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MedWorm: Influenza



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Influenza category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:31:45 +0100

 



Cost-Effectiveness of Antiviral Treatment for Influenza ACost-Effectiveness of Antiviral Treatment for Influenza A

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 10:23:35 +0100

Is antiviral treatment based on a rapid point-of-care test for influenza A a cost-effective treatment method? Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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India - National disaster and epidemic preparedness

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: History provides us several illustrations where epidemic outbreaks have led to biological disasters. Accidental or deliberate release of harmful micro-organisms can also lead to biological disasters. With the advent of bio-terrorism, there is a growing realisation that biological agents can also be used as weapons of mass destruction. The spread of Spanish Influenza of 1917-18, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Swine Flu (H1N1), Avian Influenza (H5N1), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), dengue, chikunguniya, Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the recent Zika outbreak in several countries tested the capacities of the public health delivery system in several countries. (Source: Interna...



Influenza preparedness including H1N1

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: (no abstract received from presenter) (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Haemophilus influenza type B (Hib) vaccines: A looming success. Lessons learned from the Hib initiative

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Adoption of new vaccines is critical to improve child health overall and reduce child mortality. However, new vaccine introduction has historically been delayed in developing countries due to multiple factors (lack of data, economic, logistical and awareness factors). Recently, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunizations (GAVI) supported the Hib Initiative to accelerate the introduction of Hib vaccines in developing countries, which was very successful and led to introduction of Hib vaccine in all GAVI eligible countries, as well as many other countries around the world. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The impact of HIV infection on the burden and severity of influenza illness in Malawian adults

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: The impact of HIV infection on the incidence and severity of influenza illness in adults in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is unclear. Although annual seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings, it is not part of routine HIV care in SSA. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Zika, MERS, Ebola, SARS and H1N1: Local and global responses to viral threats

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: We live in a world with the constant threat of emerging viral infections. In the last two decades, we have seen the highly publicised emergence of the Nipah Virus, SARS, MERS, the re-emergence of Ebola and the H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza together with a host of other emerging and re-emerging viruses including Zika, Chikungunya, Dengue. As clinicians, we are the front line of response to these threats and the key to the response has to be good surveillance and clinical management. High quality clinical microbiology support is critical as is both “shoe-leather” and molecular epidemiology. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Genome wide differential host response to highly or low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: The underlying molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and outcome of disease to different pathotypes of H5N1 influenza infection in ducks remain unclear. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Genome wide host gene expression analysis in chicken lungs infected with avian influenza viruses

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: The molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza viruses vary greatly with individual bird species and virus strain. The molecular pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) or the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in avian species remains poorly understood. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Economic evaluation of influenza vaccine intervention

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

The objective of this study is to evaluate the economic impact of vaccine-based interventions in response to an influenza pandemic, for the city of Chicago, and compare the cost-benefit metrics between a dynamic agent-based network model and a static Markov model. Efficient allocation of clinical resources, including vaccination, minimizes the costs of deaths, hospitalizations, and outpatient visits during an influenza pandemic. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Morbidity by Influenza A (Novel H1N1) virus infection in relation to age and gender from january 01, 2015 to october 30, 2015 in Baroda, a city in western India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Aim of this study to identify potential high risk age group and gender predisposition for the Influenza A (Novel H1N1) virus infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The role of diabetes in the severity of 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV): A systematic review and meta-analysis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: A number of acute respiratory infections outbreaks such as the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have emerged and presented a considerable global public health threat. Epidemiologic evidence suggest that diabetic subjects are more susceptible to these conditions. However, the global influence of diabetes to the severity of H1N1 and MERS-CoV is yet to be evaluated. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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GPI-anchored CCL28 as a strong mucosal immunostimulator with influenza VLPs

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Influenza presents a major health problem, affecting hundreds of millions of people with high morbidity and mortality. Because of the importance of immunological regulations at mucosa, protection provided at the pathogen's entry site, and promising results with different infectious diseases at mucosa, in both clinical and experimental settings, it would be advantageous to study the mucosal adjuvant with influenza antigens. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Periodicity in the waxing and waning of Influenza A H1N1: A report from a tertiary care center in Chennai India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study was undertaken to characterize Influenza A H 1N1 in a tertiary care center over six years. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



The impact of short educational messages in motivating community-dwelling seniors to receive influenza and pneumococcal vaccines

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine uptake rates have been consistently low among community-dwelling seniors in Singapore. Our Institute set up a vaccination education booth at a community-based health event for seniors, with the aims of assessing the knowledge, attitudes, practices and behaviours (KAPBs) of seniors towards influenza and pneumococcal vaccines, and evaluating the effectiveness of short educational messages in motivating seniors to receive vaccination. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Evluation of risk factors that have the potential for the introduction and spread highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease into two states of Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The risk of virus introduction and spread into or within farm depends largely on neighbouring farm characteristics, contact structure and biosecurity practices. A qualitative risk analysis was conducted through a cross-sectional study to obtain information on types and frequency on activities guiding the determination of potential AI spread pathways between farms and production regions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Severe acute respiratory infections associated with influenza and non-influenza viruses - Yemen, 2011-2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: In 2010, influenza surveillance started in Yemen after H1N1 influenza outbreak. Ministry of Health (MoH) established two sentinel sites for Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) at the two main public hospitals in Sana’a and Aden with the support of NAMRU3, where SARI samples tested for influenza and non-influenza viruses by the Real-Time-PCR assay. The aim is to describe the SARI severity as indicated by admission to intensive care unit (ICU) and fatality as well as associated influenza and non-influenza viruses among hospitalized patients of the two sentinel sites in order to provide recommendations for improving influenza surveillance (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Clinical presentation, management and outcomes of influenza in Africa: systematic review, 2009-2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: This paper aims to review the effectiveness of diagnostic and management of influenza in Africa, specifically mortality, treatment and outcomes. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Influenza-associated hospitalizations In Maputo City - Mozambique

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

This study aimed to evaluate the influenza impact on hospitalizations, the main characteristics of patients with influenza in hospitalized pediatric and to identify factors associated with severe outcome in Maputo City. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Design of a study to examine contact mixing and acute respiratory infection in Ballabgarh, Haryana

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

We describe the design of a planned contact mixing study nested within an ongoing acute respiratory infection (ARI) study in Ballabgarh, Haryana. The contact mixing study aims to 1) describe the social contact patterns of individuals in this rural Indian population, where caste, gender, and age hierarchies are hypothesized to influence interactions, and 2) examine the impact of contact heterogeneities on influenza and general ARI risk after controlling for age. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antiviral effect of Glycine coated Iron oxide nanoparticles iron against H1N1 influenza A virus

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Influenza virus is a common human pathogen that has caused serious respiratory illness and death over the past century. It always had potential to cause widespread pandemics whenever a new type of Influenza strain appeared in the human population and then spread easily from person to person.Although the treatment of influenza produces rapid suppression of H1N1 influenza A virus infection but this effect is not often sustainable due to the emergence of drug-resistant H1N1 strains .Therefore, it is important to develop new antiviral strategies to combat wild-type and mutant H1N1 influenza A virus infections. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Inhibition of Japanese encephalitis virus infection by biogenic catechin silver nanoparticles: An in-vitro study

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: The interaction of nanoparticles with microorganisms is an emerging field. Within this, an area that has been limitedly explored is the interaction of nanoparticles with viruses. Recently studies on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) showed potent antiviral activity against HIV, HBV, influenza and dengue virus. However, synthesis of metallic nanoparticles involves physical and chemical approach utilizing toxic chemicals, which may hinder its application for human use. Therefore, development of novel eco-friendly nanoparticles is of great interest. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Impact of outpatient neuraminidase inhibitor treatment on hospitalisation in patients infected with influenza A (H1N1)pdm09: An IPD analysis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) were widely deployed during the 2009 A(H1N1) pandemic. While evidence exists to support their effectiveness in reducing mortality in hospitalised patients, the impact of outpatient or community-based treatment on hospital admission has not been established. Our aim was to investigate the association between outpatient or community-based NAI treatment and admission to hospital in patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Describing the interactive model design of avian influenza : Animal infection and human infection

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Avain influenza is caused by H5N1 virus and commonly human are not infected because of the effective culminating procedure. Still the risk of infection to human is elevated due to increased contact with poultry and migratory birds. Case fatality rate of the infection increases the need to understand the dynamics of transmission of H5N1 from migratory birds to human through domestic poultry; study aims to illustrate the interactive model design of avian influenza and describing the points of interactions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Morbidity, mortality, and seasonality of influenza hospitalizations in Egypt, november 2007 - november 2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

We describe seven years of Egypt's influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Survey for avian influenza and Newcastle disease antibodies and viruses in domestic and wild birds in Bauchi and Gombe States, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Avian influenza (AI) infected and spread to 97 Local Government Areas affecting 25 of the 36 States of Nigeria. Virulent form of Newcastle disease has assumed endemic status in Nigeria. The study was conducted to detect the prevalence of H5 and H7 AI viruses and virulent strains of ND virus in poultry and wild birds in Bauchi and Gombe States, Nigerian. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Biosecurity risk of wild bird markets and wild bird trade to avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Despite possible introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI) H5N1 virus into Nigeria by wild birds, few studies were undertaken on live wild bird markets(LWBMs) role in HPAI surveillance. Study assessed LWBMs biosecurity, sellers’ knowledge, attitude and practices(KAP) on biosecurity and wild bird trade(WBT) in Kaduna State. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Viral burden in acute respiratory tract infections in hospitalized children in the wet and dry zones of Sri Lanka

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

This study was conducted to identify the viral burden in hospitalized children with ARTIs to map the occurrence of these viruses with local seasonality. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Diarrhea in adult patients with influenza B

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: During 2014-2015 season we observed 147 cases of influenza. 34% cases were patients with influenza B, 49% - patients with several strains of influenza A/H3N2 and 17% - with influenza A/H1N1pdm2009. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Influenza illness in pregnant Indian women: A cross sectional study

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Pregnant women were observed to be at high risk of complications such as pneumonia and death during the influenza pandemics of 1918, 1957, and 2009 and accounted for about 6% of influenza related hospitalizations ICU admissions and deaths in the 2009 influenza pandemic in the USA. Data on burden of influenza in pregnancy in India are scant. We set out to study the contribution of influenza viruses in the causation of respiratory illness during pregnancy in a north Indian setting with temperate seasonality of influenza. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Microbead array based technology for detection and quantitation of viral respiratory pathogens associated with pneumonia among children

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Viruses play an important role in causing respiratory infections in children worldwide. The burden of viruses in respiratory infections among children in Pakistan is unknown, largely due to absence of good quality diagnostic facilities. Common viruses associated with respiratory infections included respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A/B, along with novel viruses like human metapneumovirus, human coronavirus NL63 and HKU1, and human bocavirus, which have the potential to cause pandemics. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



U.S. flu activity may be waning

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 18:40:48 +0100

The 2015-2016 U.S. flu season may have reached its peak. The proportion of outpatient visits for influenza-like illness (ILI) dropped to 3.2% for the week ending March 19, according to the Centers... (Source: Family Practice News)

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Versatile microfluidic complement fixation test for disease biomarker detection.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:27:02 +0100

We report here, for the first time, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/glass slide hybrid microfluidic device that was used to manipulate the solution compartment and communication within the microchannel to establish sampler and indicator systems of CFT. Two types of on-chip CFT, solution-based and solid phase agar-based assays, were successfully demonstrated for biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and recombinant avian influenza A (rH7N9) virus protein detection. In addition, the feasibility of the on-chip CFT in assaying real biopsy was successfully demonstrated by specifically detecting rH7N9 and CEA in human serum. The results demonstrated that the miniaturized assay format significantly reduced the assay time and sample consumption. Exemption from protein immobilization, blocking, ...



The Pertussis Problem and a Possible Solution

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The microorganisms that cause infectious diseases have a way of humbling us. Just as we think we have a problem solved, the microbes outsmart us. Penicillin was a miracle in 1943 when it was first mass produced. By 1947 the bacteria had already developed penicillin resistance. We are always behind in the game we play with influenza virus every year, trying to pick the right strains for the vaccine. We thought we could handle pertussis by making a vaccine, and that we did, starting with a whole-cell vaccine in the 1940s followed by an improved acellular vaccine in the 1990s with fewer adverse effects. Oh, but wait. Why is pertussis coming back with a vengeance in the United States with a record number of cases in 2014? The “improved” acellular vaccines, although certainly associated wit...

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Effect of dietary extract and dried areal parts of Rosmarinus officinalis on performance, immune responses and total serum antioxidant activity in broiler chicks

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In conclusion, RP1 and RE1 deteriorated body weight of chickens in different periods. Inclusion of RP2 and RE1 resulted in improved total serum antioxidant activity. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)



Relationship between Virucidal Efficacy and Free Iodine Concentration of Povidone-Iodine in Buffer Solution.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:05:02 +0100

Authors: Wada H, Nojima Y, Ogawa S, Hayashi N, Sugiyama N, Kajiura T, Ueda T, Morimoto S, Yokota K Abstract Povidone-iodine solutions prepared to various concentrations (0.01, 0.1, 1 and 10%) with 0.2M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) (PVP-I PB) were analyzed to determine their free iodine concentrations using membrane permeation cells, and their inactivation effects on three viruses (influenza A virus, poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3) were examined. The free iodine concentrations in the 0.01-10% PVP-I PB were determined to be 1.84, 4.88, 1.58 and 0.17 ppm (approximate values), respectively, with the maximum obtained for the 0.1% solution. The virucidal efficacy of these PVP-I PB against poliovirus type 1 and adenovirus type 3 was found to be generally dependent on free iodine con...



Letter to the Editor regarding the paper by Sun G et al: Elevated serum levels of neutrophil elastase in patients with influenza virus-associated encephalopathy. J Neuro Sci 2015;349:190–195

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We read with great interest the discussion of possible therapeutic potential of anti-elastase agents against influenza virus-associated encephalopathy (IE) in the clinical research paper by Sun et al. [1]. Recently, we had an opportunity to examine the kinetics of serum neutrophil elastase (NE) in the acute clinical course of three patients, aged 12 to 14months, who were diagnosed with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6)-associated acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), one of whom had moderate neurological sequelae with secondary epilepsy and developmental retardation. (Source: Journal of the Neurological Sciences)



Diagnostic performance of influenza viruses and RSV rapid antigen detection tests in children in tertiary care

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Influenza viruses and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) cause acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children, being a leading cause of hospitalization [1–3]. Identification of both viruses is important for disease management, as the presence of these infections may require specific treatment (i.e. oseltamivir) and hospital containment measures. The current gold standard for detection of these viruses is real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) [4]. This is however not performed in all hospitals, as it requires a molecular diagnostic laboratory with specialized personnel and equipment. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)



Committee Opinion No. 661 Summary: Integrating Immunizations Into Practice.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:43:02 +0100

Authors: Abstract Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases is an essential component of women's primary and preventive health care. Despite the importance of vaccination and clear guidance from public health agencies, rates of vaccination lag behind national goals. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a major role in reducing morbidity and mortality from a range of vaccine-preventable diseases, including pertussis, influenza, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis. Given demonstrated vaccine efficacy and safety, and the large potential for prevention of many infectious diseases that affect adults, pregnant women, and newborns, obstetrician-gynecologists should include immunizations as an integral part of their practice. To do so, they must embrace their role as important sour...

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Committee Opinion No. 661: Integrating Immunizations Into Practice.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 18:43:02 +0100

Authors: Abstract Immunization against vaccine-preventable diseases is an essential component of women's primary and preventive health care. Despite the importance of vaccination and clear guidance from public health agencies, rates of vaccination lag behind national goals. Obstetrician-gynecologists can play a major role in reducing morbidity and mortality from a range of vaccine-preventable diseases, including pertussis, influenza, human papillomavirus, and hepatitis. Given demonstrated vaccine efficacy and safety, and the large potential for prevention of many infectious diseases that affect adults, pregnant women, and newborns, obstetrician-gynecologists should include immunizations as an integral part of their practice. To do so, they must embrace their role as important sour...



Federal Register: Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for Office of Management and Budget Review; Comment Request; Guidance on Reagents for Detection of Specific Novel Influenza A Viruses

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

The FDA is announcing that a proposed collection of information has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance under the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995. (Source: Food and Drug Adminstration (FDA): CDRHNew)



Global Role and Burden of Influenza in Pediatric Respiratory Hospitalizations, 1982–2012: A Systematic Analysis

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Kathryn E. Lafond, Harish Nair, Mohammad Hafiz Rasooly, Fátima Valente, Robert Booy, Mahmudur Rahman, Paul Kitsutani, Hongjie Yu, Guiselle Guzman, Daouda Coulibaly, Julio Armero, Daddi Jima, Stephen R. C. Howie, William Ampofo, Ricardo Mena, Mandeep Chadha, Ondri Dwi Sampurno, Gideon O. Emukule, Zuridin Nurmatov, Andrew Corwin, Jean Michel Heraud, Daniel E. Noyola, Radu Cojocaru, Pagbajabyn Nymadawa, Amal Barakat, Adebayo Adedeji, Marta von Horoch, Remigio Olveda, Thierry Nyatanyi, Marietjie Venter, Vida Mmbaga, Malinee Chittaganpitch, Tran Hien Nguyen, Andros Theo, Melissa Whaley, Eduardo Azziz-Baumgartner, Joseph Bresee, Harry Campbell, Marc-Alain Widdowson, Global Respiratory Hospitalizations—Influenza Proportion Positive (GRIPP) Working Group Background The global burden of pedi...



Influenza A and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus co-infection in rhesus macaques – A model of severe pneumonia

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Discussion This was the first nonhuman primate study of influenza and bacterial co-infection where high-resolution computed tomography scanning of the lungs was used to quantitatively assess pneumonia over the course of illness and where hypoxemia was correlated with pneumonia severity. With additional validation this model may serve as a pathway for regulatory approval of vaccines and therapeutics for the prevention and treatment of severe influenza pneumonia. (Source: Antiviral Therapy)



Parents' and staff's support for a childcare agency employee mandatory vaccination policy or agency certification program

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions There is strong support for some type of childcare agency staff vaccination policy. Implementing such a policy/program should be a collaborative endeavor that addresses vaccine cost and access. (Source: American Journal of Infection Control)

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Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons — An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Mikhail Shubin, Artem Lebedev, Outi Lyytikäinen, Kari Auranen The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 – 6.7%) of the popu...



Evaluation of a conserved HA274-288 epitope to detect antibodies to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in Indonesian commercial poultry.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wawegama NK, Tarigan S, Indriani R, Selleck P, Adjid RA, Syafriati T, Hardiman, Durr PA, Ignjatovic J Abstract A peptide ELISA based on an epitope in the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus H5N1, amino acid positions 274 -288 (HA274-288) was evaluated for detection of H5N1 specific antibodies. An optimised ELISA based on the tetrameric form of the HA274-288 epitope designated MP15 gave low background with non-immune chicken sera and detected vaccinated and infected birds. The HA274-288 epitope was highly conserved in Indonesian H5N1 strains and antibody responses were detected in the majority of the vaccinated chickens regardless of the H5N1 strain used for vaccination. The HA274-288 epitope was also conserved in the majority of H5N1 strain from the neighbouring A...



Genetic characterization of an ancestral strain of the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus currently circulating in East Asia.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kim JK, Nam JH, Lyoo KS, Moon H, Na W, Song EJ, Yeom M, Shim SM, Jeong DG, An DJ, Kang BK, Song D Abstract H3N2 canine influenza virus emerged in South Korea in 2007 and subsequently spread into China and Thailand, causing epidemic or endemic respiratory diseases in dogs. Through intermammalian species transmission, the virus has also infected cats. However, no direct evidence of significant genetic evolution has been reported since its first emergence. Here we describe in depth the genetic and molecular characteristics of the ancestral strain (i.e., the first virus isolate from South Korea) of the H3N2 canine influenza virus currently circulating in East Asia. PMID: 27012241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)



Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 17:00:00 +0100

On 18 March 2016, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 29 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, including 11 deaths. (Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks)



Human infection with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus – China

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 17:00:00 +0100

On 15 March 2016, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 1 additional laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus. (Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks)

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Propagation and Characterization of Influenza Virus Stocks That Lack High Levels of Defective Viral Genomes and Hemagglutinin Mutations

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 12:23:05 +0100

Jia Xue, Benjamin S. Chambers, Scott E. Hensley, Carolina B. López (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)



Comparison of the antiviral effect of solid-state copper and silver compounds

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 July 2016 Source:Journal of Hazardous Materials, Volume 312 Author(s): Masafumi Minoshima, Yue Lu, Takuto Kimura, Ryuichi Nakano, Hitoshi Ishiguro, Yoshinobu Kubota, Kazuhito Hashimoto, Kayano Sunada Antiviral activities of insoluble solid-state and soluble ionic copper and silver compounds were evaluated against influenza A virus (A/PR8/H1N1) possessing a viral envelope and bacteriophage Qβ lacking an envelope. The viral solutions were exposed on glass samples uniformly loaded with copper and silver compounds. Exposure to solid-state cuprous oxide (Cu2O) efficiently inactivated both influenza A virus and bacteriophage Qβ, whereas solid-state cupric oxide (CuO) and silver sulfide (Ag2S) showed little antiviral activity. Copper ions from copper chloride (CuC...



Seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness against medically attended influenza illness among children aged 6-59 months, October 2011-September 2012: A matched test-negative case-control study in Suzhou, China.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The seasonal influenza vaccine was effective against medically attended lab-confirmed influenza infection in children aged 6-59 months in Suzhou, China in the 2011-12 influenza season. Increasing seasonal influenza vaccination among young children in Suzhou may decrease medically attended influenza-associated ILI and SARI cases in this population. PMID: 27016650 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



Influenza Vaccine Requirements in Pregnant Women

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Administration of influenza vaccine is recommended in any trimester of pregnancy, to protect the pregnant woman as well as the newborn child below the age of 6 months from the deleterious effects of influenza. The vaccine is safe and free from side effects. (Source: The Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India)



Increasing herd immunity with influenza revaccination

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 13:34:21 +0100

Research Articles E. Q. MOORING, S. BANSAL, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 144 Issue 06, pp 1267-1277Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)

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[Media Watch] Using citizen science in the battle against influenza

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:07:51 +0100

It's a sound that's all too familiar at this time of the year—the chesty cough of someone with influenza. And it was this sound that greeted listeners at the start of “The Flu Virus”, the second episode in the third series of Brainwaves, a 13-part science programme on BBC Radio Scotland. Voices then began reeling off the other symptoms: sore throat, chills, difficult sleep, fever, aching muscles, tiredness and weakness, vomiting. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



[Review] Host-directed therapies for infectious diseases: current status, recent progress, and future prospects

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:07:51 +0100

Despite extensive global efforts in the fight against killer infectious diseases, they still cause one in four deaths worldwide and are important causes of long-term functional disability arising from tissue damage. The continuing epidemics of tuberculosis, HIV, malaria, and influenza, and the emergence of novel zoonotic pathogens represent major clinical management challenges worldwide. Newer approaches to improving treatment outcomes are needed to reduce the high morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



Influenza Hits Poor People Hardest

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Illness has always had a disproportionate effect on poor populations, and now researchers have confirmed that severe influenza requiring hospitalization is more prevalent in impoverished neighborhoods nationwide. (Source: JAMA)



Phylodynamics of avian influenza clade 2.2.1 H5N1 viruses in Egypt

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are widely distributed within poultry populations in Egypt and have caused multiple human infections. Linking the epidemiological and sequen... (Source: Virology Journal)



Dual Acting Neuraminidase Inhibitors Open New Opportunities to Disrupt the Lethal Synergism between Streptococcus pneumoniae and Influenza Virus

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:08:03 +0100

Elisabeth Walther, Zhongli Xu, Martina Richter, Johannes Kirchmair, Ulrike Grienke, Judith M. Rollinger, Andi Krumbholz, Hans P. Saluz, Wolfgang Pfister, Andreas Sauerbrei, Michaela Schmidtke (Source: Frontiers in Microbiology)

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Id: 141: antiviral innate immune responses in human bronchial epithelial cells (hbecs) of smokers are impaired through epigenetic modifications

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Our results suggest that active smoking reduces expression of antiviral cytokines in primary HBECs. This effect likely occurs via downregulation of RIG-I and TLR3 through epigenetic modifications. Reduction in lung epithelial cell RIG-I and TLR3 responses may be one major mechanism contributing to the increased incidence of viral respiratory infections in smokers and to viral induction of acute exacerbations of COPD. (Source: Journal of Investigative Medicine)



Antigenic phenotypes of seasonal influenza viruses [Evolution]

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Human seasonal influenza viruses evolve rapidly, enabling the virus population to evade immunity and reinfect previously infected individuals. Antigenic properties are largely determined by the surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin (HA), and amino acid substitutions at exposed epitope sites in HA mediate loss of recognition by antibodies. Here, we show that antigenic... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)



Detection of influenza virus using peroxidase‐mimic of gold nanoparticles

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Biotechnology and Bioengineering)



Corrigendum: Adjuvanted influenza-H1N1 vaccination reveals lymphoid signatures of age-dependent early responses and of clinical adverse events

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Nature Immunology 17, 469 (2016). doi:10.1038/ni0416-469b Author: Olga Sobolev, Elisa Binda, Sean O'Farrell, Anna Lorenc, Joel Pradines, Yongqing Huang, Jay Duffner, Reiner Schulz, John Cason, Maria Zambon, Michael H Malim, Mark Peakman, Andrew Cope, Ishan Capila, Ganesh V Kaundinya & Adrian C Hayday (Source: Nature Immunology)



Id: 132: lupus keratinocytes are primed by an autocrine type i interferon loop to robustly secrete il-6

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions IL-6 is increased at the RNA and protein level within cutaneous lupus biopsies when compared to healthy control skin. Keratinocytes are a major producer of IL-6 in the skin and lupus keratinocytes have enhanced production of IL-6 in response to TLR ligands and UV radiation. Exposure to type I IFN can increase IL-6 production in keratinocytes. SLE-derived keratinocytes downregulate IL-6 production in the presence of tonic blockade of the type I IFN receptor. These data suggest that the epidermis, which is an important barrier for environmental insults, is primed for IL-6 production by autocrine type I IFN production and that this may be one mechanism by which factors such as UV exposure may trigger rash development. Further investigations should focus on the pathogenic significa...

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Post-licensure surveillance of quadrivalent inactivated influenza (IIV4) vaccine in the United States, Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS), July 1, 2013-May 31, 2015.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: In our review of VAERS reports, IIV4 had a similar safety profile to IIV3. Most of the reported AEs were non-serious. Our findings are consistent with data from pre-licensure studies of IIV4. PMID: 27015735 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



Performance of rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B test compared to Luminex x-TAG respiratory viral panel assay in the diagnosis of influenza A, B, and subtype H3

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study compares the performance of the rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B test to nucleic acid multiplex test x-TAG respiratory viral panel (RVP) assay in freshly collected nasal aspirates and measured simultaneously by both assays. Retrospective data from 1649 nasal aspirates (September 2014 to May 2015) collected from adults as well as from children tested simultaneously by both rapid SOFIA Influenza A+B FIA immunofluorescence (Quidel, San Diego, CA) and qualitative nucleic acid multiplex RVP assay X-TAG Luminex technology (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA) were analyzed. Concordance, and analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated for influenza A, subtypes H1 and H3, and influenza B. Prevalence for influenza A by RVP was 15%, for subtype H3 it was 11.2%, and for influenza B, 2.9%. None ...



Influenza leaves a TRAIL to pulmonary edema

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 20:22:02 +0100

Influenza infection can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), leading to poor disease outcome with high mortality. One of the driving features in the pathogenesis of ARDS is the accumulation of fluid in the alveoli, which causes severe pulmonary edema and impaired oxygen uptake. In this issue of the JCI, Peteranderl and colleagues define a paracrine communication between macrophages and type II alveolar epithelial cells during influenza infection where IFNα induces macrophage secretion of TRAIL that causes endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase by the alveolar epithelium. This reduction of Na,K-ATPase expression decreases alveolar fluid clearance, which in turn leads to pulmonary edema. Inhibition of the TRAIL signaling pathway has been shown to improve lung injury after influenza infecti...



Macrophage-epithelial paracrine crosstalk inhibits lung edema clearance during influenza infection

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 20:22:02 +0100

Influenza A viruses (IAV) can cause lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which is characterized by accumulation of excessive fluid (edema) in the alveolar airspaces and leads to hypoxemia and death if not corrected. Clearance of excess edema fluid is driven mostly by the alveolar epithelial Na,K-ATPase and is crucial for survival of patients with ARDS. We therefore investigated whether IAV infection alters Na,K-ATPase expression and function in alveolar epithelial cells (AECs) and the ability of the lung to clear edema. IAV infection reduced Na,K-ATPase in the plasma membrane of human and murine AECs and in distal lung epithelium of infected mice. Moreover, induced Na,K-ATPase improved alveolar fluid clearance (AFC) in IAV-infected mice. We identified a paracrine cel...



Influenza Vaccination Requirements for Healthcare Personnel in U.S. Hospitals: Results of a National Survey

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 19:13:06 +0100

Brief Report M. Todd Greene, Karen E. Fowler, Sarah L. Krein, Elissa Gaies, David Ratz, Suzanne F. Bradley, Sanjay Saint, Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, Volume 37 Issue 04, pp 485-487Abstract (Source: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology)

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Analysis of the immunogenicity and bioactivities of a split influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed with MF59 adjuvant in BALB/c mice.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ou H, Yao H, Yao W, Wu N, Wu X, Han C, Cheng L, Chen K, Chen H, Li L Abstract The H7N9 influenza virus caused significant mortality and morbidity in humans during an outbreak in China in 2013. A recombinant H7N9 influenza seed with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) and six internal protein gene segments from A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1; PR8) were generated using reverse genetics. We sought to determine the immunogenic, protective properties, and mechanisms of a split avian influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed with MF59 adjuvant in comparison to vaccines that included other adjuvant. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with two doses of different amounts and combinations of this novel A/ZJU01/PR8/2013 split vaccine with adjuvant. Mi...



Characterization of a novel H3N2 influenza virus isolated from domestic ducks in China

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Cases of human infection with a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) were first reported in March 2013, which caused 115 deaths within a single year. Beyond that, other subtypes of H7 AIV were isolated from poultry in eastern China during the same period, including H7N7 and H7N2 AIV. In the present study, a subtype H3N2 AIV was isolated from ducks from Anhui Province, China. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that seven gene segments of this virus showed the highest sequence homology with that of the H7 subtype influenza virus, which is presumed to be the reassortants of the H3 and H7 subtypes AIV. The present study also reconfirmed that the reassortment between the H7 subtype and waterfowl-originating AIVs universally occurred in waterfowl. Animal inoculation ...



Hospital-based vaccine effectiveness against influenza B lineages, Hong Kong, 2009-14.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: TIV conferred an overall VE of 47.6% (95% CI: 10.0, 69.4%) against influenza B hospitalization in children despite variable co-circulation of both lineages in all years. Lineage-matched VE for Yamagata-like virus was poor and may be related to clade mismatch. Cross-lineage protection was not observed. PMID: 27013437 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



Chloroquine could be used for the treatment of filoviral infections and other viral infections that emerge or emerged from viruses requiring an acidic pH for infectivity

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Viruses from the Filoviridae family, as many other virus families, require an acidic pH for successful infection and are therefore susceptible to the actions of 4‐aminoquinolines, such as chloroquine. Although the mechanisms of action of chloroquine clearly indicate that it might inhibit filoviral infections, several clinical trials that attempted to use chloroquine in the treatment of other acute viral infections – including dengue and influenza A and B – caused by low pH‐dependent viruses, have reported that chloroquine had no clinical efficacy, and these results demoted chloroquine from the potential treatments for other virus families requiring low pH for infectivity. The present review is aimed at investigating whether chloroquine could combat the present Ebola virus epidemic,...



Amino acid substitutions occurring during adaptation of an emergent H5N6 avian influenza virus to mammals

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are known to cross species barriers, and emergent highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs pose a serious threat to human health and the poultry industry. Here, we serially passaged an H5N6 virus 10 times in BALB/c mice. The pathogenicity of the wild-type 6D2 (WT-6D2) and mammal-adapted 6D2 strain (MA-6D2) were compared. The viral titer in multiple organs and the death rate for MA-6D2 were significantly higher than for WT-6D2. We provide evidence that the mutations HA A150V, NA R143K and G147E, PB2 E627K, and PA A343T may be important for adaptation of H5N6 AIVs to mammals. (Source: Archives of Virology)

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Core-6 Fucose and the Oligomerization of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Viral Neuraminidase.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this report, the N-glycans from both forms were released and characterized by mass spectrometry. It was found that the glycans from the active form had 26% core-6 fucosylated, while the glycans from the inactive form had 82% core-6 fucosylated. Even more surprisingly, the stalk region of the active form was almost completely devoid of core-6-linked fucose. These findings were further supported by the results obtained from in vitro incorporation of azido fucose and (3)H-labeled fucose using core-6 fucosyltransferase, FUT8. In addition, the incorporation of fucose did not change the enzymatic activity of the active form, implying that core-6 fucose is not directly involved in the enzymatic activity. It is postulated that core-6 fucose prohibits the oligomerization and subsequent activatio...



Influenza during pregnancy: Incidence, vaccination coverage and attitudes toward vaccination in the French web-based cohort G-GrippeNet.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: This original web based longitudinal surveillance study design proved feasible in pregnant women population. First results are of interest and underline that public health policies should emphasize the vaccination promotion through health care providers. PMID: 27013430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Vaccine)



Modes of Antiviral Action of Chemical Portions and Constituents from Woad Root Extract against Influenza Virus A FM1.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 09:56:02 +0100

In this study, the antiviral modes of clemastanin B (CB), epigoitrin, phenylpropanoid portion (PEP), and the mixture of phenylpropanoids, alkaloids, and organic acid portions (PEP + ALK + OA) from wood root extract against influenza virus A FM1 were investigated. The results revealed that CB, epigoitrin, PEP, and PEP + ALK + OA exert their anti-influenza activity via inhibiting the virus multiplication, prophylaxis, and blocking the virus attachment. The primary mode of action of PEP and PEP + ALK + OA is the inhibition of virus replication. The inhibitory effect on virus attachment and multiplication is the main modes for epigoitrin. All the compounds or chemical portions from woad root extract tested in this study do not have direct virucidal activity. Our results provided the comprehens...



Living with avian flu—persistence of the h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in egypt

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Kevin Yana Njabo, Linda Zanontian, Basma N. Sheta, Ahmed Samy, Shereen Galal, Frederic Paik Schoenberg, Thomas B Smith H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cr...



Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N2, H5N3, and H5N8 in Taiwan in 2015

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Ming-Shiuh Lee, Li-Hsuan Chen, Yen-Ping Chen, Yu-Pin Liu, Wan-Chen Li, Yeou-Liang Lin, Fan Lee A severe epidemic, affecting mainly goose populations, broke out in early January 2015.The causative agents were identified as novel H5 avian influenza viruses carrying N2, N3, and N8 subtypes of the neuraminidase gene. From January 8 to February 11, 766 waterfowl and poultry farms were invaded by the H5 viruses, and more than 2.2 million geese died or were culled. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these avian influenza viruses derived from the H5 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 which were emerging in 2014 in East Asia, West Europe, and North America. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)

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Antibody responses to influenza vaccine in pre‐ and post‐lung transplant patients

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionLung pre‐transplant patients and the long‐term survivors have higher responses to the influenza vaccine than early post‐transplant and the transplant control groups. (Source: Clinical Transplantation)



Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 20:06:02 +0100

In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR. PMI...



Viral Infections in Children in the 2014/2015 Epidemic Season in Poland.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 11:23:02 +0100

Authors: Hallmann-Szelińska E, Bednarska K, Kondratiuk K, Rabczenko D, Brydak LB Abstract In every epidemic season, viral infections affect the general population, including children, which is an underestimated issue. The present study demonstrates the results of examination of 802 clinical samples obtained from pediatric patients aged 0-14 years during the 2014/2015 epidemic season in Poland. The study was part of the virological surveillance systems - SENTINEL and NON-SENTINEL. A positive result for virological infection was obtained in 50.9 % of samples tested. The distribution of positive results by the age-groups was as follows: 38.2 % in 0-4 years old, 8.5 % in 5-9 years old, and 4.2 % in 10-14 years old children. Influenza viruses accounted for 48.0 % and influenza...



Pharmacokinetics of Oral and Intravenous Oseltamivir Treatment of Severe Influenza B Virus Infection Requiring Organ Replacement Therapy

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In severe cases with multi-organ failure, administration of 100 mg intravenous oseltamivir twice-daily provided reliable drug concentrations, as opposed to renoprotective and oral dosing, thereby minimizing the risk of treatment failure and drug resistance. Evidence-based pediatric dosing recommendations and effective intravenous antiviral treatment modalities are needed for intensive care patients with life-threatening influenza disease. (Source: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics)



Substantial Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Households With Children During the 2013-2014 Influenza Season, When 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Predominated

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. Findings, including substantial significant VE and a lack of a negative effect of repeated vaccination on VE, were in contrast to those seen in prior seasons in which influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Influenza infections and risk of Alzheimer’s disease

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, considering the limitations of this large observational study, we found no association between influenza infections and the risk of developing AD. (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)



Impact of Statins on Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Medically Attended Acute Respiratory Illness

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. In this study, statin therapy was associated with reduced influenza VE against MAARI. Since many cases of MAARI are not caused by influenza, studies of the impact of statins on influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza are needed. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Characterisation of the epidemic strain of H3N8 equine influenza virus responsible for outbreaks in South America in 2012

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

An extensive outbreak of equine influenza occurred across multiple countries in South America during 2012. The epidemic was first reported in Chile then spread to Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, where both vacc... (Source: Virology Journal)



Variability in the diagnostic performance of a bedside rapid diagnostic influenza test over four epidemic seasons in a pediatric emergency department

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We wanted to determine the diagnostic performance of a rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) used bedside in a pediatric emergency department (PED). This was a prospective study over four consecutive winters (2009–2013), comparing the results of a RIDT (QuickVue®) with RT-PCR in children admitted to a PED.Among the 764 children included, we did not observe any significant differences in the diagnostic performance of RIDT except during the H1N1 pandemic. The overall sensitivity of the test was 0.82; the specificity 0.98; the positive and negative likelihood ratios 37.8 and 0.19. (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)



Influenza Vaccination of Patients Receiving Statins: Where Do We Go From Here?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Influence of Statins on Influenza Vaccine Response in Elderly Individuals

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Influenza vaccination strategies have targeted elderly individuals because they are at high risk of disease complications and mortality. Statins are a class of drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia and are frequently used in the elderly population to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, statins are also known to have immunomodulatory effects that could impact influenza vaccine response. In a post hoc analysis, we performed a cross-sectional observational study nested within a comparative immunogenicity clinical trial of adjuvanted versus unadjuvanted influenza vaccine in elderly persons to evaluate the influence of statin therapy on the immune response to vaccination. Overall, data on >5000 trial participants were available for analysis. Comparison of hemagglutination-...



An adenoviral cancer vaccine co-encoding a tumor associated antigen together with secreted 4-1BBL leads to delayed tumor progression.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ragonnaud E, Andersson AC, Pedersen AE, Laursen H, Holst PJ Abstract Previous studies have shown promising results when using an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody treatment against established tumors. While this is promising, this type of treatment can induce severe side effects. Therefore, we decided to incorporate the membrane form of 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL) in a replicative deficient adenovirus vaccine expressing the invariant chain (Ii) adjuvant fused to a tumor associated antigen (TAA). The Ii adjuvant increases and prolongs TAA specific CD8+ T cells as previously shown and local expression of 4-1BBL was chosen to avoid the toxicity associated with systemic antibody administration. Furthermore, adenovirus encoded 4-1BBL expression has previously been successfully used to en...



Influenza infections and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, considering the limitations of this large observational study, we found no association between influenza infections and the risk of developing AD. PMID: 27006278 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity)



Vaccination Against Seasonal or Pandemic Influenza in Emergency Medical Services

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 20:08:05 +0100

Research Articles Alexandre Moser, Cédric Mabire, Olivier Hugli, Victor Dorribo, Giorgio Zanetti, Catherine Lazor-Blanchet, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Volume 31 Issue 02, pp 155-162Abstract (Source: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine)



Nosocomial Co-Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses between 2 Patients with Hematologic Disorders.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 15:37:03 +0100

Authors: Chen H, Liu S, Liu J, Chai C, Mao H, Yu Z, Tang Y, Zhu G, Chen HX, Zhu C, Shao H, Tan S, Wang Q, Bi Y, Zou Z, Liu G, Jin T, Jiang C, Gao GF, Peiris M, Yu H, Chen E Abstract A nosocomial cluster induced by co-infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) viruses occurred in 2 patients at a hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, in January 2014. The index case-patient was a 57-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had been occupationally exposed to poultry. He had co-infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. A 71-year-old man with polycythemia vera who was in the same ward as the index case-patient for 6 days acquired infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. The incubation period for the second case-patient was estimated to be <4 days. Both case-...

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Nigeria: Emerging and Re-Emerging Diseases - Call for Timely Public Health Response in Nigeria

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 14:48:37 +0100

[Guardian] At present, the World Health Organisation (WHO) is monitoring a couple of infectious diseases, including: Ebola, Lassa fever, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Haemorrhagic fever, West Nile Virus, and Lyme disease. The rate of re-emergence of infectious disease has been on the increase. Diseases such as cholera, tuberculosis, Influenza (flu), hepatitis and staphylococcus infections thought to have been controlled are re-emerging. A majority of the agents (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)



Boolean Modeling of Cellular and Molecular Pathways Involved in Influenza Infection.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 05:20:01 +0100

Authors: Anderson CS, DeDiego ML, Topham DJ, Thakar J Abstract Systems virology integrates host-directed approaches with molecular profiling to understand viral pathogenesis. Self-contained statistical approaches that combine expression profiles of genes with the available databases defining the genes involved in the pathways (gene-sets) have allowed characterization of predictive gene-signatures associated with outcome of the influenza virus (IV) infection. However, such enrichment techniques do not take into account interactions among pathways that are responsible for the IV infection pathogenesis. We investigate dendritic cell response to seasonal H1N1 influenza A/New Caledonia/20/1999 (NC) infection and infer the Boolean logic rules underlying the interaction network of ligand ...



Automated Imaging and Analysis of the Hemagglutination Inhibition Assay

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay quantifies the level of strain-specific influenza virus antibody present in serum and is the standard by which influenza vaccine immunogenicity is measured. The HAI assay endpoint requires real-time monitoring of rapidly evolving red blood cell (RBC) patterns for signs of agglutination at a rate of potentially thousands of patterns per day to meet the throughput needs for clinical testing. This analysis is typically performed manually through visual inspection by highly trained individuals. However, concordant HAI results across different labs are challenging to demonstrate due to analyst bias and variability in analysis methods. To address these issues, we have developed a bench-top, standalone, high-throughput imaging solution that automaticall...



Advance care planning in an acute care world

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

If you live in a developed country, you're most likely going to die of a chronic disease.1 2 Despite this, and despite programmes to promote quality ‘end of life’ care, the focus of healthcare systems remains steadfastly fixed on acute care and treatment.3–5 It's still not uncommon for patients to be asked about their wishes for end–of-life care as they are being admitted to hospital in crisis. These are decisions that could more easily be made soon after the diagnosis of a life-limiting condition, well before a crisis. Patients often receive diagnoses and therapeutic management in community practices where they know their healthcare providers and have a trusting relationship with them. We know that patients and their families welcome end-of-life discussions, so, wh...



Persistence of Influenza A (H1N1) Virus on Stainless Steel Surfaces.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Perry KA, Coulliette AD, Rose LJ, Shams AM, Edwards JR, Noble-Wang JA Abstract As annual influenza epidemics continue to cause significant morbidity and economic burden, an understanding of viral persistence and transmission is critical for public health officials and healthcare workers to better protect patients and their family members from infection. The infectivity and persistence of two influenza A (H1N1) strains (A/New Caledonia/20/1999 and A/Brisbane/59/2007) were evaluated on stainless steel (SS) surfaces using three different surfaces matrices (2% fetal bovine serum, 5 mg/mL mucin, and viral medium) at varying absolute humidity conditions (4.1 x 10(5) mPa, 6.5 x 10(5) mPa, 7.1 x 10(5) mPa, 11.4 x 10(5) mPa, 11.2 x 10(5) mPa, and 17.9 x 10(5) mPa) for up to seven d...

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Zoonotic influenza viruses: antigenic and genetic characteristics and development of candidate vaccine viruses for pandemic preparedness.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: PMID: 26995804 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Weekly Epidemiological Record)



Detection and molecular typing of human adenovirus associated with respiratory illness in Kerala.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Thounaojam AD, Balakrishnan A, Mun AB Abstract Adenoviruses are responsible for approximately 5-10% of acute respiratory infections globally. However, there are limited reports on circulating respiratory human adenovirus (HAdV) types in India. We detected HAdV in the post mortem specimens of a young child died due to acute febrile illness. In order to know the circulating adenovirus types in the Alappuzha region, retrospectively, the samples (n=235) collected from influenza-like illness patients for influenza surveillance program were screened for HAdV. Fourteen samples were positive for adenovirus by PCR. Adenovirus was isolated from three out of fourteen PCR positive samples in HEK 293 cell lines. The viral strains isolated in the study were from children between ages 6 ...