response requires T cells recognizing CMV epitopes via their T cell receptors (TCRs). Little is known about the TCR repertoire, in particular the TCR‐α repertoire and its clinical relevance in patients following stem cell transplantation. Using next‐generation sequencing we examined the TCR‐α repertoire of CD8+ T cells and CMV‐specific CD8+ T cells in four patients. Additionally, we performed single‐cell TCR‐αβ sequencing of CMV‐specific CD8+ T cells. The TCR‐α composition of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)‐A*0201 CMVpp65– and CMVIE‐specific T cells was oligoclonal and defined...
Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This study aimed to characterize the incidence and risk factors of invasive fungal disease, cytomegalovirus infection, other viral diseases, and gram-negative rod infection after glucocorticoid treatment for severe acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and to elucidate the associations of cumulative steroid dose with the risks of individual infections. The study cohort included 91 consecutive patients who developed maximum grade III-IV acute GVHD at our center. (Source: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation)
Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSIONS: Sinopulmonary complications are common in subjects with primary immunodeficiency. They can be serious and continue to occur even after proper treatment is initiated. The pulmonologist should play an important role in the management of subjects with primary immunodeficiency disorder. PMID: 26957648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Respiratory Care)
Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with increased multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. Recently, cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection has been proposed as a protective factor against MS development. We determined EBV, herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and CMV seroprevalence in 247 prospectively followed children with acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS). Remote EBV infection was more common in children with MS than those with monophasic ADS while CMV infection was more common in children with monophasic ADS. Children displaying evidence of remote EBV without CMV infection were at highest risk of subsequent MS diagnosis. Viral infection repertoire detected at ADS provides important prognostic information. (Source: Multiple Sclerosis)
Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSION: US28 expression is predictive of poor prognosis and may promote CRC. PMID: 26973417 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Sun, 06 Mar 2016 05:15:02 +0100In conclusion, it was shown that the transduction of Hep3B with rAAV/AFPp-IFN-γ upregulated the expression of HLA-A2 and improved the sensitivity to CTL response. PMID: 26936017 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Molecular Medicine Reports)
Sat, 05 Mar 2016 19:37:02 +0100Authors: Babu K, Sajid S PMID: 26943724 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)
Sat, 05 Mar 2016 12:00:02 +0100Authors: Nakashima K, Aoshima M, Suzuki F, Watanabe J, Otsuka Y Abstract A 68-year-old man visited an emergency department complaining of dyspnea. He was diagnosed to have Legionella pneumonia with multiple organ failure. Although his multiple organ failure improved, he suffered from persistent abdominal pain and diarrhea with continuous minor bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed a longitudinal ulcer of the rectum, below the peritoneal reflection. He was diagnosed with cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis. Antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was initiated. He finally underwent a colostomy after a bowel stricture caused an intestinal outlet obstruction, which made oral intake impossible. Based on the present case, we believe that CMV colitis must be considered as one of the differential diagnoses...
Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100In this study, we obtained the miRNA expression profiles of PCMV-infected porcine macrophages via high-throughput sequencing. The comprehensive analysis of miRNA profiles showed that 239 miRNA database-annotated and 355 novel pig-encoded miRNAs were detected. Of these, 130 miRNAs showed significant differential expression between the PCMV-infected and uninfected porcine macrophages. The 10 differentially expressed pig-encoded miRNAs were further determined by stem-loop reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the results were consistent with the high-throughput sequencing. Gene Ontology analysis of the target genes of miRNAs in PCMV-infected porcine macrophages showed that the differentially expressed miRNAs are mainly involved in immune and metabolic processes. This is the fir...
Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionIncidence of viremia was higher in the first six months after the transplantation compared with the later stages. Moreover, CMV gB1 and mixed genotype infection were more common in our recipients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Thu, 03 Mar 2016 13:35:26 +0100Cytomegalovirus infections are widely distributed with a seroprevalence of up to 100%. The majority of the cases take a silent course or deal with unspecific clinical symptoms. Complications in immunocompetent patients are rare but may affect the liver and lead up to an acute organ failure. In this case report, we describe a 35-year-old immunocompetent female with an acute cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute hepatitis with ongoing upper right abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. Upper right abdominal pain is a common symptom with a wide range of differential diagnoses. If common reasons can be excluded, we want to sensitize for cytomegalovirus infection as a minor differential diagnosis even in immunocompetent patients.Case Rep Gastroenterol (Source: Case Reports in Gastroentero...
Thu, 03 Mar 2016 05:43:48 +0100ACS Medicinal Chemistry LettersDOI: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.6b00064 (Source: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters)
Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This study, therefore, advances the general concept of broad antiviral defense through multihit targeting of a single host pathway. (Source: PLoS Biology: Archived Table of Contents)
Wed, 02 Mar 2016 18:16:03 +0100CONCLUSIONS To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to compare CMV AG and real-time PCR (calibrated to the WHO standard) results in a large number of recipients after liver transplantation. Use of this technique may provide useful information for the management of CMV infection. PMID: 26927444 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Annals of Transplantation)
Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Zhang S, Xiang J, Theuns S, Desmarets LM, Trus I, Nauwynck HJ Abstract Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice is a commonly used animal model for studying human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. In our previous studies, a mouse model based on an oronasal MCMV infection was set up for mimicking a natural infection, and the spleen was hypothesized to regulate viremia and virus dissemination to distal organs such as submandibular glands. Here, the role of the spleen during an MCMV infection was investigated by the comparison of intact and splenectomized Balb/c mice. Both highly passaged MCMV Smith and low passaged MCMV HaNa1 were used. Various samples were collected at 7, 14, and 21days post inoculation (dpi) for analyses by virus isolation/titration, co-cultivation...
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100Abstract: Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome, usually presented with abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy, and oral leukoplakia. The main cause of mortality in DC is immunodeficiency and vital infection. DC involves multisystem, but retinal involvements are rare. Herein, we report an unusual case of pediatric DC suffering from frosted branch angiitis (FBA) after recovery of mycoplasma pneumonia. Cytomegalovirus infection and cytokine changes were found relevant to the onset of FBA. Despite corticosteroids, antiviral medication, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the patient ended in poor vision with optic atrophy. This case implies that pediatricians should be aware of FBA as a rare retinal manifestation in children with DC and bone m...
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100MicroRNAs (miRs) are small conserved RNA that regulate gene expression. Bioinformatic analysis of miRNA profiles during mouse lung development indicated a role for multiple miRNA, including miRNA-489. miR-489 increased on completion of alveolar septation [postnatal day 42 (P42)], associated with decreases in its conserved target genes insulin-like growth factor-1 (Igf1) and tenascin C (Tnc). We hypothesized that dysregulation of miR-489 and its target genes Igf1 and Tnc contribute to hyperoxia-induced abnormal lung development. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to normoxia (21%) or hyperoxia (85% O2) from P4 to P14, in combination with intranasal locked nucleic acid against miR-489 to inhibit miR-489, cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV)-miR-489 to overexpress miR-489, or empty vector. Hyperoxia reduce...
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100In this study, the transcription pattern and characteristics of HCMV US12–US17 gene region were studied extensively. Twenty-three clones harboring US12 cDNA sequence were screened out from a late cDNA library of an HCMV clinical isolate, Han. Using a set of US12–US17 gene-specific probes, six transcripts from US12–US17 locus were detected by northern blot at late kinetics of the clinical isolate. One additional transcript was found in late RNA of HCMV strain AD169. No evidence showing these transcripts contain introns by reverse transcription PCR. 3′ and 5′ termini of these transcripts were confirmed by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. A novel protein-coding region was predicted in the shorter US14 transcript with an alternative in-frame 5′ translation initiation site compared...
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionsDespite extended prophylaxis, LT patients remain at risk of CMV infection and disease. CMV remains associated with increased mortality after transplantation. (Source: Clinical Transplantation)
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionsEarly histopathogenesis of HIV‐associated BL occurred as nests of EBV‐positive Burkitt cells within prominent monocytoid B‐cell areas in our case. The results equip the pathologist to identify a very subtle Burkitt microlymphoma which would allow for prompt and appropriate chemotherapeutic intervention and may promote research into the possible relationship between monocytoid B cells and BL.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Histopathology)
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Summary Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. The significant clinical impact of HCMV infection and progression to HCMV disease among allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients has been reduced by prophylactic, preemptive, and curative treatments using ganciclovir, valganciclovir, foscarnet, and cidofovir. Resistance to (val)ganciclovir results from mutations localized in HCMV UL97 gene (encoding the pUL97 phosphotransferase), UL54 gene (encoding the pUL54 DNA polymerase), or both genes, whereas foscarnet and cidofovir resistance results from mutations localized within UL54 gene only. This review is focused on HCMV antiviral drug resistance, including the functions of tar...
Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This study sought to determine the role of viral pathogens, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, HSV-2, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), in AF recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation in a strictly selected patient population. A total of 4148 patients undergoing AF catheter ablation were screened for structural heart diseases and known risk factors for AF, and the resultant 103 patients (74 paroxysmal and 29 persistent) were recruited. Pre-ablation clinical and laboratory data and viral-specific IgG antibody levels were compared with those in 72 healthy control subjects. Plasma concentrations of the antibodies were all significantly elevated in AF patients (P < 0.001 vs. control). During a mean follow-up of 12.8 ± 7.0 months, 29 (28.2%) patients had AF recurrence. Patients who experi...
Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100We present two cases of multidrug-resistant herpes simplex virus infections that responded to topical cidofovir therapy yet resulted in irreversible acute kidney injury. (Source: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice)
Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100In this study we examined the effect of the constitutively active viral ORF74 on human IGF-1R signaling. Constitutive and CXCL1-induced ORF74 signaling did not transactivate IGF-1R. In contrast, IGF-1 stimulated phospholipase C (PLC) activation in an ORF74-dependent manner without affecting chemokine binding to ORF74. Inhibition of constitutive ORF74 activity by mutagenesis or the inverse agonist CXCL10, or neutralizing IGF-1R with an antibody or silencing IGF-1R expression using siRNA inhibited PLC activation by IGF-1. Transactivation of ORF74 in response to IGF-1 occurred independently of Src, PI3K, and secreted ORF74 ligands. Furthermore, tyrosine residues in the carboxyl-terminus and intracellular loop 2 of ORF74 are not essential for IGF-1-induced PLC activation. Interestingly, PLC ac...
Fri, 26 Feb 2016 14:09:01 +0100CONCLUSIONS: While the introduction of HAART has resulted in a major impact on the overall health of patients with HIV, the spectrum of ocular disease remains largely unchanged in developing countries such as India. PMID: 26910292 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)
Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100Herpesviruses are a large order of animal enveloped viruses displaying a virion fusion mechanism of unusual complexity. Their multipartite machinery has a conserved core made of the gH/gL ancillary complexes and the homo-trimeric fusion protein glycoprotein B (gB). Despite its essential role in starting the viral infection, gB interaction with membrane lipids is still poorly understood. Here, evidence is provided demonstrating that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gB depends on the S-palmitoylation of its endodomain for an efficient interaction with cholesterol-rich membrane patches. We found that, unique among herpesviral gB proteins, the HCMV fusion factor has a Cys residue in the C-terminal region that is palmitoylated and mediates methyl-β-cyclodextrin-sensitive self-association of purifi...
Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This study suggests an important role for this atypical cytotoxic CD4+CD28null cell subset in kidney transplantation and points to strategies that may minimize the impact on clinical outcomes. (Source: American Journal of Transplantation)
Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100Authors: Bock CM, Parameshwarappa G, Bönisch S, Neiss C, Bauer W, Hampel F, Görling A, Tsogoeva SB Abstract Aza- and carbobicyclic compounds possess favorable pharmaceutical properties, but they are difficult to access. Herein, we demonstrate an unprecedented organocatalytic two component six-step chemodivergent domino reaction, which provides a straightforward, sustainable and atom economical route to difficult-to-access complex bicyclic architectures: azabicycles and carbobicycles, whose ratios can be controlled by the applied electrophiles and catalysts. Detailed NMR and X-ray studies on the structures and relative stereochemistry of selected compounds are presented. Mechanistic investigations of the chemoselective branching step have been carried out with DFT methods in conju...
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 19:07:08 +0100We report the first case of drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) following strontium ranelate (SR) treatment associated with systemic human HHV-7 reactivation. DRESS syndrome is a severe adverse drug-induced reaction presenting as a diffuse maculopapular skin rash with fever, hematological abnormalities (leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and/or atypical lymphocytosis), and multiorgan involvement. In our patient, diagnosis of DRESS was confirmed by the presence of six of the seven diagnostic criteria established in 2006 by the Japanese Research Committee on Severe Cutaneous Adverse Drug Reaction: maculopapular skin rash developing at least 3 weeks after starting therapy with a limited number of drugs, prolonged clinical symptoms after discontinuation of the causative drug, l...
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100Publication date: Available online 17 November 2015 Source:Tzu Chi Medical Journal Author(s): Yang Liang Boo, Mohd Azman M. Aris, Pek Woon Chin, Wan Aliaa Wan Sulaiman, Hamidon Basri, Fan Kee Hoo Guillain–Barré syndrome is a rare neurological manifestation associated with dengue infection. More common antecedent infections include Campylobacter jejuni and Cytomegalovirus infection. Here, we report two cases of Guillain–Barré syndrome complicating dengue infection. (Source: Tzu Chi Medical Journal)
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100Transplant patients are at increased risk of viral complications due to impaired control of viral replication, resulting from HLA mismatching between graft and host and the immunosuppression needed to avert alloimmune reactions. In the past decade, quantitative viral load measurements have become widely available to identify patients at risk and to inform treatment decisions with respect to immunosuppressive drugs and antiviral therapies. Because viral loads are viewed as the result of viral replication and virus‐specific immune control, virus‐specific T cell monitoring has been explored to optimize management of adenovirus, BK polyomavirus and cytomegalovirus (“ABC”) in transplant patients. Although most studies are descriptive using different technologies, the overall results sho...
Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Wed, 24 Feb 2016 20:16:02 +0100CONCLUSIONS: Emergency surgeries were associated with frequent postoperative complications. For refractory severe ulcerative colitis, cytomegalovirus involvement should be determined and prolonged steroid therapy is associated with postoperative complications; therefore, early treatment decisions are important. PMID: 26902015 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Hepato-Gastroenterology)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 07:07:31 +0100Conclusions: Our results support an association between CMV D+/R− serodiscordance and severe HCV recurrence in patients undergoing liver transplantation for HCV liver disease. (Source: Transplantation)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 07:07:31 +0100Conclusions: These retrospective data suggest that a cumulative rATG dose of 4.5 to 7.5 mg/kg may offer a better risk-benefit ratio than lower or higher doses, with acceptable rates of infection and posttransplant malignancy. Prospective trials are needed. (Source: Transplantation)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100In conclusion, the current study shows, for the first time, the immunosuppressive ability of CC214‐1 on T lymphocytes and illustrates the role of CC214‐2 in the allogeneic transplantation setting as a possible GvHD prophylaxis agent. (Source: British Journal of Haematology)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionsPassive transfer of CMV IgG is an unanticipated consequence of transfusion of CMV‐U products and has the potential to cause morbidity. Inaccurate recording of serostatus pre‐transplant has wider implications for data reporting on transplant outcomes. When transfusing CMV‐U components pre‐transfusion CMV IgG samples must be taken and transfusion history must be considered when interpreting results. (Source: Transfusion Medicine)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusions All children with PMG had recordable visual function either by visual acuity or VEP testing, however the majority did not show longitudinal improvement in acuity. Seizures may impose limits on visual acuity development. Children with cytomegalovirus-related PMG, microcephaly, and developmental delay can have normal visual acuity. Children with a recordable VEP but without visually guided behaviors may have a defect in sensorimotor transformation. (Source: Journal of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Transplant Infectious Disease)
Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26910859 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: European Journal of Immunology)
Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100Abstract Despite recent results of deletion experiments showing that open reading frame (ORF) UL49 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is essential, the expression, function and functional location of its encoded protein remain unknown. We generated an antibody specific for pUL49 to investigate the protein product encoded by the UL49 ORF and identified its function in HCMV-infected host foreskin fibroblasts. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) of HCMV strain Towne (pRV-Towne) and the UL49-deleted mutant pRV-delUL49Towne were used to observe virus growth by plaque assay. Using a UL49-protein-binding antibody, we located pUL49 in the fibroblast cytoplasm. pUL49 exhibited expression kinetics resembling those of the class β-2 proteins and was detected in the virion tegument. Followin...
Sun, 21 Feb 2016 03:35:22 +0100A 41-year-old man with AIDS presented with decreased vision in the left eye; he denied other symptoms. Medications included efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine, and his CD4 cell count was 31 cells/μL. He had been diagnosed 8 months previously with acute retinal necrosis in the right eye, with no light perception. Examination of the left eye showed minimal inflammation in the anterior chamber and vitreous. Ophthalmoscopy showed hemorrhagic papillitis, retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, and diffuse vascular sheathing. (Source: Ophthalmology)