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MedWorm: Bird Flu



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Bird Flu category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:34:27 +0100

 



Genome wide host gene expression analysis in chicken lungs infected with avian influenza viruses

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: The molecular pathogenesis of avian influenza viruses vary greatly with individual bird species and virus strain. The molecular pathogenesis of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) or the low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) in avian species remains poorly understood. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Genome wide differential host response to highly or low pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus infection in ducks

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: The underlying molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis and outcome of disease to different pathotypes of H5N1 influenza infection in ducks remain unclear. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Zika, MERS, Ebola, SARS and H1N1: Local and global responses to viral threats

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: We live in a world with the constant threat of emerging viral infections. In the last two decades, we have seen the highly publicised emergence of the Nipah Virus, SARS, MERS, the re-emergence of Ebola and the H1N1 2009 pandemic influenza together with a host of other emerging and re-emerging viruses including Zika, Chikungunya, Dengue. As clinicians, we are the front line of response to these threats and the key to the response has to be good surveillance and clinical management. High quality clinical microbiology support is critical as is both “shoe-leather” and molecular epidemiology. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



India - National disaster and epidemic preparedness

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: History provides us several illustrations where epidemic outbreaks have led to biological disasters. Accidental or deliberate release of harmful micro-organisms can also lead to biological disasters. With the advent of bio-terrorism, there is a growing realisation that biological agents can also be used as weapons of mass destruction. The spread of Spanish Influenza of 1917-18, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) / Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), Swine Flu (H1N1), Avian Influenza (H5N1), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), dengue, chikunguniya, Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the recent Zika outbreak in several countries tested the capacities of the public health delivery system in several countries. (Source: Interna...



Evluation of risk factors that have the potential for the introduction and spread highly pathogenic avian influenza and Newcastle disease into two states of Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The risk of virus introduction and spread into or within farm depends largely on neighbouring farm characteristics, contact structure and biosecurity practices. A qualitative risk analysis was conducted through a cross-sectional study to obtain information on types and frequency on activities guiding the determination of potential AI spread pathways between farms and production regions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Describing the interactive model design of avian influenza : Animal infection and human infection

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Avain influenza is caused by H5N1 virus and commonly human are not infected because of the effective culminating procedure. Still the risk of infection to human is elevated due to increased contact with poultry and migratory birds. Case fatality rate of the infection increases the need to understand the dynamics of transmission of H5N1 from migratory birds to human through domestic poultry; study aims to illustrate the interactive model design of avian influenza and describing the points of interactions. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Elucidation of the role of non-structural viral protein (W) of Newcastle disease virus

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly contagious disease of birds infecting more than 250 avian species across the world. In India, ND is an economically important and endemic poultry disease. ND is mostly fatal in infected flocks and the currently available vaccines are ineffective. It is caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) belonging to family Paramyxoviridae. NDV is an enveloped virus carrying a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome with six genes arranged in tandem coding for six structural proteins: nucleocapsid (NP) protein, phosphoprotein (P), matrix (M) protein, fusion (F) protein, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein and large polymerase (L) protein. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Survey for avian influenza and Newcastle disease antibodies and viruses in domestic and wild birds in Bauchi and Gombe States, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Avian influenza (AI) infected and spread to 97 Local Government Areas affecting 25 of the 36 States of Nigeria. Virulent form of Newcastle disease has assumed endemic status in Nigeria. The study was conducted to detect the prevalence of H5 and H7 AI viruses and virulent strains of ND virus in poultry and wild birds in Bauchi and Gombe States, Nigerian. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Biosecurity risk of wild bird markets and wild bird trade to avian influenza in Kaduna State, Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Despite possible introduction of highly pathogenic avian influenza(HPAI) H5N1 virus into Nigeria by wild birds, few studies were undertaken on live wild bird markets(LWBMs) role in HPAI surveillance. Study assessed LWBMs biosecurity, sellers’ knowledge, attitude and practices(KAP) on biosecurity and wild bird trade(WBT) in Kaduna State. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome of the APMV-13 isolate from Ukraine

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Avian paramyxoviruses (APMVs) belong to the genus Avulavirus of the family Paramyxoviridae and have been shown to infect a wide variety of poultry and wild bird species. Up to date, the International Committee on Taxonomy of viruses have officially approved 9 serotypes of APMV (APMV 1 – 9), but recently four new serotypes have been described (APMV 10 – 13). A member of the putative new serotype APMV 13 was isolated from white-fronted goose on the territory of Askania-Nova National Park (Ukraine) in 2011. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Mp71-19 establishing an experimental model for targeting renal cell carcinoma using mesenchymal stem cells in the avian chorioallantoic membrane

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is a lethal urologic disease with 10 year survival less than 5 percent. Recent developments in cell signalling and small molecule therapy for mRCC have impacted progression free survival (PFS) only. High-dose IL-2 immunotherapy can produce durable complete responses (CR) but the response rate is low (16%), highlighting the need for novel therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the capacity to mobilize to sites of inflammation. Recently, MSCs were reported to traffic to murine RCC lung metastases via inflammatory signals, opening the potential of delivering tumor site-specific treatment. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Versatile microfluidic complement fixation test for disease biomarker detection.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:27:02 +0100

We report here, for the first time, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/glass slide hybrid microfluidic device that was used to manipulate the solution compartment and communication within the microchannel to establish sampler and indicator systems of CFT. Two types of on-chip CFT, solution-based and solid phase agar-based assays, were successfully demonstrated for biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and recombinant avian influenza A (rH7N9) virus protein detection. In addition, the feasibility of the on-chip CFT in assaying real biopsy was successfully demonstrated by specifically detecting rH7N9 and CEA in human serum. The results demonstrated that the miniaturized assay format significantly reduced the assay time and sample consumption. Exemption from protein immobilization, blocking, ...



South Korea says finds ducks infected with bird flu

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 02:37:42 +0100

SEOUL (Reuters) - South Korea has detected bird flu in ducks on a poultry farm near Seoul, an agriculture ministry official told Reuters on Monday, the first discovery in four months and a month after the country regained its bird flu-free status. (Source: Reuters: Health)



Cocaine‐and amphetamine regulated transcript peptide (CART) in the brain of zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata: Organization, interaction with neuropeptide Y, and response to changes in energy status

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Graphical abstract: The authors explore the organization of CART‐containing system in the brain of the zebra finch and the functional significance of the peptide. As in mammals, CART‐expressing neurons and their axons are widely distributed in the brain. The close interaction of CART‐containing axon terminals with neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamic infundibular nucleus is proposed to have an important role in regulating the dynamics of energy balance. (Source: The Journal of Comparative Neurology)



Activity-dependent plasticity in the isolated embryonic avian brainstem following manipulations of rhythmic spontaneous neural activity

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michael A. Vincen-Brown, Ann L. Revill, Jason Q. Pilarski When rhythmic spontaneous neural activity (rSNA) first appears in the embryonic chick brainstem and cranial nerve motor axons it is principally driven by nicotinic neurotransmission (NT). At this early age, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine is known to critically disrupt rSNA at low concentrations (0.1-0.5μM), which are levels that mimic the blood plasma levels of a fetus following maternal cigarette smoking. Thus, we quantified the effect of persistent exposure to exogenous nicotine on rSNA using an in vitro developmental model. We found that rSNA was eliminated by continuous bath applic...



Expression of the env gene from the avian endogenous retrovirus ALVE and regulation by miR-155

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and MSB1 cells infected with Marek’s disease virus (MDV) exhibited significantly increased expression of env from the endogenous retrovirus ALVE. In contrast, env expression was significantly lower in CEF and MSB1 cells infected with exogenous avian leukosis virus J (ALVJ) at the early infection stage. Furthermore, env was found to be ubiquitously expressed in various chicken tissues, with high expression in certain tissues at 2 days of age and low levels in most tissues, including immune organs (thymus, spleen and bursa) as well as the brain and heart, at 35 days of age. Sequence analysis revealed miR-155 target sites in env transcripts, which was verified using a firefly luciferase reporter assay, and treatment with miR-155 agomir sign...

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Target-specific regulation of presynaptic release properties at auditory nerve terminals in the avian cochlear nucleus

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Short-term synaptic plasticity (STP) acts as a time- and firing rate-dependent filter that mediates the transmission of information across synapses. In the auditory brain stem, the divergent pathways that encode acoustic timing and intensity information express differential STP. To investigate what factors determine the plasticity expressed at different terminals, we tested whether presynaptic release probability differed in the auditory nerve projections to the two divisions of the avian cochlear nucleus, nucleus angularis (NA) and nucleus magnocellularis (NM). Estimates of release probability were made with an open-channel blocker of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Activity-dependent blockade of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) with application of 20...



Revealing the True Incidence of Pandemic A(H1N1)pdm09 Influenza in Finland during the First Two Seasons — An Analysis Based on a Dynamic Transmission Model

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Mikhail Shubin, Artem Lebedev, Outi Lyytikäinen, Kari Auranen The threat of the new pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 imposed a heavy burden on the public health system in Finland in 2009-2010. An extensive vaccination campaign was set up in the middle of the first pandemic season. However, the true number of infected individuals remains uncertain as the surveillance missed a large portion of mild infections. We constructed a transmission model to simulate the spread of influenza in the Finnish population. We used the model to analyse the two first years (2009-2011) of A(H1N1)pdm09 in Finland. Using data from the national surveillance of influenza and data on close person-to-person (social) contacts in the population, we estimated that 6% (90% credible interval 5.1 – 6.7%) of the popu...



Right ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (RVOT VTI) and tricuspid regurgitation velocity/RVOT VTI ratio in pediatric pulmonary hypertension

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Doppler echocardiography is a simple method of assessing hemodynamics in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH). Determination of the right ventricular outflow tract velocity time integral (RVOT VTI) is a part of the non-invasive investigation of pulmonary flow in adults [1,2]. The normal range of RVOT VTI in adults is stable, and differences serve as indicators for changes in RV stroke volume. In children, non-invasive techniques to assess pulmonary blood flow are of interest because such investigations do not require invasive cardiac catheterization (CC) that is not without risk in PH children [3]. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)



Presence of antimicrobial resistance in coliform bacteria from hatching broiler eggs with emphasis on ESBL/AmpC-producing bacteria.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This report is the first to present broiler hatching eggs as carriers and a potential source of ESBL/AmpC-producing Enterobacteriacea for broiler chicks. PMID: 27011291 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)



Comparative pathomorphological, bacteriological and serological examination of broiler breeders and pheasants, experimentally infected with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Gavrilović P, Gavrilović A, Vidanović D, Parunović J, Jovanović M Abstract The aim of the investigations was to determine the influence of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT) on the development of pathomorphological lesions in the respiratory organs and on the health status of experimentally infected broiler breeders and pheasants from the rearing stage. There was no evidence of clinical symptoms in infected broiler breeder hens nor in the group of infected pheasants except for one bird in the latter group which exhibited slower movement and gasping. The frequency and intensity of pathomorphological lesions was higher in pheasants. The gross pathology findings were characterized mainly by redness of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract and accumulation of mucou...

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Evaluation of a conserved HA274-288 epitope to detect antibodies to highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 in Indonesian commercial poultry.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wawegama NK, Tarigan S, Indriani R, Selleck P, Adjid RA, Syafriati T, Hardiman, Durr PA, Ignjatovic J Abstract A peptide ELISA based on an epitope in the haemagglutinin (HA) of avian influenza virus H5N1, amino acid positions 274 -288 (HA274-288) was evaluated for detection of H5N1 specific antibodies. An optimised ELISA based on the tetrameric form of the HA274-288 epitope designated MP15 gave low background with non-immune chicken sera and detected vaccinated and infected birds. The HA274-288 epitope was highly conserved in Indonesian H5N1 strains and antibody responses were detected in the majority of the vaccinated chickens regardless of the H5N1 strain used for vaccination. The HA274-288 epitope was also conserved in the majority of H5N1 strain from the neighbouring A...



Malaria in penguins - current perceptions.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Grilo ML, Vanstreels RE, Wallace R, García-Párraga D, Braga ÉM, Chitty J, Catão-Dias JL, Madeira de Carvalho LM Abstract Avian malaria is a mosquito-borne disease caused by protozoans of the genus Plasmodium, and it is considered one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in captive penguins, both in zoological gardens and rehabilitation centres. Penguins are known to be highly susceptible to this disease, and outbreaks have been associated with mortality as high as 50-80% of affected captive populations within a few weeks. The disease has also been reported in wild penguin populations, however its impacts on the health and fitness of penguins in the wild is not clear. This review provides an overview of the aetiology, life cycle and epidemiology of av...



NetB and necrotic enteritis: the hole movable story.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Rood JI, Keyburn AL, Moore RJ Abstract Clostridium perfringens is the primary causative agent of avian necrotic enteritis. Our understanding of the pathogenesis of this economically important disease has been enhanced by the discovery of C. perfringens NetB toxin, which belongs to the α-hemolysin family of β-pore-forming toxins. In a chicken disease model the analysis of an isogenic set of strains comprising the wild type, a netB mutant, and its complemented derivative, fulfilled molecular Koch's postulates and revealed that NetB was essential for disease. These results were consistent with epidemiological surveys, which generally found that there was a higher prevalence of netB carriage in C. perfringens isolates from diseased poultry compared to healthy birds. The netB...



Non-Clostridium perfringens infectious agents producing necrotic enteritis-like lesions in poultry.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Uzal FA, Sentíes-Cué CG, Rimoldi G, Shivaprasad HL Abstract Necrotic enteritis produced by Clostridium perfringens (NE) is amongst the most prevalent enteric diseases of chickens and turkeys. However, several other bacterial, parasitic and viral agents can cause clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions in poultry very similar to those of NE and the diseases produced by those agents need to be differentiated from NE. The main differential diagnoses for C. perfringens NE include bacterial (Clostridium colinum, Clostridium sordellii, Clostridium difficile, Pasteurella multocida, Brachyspira spp.), parasitic (Eimeria spp., Histomonas meleagridis) and viral (Duck Herpesvirus type 1, Avian Paramyxovirus type 1) diseases. Confirmation of the diagnosis of these diseases req...



Effects of lipopolysacharide on the histomorphology and expression of toll like receptor 4 in the chicken trachea and lung.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ansari AR, Ge XH, Huang HB, Huang XY, Zhao X, Peng KM, Zhong JM, Liu HZ Abstract Endotoxin or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure can cause injury to the respiratory airways and in response, the respiratory epithelia express toll like receptors (TLRs) in many species. However, its role in the innate immunity in the avian respiratory system is poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of LPS on the chicken trachea and lung. After intra peritoneal LPS or saline injection, the trachea and lungs were harvested at 0, 12, 36 and 72h (n=6 at each time point) and histopathologically analyzed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, while TLR4 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and secretory Immuno...

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Selected clinical chemistry analytes correlate with the pathogenesis of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) experimentally induced by fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs).

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Matos M, Grafl B, Liebhart D, Schwendenwein I, Hess M Abstract In the present study clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, which were weighted, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the oth...



Genetic characterization of an ancestral strain of the avian-origin H3N2 canine influenza virus currently circulating in East Asia.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kim JK, Nam JH, Lyoo KS, Moon H, Na W, Song EJ, Yeom M, Shim SM, Jeong DG, An DJ, Kang BK, Song D Abstract H3N2 canine influenza virus emerged in South Korea in 2007 and subsequently spread into China and Thailand, causing epidemic or endemic respiratory diseases in dogs. Through intermammalian species transmission, the virus has also infected cats. However, no direct evidence of significant genetic evolution has been reported since its first emergence. Here we describe in depth the genetic and molecular characteristics of the ancestral strain (i.e., the first virus isolate from South Korea) of the H3N2 canine influenza virus currently circulating in East Asia. PMID: 27012241 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology)



Human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus – China

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 17:00:00 +0100

On 18 March 2016, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 29 additional laboratory-confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, including 11 deaths. (Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks)



Human infection with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus – China

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 17:00:00 +0100

On 15 March 2016, the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of China notified WHO of 1 additional laboratory-confirmed case of human infection with avian influenza A(H5N6) virus. (Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks)



From Timurlengia to a pregnant T rex, it's an exciting time for tyrannosaurs

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 13:49:43 +0100

We know more about tyrannosaurs than any other dinosaur group, but that fast-growing knowledge underpins more areas of science than you might thinkAs reported last week a new tyrannosaur from Asia has just been identified by palaeontologists; following hot on its heels was a paper on identifying the sex of individual tyrannosaur skeletons based on the chemical signatures for pregancy in their bones. These are just the latest in an apparently endless series of discoveries of these dinosaurs, but there are some interesting and interlocking reasons for why there is so much research into this group.Not all fossils or groups are equals, and tyrannosaurs were particularly common at the end of the Cretaceous Period that marked the end of the non-avian dinosaurs’ reign. As a result of being rela...

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Iowa’s 60 Million Laying Hens Aren’t Being Monitored By Food-Safety Inspectors

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:02:53 +0100

In 2010, 550 million eggs were recalled after thousands of people were sickened with salmonella in an outbreak tied to farms in Iowa, the leading state for laying-hen production. Despite Iowa producing 15 billion eggs annually, amounting to $2 billion in sales, both state and federal food-safety inspections were halted there last year, the Des Moines Register reported on Sunday. The concern was that letting inspectors into laying-hen facilities could help to spread the virulent strain of bird flu that has been killing off birds in the tens of millions.   -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post)



Construction of recombinant baculovirus vaccines for Newcastle Disease Virus and an assessment of their immunogenicity

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Jingping Ge, Ying Liu, Liying Jin, Dongni Gao, Chengle Bai, Wenxiang Ping Newcastle disease (ND) is a lethal avian infectious disease caused by Newcastle disease virus (NDV) which poses a substantial threat to China's poultry industry. Conventional live vaccines against NDV are available, but they can revert to virulent strains and do not protect against mutant strains of the virus. Therefore, there is a critical unmet need for a novel vaccine that is safe, efficacious, and cost effective. Here, we designed novel recombinant baculovirus vaccines expressing the NDV F or HN genes. To optimize antigen expression, we tested the incorporation of multiple regulatory elements including: (1) truncat...



Sex-dependent differences in avian malaria prevalence and consequences of infections on nestling growth and adult condition in the Tawny pipit, Anthus campestris

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Parasites play pivotal roles in host population dynamics and can have strong ecological impacts on hosts. Knowledge of the effects of parasites on hosts is often limited by the general observation of a fractio... (Source: Malaria Journal)



Differential introgression and the maintenance of species boundaries in an advanced generation avian hybrid zone

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Evolutionary processes, including selection and differential fitness, shape the introgression of genetic material across a hybrid zone, resulting in the exchange of some genes but not others. Differential intr... (Source: BMC Evolutionary Biology)



Phylodynamics of avian influenza clade 2.2.1 H5N1 viruses in Egypt

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses of the H5N1 subtype are widely distributed within poultry populations in Egypt and have caused multiple human infections. Linking the epidemiological and sequen... (Source: Virology Journal)

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The 12-day thermoregulatory metamorphosis of Red-winged Blackbirds ( Agelaius phoeniceus )

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We examined development of endothermy in altricial Red-winged Blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus) by measuring oxygen consumption \((\dot{V}{\text{o}}_{2} )\) , body temperature and ventilation at ambient temperatures from 35 to 15 °C. Mitochondrial respiration of permeabilized skeletal muscle was also measured from breast (pectoralis) and thigh (femorotibialis) muscles. Animals were studied from the first day of hatching through fledging (12 days post-hatch, dph). Nestling whole-body metabolic rate began to show an endothermic response to cold temperature midway between hatching and fledging. Nestlings less than 5 dph were unable to maintain elevated \(\dot{V}{\text{o}}_{2}\) and body temperature...



Recent breakthroughs have unveiled the many knowledge gaps in Clostridium perfringens-associated necrotic enteritis in chickens: the First International Conference on Necrotic Enteritis in Poultry.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Van Immerseel F, Lyhs U, Pedersen K, Prescott JF PMID: 27003036 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)



Characterization of a novel H3N2 influenza virus isolated from domestic ducks in China

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Cases of human infection with a novel H7N9 avian influenza virus (AIV) were first reported in March 2013, which caused 115 deaths within a single year. Beyond that, other subtypes of H7 AIV were isolated from poultry in eastern China during the same period, including H7N7 and H7N2 AIV. In the present study, a subtype H3N2 AIV was isolated from ducks from Anhui Province, China. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that seven gene segments of this virus showed the highest sequence homology with that of the H7 subtype influenza virus, which is presumed to be the reassortants of the H3 and H7 subtypes AIV. The present study also reconfirmed that the reassortment between the H7 subtype and waterfowl-originating AIVs universally occurred in waterfowl. Animal inoculation ...



Amino acid substitutions occurring during adaptation of an emergent H5N6 avian influenza virus to mammals

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) are known to cross species barriers, and emergent highly pathogenic H5N6 AIVs pose a serious threat to human health and the poultry industry. Here, we serially passaged an H5N6 virus 10 times in BALB/c mice. The pathogenicity of the wild-type 6D2 (WT-6D2) and mammal-adapted 6D2 strain (MA-6D2) were compared. The viral titer in multiple organs and the death rate for MA-6D2 were significantly higher than for WT-6D2. We provide evidence that the mutations HA A150V, NA R143K and G147E, PB2 E627K, and PA A343T may be important for adaptation of H5N6 AIVs to mammals. (Source: Archives of Virology)



Core-6 Fucose and the Oligomerization of the 1918 Pandemic Influenza Viral Neuraminidase.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this report, the N-glycans from both forms were released and characterized by mass spectrometry. It was found that the glycans from the active form had 26% core-6 fucosylated, while the glycans from the inactive form had 82% core-6 fucosylated. Even more surprisingly, the stalk region of the active form was almost completely devoid of core-6-linked fucose. These findings were further supported by the results obtained from in vitro incorporation of azido fucose and (3)H-labeled fucose using core-6 fucosyltransferase, FUT8. In addition, the incorporation of fucose did not change the enzymatic activity of the active form, implying that core-6 fucose is not directly involved in the enzymatic activity. It is postulated that core-6 fucose prohibits the oligomerization and subsequent activatio...

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Analysis of the immunogenicity and bioactivities of a split influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed with MF59 adjuvant in BALB/c mice.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Ou H, Yao H, Yao W, Wu N, Wu X, Han C, Cheng L, Chen K, Chen H, Li L Abstract The H7N9 influenza virus caused significant mortality and morbidity in humans during an outbreak in China in 2013. A recombinant H7N9 influenza seed with hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) gene segments from A/Zhejiang/DTID-ZJU01/2013(H7N9) and six internal protein gene segments from A/Puerto Rico/8/34(H1N1; PR8) were generated using reverse genetics. We sought to determine the immunogenic, protective properties, and mechanisms of a split avian influenza A/H7N9 vaccine mixed with MF59 adjuvant in comparison to vaccines that included other adjuvant. BALB/c mice were vaccinated with two doses of different amounts and combinations of this novel A/ZJU01/PR8/2013 split vaccine with adjuvant. Mi...



Highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses H5N2, H5N3, and H5N8 in Taiwan in 2015

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Ming-Shiuh Lee, Li-Hsuan Chen, Yen-Ping Chen, Yu-Pin Liu, Wan-Chen Li, Yeou-Liang Lin, Fan Lee A severe epidemic, affecting mainly goose populations, broke out in early January 2015.The causative agents were identified as novel H5 avian influenza viruses carrying N2, N3, and N8 subtypes of the neuraminidase gene. From January 8 to February 11, 766 waterfowl and poultry farms were invaded by the H5 viruses, and more than 2.2 million geese died or were culled. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that these avian influenza viruses derived from the H5 viruses of clade 2.3.4.4 which were emerging in 2014 in East Asia, West Europe, and North America. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)



Living with avian flu—persistence of the h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus in egypt

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Kevin Yana Njabo, Linda Zanontian, Basma N. Sheta, Ahmed Samy, Shereen Galal, Frederic Paik Schoenberg, Thomas B Smith H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) continues to cause mortality in poultry and threaten human health at a panzootic scale in Egypt since it was reported in 2006. While the early focus has been in Asia, recent evidence suggests that Egypt is an emerging epicenter for the disease. Despite control measures, epizootic transmission of the disease continues. Here, we investigate the persistence of HPAIV across wild passerine birds and domestic poultry between 2009 and 2012 and the potential risk for continuous viral transmission in Egypt. We use a new weighted cr...



Substantial Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness in Households With Children During the 2013-2014 Influenza Season, When 2009 Pandemic Influenza A(H1N1) Virus Predominated

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. Findings, including substantial significant VE and a lack of a negative effect of repeated vaccination on VE, were in contrast to those seen in prior seasons in which influenza A(H3N2) virus predominated. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Vaccination Against Seasonal or Pandemic Influenza in Emergency Medical Services

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 20:08:05 +0100

Research Articles Alexandre Moser, Cédric Mabire, Olivier Hugli, Victor Dorribo, Giorgio Zanetti, Catherine Lazor-Blanchet, Pierre-Nicolas Carron, Prehospital and Disaster Medicine, Volume 31 Issue 02, pp 155-162Abstract (Source: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine)

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Nosocomial Co-Transmission of Avian Influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses between 2 Patients with Hematologic Disorders.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 15:37:03 +0100

Authors: Chen H, Liu S, Liu J, Chai C, Mao H, Yu Z, Tang Y, Zhu G, Chen HX, Zhu C, Shao H, Tan S, Wang Q, Bi Y, Zou Z, Liu G, Jin T, Jiang C, Gao GF, Peiris M, Yu H, Chen E Abstract A nosocomial cluster induced by co-infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) and A(H1N1)pdm09 (pH1N1) viruses occurred in 2 patients at a hospital in Zhejiang Province, China, in January 2014. The index case-patient was a 57-year-old man with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who had been occupationally exposed to poultry. He had co-infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. A 71-year-old man with polycythemia vera who was in the same ward as the index case-patient for 6 days acquired infection with H7N9 and pH1N1 viruses. The incubation period for the second case-patient was estimated to be <4 days. Both case-...



Changes in hippocampal volume and neuron number co-occur with memory decline in old homing pigeons (Columba livia).

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Coppola VJ, Kanyok N, Schreiber AJ, Flaim ME, Bingman VP Abstract The mammalian hippocampus is particularly susceptible to age-related structural changes, which have been used to explain, in part, age-related memory decline. These changes are generally characterized by atrophy (e.g., a decrease in volume and number of synaptic contacts). Recent studies have reported age-related spatial memory deficits in older pigeons similar to those seen in older mammals. However, to date, little is known about any co-occurring changes in the aging avian hippocampal formation (HF). In the current study, it was found that the HF of older pigeons was actually larger and contained more neurons than the HF of younger pigeons, a finding that suggests that the pattern of structural changes dur...



The Effect of Probiotic Treatment on Patients Infected with the H7N9 Influenza Virus

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion H7N9 infection might decrease intestinal microbial diversity and species richness in humans. C. butyricum failed to reduce/ameliorate secondary infection in H7N9-infected patients. B. subtilis and E. faecium may also play a role in reducing/ameliorating secondary infection in these patients. (Source: PLoS One)



Comparison of pathogenicities of H7 avian influenza viruses via intranasal and conjunctival inoculation in cynomolgus macaques.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Shichinohe S, Itoh Y, Nakayama M, Ozaki H, Soda K, Ishigaki H, Okamatsu M, Sakoda Y, Kida H, Ogasawara K Abstract The outbreak of H7N9 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in China has attracted attention to H7 influenza virus infection in humans. Since we have shown that the pathogenicity of H1N1 and H5N1 influenza viruses in macaques was almost the same as that in humans, we compared the pathogenicities of H7 avian influenza viruses in cynomolgus macaques via intranasal and conjunctival inoculation, which mimics natural infection in humans. H7N9 virus, as well as H7N7 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, showed more efficient replication and higher pathogenicity in macaques than did H7N1 and H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses. These results are differen...



Endocrine and social regulation of adult neurogenesis in songbirds.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Balthazart J, Ball GF Abstract The identification of pronounced seasonal changes in the volume of avian song control nuclei stimulated the discovery of adult neurogenesis in songbirds as well as renewed studies in mammals including humans. Neurogenesis in songbirds is modulated by testosterone and other factors such as photoperiod, singing activity and social environment. Adult neurogenesis has been widely studied by labeling, with tritiated thymidine or its analog BrdU, cells duplicating their DNA in anticipation of their last mitotic division and following their fate as new neurons. New methods based on endogenous markers of cell cycling or of various stages of neuronal life have allowed for additional progress. In particular immunocytochemical visualization of the micro...

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Optical fiber sensor based on surface plasmon resonance for rapid detection of avian influenza virus subtype H6: Initial studies.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhao X, Tsao YC, Lee FJ, Tsai WH, Wang CH, Chuang TL, Wu MS, Lin CW Abstract A side-polished fiber optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor was fabricated to expose the core surface and then deposited with a 40nm thin gold film for the near surface sensing of effective refractive index changes with surface concentration or thickness of captured avian influenza virus subtype H6. The detection surface of the SPR optical fiber sensor was prepared through the plasma modification method for binding a self-assembled monolayer of isopropanol chemically on the gold surface of the optical fiber. Subsequently, N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide was activated to enable EB2-B3 monoclonal antibodies to capture A/chicken/Taiwan/2838V/00 (H6N1) throug...



No change in mRNA expression of immune-related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells challenged with Theileria annulata in Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 14 March 2016 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Manjit Panigrahi, Amod Kumar, Bharat Bhushan, Shrikant Ghosh, BC Saravanan, Sourabh Sulabh, Subhashree Parida, Gyanendra Kumar Gaur Water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) act as carrier to Theileria annulata and show less clinical sign of tropical theileriosis as compared to indigenous and exotic cattle. Differential expression of immune-related genes such as major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 (MHC-DQα), signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA), prion protein (PRNP), Toll-like receptor 10 (TLR10), c-musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog (cMAF) and V-maf avian musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B (MAFB) genes influence host resistance to this dis...



Emergence and dissemination of clade 2.3.4.4 H5Nx influenza viruses—how is the Asian HPAI H5 lineage maintained

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: February 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 16 Author(s): Filip Claes, Subhash P Morzaria, Ruben O Donis Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A(H5N1) viruses containing the A/goose/Guangdong/96-like (GD/96) HA genes circulated in birds from four continents in the course of 2015 (Jan to Sept). A new HA clade, termed 2.3.4.4, emerged around 2010–2011 in China and revealed a novel propensity to reassort with NA subtypes other than N1, unlike dozens of earlier clades. Two subtypes, H5N6 and H5N8, have spread to countries in Asia (H5N6), Europe and North America (H5N8). Infections by clade 2.3.4.4 viruses are characterized by low virulence in poultry and some wild birds, contributing to wide geographical dissemination of the viruses via poultry trade an...






Seasonal and geographical variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity in a passerine bird [RESEARCH ARTICLE]

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Matthew J. Noakes, Blair O. Wolf, and Andrew E. McKechnie Intraspecific variation in avian thermoregulatory responses to heat stress has received little attention, despite increasing evidence that endothermic animals show considerable physiological variation among populations. We investigated seasonal (summer versus winter) variation in heat tolerance and evaporative cooling in an Afrotropical ploceid passerine, the white-browed sparrow-weaver (Plocepasser mahali; ~47 g) at three sites along a climatic gradient with more than 10°C variation in mid-summer maximum air temperature (Ta). We measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total evaporative water loss (TEWL) using open flow-through respirometry, and core body temperature (Tb) using passive integrated transponder tags. Sparrow...

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Efficacy of Avilamycin for the Prevention of Necrotic Enteritis Caused by a Pathogenic Strain of Clostridium perfringens in Broiler Chickens.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study confirms that avilamycin is effective at controlling mortality related to NE in growing broiler chickens. PMID: 26981841 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)



Pathology and diagnosis of necrotic enteritis: is it clear-cut?

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Smyth JA Abstract The ability to correctly recognize the disease necrotic enteritis (NE) is important not only to those involved in control and treatment of the disease at farm level, but it is also critically important to the search for virulence factors, since a fundamental part of that process is the correct assignation of strains of C. perfringens with respect to virulence. Thus, diagnosticians and investigators need to be able to correctly recognize the lesions of NE. To do this, they must be able to distinguish NE lesions from (1) other enteric diseases such as coccidiosis or viral enteritis, (2) normal features of the intestine, such as the small raised, sometimes red, foci that represent gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), (3) autolytic change which may be mista...



Toward High-Reliability Vaccination Efforts in the United States

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Infectious disease eradication is a major public health achievement. Smallpox is the only human infectious disease that has been eliminated by deliberate intervention, and this was accomplished using strategic global immunization efforts. The public generally understands that effective vaccination is a key component of infectious disease prevention and eradication; for example, there has been substantial recent public interest in vaccination for emerging global health threats such as avian influenza, Ebola, and Zika virus. (Source: JAMA)



Characteristic amino acid changes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus PA protein enhance A(H7N9) viral polymerase activity

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Human coinfection with a novel H7N9 influenza virus and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus, H1N1pdm09, has recently been reported in China. Because reassortment can occur during coinfection, it is necessary to clarify the effects of gene reassortment between these two viruses. Among the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) genes, only the PA gene of H1N1pdm09 enhances the avian influenza viral polymerase activity. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show a special evolutionary feature of the H1N1pdm09 PA gene, which clustered with those of the novel H7N9 virus and related H9N2 viruses, rather than in the outgroup as the H1N1pdm09 genes do on the phylogenetic trees of other vRNP genes. Using a minigenome system of the novel H7N9 virus, we further demonstrate that...



Molecular shifts in limb identity underlie development of feathered feet in two domestic avian species

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: eLife)

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Human H7N9 virus induces a more pronounced pro-inflammatory cytokine but an attenuated interferon response in human bronchial epithelial cells when compared with an epidemiologically-linked chicken H7N9 virus

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Avian influenza virus H7N9 has jumped species barrier, causing sporadic human infections since 2013. We have previously isolated an H7N9 virus from a patient, and an H7N9 virus from a chicken in a live poultry... (Source: Virology Journal)



Nest ecology of blood parasites in the European roller and its ectoparasitic carnid fly.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study does not find support for Carnus flies to serve as biological or mechanical vectors of haemosporidians. In spite of this, nidicolous blood-feeding ectoparasites, such as carnid flies, appear as a suitable model for studies on the occurrence and temporal dynamics of avian haemosporidians such as Plasmodium sp. present at low intensities. PMID: 26993083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental Parasitology)



A recombinant DNA vaccine protects mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor against lethal challenge with Usutu virus.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Martín-Acebes MA, Blázquez AB, Cañas-Arranz R, Vázquez-Calvo Á, Merino-Ramos T, Escribano-Romero E, Sobrino F, Saiz JC Abstract Usutu virus (USUV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus whose circulation had been confined to Africa since it was first detected in 1959. However, in the last decade USUV has emerged in Europe causing episodes of avian mortality and sporadic severe neuroinvasive infections in humans. Remarkably, adult laboratory mice exhibit limited susceptibility to USUV infection, which has impaired the analysis of the immune responses, thus complicating the evaluation of virus-host interactions and of vaccine candidates against this pathogen. In this work, we showed that mice deficient in the alpha/beta interferon receptor (IFNAR (-/-) mice) were highly suscept...



South Korea resumes poultry exports to Hong Kong

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 02:04:00 +0100

SEOUL (Reuters) - South Korea has resumed poultry meat exports to Hong Kong for the first time in nearly two years after it was declared an Avian Influenza-free nation, the agriculture ministry said on Sunday. (Source: Reuters: Health)



Characterization of class II β chain major histocompatibility complex genes in a family of Hawaiian honeycreepers: ‘amakihi ( Hemignathus virens )

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we evaluate gene organization and levels of diversity of Mhc class II β chain genes (exon 2) in a captive-reared family of Hawaii ‘amakihi (Hemignathus virens). A total of 233 sequences (173 bp) were obtained by PCR+1 amplification and cloning, and 5720 sequences were generated by Roche 454 pyrosequencing. We report a total of 17 alleles originating from a minimum of 14 distinct loci. We detected three linkage groups that appear to represent three distinct haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed one variable cluster resembling classical Mhc sequences (DAB) and one highly conserved, low variability cluster resembling non-classical Mhc sequences (DBB). High net evolutionary divergence values between DAB and DBB resemble that seen between chicken BLB system and YLB syste...

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Effects of sugars on the gelation kinetics and texture of duck feet gelatin

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Food Hydrocolloids, Volume 58 Author(s): Yau-Hoong Kuan, Abdorreza Mohammadi Nafchi, Nurul Huda, Fazilah Ariffin, Alias A. Karim Gelatin extracted from avian sources, such as duck feet is a potential alternative to mammalian-derived gelatin. The effects of sugars (sucrose and lactose) at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%) on the gelation kinetics, and thermal and rheological properties of duck feet gelatin (DFG) (6.67% w/w) were investigated using a mechanical rheometer. The secondary structure of the gelatin was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The results showed that the addition of sugars affected the physicochemical and structural properties of the gelatin. The gelation rate constant (k gel ) and g...



New book examines ecology of threatened prairie-chickens

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(Central Ornithology Publication Office) A new volume in the Cooper Ornithological Society's Studies in Avian Biology series highlights the ecology of Lesser Prairie-Chickens. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium-infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Avian malaria vector competence studies are needed to understand more succinctly complex avian parasite-vector-relations. The lack of vector competence trials may be attributed to the difficulty of obtaining g... (Source: Malaria Journal)



Upregulation of miRNA-155 expression by OxLDL in dendritic cells involves JAK1/2 kinase and transcription factors YY1 and MYB.

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Yan H, Wang S, Li Z, Zhao W, Wang Z, Sun Z, Pan Y, Zhu J Abstract Dendritic cells (DCs) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Whereas the pathogenic role of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) in the development and progression of AS has been recognized previously, the contribution of microRNA-155 (miR-155) to AS was previously not fully understood. It had also been noted that miR-155 levels were upregulated by oxLDL in various cell types under different (patho)physiological conditions, but its underlying mechanisms had not been examiend in detail. Thus, in the present study, we observed that oxLDL treatment increased miR-155 expression in DCs, and transfecting DCs with siRNA against scavenger receptor A (SRA) revealed that repression...



The host immune response in respiratory virus infection: balancing virus clearance and immunopathology

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract The respiratory tract is constantly exposed to the external environment, and therefore, must be equipped to respond to and eliminate pathogens. Viral clearance and resolution of infection requires a complex, multi-faceted response initiated by resident respiratory tract cells and innate immune cells and ultimately resolved by adaptive immune cells. Although an effective immune response to eliminate viral pathogens is essential, a prolonged or exaggerated response can damage the respiratory tract. Immune-mediated pulmonary damage is manifested clinically in a variety of ways depending on location and extent of injury. Thus, the antiviral immune response represents a balancing act between the elimination of virus and immune-mediated pulmonary injury. In this review, we high...

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The virulence factor ychO has a pleiotropic action in an Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli strains cause extraintestinal diseases in birds, leading to substantial economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Bacteria that invade cells can overcome the host humora... (Source: BMC Microbiology)



Clinical, epidemiological and virological characteristics of the first detected human case of avian influenza A(H5N6) virus.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Zhang R, Chen T, Ou X, Liu R, Yang Y, Ye W, Chen J, Yao D, Sun B, Zhang X, Zhou J, Sun Y, Chen F, Wang SP Abstract A human infection with novel avian influenza A H5N6 virus emerged in Changsha city, China in February, 2014. This is the first detected human case among all human cases identified from 2014 to early 2016. We obtained and summarized clinical, epidemiological, and virological data from this patient. Complete genome of the virus was determined and compared to other avian influenza viruses via the construction of phylogenetic trees using the neighbor-joining approach. A girl aged five and half years developed fever and mild respiratory symptoms on Feb. 16, 2014 and visited hospital on Feb. 17. Throat swab specimens were obtained from the patient and a novel reasso...



Characterization of a novel snake venom component: Kazal-type inhibitor-like protein from the arboreal pitviper Bothriechis schlegelii.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Fernández J, Gutiérrez JM, Calvete JJ, Sanz L, Lomonte B Abstract Snake venoms are composed mainly of a mixture of proteins and peptides. Notably, all snake venom toxins have been assigned to a small number of protein families. Proteomic studies on snake venoms have recently identified the presence of Kazal-type inhibitor-like proteins in the neotropical arboreal snakes Bothriechis schlegelii and Bothriechis supraciliaris. In the present study, a Kazal-type component from B. schlegelii, named Kazal-type inhibitor-like protein (KTIL), has been completely sequenced and characterized for the first time. This protein, which contains 54 amino acid residues, shows sequence similarity to the third domain of the ovomucoid from avian species, which is a Kazal-like domain. KTIL di...



Localization and developmental expression of two chicken host defense peptides: Cathelicidin-2 and avian β-defensin 9.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study we examined the expression pattern of two chicken HDPs, the cathelicidin CATH-2 and the β-defensin AvBD9 by immunohistochemistry in a set of organs from embryonic day 12 until four weeks posthatch. AvBD9 was predominantly found in enteroendocrine cells throughout the intestine, the first report of in vivo HDP expression in this cell type, and showed stable expression levels during development. CATH-2 was exclusively found in heterophils which decreased after hatch in most of the examined organs including spleen, bursa and small intestine. In the lung CATH-2 expression was biphasic and peaked at the first day posthatch. In short, CATH-2 and AvBD9 appear to be expressed in cell types strategically located to respond to infectious stimuli, suggesting these peptides play a role ...



In‐depth characterization of the salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma transcriptome with emphasis on dominant cell type

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 12:20:13 +0100

CONCLUSIONSThe current results enabled the authors to identify novel potential therapeutic targets and biomarkers in E‐ACC and M‐ACC individually, with the implication that EN1, DLX6, and OTX1 (orthodenticle homeobox 1) are potential drivers of these cancers. Cancer 2016. © 2016 American Cancer Society. (Source: Cancer)

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Vanderbilt researchers identify potential antibody treatment for H7 avian flu

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(Vanderbilt University Medical Center) Researchers at Vanderbilt University Medical Center have isolated human antibodies against a type of bird flu that has killed more than 200 people in China since 2012 and which may pose a worldwide pandemic threat. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Genetic markers for phylogeography

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has long been used for assessing genetic variation within and between populations, its workhorse role in phylogeography has been criticized owing to its single-locus nature. The only choice for testing mtDNA results is to survey nuclear loci, which brings into contrast the difference in locus effective size and coalescence times. Thus, it remains unclear how erroneous mtDNA-based estimates of species history might be, especially for evolutionary events in the recent past. To test the robustness of mtDNA and nuclear sequences in phylogeography, we provide one of the largest paired comparisons of summary statistics and demographic parameters estimated from mitochondrial, five Z-linked and 10 autosomal genes of 30 avian species co-distributed in the Caucasus...



The role of host genetic factors and host immunity in necrotic enteritis.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Oh ST, Lillehoj HS Abstract The increasing number of legislative restrictions and the voluntary withdrawal of antibiotic growth promoters worldwide will continue to impact poultry health and production. The rising incidence of Clostridium infections and development of necrotic enteritis (NE) in commercial chickens has been associated with the withdrawal of antibiotics. High-throughput genomic analysis of intestinal tissues from NE-afflicted chickens showed alterations in the local immunity and gut microbiota. Therefore, a better understanding of host- and environmentally-related factors on Clostridium perfringens infections will be necessary for the development of effective sustainable strategies aimed to reduce the negative consequences of NE. In this short review, we sum...



The impact of Salmonella Enteritidis on lipid accumulation in chicken hepatocytes.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wang CL, Fan YC, Wang C, Tsai HJ, Chou CH Abstract Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) is a public health concern and infected chickens serve as a reservoir that potentially transmits to humans through food. Although SE seldom causes systemic disease in chickens, virulent SE strains can colonize in intestines and lead a persistent infection of the liver. The liver is the primary organ for lipid metabolism in chickens and the site for production and assembly of main components in yolk. We performed a time-course experiment using LMH-2A cells that were infected with SE and co-incubated with β-estradiol to evaluate if SE infection affected lipid metabolism and subsequently changed lipoprotein formation for egg yolk. The results indicated that lipid accumulation sign...



Epidemiologic aspects of necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens - disease occurrence and production performance.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Kaldhusdal M, Benestad SL, Løvland A Abstract Since future conventional broiler production can no longer rely upon in-feed antimicrobials (anticoccidials and antibiotic growth promoters), understanding the most important non-antimicrobial factors influencing occurrence of necrotic enteritis (NE) in poultry will become urgent. Solid population-based data on NE occurrence are scarce. Additionally, data on cholangiohepatitis (CPH) at slaughter is a useful indirect measurement of NE occurrence. Existing data suggest that coccidiosis and nutritional factors are among the most important determinants of NE occurrence. Dietary cereal contents and dietary level of animal proteins can both influence NE occurrence, but cereal composition may be more important because cereals constit...

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Genotyping of infectious laryngotracheitis virus using allelic variations from multiple genomic regions.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, six variable genomic regions were selected and amplified for sequencing. The multi-allelic PCR-sequence genotyping showed better discrimination power than that of previous PCR-sequencing schemes using single or two target regions. The allelic variation patterns yielded 16 strains of ILTV classified into 14 different genotypes. Three Korean field strains, 550/05/Ko, 0010/05/Ko and 40032/08/Ko, were found to have the same genotype as the commercial vaccine strain, Laryngo Vac (Zoetis, United States). Three of Korean field strains, 40798/10/Ko, 12/07/Ko, and 30678/14/Ko showed recombined allelic patterns. The multi-allelic PCR-sequencing method was proved to be an efficient and practical procedure to classify the different strains of ILTV. The method could serve as an alternate...



Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and local innate immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on growth performance, gut lesion score, intestinal population of Clostridium perfringens, and local innate immunity of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens. One-d-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 8 dietary treatments providing 6 replicate pens of 55 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of Control diets without and with C. perfringens challenge, and diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 55 g/tonne), nucleotides (150 g/tonne), yeast cell wall (YCW, 300 g/tonne), and a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus (1 kg/tonne) fed to chickens challenged with C. perfringens. Diets containing 10% DDGS without and with C. perfringens challenge were also used. Birds were orally challenged w...



USDA Recommends Doubling of Competitive Research Funding

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 18:07:22 +0100

The proposed discretionary funding for agricultural research, education, and economics is 1.3 percent less than the FY 2016 level. Although this would result in a $37 million cut to discretionary research spending, $325 million in new mandatory spending on science is proposed. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA) partners with extramural academic institutions to conduct research, education, and extension activities. NIFA would receive $1.4 billion (+3.6 percent) in discretionary funding. Within NIFA, the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative (AFRI) would receive $375 million for competitive extramural research grants. If the additional $325 million in requested mandatory funding were provided, AFRI would receive a two-fold budget increase over 2016. This funding would ...



H7N9 influenza virus neutralizing antibodies that possess few somatic mutations

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 17:34:02 +0100

Avian H7N9 influenza viruses are group 2 influenza A viruses that have been identified as the etiologic agent for a current major outbreak that began in China in 2013 and may pose a pandemic threat. Here, we examined the human H7-reactive antibody response in 75 recipients of a monovalent inactivated A/Shanghai/02/2013 H7N9 vaccine. After 2 doses of vaccine, the majority of donors had memory B cells that secreted IgGs specific for H7 HA, with dominant responses against single HA subtypes, although frequencies of H7-reactive B cells ranged widely between donors. We isolated 12 naturally occurring mAbs with low half-maximal effective concentrations for binding, 5 of which possessed neutralizing and HA-inhibiting activities. The 5 neutralizing mAbs exhibited narrow breadth of reactivity with ...



The molecular organization of the beta-sheet region in corneous beta-proteins (beta-keratins) of sauropsids explains its stability and polymerization into filaments

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2016 Source:Journal of Structural Biology Author(s): Matteo Calvaresi, Leopold Eckhart, Lorenzo Alibardi The hard corneous material of avian and reptilian scales, claws, beak and feathers is mainly derived from the presence of proteins formerly known as beta-keratins but now termed Corneous beta-proteins of sauropsids to distinguish them from keratins, which are members of the intermediate filament protein family. The modeling of the conserved 34 amino acid residues long central beta-sheet region of Corneous beta-proteins using an ab initio protein folding and structure prediction algorithm indicates that this region is formed by four antiparallel beta-sheets. Molecular dynamic simulations and Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzmann Surface Are...

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New Records of Ixodes affinis (Acari: Ixodidae) Parasitizing Avian Hosts in Southeastern Virginia

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study presents evidence of I. affinis parasitizing five new host passerine species. During 2012–2014, 1,888 birds were captured and examined for ticks, and 18 immature I. affinis were collected from 12 birds—six Carolina Wrens (Thyrothorus ludovicianus); two Brown Thrashers (Toxostoma rufum); and one American Robin (Turdus migratorius), Eastern Towhee (Pipilo erythrophthalmus), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), and White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis). Of 15 larvae and 3 nymphs collected, one nymph tested positive for B. burgdorferi DNA. I. affinis was found co-feeding on birds with immature Amblyomma americanum (L.), Ixodes brunneus Koch, Ixodes dentatus Marx, Ixodes scapularis Say, and Haemaphysalis leporispalustris Packard. The results of this resear...



A cationic liposome-DNA complexes adjuvant (JVRS-100) enhances the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy of pre-pandemic influenza A (H5N1) vaccine in ferrets.

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Liu F, Sun X, Fairman J, Lewis DB, Katz JM, Levine M, Tumpey TM, Lu X Abstract Influenza A (H5N1) viruses continue to pose a public health threat. As inactivated H5N1 vaccines are poorly immunogenic, adjuvants are needed to improve the immunogenicity of H5N1 vaccine in humans. Here, we investigated the immunogenicity and cross-protective efficacy in ferrets of a clade 2.2-derived vaccine with addition of JVRS-100, an adjuvant consisting of cationic liposome-DNA complexes (CLDC). After the first vaccination, significantly higher levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HAI) and neutralizing antibody titers were detected in ferrets immunized with adjuvanted vaccine compared to unadjuvanted vaccine. Following a second dose of adjuvanted vaccine, HAI antibody titers of≥40 were...



Silver nanoparticles coated graphene electrochemical sensor for the ultrasensitive analysis of avian influenza virus H7.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 05:34:02 +0100

Authors: Huang J, Xie Z, Xie Z, Luo S, Xie L, Huang L, Fan Q, Zhang Y, Wang S, Zeng T Abstract A new, highly sensitive electrochemical immunosensor with a sandwich-type immunoassay format was designed to quantify avian influenza virus H7 (AIV H7) by using silver nanoparticle-graphene (AgNPs-G) as trace labels in clinical immunoassays. The device consists of a gold electrode coated with gold nanoparticle-graphene nanocomposites (AuNPs-G), the gold nanoparticle surface of which can be further modified with H7-monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). The immunoassay was performed with H7-polyclonal antibodies (PAbs) that were attached to the AgNPs-G surface (PAb-AgNPs-G). This method of using PAb-AgNPs-G as detection antibodies shows high signal amplification and exhibits a dynamic working range...



Granuloma disease in flocks of productive layers caused by Tetratrichomonas gallinarum.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Landman WJ, Molenaar RJ, Cian A, van der Heijden HM, Viscogliosi E Abstract In 2013, seven outbreaks of granuloma disease in Dutch flocks of laying chickens occurred. These outbreaks were characterized by increased mortality and high incidence of granulomas, mainly in ceca (340/408 hens = 83%) and livers (69/408 hens = 17%). Mortality started to increase between 21 and 35 weeks of age and reached 9.2% to 12.4% in periods ranging from nine to 48 weeks. Some flocks also showed decreased egg production and/or loss of mean egg weight. All affected flocks were linked to one rearing farm, which therefore seemed to be the source of the disease. However, no signs of disease had been observed at this rearing farm. Sentinel hens placed in one of the affected flocks to determine whet...



Molecular characterization of Clostridium perfringens strains isolated from diseased turkeys in Italy.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Giovanardi D, Drigo I, De Vidi B, Agnoletti F, Viel L, Capello K, Berto G, Bano L Abstract One hundred and six Clostridium perfringens field strains, isolated from diseased turkeys in Italy between 2006 and 2015, were toxinotyped by PCR. Strains derived from intestines (87), livers (17) and subcutaneous tissues (2). In addition to the four major toxins, strains were also screened for NetB toxin, enterotoxin and beta2 toxin encoding genes. The intestinal gross lesions of turkeys with enteric disorders were statistically studied with respect to the presence of C. perfringens beta2 toxin encoding gene and coccidia in the gut. All the isolates belonged to the toxinotype A and resulted netB negative. Enterotoxin (cpe) and beta2 toxin (cpb2) encoding genes were detected in two (...

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Molecular characterisation of a Class I Newcastle disease virus strain isolated from pigeon in China.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides information to elucidate the distribution and evolution of Class I viruses for further NDV prevention. PMID: 26950543 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Avian Pathology)



Poultry management: a useful tool for the control of necrotic enteritis in poultry.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Tsiouris VV Abstract The intestinal ecosystem of poultry has been inevitably changed as a result of the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters. The re-emergence of necrotic enteritis has been the most significant threat for the poultry industry, which in clinical form, causes high mortality and in subclinical forms, affects growth and feed conversion. It is one of the most common and economically devastating bacterial diseases in modern broiler flocks in terms of performance, welfare and mortality. Necrotic enteritis is a multi-factorial disease process, in which a number of co-factors are usually required to precipitate an outbreak of the disease. Although, Clostridium perfringens has been identified as the etiological agent of the disease, the predisposing factors that le...



Microbial shifts associated with necrotic enteritis.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Antonissen G, Eeckhaut V, Van Driessche K, Onrust L, Haesebrouck F, Ducatelle R, Moore RJ, Van Immerseel F Abstract An outbreak of necrotic enteritis (NE) is a complex process requiring one or a number of predisposing factors rather than just the presence of pathogenic Clostridium perfringens. Examples are dietary influences, such as high levels of non-starch polysaccharides and fishmeal, and factors that evoke epithelial cell damage, such as Fusarium mycotoxins in feed and Eimeria infections. Recent studies have shown that different predisposing factors induce similar shifts in the intestinal microbiota composition. Butyrate-producing strains of the Ruminococcaceae family are decreased in abundance by both fishmeal and Eimeria. Similarly, a decreased abundance of butyrate...



Genomic diversity of necrotic enteritis associated strains of Clostridium perfringens: A review.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions drawn from these studies include; differential carriage of large conjugative plasmids accounts for a large proportion of inter-strain differences; plasmid-encoded genes are more highly conserved than chromosomal genes, perhaps indicating a relatively recent origin for the plasmids; isolates from NE affected birds fall into two distinct sequence based clades while non-pathogenic isolates from healthy birds tend to be more genomically diverse. Overall, the NE causing strains are closely related to C. perfringens isolates from other animals and other diseases whereas the non-pathogenic poultry strains are generally more remotely related to either the pathogenic strains or the strains from other animals. Genomic analysis has indicated that genes in addition to netB are associated w...



Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks in protecting health care workers from acute respiratory infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Smith JD, MacDougall CC, Johnstone J, Copes RA, Schwartz B, Garber GE Abstract BACKGROUND: Conflicting recommendations exist related to which facial protection should be used by health care workers to prevent transmission of acute respiratory infections, including pandemic influenza. We performed a systematic review of both clinical and surrogate exposure data comparing N95 respirators and surgical masks for the prevention of transmissible acute respiratory infections. METHODS: We searched various electronic databases and the grey literature for relevant studies published from January 1990 to December 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that included data on health care workers wearing N95 respirators and surgical masks to...

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Prolactin is related to individual differences in parental behavior and reproductive success in a biparental passerine, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata).

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Smiley KO, Adkins-Regan E Abstract Variation in parental care can lead to important fitness consequences. The endocrine system is known to regulate physiological and behavioral reproductive traits that are important contributors to lifetime reproductive success. However, the hormonal basis of variation in avian parental care is still not well understood. Plasma prolactin (PRL) concentrations are generally high during post-hatch parental care in birds, and may be a candidate mechanism that regulates variation in parental care and other reproductive success outcomes. Here we analyze the relationship between PRL, parental behavior (chick brooding and feeding) and reproductive success outcomes (clutch size, number of chicks hatched, and chick survival) for the first time in th...



Chenodeoxycholic acid reduces feed intake and modulates the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hepatic lipogenic genes in broiler chickens.

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Piekarski A, Decuypere E, Buyse J, Dridi S Abstract Bile acids have recently become an emerging research hot spot in mammals due to their roles as metabolic regulators and molecular signatures controlling whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Such effects are still unknown in avian (non-mammalian) species. We, therefore, undertook this study to determine the effect of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on growth performance and on the expression of hypothalamic neuropeptides and hepatic lipogenic genes in broiler chickens. Chickens fed with diet-containing 0.1% or 0.5% CDCA for two weeks exhibited a significant and a dose dependent reduction of feed intake and body weight compared to the control (standard diet). These changes were accompanied with a significant decrease in plasma gl...



Functional analysis of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion gene in cisplatin‑induced cell death.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 05:15:02 +0100

Authors: Wu J, Chi L, Chen Z, Lu X, Xiao S, Zhang G, Luo J, Chen GM, Yang J Abstract The TMPRSS2:E‑twenty‑six (ETS) gene fusion occurs frequently in a high proportion of patients with prostate cancer (PCa) in Western countries, and the aberrant expression of TMPRSS2: v‑ETS avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG), the most common form of the corresponding protein, can regulate cell migration and contribute to tumor invasion and metastasis. However, its association with other cellular events, and in particular, cell death, remain unknown. To examine the function of such fusion genes, an expression plasmid containing the TMPRSS2:ERG (T1/E5) sequence (ΔERG) from a patient sample was constructed and transiently transfected into DU145 cells, which do not express th...



Matrix Gla Protein expression pattern in the early avian embryo.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 02:41:03 +0100

Authors: Correia E, Conceição N, Cancela ML, Belo JA Abstract MGP (Matrix Gla Protein) is an extracellular matrix vitamin K dependent protein previously identified as a physiological inhibitor of calcification and shown to be well conserved among vertebrates during evolution. MGP is involved in other mechanisms such as TGF-β and BMP activity, and a proposed modulator of cell-matrix interactions. MGP is expressed early in vertebrate development although its role has not been clarified. Previous work in the chicken embryo found MGP localization predominantly in the aorta and aortic valve base, but no data is available earlier in development. Here we examined MGP expression pattern using whole-mount in situ hybridization and histological sectioning during the initial stages of chic...