Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:32:22 +0100
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:41 +0100Abstract: HBsAg seroclearance before the age of 50 years of age is associated with decreased incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies of spontaneous HBsAg seroclearance select special population with low viral activities. However HBsAg seroclearance is only achievable in 8-11% of patients with the current treatment agents (interferon and nucleoside analogues [NAs]). The pattern of HBsAg level decline during NA treatment is variable. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100Abstract: With the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV has shifted to a chronic manageable condition, even in resource-limited settings. Now, the long-term effects of being on ART and living with HIV are emerging. These include the adverse effects of long-term ART and morbidity due to non AIDS complications such as cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, metabolic and neurocognitive disease, cancers and ageing as well as complications due to hepatitis B and C co-infection. Although first and second-line antiretrovirals are available in resource-limited settings, new antiretrovirals are urgently needed in order to sustain HIV as a chronic manageable condition. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100Background: Pentavalent combination vaccines perform a key role in increasing vaccine coverage rate; and provide an efficient and reliable method of implementing WHO recommendations for controlling diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and Hib infections on a worldwide basis. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100Background: Hepatitis D virus or delta virus (HDV) is a small, defective RNA virus that can infect only individuals who have hepatitis B virus which acts as the carrier host. The prevalence of HDV antibodies in Pakistani hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive individuals is approximately 16.6%. So there is a pool of at least 800,000 anti-HDV positive HBsAg positive individuals in the country. Although the prevalence of hepatitis virus infections in Pakistan is still unknown, limited data indicate that the exposure rate to HBV is 35-38% with 4% being carriers and 32% having anti-HBV surface antibodies through natural conversion. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100Background: Pregnant women infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HIV can transmit the infection to their fetuses and newborns. The study was intended to determine co-infection of hepatitis B and Human immunodeficiency virus and assessing risk factors among ANC visiting women. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100Background: Chronic Hepatitis B infection (CHBV) is a leading cause of advanced liver diseases. Mother to child transmission accounts for most cases of CHBV infections. The risk is highest in HBsAg+ve and HBeAg+ve mothers (transmission rate: 70%–90%). Follicular T helper cells (TFH) have shown a preventive role against HBV through activating the B cell mediated humoral immunity in patients. Role of TFh cells in HBV Transmission is elusive. Hypothesis: TFH cells are essential for preventing HBV transmission and impairment of these cells may leads to vertical HBV transmission. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100Background: Pentavalent vaccine (a combination vaccine which protects against five killer diseases- diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B) is being introduced in various states of India as a part of Universal Immunization Programme. In this context it is critical to establish sentinel sites across India for surveillance of H.influenzae type B meningitis and use this opportunity also for surveillance of pneumococcal and meningococcal meningitis. Keeping this in mind a hospital-based sentinel surveillance network was established at 11 places across the country and this study reports the results of first three years of this surveillance program (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100The objective of the study was to investigate sero-prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and assess risk factors among pregnant women. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100This study was carried out with objectives; profiling of viral markers in HBV carriers with viral load, correlation of ALT levels, HBe Ag status with their viral load, to determine the mutation and response to antiviral therapy in treated and treatment naïve individuals. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: Reports on the concomitant impact of HIV infection and long term cross-reactive HAART on the genetic variability and molecular evolution of HBV over time are limited. This longitudinal study retrospectively investigated the molecular characteristics of chronic HBV in HIV co-infected patients on lamivudine (3TC)-based HAART, over the course of a 5 year period. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: HBV causes 780,000 deaths yearly worldwide. It's endemic in Africa and of the ten known genotypes (A-J), A,D and E are prominent in Africa. Kenya is geographically located at the junction of these three genotypes and there is a paucity of HBV genotyping data. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100This study attempts to investigate genetic variability of the HBV x gene in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHBV) infection at a tertiary care hospital in Kerala, South India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: Three major routes spread of hepatitis B virus in developing country such as Nigeria are prenatal, horizontal and sexual transmission. The main routes of transmission are neonatal with HBV carrier mother infecting her infant usually during birth or soon after birth following close contact, transfer of HBV via cuts, sexual transmission, transfusion of infected blood or blood products, needle stick injury, re-use of HBV contaminated needles, syringes, lancets and instruments including those used in tribal ceremonies , (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: Reports on burden of hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus (HCV/HBV) are a big challenge for district to minimize the transmission of associated risk factors. Study was conducted to know the prevalence of HCV/HBV infection in pregnant women and their blood donors attended a surgical referral clinic for cesarean delivery. Study was therefore undertaken to determine the prevalence of HCV/HBV infection among pregnant women and their blood donors. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100Background: Worldwide, healthcare workers (HCW)s show different levels of response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine. One of the factors associated with vaccine unresponsiveness may be the existence of current or past HBV infection. Regardless of the presence of HBsAg (overt infection), occult HBV infection (OBI, defined as presence of HBV DNA in the absence of HBsAg), might be also accounted in some non-or hypo-response cases. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 29 Mar 2016 08:26:22 +0100Is HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis safe for individuals with HBV infection? JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (Source: Medscape Hiv-Aids Headlines)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100(Source: Hepatology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 10:25:02 +0100Authors: Abruzzi A, Fried B, Alikhan SB Abstract Although a considerable number of studies have been undertaken to date, it is still controversial as to whether or not coinfection with schistosomiasis increases the susceptibility to or progression from Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This review is a closer examination of the key studies conducted on human populations on clinical factors that were published in English between 1975 and January 2015. Our review is mainly based on tables containing the salient information, which are arranged first by study population, country of study and publication date. We provide further explanation, clarification and discussion in the text. As such, it includes both studies that have been conducted on general populat...
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 07:07:05 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved (Source: Journal of Medical Virology)
Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:27:02 +0100Authors: Liu L, Wang X, Ma Q, Lin Z, Chen S, Li Y, Lu L, Qu H, Su X Abstract In this work, a novel multiplex electrochemiluminescence (ECL) DNA sensor has been developed for determination of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) based on multicolor CdTe quantum dots (CdTe QDs) and Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). The electrochemically synthesized graphene nanosheets (GNs) were selected as conducting bridge to anchor CdTe QDs551-capture DNAHBV and CdTe QDs607-capture DNAHCV on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Then, different concentrations of target DNAHBV and target DNAHCV were introduced to hybrid with complementary CdTe QDs-capture DNA. Au NPs-probe DNAHBV and Au NPs-probe DNAHCV were modified to the above composite film via hybrid with the unreacted complementary CdTe ...
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) affects over 350 million people worldwide. Long-term complications of infection include cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which together cause over 500,000 deaths annually [1,2]. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive patients have a 70-fold increased risk of developing HCC compared to their HBsAg-negative counterparts [3,4]. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic in Southeast Asia, China, Taiwan, Korea, and sub-Saharan Africa, where up to 85–95% of patients with HCC are HBsAg positive . (Source: Journal of Hepatology)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100ConclusionsIn this cohort of individualsbeing treated with antiretroviral drugs, those who were MSM, who were 30–39 years old, and who had a prior history of STI, were at highest risk of a further STI diagnosis. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that CHBI may increase the risk of ATDILI in the standard combination therapy for active TB. Close follow-up and regular liver test monitoring are mandatory to treat TB in chronic hepatitis B carriers. (Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association)
Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100CONCLUSIONS: LMV, ADV, LdT, LMV+ADV and ETV were all effective on treatment of decompensated hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis whereas ETV and LMV+ADV were recommended. PMID: 27010143 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusions Our findings suggest that having a good education and having a good immune status are a protective factor of HIV/HBV co-infection. A practical approach would be a provision of wide access to general and sex education on the risk and prevention of HIV, HBV, and a promotion of HBV immunization. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100We thank Dr Fan and Dr Sonneveld for their comments and interest in our work. In our study, we have demonstrated a higher cumulative hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seroclearance at week 72 among chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients who received 48-week tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN) combination treatment as compared to either treatment as monotherapy.1 We agree that the overall cumulative HBsAg seroclearance rate was not very high, only 9.1%, for the combination treatment. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100We read with great interest the paper by Marcellin et al published in Gastroenterology.1 The authors demonstrated that combination therapy with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and pegylated interferon alfa-2a (Peg-IFN) for 48 weeks could result in higher rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) loss than either monotherapy in the multicenter international trial. However, the key question is whether the new strategy is good enough to be translated into current clinical practice. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100Authors: Ng KY, Chai S, Tong M, Guan XY, Lin CH, Ching YP, Xie D, Cheng AS, Ma S Abstract Tumor relapse after chemotherapy typifies hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is believed to be attributable to residual cancer stem cells (CSCs) that survive initial treatment. Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has long been linked to the development of HCC. Upon infection, random HBV genome integration can lead to truncation of hepatitis B virus X (HBx) protein at the C-terminus. The resulting C-terminal-truncated HBx (HBx-ΔC) was previously shown to confer enhanced invasiveness and diminished apoptotic response in HCC cells. Here, we found HBx-ΔC to promote the appearance of a CD133 liver CSC subset and confer cancer and stem cell-like features in HCC. HBx-ΔC was exclusively ...
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:03:02 +0100Conclusions Immune reconstitution related autoimmune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in the HIV-infected patient on antiretroviral therapy. Liver biopsy should be performed and the diagnosis confirmed using scoring systems developed by the Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. Timely treatment with prednisone and other agents for autoimmune hepatitis is indicated, and can be lifesaving in acute liver failure. PMID: 27000683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 03:25:02 +0100Conclusions: Treatment outcomes for HCV-6 patients are superior to those for HCV-1 patients and comparable to those of HCV-2 and HCV-3 patients, especially at 48 weeks. The level of fibrosis affects treatment outcome, but SVR rates are not significantly different between genders. IL28B and IFNL4 polymorphisms are not significantly associated with HCV-6 treatment outcome.Intervirology 2015;58:373-381 (Source: Intervirology)
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:29:02 +0100Authors: Bessone F, Dirchwolf M Abstract The proportion of hepatitis B virus (HBV) previously exposed patients who receive immunosuppressive treatment is usually very small. However, if these individuals are exposed to potent immunosuppressive compounds, the risk of HBV reactivation (HBVr) increases with the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in the serum. Chronic HBsAg carriers have a higher risk than those who have a total IgG anticore as the only marker of resolved/occult HBV disease. The loss of immune control in these patients may results in the reactivation of HBV replication within hepatocytes. Upon reconstitution of the immune system, infected hepatocytes are once again targeted and damaged by immune surveillance in an effort to clear the virus. There are diffe...
Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection correlated with the development of cirrhosis, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), poses a huge health burden on the global community. However, the pathogenesis o... (Source: Lipids in Health and Disease)
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusion: Mathematical modeling of HDV infection can describe the complex interplay between this virus and HBV. Simulations suggest that HDV impacts on the feedback mechanisms that maintain cccDNA levels and that targeting these mechanisms may result in new therapeutic agents for both viruses. (Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology)
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100In this issue of Gastroenterology, Marcellin et al present the results of a landmark global randomized trial (Study 0149) comparing different regimes of pegylated interferon alfa-2a (PEG-IFN), tenofovir, or the combination for chronic hepatitis B.1 The primary endpoint of the study was defined as hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) clearance, which is considered the closest outcome to cure in chronic hepatitis B. From their study, the authors conclude that 48 weeks of PEG-IFN plus tenofovir increases HBsAg loss compared with PEG-IFN alone. (Source: Gastroenterology)
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 16:13:21 +0100ConclusionHBV genotype is independently associated with HCC risk. AN persons with genotypes A, C, and F are at higher risk compared with genotypes B or D.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Liver International)
Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:24:01 +0100The Journal of Organic ChemistryDOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b00105 (Source: The Journal of Organic Chemistry)
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100ConclusionThe incidence of ALT flares during ETV was low in this real‐life cohort. ETV can be safely continued in patients with host‐induced flares. Treatment adherence and drug resistance must be assessed in patients with virus‐induced flares. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100ConclusionsPrior HBV infection could be a potential aetiology in over 40% of NBNC HCC patients in HBV endemic area. Positivity for anti‐HBc and negativity for anti‐HBs may be a serologic surrogate marker for occult HBV infection in these area. The prognosis of NBNC HCC was determined by tumour stage and underlying liver function. (Source: Liver International)
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100A series of oleanolic acid derivatives were synthesized by diverse reactions, including the introduction of conjugated alkadiene and epoxy ring moieties formed by means of photosensitized oxidation. Eosin Y was used as photosensitizer during this process. Next the cytotoxicity of the products was evaluated on HepG2.2.15 cells to determine the appropriate treatment concentration for the subsequent experiments. Most of the OA derivatives exhibited anti-HBV antigens secretion activity in HepG2.2.15 cells. Among the tested compounds, OA-4 (3.13 µg/mL) showed significant activity against the secretion of HBsAg, HBeAg, and HBV DNA replication with inhibitory ratios of 90.52% ± 1.78%, 31.55% ± 3.65%, and 94.57% ± 3.11% after 6 days, respectively. Besides, OA-4 was further investigated in a du...
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100We investigated whether serum levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level at the end of entecavir treatment was associated with risk of relapse. (Source: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 21:30:04 +0100Authors: Papagiannis D, Tsimtsiou Z, Chatzichristodoulou I, Adamopoulou M, Kallistratos I, Pournaras S, Arvanitidou M, Rachiotis G Abstract Students of health professions are at high risk of hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection during their clinical training. The aim of this cross-sectional, multi-centered study was to investigate the HBV vaccination coverage in Greek medical, nursing, and paramedical students, to look into their attitudes towards the importance of vaccines and to reveal reasons associated with not being vaccinated. A self-completed, anonymous questionnaire was distributed to 2119 students of health professions in Greece, during the academic year 2013-2014. The HBV vaccination coverage of students was high (83%), being higher among medical students (88.1%, vs. 81.4% a...
Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:24:03 +0100CONCLUSION: We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis. PMID: 26996565 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Publication date: Available online 16 February 2016 Source:Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Author(s): Zhenbao Li, Lei Shang, Chang Liu, Panqin Ma, Chunnuan Wu, Wenjuan Zhang, Yinghua Sun, Yongjun Wang, Xiaohong Liu, Jin Sun Combinational therapy of lamivudine and oxymatrine has been employed in the battle against hepatitis B virus in clinical setting. However, the pharmacokinetic behavior of the drug or active metabolism in intravenous/oral co-administration regime is poorly investigated. Herein, we evaluated the pharmacokinetic characteristic through a tailor-designed 3 way crossover-Latin square experiment in adult male beagle dogs. Six dogs were randomly treated by intravenous administration of lamivudine (2.5 mg/kg), oxymatrine (15 mg/kg) and combinational dosa...
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusions ETV has a high genetic barrier to resistance and the efficacy in LAM-experienced and/or ADV-experienced patients were much lower than in naïve patients. (Source: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Authors: Yumei Wen & Yan Shi (Source: Emerging Microbes and Infections)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is known as a life-threatening liver infection and leads to chronic liver disease if left untreated. Nevertheless, the prevalence of HBV infection has been reduced by an approved vaccination approach using recombinant Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and Alum, known as the HBV vaccine. Alum can be used as an adjuvant to increase HBsAg immunogenicity as a strong Th2 stimulator. There is a vital need to stimulate Th1 immunity by HBsAg vaccination; however, the present vaccine does not induce a prophylactic immune response in some groups. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Authors: Julier Z, de Titta A, Grimm AJ, Simeoni E, Swartz MA, Hubbell JA Abstract Subunit vaccines, employing purified protein antigens rather than intact pathogens, require the addition of adjuvants for enhanced immunogenicity with a correct balance between strong activation of the immune system and low toxicity. Here we show that the endogenous (i.e., autologous) non-toxic TLR4 agonist extra domain A type III repeat of fibronectin (FNIII EDA) can synergize with the exogenous (i.e., bacterial), toxic-at-high-dose, TLR9 agonist CpG to induce efficient cellular immune responses while keeping the dose of CpG low. The efficacy of the combined TLR agonists, even at half-doses, led to stronger dendritic cell activation, enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation as well as stronger hum...
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Authors: Gaboriau L, Boursier A, Béné J, Hassinet HR, Gautier S PMID: 27016852 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Presse Medicale)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 14:58:22 +0100Journal of Proteome ResearchDOI: 10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00217 (Source: Journal of Proteome Research)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:07:51 +0100The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board met in London, UK (June 5–6, 2015), to discuss options towards a future free of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in 1982 and is now included in childhood immunisation programmes in 194 countries,1 with substantial declines in incidence rates; hepatitis B virus-dependent hepatitis D prevalence rates have also plummeted. A hepatitis A vaccine is widely used, and a hepatitis E vaccine has become commercially available in China. Chronic hepatitis B treatment exists, and hepatitis C treatment has single-dose oral medicines that can cure up to 95% of cases with shortened treatment and fewer side-effects. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionsIn our screening project in first generation Chinese migrants, antiviral treatment, strict follow‐up because of high hepatitis B DNA levels and/or surveillance for hepatocellular carcinoma were considered indicated in three out of four analysed HBsAg positive patients. These data show that detection of hepatitis B in Chinese migrants can have considerable impact on patient care.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Liver International)
Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This JAMA Clinical Guidelines Synopsis summarizes the US Preventive Services Task Force’s 2014 guidelines on screening for gonorrhea, chlamydia, and hepatitis B. (Source: JAMA)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Case presentation A 64 years old Female with no past medical or surgical history presented with yellowish discoloration of skin for two days duration associated with vague and non-radiating abdominal pain. Patient also endorses 8 pounds unintentional weight loss over the past 2–3 months. On physical exam; scleral icterus and jaundiced skin were noted. Abdominal exam was non-significant, no rash or discoloration on inspection, abdomen is soft with no tenderness or rebound tenderness, murphy sign is negative, no organomegaly, and bowel sounds are positive upon auscultation. No renal costo-vertebral angle tenderness noted. Laboratory testing was significant for: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) 448 U/L; Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) 330 U/L, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK) 225, Ga...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Discussion Klebsiella pneumoniae, a member of the Enterobacteriaceae family, is a pathogen with worldwide distribution. Most community-acquired Klebsilla pneumoniae infections cause pneumonia or urinary tract infections. Invasive liver abscess syndrome is very rare in western countries. For the past 2 decades, a distinct clinical syndrome has been emerging in Southeast Asia that is characterized by bacteremia, liver abscesses, and metastatic infections. In the past decade, few patients were diagnosed as having a liver abscess caused by K pneumoniae in two case series in the USA. Most community-acquired Klebsilla pneumoniae infections cause pneumonia or urinary tract infections. Invasive liver abscess syndrome is very rare in western countries. Clinicians should be aware about invasive kleb...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Discussion HBV reactivation is diagnosed by an increase HBV DNA in chronic carrier with undetectable viral load or rise HBV DNA ≥10-fold increase in HBV DNA compared with baseline. Reactivation of HBV after starting chemotherapy or immunosuppressive medications is well described. Our case report is the first to describe HBV reactivation after starting Ethambutol, levofloxacin and Capreomycin against multidrug resistant mycobacterium tuberculosis. Most studies reported that RIPE (Rifampin, Isoniazid, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol) tuberculosis therapy has shown no risk of HBV reactivation. One of the Multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy agents which is levofloxacin can cause hepatoxicity but all previous studies did not report HBV reactivation. Capreomycin can cause severe hepato...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusions Isolated HBsAg positivity may result from multiple causes, one of which is cross-reactivity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a false-positive reading using CMIA technique in an active lupus patient. It is reasonable to stress that lupus patients with a positive screening for HBV should undergo a confirmatory assay (such as genomic detection), since this diagnosis may have important therapeutic implications. (Source: The Egyptian Rheumatologist)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Crack cocaine users represent a target group for hepatitis B vaccination. We evaluate the HBV epidemiology, immunization status and compliance with a super-accelerated vaccination schedule among in-treatment crack cocaine users in central Brazil. Six hundred in-treatment crack cocaine users were interviewed, and serum samples were tested for HBV markers. A super-accelerated vaccination schedule of HBV vaccine was offered to all susceptible crack cocaine users. In total, 7.0% of those tested had at least one positive marker of HBV exposure. (Source: Journal of Infection and Public Health)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100In conclusion, these newly established reference sequences can provide suitable reference standards for studies on the molecular biology and virology of HBV genotype A. (Source: Virus Genes)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 17:05:00 +0100The European Medicines Agency is to review the safety of direct-acting antivirals used to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C infection. (Source: The Pharmaceutical Journal)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:08:02 +0100CONCLUSIONS: High baseline HBV DNA levels are associated with poor prognosis in the patients with early-stage HCC, and the antiviral treatment could generate survival benefits for the patients. Therefore, antiviral treatment should be given for these patients. However, the effect of antiviral treatment on the patients with low viral load remains unclear, and further investigation is warranted. PMID: 26992891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Chinese Journal of Cancer)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: FEBS Journal)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionA serum AFP level above 400 ng/ml predicts poor overall and recurrence‐free survival after hepatectomy in patients with HBV‐associated HCC. AFP is not a strong prognostic marker given its poor discriminatory power, with low sensitivity and specificity. (Source: British Journal of Surgery)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100The liver is an immunoregulatory organ in which a tolerogenic microenvironment mitigates the relative “strength” of local immune responses. Paradoxically, necro‐inflammatory diseases create the need for most liver transplants. Treatment of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and acute T cell–mediated rejection have redirected focus on long‐term allograft structural integrity. Understanding of insults should enable decades of morbidity‐free survival after liver replacement because of these tolerogenic properties. Studies of long‐term survivors show low‐grade chronic inflammatory, fibrotic, and microvascular lesions, likely related to some combination of environment insults (i.e. abnormal physiology), donor‐specific antibodies, and T cell–mediated immunity. The resulta...
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100CONCLUSIONSAmong US Medicare recipients, metabolic disorders contribute more to the burden of HCC than any other risk factor, and the fraction of HCC caused by metabolic disorders has increased in the last decade. Cancer 2016. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. (Source: Cancer)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionOutcomes in CHB patients treated with peginterferon in a clinical setting are similar to those demonstrated in clinical trials. Application of the early stopping rule based on HBsAg quantification may allow individualization of therapy, particularly in HBeAg‐positive patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)
Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusions: NAFLD was independently associated with lower cognitive performance independent of CVD and its risk factors. Given the scarcity of risk factors associated with age-related cognitive decline, these findings may have significant implications. (Source: Neurology)
Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100In this study, microRNA (miR)-146a expression increased in NK cells from CHB and HCC patients compared with NK cells from healthy donors, and miR-146a levels were negatively correlated to NK cell functions. Overexpression of miR-146a reduced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and the production of interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, which were reversed upon inhibition of miR-146a. In NK cells, miR-146a expression was induced by interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor-β, but reduced after treatment with interleukin-12, IFN-α and IFN-β. We further revealed that miR-146a regulated NK cell functions by targeting STAT1. Taken together, upregulated miR-146a expression, at least partially, attributes to NK cell dysfunction in CHB and HCC patients. Therefore, miR-146a may be...
Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Authors: Patel MK, Le Calvez E, Wannemuehler K, Ségalin JM Abstract French Polynesia is considered to have moderate endemicity for chronic hepatitis B virus infection, with an estimated 3% of the population having hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). From 1990 to 1992, a 3-dose hepatitis B vaccination series was introduced into the routine infant immunization schedule in French Polynesia, including a birth dose (BD). In 2014, a nationally representative 2-stage cluster survey was undertaken to evaluate the impact of the vaccination program on HBsAg prevalence among school children (∼6 years of age) in Cours Préparatoire (CP). Documented vaccination data were reviewed for all eligible children; children with consent were tested for HBsAg with a rapid point-of-care test. In total...
Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100CONCLUSION: HBeAg negative patients tend to have HBV pre-C mutations. However, these mutations do not cause increased DNA copies, but associate with damage of liver function. PMID: 27004005 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Sun, 20 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100CONCLUSION: Viral replication interference between HBV and HDV is HBV-genotype dependent, and more evident in patients infected with HBV-genotype A, than with HBV-D or E. PMID: 27003993 [PubMed - in process] (Source: World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG)
Sun, 20 Mar 2016 21:00:01 +0100Conclusion. The frequency of TTIs, especially HCV, is considerably high among Egyptian children with thalassemia major. It is therefore important to implement measures to improve blood transfusion screening, such as polymerase chain reaction, in order to reduce TTIs from blood donor units. PMID: 26989417 [PubMed] (Source: Advances in Hematology)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 22:34:13 +0100Abstract Brazil was formerly considered a country with intermediate hepatitis B endemicity, with large heterogeneity between Brazilian regions and areas of high prevalence, especially in the Amazon basin. Systematic vaccination of children was initiated in 1998. Between 2004 and 2009, a large population-based study reported decreased prevalence in all regions of Brazil. This review analyzed the current hepatitis B epidemiological situation in Brazil through a systematic search of the scientific literature in MEDLINE, LILACS, and CAPES thesis database, as well as disease notifications to the Information System for Notifiable Diseases. The search strategy identified 87 articles and 13 theses, resulting in 100 total publications. The most recent results indicate reduced hepatitis B prevalence...
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 22:34:13 +0100CONCLUSIONS: Over a 13-year interval, very few individuals infected with HBV were identified, highlighting the barriers for caring for patients with HBV in developing countries. New measures need to be implemented to complement curative practices. (Source: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 21:48:03 +0100Conclusion Treatment using MZR in combination with methylprednisolone and entecavir in HBV-positive nephrotic syndrome patients displays significant efficacy with a low incidence of adverse reactions. PMID: 26983690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Renal Failure)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100Authors: Yen TT, Yang A, Chiu WT, Li TN, Wang LH, Wu YH, Wang HC, Chen L, Wang WC, Huang W, Chang CW, Chang MD, Shen MR, Su IJ, Wang LH Abstract Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a driver of hepatocellular carcinoma, and two viral products, X and large surface antigen (LHBS), are viral oncoproteins. During chronic viral infection, immune-escape mutants on the preS2 region of LHBS (preS2-LHBS) are gain-of-function mutations that are linked to preneoplastic ground glass hepatocytes (GGHs) and early disease onset of hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we show that preS2-LHBS provoked calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and triggered stored-operated calcium entry (SOCE). The activation of SOCE increased ER and plasma membrane (PM) connections, which was linked by ER- resident stro...
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 12:06:02 +0100CONCLUSION: The most important risk factors in prison are behaviours related to STIs and previous history of STIs. Other factors are being a repeat offender, injecting drug use, or being in a methadone programme. Health personnel and peer education can facilitate prevention and control. PMID: 26987281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Gaceta Sanitaria)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 03:01:03 +0100Retraction RETRACTION of "Immune memory responses to HBV vaccine 13-18 years after primary vaccination" by L. Hou, W. Li, X. Wei, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhuo, H. Wu, B. Shen. Genet. Mol. Res. 14 (3): 8466-8472 (2015). Genet Mol Res. 2016;15(1) Authors: Hou L, Li W, Wei X, Zhou Y, Zhuo Y, Wu H, Shen B Abstract The article "Immune memory responses to HBV vaccine 13-18 years after primary vaccination" by L. Hou, W. Li, X. Wei, Y. Zhou, Y. Zhuo, H. Wu, B. Shen published in 2015 in Genetics and Molecular Research 14(3): 8466-8472 (http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/2015.July.28.14) has been found to be substantially equal to the article "Immune memory response induced in vitro by recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen challenge 13-18 years after primary vaccination" published in the Journal o...
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Outcomes of chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) are varied, with increased morbidity reported in the context of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. The factors driving different outcomes are not well understood, but there is increasing interest in an HLA class I effect. We therefore studied the influence of HLA class I on HBV in an African HIV-positive cohort. We demonstrated that virologic markers of HBV disease activity (hepatitis B e antigen status or HBV DNA level) are associated with HLA-A genotype. This finding supports the role of the CD8+ T-cell response in HBV control, and potentially informs future therapeutic T-cell vaccine strategies. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)
Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS) is a self-limiting, mostly childhood-appearing, cutaneous eruption with a characteristic symmetrical acral distribution. The original cases, described by Gianotti in 1955, were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but, afterwards, other viral and bacterial infections, as well as immunizations, have been related with its etiology. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is one of them, but only a few cases have been observed and more frequently in children than in adults [1,2]. (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 23:15:02 +0100Authors: Miyamoto A, Morokawa N, Takahashi Y, Ogawa K, Takeyasu M, Murase K, Hanada S, Uruga H, Mochizuki S, Takaya H, Kurosaki A, Kishi K Abstract A man in his mid-60's with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and hepatitis B-related liver cirrhosis developed exertional dyspnea and a dry cough lasting for three months. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) showed increasing bilateral ground-glass opacity superimposed on the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern. Six months after starting pirfenidone therapy, the partial pressure of arterial oxygen at rest increased from 81 to 101 torr, the predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) value increased from 75% to 94% and the ground-glass opacity on HRCT improved. The FVC value was subsequently maintained near or above baseline for 43 months....
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100CONCLUSION: This subgenotype B2 specific mutation analysis revealed some naturally occurring hot spot substitutions at important AA sites of HBV RT/S proteins, which together might influence the serum HBV DNA and HBsAg levels in HBeAg-positive CHB patients. PMID: 27006281 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 20:30:00 +0100Conclusions: PEGylated interferon was effective in treatment-experienced patients with HBeAg positive CHB, and showed higher rates of virological response, HBeAg loss, and seroconversion. The results provide important information regarding the role of re-treatment with PEGylated interferon in treatment-experienced HBeAg positive patients.,Patients and Methods: A total of 55 treatment-experienced, HBeAg positive Chinese patients were enrolled in this study. Of these patients, 33 were NUCs-experienced and 22 were interferon-experienced. PEGylated interferon was administered to 34 patients; and 21 patients were retreated with conventional interferon.,Results: Of the 34 treatment-experienced patients who received PEGylated interferon, 52.9% achieved virologic response, and 41.2% achieved HBeAg...
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 18:17:42 +0100The review follows cases of hepatitis B reactivation in patients infected with hepatitis B and C who were treated with direct-acting antivirals for hepatitis C. News Alerts (Source: Medscape Gastroenterology Headlines)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 16:07:11 +0100ConclusionsUsing financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost‐effective use of healthcare resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%. (Source: Addiction)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 05:56:02 +0100CONCLUSIONS: HCC patients with a high risk of post-hepatic resection recurrence may benefit from postoperative sorafenib administered as an adjuvant therapy, especially in cases with high levels of c-Raf-1 expression on histological examination. PMID: 26981887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusion TDF monotherapy and TDF plus additional NAs have comparable antiviral efficacy in CHB patients after NA treatment failure. (Source: Clinical Drug Investigation)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This study was a... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionWFA+‐M2BP level can be a useful marker for assessing liver histological findings in patients with treatment naïve CHB, although it has several limitations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology Research)
Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100(Source: Hepatology)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Authors: Hadikusumo AA, Utsumi T, Amin M, Khairunisa SQ, Istimagfirah A, Wahyuni RM, Lusida MI, Soetjipto, Rianto E, Juniastuti, Hayashi Y Abstract Transgender people are at high risk of sexually transmitted viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, Indonesia has a moderate to high rate of HBV infection and a rapid epidemic growth of HIV. Because hepatitis C virus (HCV) can co-occur with HBV and HIV, it was also evaluated in this study. Ten of 107 individuals (9.3%) were Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and/or HBV DNA positive, whereas nineteen of 101 individuals (18.8%) with negative HBsAg were Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive. Seven of 107 individuals (6.5%) were anti-HCV positive, and sixteen of 100 tested ...
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100In this study, we investigated Apobec3G expression and regulatory pathways during HBV infection. We show that over-expression of A3G leads to inhibition of HBV replication. We also show that IFN induces a significant increase in A3G protein expression, which is associated with STAT3 activation. We further show that A3G expression in HBV patients is lower compared to non-infected controls, possibly by HBsAg which inhibits IFN induced A3G up-regulation in a dose dependent manner. This process is likely mediated through inhibition of STAT3-Ser727 phosphorylation. The results presented in this study indicate that STAT3 plays an important role in IFN-induced A3G production, and HBsAg may correlated with poor response to IFN treatment. PMID: 27003258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Sour...
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 21:22:02 +0100CONCLUSIONS: HBV and HCV prevalence is high in HIV-positive Chinese and differs by geographic region. HBV and HCV co-infection and HIV monoinfection are risks for moderate-to-significant liver disease. Only HIV-HBV is associated with greater HIV-related immunosuppression. Incorporating screening and management of hepatitis virus infections into Chinese HIV programmes is needed. PMID: 26979535 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:22:02 +0100Authors: Rodrigues PM, Teixeira AL, Kustner EC, Medeiros R Abstract Periodontal Disease includes a wide variety of infectious entities with various clinical manifestations in the oral cavity and responses to treatment. The determinants of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease include the type of infectious agent, the host immune response and environmental factors. Aggressive periodontitis (AP) is defined as a type of inflammation with specific clinical and laboratory features, which distinguish it from other types of periodontitis, with high incidence rates in a sub-group of individuals. Bacteria have been frequently mentioned as the agent inciting gingival inflammation and tissue destruction that underlies the pathogenesis of periodontitis. However, recent studies, with s...
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 12:52:02 +0100CONCLUSION: Our study showed a proportionally greater elevation in liver transplant candidacy in patients with NAFLD and portal vein thrombosis. Older patients were more prone to developing cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and a high mortality rate. However, younger patients exhibited more portal vein thrombosis and gastric varices. PMID: 26981175 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 04:23:43 +0100This article reviews previous studies of tumor heterogeneity and discusses the implications and future opportunities regarding tumor heterogeneity in HCC.Liver Cancer 2016;5:128-138 (Source: Liver Cancer)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100ConclusionsOur findings suggest that CHB may increase mortality and complicate ART management. (Source: HIV Medicine)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100This study identified a new class of potent non-nucleoside anti-HBV agents. Graphical abstract (Source: Chemico Biological Interactions)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100Conclusions: Our study does not detect a substantial association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis on the basis of systematic analysis. There appears to be a discrepancy between case reports and our systematic analysis about the association between the use of methimazole and risk of acute pancreatitis. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)
Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100In this study we monitored antiviral effect of NA therapy and evaluated off-tre... (Source: BMC Gastroenterology)
Wed, 16 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100Conclusions Dermatoses at the injection sites of vaccines can be granulomatous, immunity-related conditions, infections, lichenoid, neutrophilic, or pseudolymphomatous. Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common vaccination site-associated malignancies; however, melanoma and sarcomas (dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, fibrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma) are also smallpox vaccine-related site neoplasms. A cutaneous immunocompromised district that is created by vaccine-induced local immunologic changes is hypothesized to be the pathogenesis of vaccination site reactions. (Source: Dermatology and Therapy)