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Preview: MedWorm: Hepatitis A

MedWorm: Hepatitis A



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Hepatitis A category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:32:29 +0100

 



Outbreak investigation of acute viral hepatitis in Kangra valley, Himachal Pradesh, India, 2014-2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: India is endemic for viral hepatitis A (HAV) infection with 66% of states reporting at least one outbreak from 2011 to 2013. Following media reports in January 2015, we investigated a jaundice outbreak in Kangra town of Himachal Pradesh Valley with the following objectives: (1) assess the magnitude, (2) identify the source, and (3) initiate preventive measures. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Hepatitis A outbreak due to contaminated public water in Tiruchirappalli Corporation, Tamil Nadu, India, 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Hepatitis A (HAV) outbreaks are due to faecal contaminated water or inadequately treated water. On 9 October 2015, Kemps stone area (population=665) of Tiruchirappalli, reported 42 cases of jaundice, all aged less than 20 years. We investigated to identify risk factors and propose recommendations. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Predictors, outcome, profile of anti-tubercular drug induced hepatitis – A prospective nested case - control study in a South Indian tertiary hospital

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem . The first line anti-tubercular drugs are hepatotoxic. Despite adequate knowledge, we are still unable to predict anti-tubercular drug induced liver injury (DILI) before initiation of treatment. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Upsurge in vaccine preventable hepatitis A virus infection in adult patients from a tertiary care hospital of North India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Prevalence of acute viral hepatitis A among adult in developing country is low due to pre exposure of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) during childhood and adolescence. An increase in acute viral hepatitis A infection among admitted adult patients is being observed in this centre. Hence,study done to know the prevalence of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Hepatitis E virus (HEV) in adult patients of acute hepatitis admitted in Gastroenterology Department, Nehru Hospital, PGIMER, Chandigarh. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Hepatitis A virus outbreak in a compound in Tshwane district, Gauteng, South Africa: October 2014-March 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Hepatitis A is a contagious viral infection caused by hepatitis A virus (HAV). It is strongly associated with socio-economic indicators such as access to clean water and sanitation. On 16 February 2015, the Tshwane Outbreak Response Unit (ORU) was notified by a laboratory of an increase in blood samples that tested positive for HAV IgM. On the same day Tshwane ORU team was assembled to conduct further investigations. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Hepatitis A outbreak associated with unsafe drinking water in a medical college student's hostel, New Delhi, India, 2014

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: An outbreak of jaundice was reported from a girl's hostel (Old Girl's Hostel; OGH) of Maulana Azad Medical College (MAMC), Delhi in January-2014. We conducted an investigation to identify the etiological agent, source of infection, potential risk factors and to recommend control measures. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Autoimmune hepatitis: a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV infected patients?

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:03:02 +0100

Conclusions Immune reconstitution related autoimmune hepatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatitis in the HIV-infected patient on antiretroviral therapy. Liver biopsy should be performed and the diagnosis confirmed using scoring systems developed by the Autoimmune Hepatitis Group. Timely treatment with prednisone and other agents for autoimmune hepatitis is indicated, and can be lifesaving in acute liver failure. PMID: 27000683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)



7 Expert-Backed Tips For Staying Healthy On Your Next Big Trip

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 10:00:44 +0100

As spring approaches, you may be thinking about this year’s summer getaway. Or maybe you’re an Type A planner who is already booking a Thanksgiving or Christmas trip. Whatever your travel style, here's something you probably haven't considered: How to stay healthy while abroad. While you probably won’t make a Pinterest board of vaccinations with the same enthusiasm as you pin must-eat pastries and stylish travel outfits, taking care of your health on a trip might just save your life. Here are seven tips to help keep your vacations as stress- and sickness-free as possible:  1. First, call your doctor. Your first call while planning a trip should be to a health care provider who can advise you on vaccinations, medication and other pertinent factors -- like your itinera...



Comparative Analysis of Liver Injury-Associated Cytokines in Acute Hepatitis A and B.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:24:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: We identified cytokines and T-cell cytotoxic proteins associated with liver injury in AHA and AHB. These findings deepen the existing understanding of immunological mechanisms responsible for liver injury in acute viral hepatitis. PMID: 26996565 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)



Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Paeoniae Radix Rubra Formulae in Relieving Hyperbilirubinemia Induced by Viral Hepatitis: A Meta-Analysis

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 01:27:40 +0100

Yin-Qiu Huang, Xiao Ma, Jian Wang, Yan-Ling Zhao, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhe Chen, Yun Zhu, Li-Mei Shan, Shi-Zhang Wei, Ji Wang, Xiao-He Xiao (Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology)



Efficacy of Cinnamaldehyde Against Enteric Viruses and Its Activity After Incorporation Into Biodegradable Multilayer Systems of Interest in Food Packaging

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Cinnamaldehyde (CNMA), an organic compound that gives cinnamon its flavor and odor, was investigated for its virucidal activity on norovirus surrogates, murine norovirus (MNV) and feline calicivirus (FCV), and hepatitis A virus (HAV). Initially, different concentrations of CNMA (0.1, 0.5 and 1 %) were individually mixed with each virus at titers of ca. 6–7 log10 TCID50/ml and incubated 2 h at 4 and 37 °C. CNMA was effective in reducing the titers of norovirus surrogates in a dose-dependent manner after 2 h at 37 °C, while HAV titers were reduced by 1 log10 after treatment with 1 % of CNMA. When incubation time was extended, HAV titers were reduced by 3.4 and 2.7 log10 after overnight incubation at 37 °C with 1 and 0.5 % of CNMA, respectively. Moreover, this p...

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[Comment] A hepatitis-free future: strategy first, then pricing

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:07:51 +0100

The Viral Hepatitis Prevention Board met in London, UK (June 5–6, 2015), to discuss options towards a future free of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis B vaccine was introduced in 1982 and is now included in childhood immunisation programmes in 194 countries,1 with substantial declines in incidence rates; hepatitis B virus-dependent hepatitis D prevalence rates have also plummeted. A hepatitis A vaccine is widely used, and a hepatitis E vaccine has become commercially available in China. Chronic hepatitis B treatment exists, and hepatitis C treatment has single-dose oral medicines that can cure up to 95% of cases with shortened treatment and fewer side-effects. (Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases)



Id: 32: agenesis of gallbladder presenting with obstructive jaundice

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Case presentation A 64 years old Female with no past medical or surgical history presented with yellowish discoloration of skin for two days duration associated with vague and non-radiating abdominal pain. Patient also endorses 8 pounds unintentional weight loss over the past 2–3 months. On physical exam; scleral icterus and jaundiced skin were noted. Abdominal exam was non-significant, no rash or discoloration on inspection, abdomen is soft with no tenderness or rebound tenderness, murphy sign is negative, no organomegaly, and bowel sounds are positive upon auscultation. No renal costo-vertebral angle tenderness noted. Laboratory testing was significant for: Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) 448 U/L; Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) 330 U/L, Alkaline Phosphatase (ALK) 225, Ga...



Id: 37: silent but deadly cytomegalovirus triggering autoimmune hepatitis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Discussion Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic hepatocellular inflammation and necrosis of unknown cause. The most supported pathogenesis of AIH postulates that a combination of environmental triggers, failure of immune system tolerance and a genetic predisposition that may induce a T cell–mediated immune attack against the liver. Case studies in the literature report AIH being triggered by virus and drugs. There is evidence of cross-reactivity between anti-LKM1 and antibodies against homologous regions of cytomegalovirus (exon CMV130-135). This case could explain an association between cytomegalovirus infection and autoimmune hepatitis. As clinicians, it is difficult to diagnose autoimmune hepatitis because its presentation can be acute, severe, asymptomatic or chronic. Diagnosis requ...



Transplant drug helpful for patients with progressive liver condition

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Wiley) New research indicates that mycophenolate mofetil, a drug that is usually used to prevent rejection after kidney, heart or liver transplant, seems safe and effective in treating autoimmune hepatitis, a serious chronic liver disease that mainly affects women. (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Zmiany rodzaju koncentratu czynnika krzepnięcia u chorego na hemofilię – korzyść czy ryzyko?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016 Source:Acta Haematologica Polonica Author(s): Anna Klukowska Patients with haemophilia are treated with a variety of coagulation factor concentrates. They usually change concentrate types many times during their lifetime for different, often independent, reasons. Since recombinant coagulation factor concentrates VIII and IX became available, some patients in well-developed countries have started using these products instead of previously applied plasma-derived concentrates. At the moment, there are different types of concentrates available, including first, second and third generation recombinant concentrates, and factor VIII concentrates with full length or B deleted domain molecule. The drug's efficacy and safety are both taken into con...

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HAV & HBV vaccination among travellers participating in the National Health and Wellness Survey in five European countries

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A main cause of hepatitis A and B infections in European countries is travel to endemic countries. Most research on hepatitis vaccination among travellers from Europe has been conducted in airports or travel clinics, samples which potentially overrepresented frequent travellers. (Source: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease)



FoodChain-Lab: A Trace-Back and Trace-Forward Tool Developed and Applied during Food-Borne Disease Outbreak Investigations in Germany and Europe

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Armin A. Weiser, Christian Thöns, Matthias Filter, Alexander Falenski, Bernd Appel, Annemarie Käsbohrer FoodChain-Lab is modular open-source software for trace-back and trace-forward analysis in food-borne disease outbreak investigations. Development of FoodChain-Lab has been driven by a need for appropriate software in several food-related outbreaks in Germany since 2011. The software allows integrated data management, data linkage, enrichment and visualization as well as interactive supply chain analyses. Identification of possible outbreak sources or vehicles is facilitated by calculation of tracing scores for food-handling stations (companies or persons) and food products under investigation. The software also supports consideration of station-specific cross-contamination, analys...



Acute on chronic liver failure in India: the INASL Consortium experience

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsAlcohol was the commonest etiology of ACLF. Within a mean hospital stay of 8 days, 42% patients died. OFs independently predicted survival. (Source: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)



Epitope-based recombinant diagnostic antigen to distinguish natural infection from vaccination with hepatitis A virus vaccines.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Su Q, Guo M, Jia Z, Qiu F, Lu X, Gao Y, Meng Q, Tian R, Bi S, Yi Y Abstract Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection can stimulate the production of antibodies to structural and non-structural proteins of the virus. However, vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated HAV vaccine produces antibodies mainly against structural proteins, whereas no or very limited antibodies are produced against the non-structural proteins. Current diagnostic assays to determine exposure to HAV, such as the Abbott HAV AB test, detect antibodies only to the structural proteins and so are not able to distinguish a natural infection from vaccination with an inactivated or attenuated virus. Here, we constructed a recombinant tandem multi-epitope diagnostic antigen (designated 'H1') based on the immune...



Fever in a traveler returning from the Amazon. Do not forget hepatitis A

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We present a case of a young woman traveler returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection. (Source: IDCases)

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Long term follow up study on a large group of patients with congenital factor XIII deficiency ...

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 19:30:00 +0100

Factor XIII deficiency (FXIIID) is an extremely rare hemorrhagic disorder with a prevalence of 1/3-5 million. Management of disease is performed by fresh frozen plasma (FFP), Cryoprecipitate (CP) or FXIII concentrate (Fibrogammin P®). Our objective was to assess safety and effectiveness of Fibrogammin P® in patients with FXIIID. For this purpose we designed this long-term follow up study on a large group of patients with FXIIID. This prospective study was conducted on 213 patients with FXIIID since 2009 to 2013. Administrated dose for Fibrogammin P® according to clinical situations of patients ranged from 10 to 26 IU/kg every 4 – 6 weeks. All patients in 6-month intervals were checked for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis A, B and C viruses (HAV, HBV, HCV).Twe...



Hepatitis A seroprevalence in preschool children in Assis Brazil, Acre, Brazil, in 2003 and 2010

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In the Brazilian Amazon, sanitation and water treatment still require improvement and socio-economic development is warranted in order to decrease hepatitis A transmission. (Source: International Health)



Tanzania: Worry As Hepatitis Becomes Silent Public Health Threat

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 10:41:31 +0100

[Citizen] Dar es Salaam -Hepatitis, a medical condition that affects the liver, is silently emerging into a major public health threat and experts say the disease is also hampering the efforts to tackle the scarcity of blood in the blood banks. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)



Autoimmune-Like Hepatitis: A "Hepatitic" Manifestation of Chronic Graft Versus Host Disease in Post-Stem Cell Transplant

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A 59-year-old female received a matched related donor stem cell transplant for chronic myelogenous leukemia. After being successfully treated with prednisone for chronic graft versus host disease that initially started 50 days posttransplant, she developed hepatic dysfunction during the steroid taper on day 531, as evidenced by jaundice, elevated liver enzymes, and increased bilirubin. Liver biopsy showed histology suggestive of autoimmune-like hepatitis, which is a rare manifestation of chronic "hepatitic" graft versus host disease. (Source: International Journal of Surgical Pathology)



Hepatitis A virus-encoded miRNAs attenuate the accumulation of viral genomic RNAs in infected cells

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, these data suggest a possible mechanism for the reduction of viral RNA synthesis during HAV infection. Thus, we propose that it is likely that RNA virus-derived miRNA could serve as a self-mediated feedback regulator during infection. (Source: Virus Genes)

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Performance Feedback Improves Compliance With Quality Measures

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Cirrhotic complications portend high morbidity and mortality and burden the health care system. Established quality measures in management of cirrhotics include screening for esophageal varices (EV), screening for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and hepatitis A and B immunization. A retrospective review was conducted to identify adherence to cirrhosis. Baseline rates were shared with providers. Compliance with quality measures was measured prospectively at 1-month, 2-month, 1-year, and 3-year follow-up after provision of performance feedback. Baseline HCC rate was 60%, EV was 68%, and hepatitis A and B immunization was 51% and 47%, respectively. After performance feedback, HCC, EV, and hepatitis A and B vaccination rates improved to rates ranging from 92% to 100% and remained statistically...



Disclosure of Sexual Orientation and Uptake of HIV Testing and Hepatitis Vaccination for Rural Men Who Have Sex With Men.

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: Our finding reinforces the need for safe, nonjudgmental settings for patients to discuss their sexual identities freely with their clinicians. PMID: 26951591 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Annals of Family Medicine)



Autoimmune hepatitis in a child presenting with hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS)

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this report, we discuss a case of HPS complicated AIH in a pediatric patient and review the relevant literature. (Source: Pediatric Transplantation)



LGBT health and vaccinations: Findings from a community health survey of Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, USA.

Sat, 27 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study reports the results of a 2012 Lexington-Fayette County, Kentucky, community health assessment's results asking about eight adult vaccinations among 218 lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered (LGBT) respondents. Researchers collected data using an online survey distributed through LGBT social media, posters, and LGBT print media. The LGBT sample largely matches the demographics of the county as a whole except this group reports higher level of education and fewer uninsured individuals. Among LGBT respondents, immunization prevalence reaches 68.0% (annual Influenza), 65.7% (Hepatitis B), 58.8% (Chickenpox/Varicella), 55.9% (Hepatitis A), 41.2% (Smallpox), and 25.8% (Pneumonia). Among respondents who are currently within the recommended 19-26 years age range for the Human Papill...



SEROLOGICAL DETECTION OF HEPATITIS A VIRUS IN FREE-RANGING NEOTROPICAL PRIMATES (Sapajus spp., Alouatta caraya) FROM THE PARANÁ RIVER BASIN, BRAZIL.

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Svoboda WK, Soares Mdo C, Alves MM, Rocha TC, Gomes EC, Menoncin F, Batista PM, Silva LR, Headley SA, Hilst CL, Aguiar LM, Ludwig G, Passos Fde C, Souza JC, Navarro IT Abstract Nonhuman primates are considered as the natural hosts of Hepatitis A virus (HAV), as well as other pathogens, and can serve as natural sentinels to investigate epizootics and endemic diseases that are of public health importance. During this study, blood samples were collected from 112 Neotropical primates (NTPs) (Sapajus nigritus and S. cay, n = 75; Alouatta caraya, n = 37) trap-captured at the Paraná River basin, Brazil, located between the States of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul. Anti-HAV IgG antibodies were detected in 4.5% (5/112) of NTPs, specifically in 6.7% (5/75) of Sapajus spp. and 0% (0...

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Application of the Extended Health Control Belief Model to Predict Hepatitis A and B Vaccinations

Fri, 26 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionDespite free vaccinations offered in an easily accessible community setting, the majority of participants failed to complete the hepatitis vaccine series. More effort is needed to get adult men to participate in hepatitis vaccination clinics. Additional research is necessary to understand barriers other than cost to adults receiving vaccination. (Source: Public Health Nursing)



Gallbladder and Pancreas in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: Review of the Literature

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 14:20:07 +0100

Conclusions: This analysis indicates that pancreato-biliary involvement is unusual in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. This complication deserves consideration in patients with especially severe abdominal pain. Finally, viral hepatitides and hepatitis vaccinations seem to be rare triggers of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)



Fever in a Traveler Returning from the Amazon. Do Not forget Hepatitis A)

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We present a case of a young woman traveller returning from the Amazon with splenomegaly, leukopenia, atypical lymphocytes, elevated LDH and minimally elevated serum transaminases who was found to have acute hepatitis A infection. (Source: IDCases)



Probable doxycycline-induced acute pancreatitis.

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 21:17:04 +0100

CONCLUSION: A man developed AP three days after starting therapy with oral doxycycline, and the association between drug and reaction was determined to be probable. His case appears to be the third of doxycycline-associated AP, although tigecycline, tetracycline, and minocycline have also been implicated as causes of AP. PMID: 26896500 [PubMed - in process] (Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP)



Identifying Flood-Related Infectious Diseases in Anhui Province, China: A Spatial and Temporal Analysis.

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Gao L, Zhang Y, Ding G, Liu Q, Jiang B Abstract The aim of this study was to explore infectious diseases related to the 2007 Huai River flood in Anhui Province, China. The study was based on the notified incidences of infectious diseases between June 29 and July 25 from 2004 to 2011. Daily incidences of notified diseases in 2007 were compared with the corresponding daily incidences during the same period in the other years (from 2004 to 2011, except 2007) by Poisson regression analysis. Spatial autocorrelation analysis was used to test the distribution pattern of the diseases. Spatial regression models were then performed to examine the association between the incidence of each disease and flood, considering lag effects and other confounders. After controlling the other me...

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The etiology of hypertransaminasemia in Turkish children.

Sun, 21 Feb 2016 07:48:02 +0100

Authors: Serdaroğlu F, Koca T, Dereci S, Akçam M Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the causes of elevated levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in children. We analyzed the medical records for children aged 3 months to 18 years who presented to the hospital with ALT >45 IU/L and/or AST >50 IU/L, between 2012 and 2014, for various reasons, including those not related to liver disease. In total, 281 children met the study criteria. This group comprised of 125 (44.5%) females and 156 (55.5%) males. At the presentation, the most common patient complaint was fatigue (53.4%), while 15.7% of the patients reported no symptoms. The most common findings on the physical examination were jaundice and hepatomegaly. In 15% of the ca...



Sandwich Immunoassays of Multicomponent Subtrace Pathogenic DNA Based on Magnetic Fluorescent Encoded Nanoparticles.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 15:51:02 +0100

Authors: Liu Y, Zhang X, E Y, Fang F, Kuang G, Wang G Abstract A novel magnetic fluorescent encoded nanoimmunoassay system for multicomponent detection and separation of the subtrace pathogenic DNA (hepatitis B virus surface gene, HBV; hepatitis A virus poly the protein gene, HAV) was established based on new type of magnetic fluorescent encoded nanoparticles and sandwich immunoassay principle. This method combines multifunctional nanoparticles, immunoassay technique, fluorescence labeling, and magnetic separation of multicomponent technology. It has many advantages such as high sensitivity, low detection limit, easy operation, and great potential for development. The results of this work show that, based on nanoimmunoassay system, it could quantitatively detect the multicomponent ...



Pattern of Hepatitis A Virus Epidemiology in Nursing Students and Adherence to Preventive Measures at Two Training Wards of a University Hospital

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 21:36:03 +0100

Conclusions: The high proportion of susceptible nursing students can contribute to an increase in the risk of nosocomial transmission, especially when specific preventive measures are not completely applied. Nursing education packages, before starting medical internship, should be implemented in order to increase their compliance to preventive measures, especially in wards at higher risk. Vaccination should be considered in wards at higher risk.,Background: Nursing students can be exposed to patients with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and can represent a vehicle of transmission both for health personnel, patients and relatives.,Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of HAV infection in nursing students during their internship.,Patients and Methods: A seroprevalence survey on HA...



Anti-infectious human vaccination in historical perspective.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:23:02 +0100

Authors: D'Amelio E, Salemi S, D'Amelio R Abstract A brief history of vaccination is presented since the Jenner's observation, through the first golden age of vaccinology (from Pasteur's era to 1938), the second golden age (from 1940 to 1970), until the current period. In the first golden age, live, such as Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG), and yellow fever, inactivated, such as typhoid, cholera, plague, and influenza, and subunit vaccines, such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids, have been developed. In the second golden age, the cell culture technology enabled polio, measles, mumps, and rubella vaccines be developed. In the era of modern vaccines, in addition to the conjugate polysaccharide, hepatitis A, oral typhoid, and varicella vaccines, the advent of molecular biology enabled t...



Role of viruses and other microbes in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:23:02 +0100

In conclusion, these microbial effects offer attractive possibilities for the development of preventive interventions for type 1 diabetes based on the elimination of triggering agents (e.g. enterovirus vaccines) or use of protective microbes as probiotics. PMID: 24611784 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: International Reviews of Immunology)

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Viral hepatitis: A new chimeric model of hepatitis E infection

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 13, 122 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2016.30 Author: Iain Dickson To improve our understanding of the mechanisms of hepatitis E virus (HEV) replication, a novel mouse model that is humanized using primary human hepatocytes has been established. The mice were infected with two HEV genotypes (1 and 3), and infection and spreading parameters were monitored (Source: Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology)



Detection by duplex rt-coupled nested pcr of hepatitis a and rotavirus in oysters from thailand east coast.

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 16:55:02 +0100

DETECTION BY DUPLEX RT-COUPLED NESTED PCR OF HEPATITIS A AND ROTAVIRUS IN OYSTERS FROM THAILAND EAST COAST. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2015 Jul;46(4):624-39 Authors: Intamaso U, Boonbanjong P, Wisunthorn S, Ong-in N, Keawpo B, Poomipak W Abstract Abstract. An efficient and rapid virus detection method is required for routine monitoring and risk assessment in food products. A duplex RT-coupled nested PCR method was developed to detect the simultaneous presence of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and rotavirus in commercial oysters from the eastern coast of Thailand. Primers were designed to amplify HAV VP4 and rotavirus VP7 genes. Although excess amounts of target template of one virus type interfered with RT-PCR am- plification of the other, this was overcome by ...



SUPPLEMENTS: Progress Toward Eliminating Hepatitis A Disease in the United States

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 17:56:25 +0100

(Source: CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)






Total hepatectomy and liver transplantation as a two-stage procedure for fulminant hepatic failure: A safe procedure in exceptional circumstances.

Wed, 10 Feb 2016 01:44:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Two-stage liver transplantation represents a safe and potentially life-saving treatment for carefully selected exceptional cases of fulminant hepatic failure. PMID: 26855693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: World Journal of Hepatology)

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Neonatal Jaundice with Splenomegaly: Not a Common Pick.

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 15:07:02 +0100

We present and discuss here a case of an infant with liver disease and splenomegaly that were not ascribed to NP-C, but to Gaucher disease type 2. Liver biopsy, enzymatic studies and whole exome sequencing allowed to make the diagnosis. Although rare, Gaucher disease can cause neonatal hepatitis. A prompt recognition is advocated. PMID: 26847548 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology)



Hepatitis A Infections Among Food Handlers in the United States, 1993-2011.

Sat, 06 Feb 2016 04:17:02 +0100

Authors: Sharapov UM, Kentenyants K, Groeger J, Roberts H, Holmberg SD, Collier MG Abstract We reviewed news reports of hepatitis A virus (HAV)-infected food handlers in the United States from 1993 to 2011 using the LexisNexis® search engine. Using U.S. news reports, we identified 192 HAV-infected food handlers who worked while infectious; of these HAV-infected individuals, 34 (18%) transmitted HAV to restaurant patrons. News reports of HAV-infected food handlers declined from 1993 to 2011. This analysis suggests that universal childhood vaccination contributed to the decrease in reports of HAV-infected food handlers, but mandatory vaccination of this group is unlikely to be cost-effective. PMID: 26843666 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Public Health Reports)



Surveillance of Vaccination Coverage Among Adult Populations - United States, 2014.

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 23:06:01 +0100

Authors: Williams WW, Lu PJ, O'Halloran A, Kim DK, Grohskopf LA, Pilishvili T, Skoff TH, Nelson NP, Harpaz R, Markowitz LE, Rodriguez-Lainz A, Bridges CB Abstract PROBLEM/CONDITION: Overall, the prevalence of illness attributable to vaccine-preventable diseases is greater among adults than among children. Adults are recommended to receive vaccinations based on their age, underlying medical conditions, lifestyle, prior vaccinations, and other considerations. Updated vaccination recommendations from CDC are published annually in the U.S. Adult Immunization Schedule. Despite longstanding recommendations for use of many vaccines, vaccination coverage among U.S. adults is low. REPORTING PERIOD: August 2013-June 2014 (for influenza vaccination) and January-December 2014 (for pneumoco...



Enteric viruses in surface water and sediment samples from the catchment area of Peri Lagoon, Santa Catarina State, Brazil.

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 19:53:02 +0100

This study demonstrated that enteric viruses are present in water and sediments and that the presence of infectious viruses should be investigated whenever possible for quantitative microbial risk assessment studies. Combined analyses of water and sediments are important for reliable public health risk analysis of recreational and lagoon waters. PMID: 26837838 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Water and Health)



More on autoimmune hepatitis and acute hepatitis A

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 09:19:59 +0100

No abstract available (Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)

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Hepatitis A seroprevalence in patients with chronic viral hepatitis in Konya, Turkey

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 09:19:58 +0100

Conclusion: At the end of the study, being older than 40 years and living in a rural area were found to be independent risk factors for anti-HAV IgG seropositivity. In conclusion, we recommend that patients younger than 40 years and/or those living in cities and having a chronic liver disease should be vaccinated with the hepatitis A vaccine. (Source: European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology)



HIV and Hepatitis Health Disparities Update: January 2016

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 20:21:26 +0100

New Roundup: 80% of Ryan White Program Clients Were Retained in Care and Achieved Viral Suppression in 2014 • Congress Lifts Ban on Syringe Exchange Funding, But Restrictions Remain • Inadequate Housing Is an Important Barrier to Effective HIV Medical Care, According to Systematic Review • Modifiable Risk Factors Implicated in High Rates of Non-HIV-Related Cancers Among Persons Living with HIV/AIDS • Modeling Study Examines Persistent Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection • VHA Study Finds Substantial Mental and Medical Health Disparities in Transgender Veterans • Global Fund Calls for Increased Resources to Help End AIDS, TB, and Malaria Epidemics. Featured Health Resources: • National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (February 7) • Recent Research on the Continuum of Car...



Study examines long-term effectiveness of hepatitis A vaccination in children

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 05:00:00 +0100

(Wiley) In a follow-up study of children who were vaccinated against hepatitis A virus at ages 6 to 21 months, most children who were vaccinated at 12 or 15 months continued to have anti-hepatitis A antibodies in their blood until at least age 15 to 16 years, (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)



Acute Liver failure caused by Hepatitis A virus with dengue coinfection

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016 Source:Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology Author(s): Sunil Taneja, Amritangsu Borakokty, Ajay Duseja, Radha Krishan Dhiman, Yogesh Chawla (Source: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology)



Dietary plant stanol ester consumption improves immune function in asthma patients: results of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial [Immunity]

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, we are among the first authors to show that plant stanol ester consumption improves the immune function in vivo in asthma patients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715675. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)

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Focal hepatic solid lesions incidentally detected on initial ultrasonography in 542 asymptomatic patients

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Focal hepatic solid lesions incidentally detected on initial ultrasonography were rarely malignant, especially in patients without these risk factors. Therefore, the knowledge of these risk factors and US features is important in order to make a differential diagnosis between benign and malignant focal hepatic lesions. (Source: Abdominal Imaging)






Liver pathology of hepatitis C, beyond grading and staging of the disease.

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Dhingra S, Ward SC, Thung SN Abstract Liver biopsy evaluation plays a critical role in management of patients with viral hepatitis C. In patients with acute viral hepatitis, a liver biopsy, though uncommonly performed, helps to rule out other non-viral causes of deranged liver function. In chronic viral hepatitis C, it is considered the gold standard in assessment of the degree of necroinflammation and the stage of fibrosis, to help guide treatment and determine prognosis. It also helps rule out any concomitant diseases such as steatohepatitis, hemochromatosis or others. In patients with chronic progressive liver disease with cirrhosis and dominant nodules, a targeted liver biopsy is helpful in differentiating a regenerative nodule from dysplastic nodule or hepatocellular ...



Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2016; 70:14-24 "MAVS protein and its interactions with hepatitis A, B and C viruses"

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 12:37:49 +0100

Mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) transmits activation signal of type I interferon (IFN) gene transcription in the molecular intracellular pathway, which depends on the protein encoded by retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) or melanoma differentiation-associated protein-5 (MDA-5). MAVS, as a signal molecule, performs an essential function in the development of an antiviral immune response. The molecule of MAVS consists of two domains: the N-terminal domain and the C-terminal domain. The N-terminal end of MAVS contains the caspase activation and recruitment domain (CARD). CARD is responsible for MAVS interaction with RIG-I and MDA-5, which act as cytosolic sensors detecting foreign viral genetic material in the host cell. After binding to viral RNA, RIG-I or MDA-5 activate...



Sanitary impact evaluation of drinking water in storage reservoirs in Moroccan rural area

Wed, 27 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016 Source:Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences Author(s): Aziz Faissal, Juan Parrado Rubio, Naaila Ouazzani, Mohammed Dary, Hamid Manyani, Bruno Rodríguez Morgado, Laila Mandi In Morocco, storage reservoirs are particular systems of water supply in rural areas. These reservoirs are fed with rainwater and/or directly from the river, which are very contaminated by several pathogen bacteria. They are used without any treatment as a drinking water by the surrounding population. In this context, the aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of consuming contaminated water stored in reservoirs on health status for six rural communities located in ASSIF El Mal, Southern East of Marrakech. This was investigated using a classical methodolo...

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Safety profile of etifoxine: A French pharmacovigilance survey

Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The objectives were to examine recent data on etifoxine‐related ADR by reviewing Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) recorded in France especially unexpected ADRs. Etifoxine‐related ICSRs were extracted from the French Pharmacovigilance database from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2012 and data from the marketing authorization holder up to 31 December 2011 were also obtained. Of the 350 cases retained for analysis, 123 (35%) were considered serious. Dermatological or acute hypersensitivity reactions were the most frequent ADRs (59%) mainly isolated cutaneous eruptions. However, there were 24 cases of severe toxidermia (DRESS in 5, erythema multiforme in 10 and Stevens–Johnson syndrome in 5) with etifoxine as the most suspected drug in 11 patients, and seven cases of vasculitis or seru...



Single-gene association between and autoimmune hepatitis: a novel genetic insight highlighting immunologic pathways to disease

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), an immune-mediated liver disease, originates as a consequence of interacting genetic and environmental risk factors. Treatment remains non-specific and prone to side effects. Deficiencies in regulatory T cell (Treg) function are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of AIH. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)



The impact of chronic carrier of hepatitis B virus on liver function in a 7-day ultramarathon race

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Compared to their counterparts, runners who are HBV carriers had significantly greater increases in levels of ALT, AST, and T-BIL during a 7-day ultramarathon, indicating that the liver function of carriers is more highly impacted in these races. (Source: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association)



Single-gene association between GATA-2 and autoimmune hepatitis: A novel genetic insight highlighting immunologic pathways to disease

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), an immune-mediated liver disease, originates as a consequence of interacting genetic and environmental risk factors. Treatment remains non-specific and prone to side effects. Deficiencies in regulatory T cell (Treg) function are hypothesized to contribute to the pathogenesis of AIH. (Source: Journal of Hepatology)



HIV and Hepatitis Health Disparities Update: January 2016

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 20:57:49 +0100

New Roundup: 80% of Ryan White Program Clients Were Retained in Care and Achieved Viral Suppression in 2014 • Congress Lifts Ban on Syringe Exchange Funding, But Restrictions Remain • Inadequate Housing Is an Important Barrier to Effective HIV Medical Care, According to Systematic Review • Modifiable Risk Factors Implicated in High Rates of Non-HIV-Related Cancers Among Persons Living with HIV/AIDS • Modeling Study Examines Persistent Racial/Ethnic Disparities in HIV Infection • VHA Study Finds Substantial Mental and Medical Health Disparities in Transgender Veterans • Global Fund Calls for Increased Resources to Help End AIDS, TB, and Malaria Epidemics. Featured Health Resources: • National Black HIV/AIDS Awareness Day (February 7) • Recent Research on the Continuum of Car...

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Imaging Based Methods of Liver Fibrosis Assessment in Viral Hepatitis: A Practical Approach.

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 04:26:03 +0100

Authors: Khallafi H, Qureshi K Abstract Liver fibrosis represents the repair mechanism in liver injury and is a feature of most chronic liver diseases. The degree of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis infections has major clinical implications and presence of advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis determines prognosis. Treatment initiation for viral hepatitis is indicated in most cases of advanced liver fibrosis and diagnosis of cirrhosis entails hepatology evaluation for specialized clinical care. Liver biopsy is an invasive technique and has been the standard of care of fibrosis assessment for years; however, it has several limitations and procedure related complications. Recently, several methods of noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis have been developed which require either...



International linkage of two food-borne hepatitis A clusters through traceback of mussels, the Netherlands, 2012

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, a small number of patients in a non-endemic area led to geographically dispersed hepatitis A outbreaks with food as vehicle. This link would have gone unnoticed without sequence analyses and international collaboration. (Source: Eurosurveillance)



Should Hepatitis A Vaccine Coverage be Expanded?

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)



International linkage of two food-borne hepatitis A clusters through traceback of mussels, the Netherlands, 2012.

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, a small number of patients in a non-endemic area led to geographically dispersed hepatitis A outbreaks with food as vehicle. This link would have gone unnoticed without sequence analyses and international collaboration. PMID: 26836217 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Euro Surveill)



Hepatitis A Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Seroprevalence Among Blood Donors in Tehran, Iran

Mon, 18 Jan 2016 14:47:35 +0100

Conclusions: The present study showed that both HAV and HEV infections are still endemic in Iran.,Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of HAV and HEV among a group of blood donors in Tehran, Iran.,Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed from July 2014 to December 2014, on a total of 559 blood donors referred to the Tehran blood transfusion center. The serum samples were tested for antibodies to HAV and HEV, using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.,Results: In the present study, 536 (95.9%) cases were male and 23 (4.1%) female with mean age of 38 years. Out of 559 blood donors, 107 (19.1%) were first-time donors, 163 (29.2%) lapsed donors and 289 (51.7%) regular donors. Anti-HAV was found in 395 (70.7%) and anti-HEV in 45 (8.1%) of t...

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Reappraisal of the Immunogenicity and Safety of Three Hepatitis A Vaccines in Adolescents.

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 17:44:03 +0100

In conclusion, all three vaccines are highly immunogenic and well-tolerated in Korean adolescents. (Clinical Trial Registry NCT00483470). PMID: 26770041 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Korean Medical Science)



Hepatitis A in Korea from 2011 to 2013: Current Epidemiologic Status and Regional Distribution.

Sat, 16 Jan 2016 17:44:03 +0100

Authors: Moon S, Han JH, Bae GR, Cho E, Kim B Abstract The hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been the leading cause of viral hepatitis in Korea since the 2000s. We aimed to describe the current status and regional differences in hepatitis A incidence. We studied the total number of hepatitis A cases reported to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention through the National Infectious Diseases Surveillance System between 2011 and 2013. Additionally, National Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service data and national population data from Statistics Korea were used. In total, 7,585 hepatitis A cases were reported; 5,521 (10.9 cases per 100,000 populations), 1,197 (2.3 cases per 100,000 populations), and 867 (1.7 cases per 100,000 populations) in 2011, 2012, and 2013, respec...



Dietary plant stanol ester consumption improves immune function in asthma patients: results of a randomized, double-blind clinical trial.

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, we are among the first authors to show that plant stanol ester consumption improves the immune function in vivo in asthma patients. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01715675. PMID: 26762374 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition)



Cancer incidence among alcoholic liver disease patients in Finland. A retrospective registry study during years 1996‐2013

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: International Journal of Cancer)



Auxiliary Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure.

Fri, 08 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Shanmugam NP, Al-Lawati T, Kelgeri C, Rela M Abstract BACKGROUND: Auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation is a technique where part of diseased native liver is removed and replaced with healthy donor liver so that, the left behind native liver could later regenerate. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: 2 year 6 month old girl with acute liver failure due to Hepatitis A. She underwent a successful auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation. OUTCOME: Successful native liver regeneration and immunosuppression withdrawal after two and half years of surgery. MESSAGE: In selective cases of acute liver failure, auxiliary partial orthotopic liver transplantation could provide a chance for native liver regeneration and immunosuppression-free life. PMID: 2684068...

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Ultrafiltration and Microarray Detect Microbial Source Tracking Marker and Pathogen Genes in Riverine and Marine Systems.

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Li X, Harwood VJ, Nayak B, Weidhaas J Abstract Pathogen identification and microbial source tracking (MST) to identify sources of fecal pollution improve evaluation of water quality. They contribute to improved assessment of human health risks and remediation of pollution sources. An MST microarray was used to simultaneously detect genes for multiple pathogens and indicators of fecal pollution in freshwater, marine water, sewage-contaminated fresh and marine water and treated wastewater. Dead-end ultrafiltration (DEUF) was used to concentrate organisms from water samples, yielding a recovery efficiency of > 95% for Escherichia coli and human polyomavirus. Whole genome amplification (WGA) increased gene copies from ultrafiltered samples and increased the sensitivity of t...



Cellular localization and effects of ectopically expressed hepatitis A virus proteins 2B, 2C, 3A and their intermediates 2BC, 3AB and 3ABC

Mon, 28 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we used rhesus monkey kidney cells, which are commonly used for cell culture experiments, and human liver cells, which are the natural target cells. We detected specific associations of these proteins with distinct membrane compartments and the cytoskeleton, different morphological alterations of the respective structures, and specific effects on cellular functions. Besides comparable findings in both cell lines used with regard to localization and effects of the proteins examined, we also found distinct differences. The data obtained identify so far undocumented interactions with and effects of the HAV proteins investigated on cellular components, which may reflect unknown aspects of the interaction of HAV with the host cell, for example the modification of the ERGIC (ER-Go...



Establishment and characterization of duck embryo epithelial (DEE) cell line and its use as a new approach toward DHAV-1 propagation and vaccine development.

Mon, 28 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Wang W, Said A, Wang Y, Fu Q, Xiao Y, Lv S, Shen Z Abstract The primary cell culture was derived from duck embryonic tissue, digested with collagenase type I. The existence of cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology, named duck embryo epithelial (DEE), were purified and optimally maintained at 37°C in M199 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. The purified cells were identified as epithelial cell line by detecting Keratin-18 expression using immunofluorescence assay. Our findings demonstrated that DEE cell line can be propagated in culture with (i) a great capacity to adhere, (ii) a great proliferation activity, and (iii) a population doubling time of approximately 18h. Chromosomal features of the DEE cell line were remained constant after the 50th passage...



Hepatitis A Virus Infection, Vaccination and Iranian Healthcare Workers

Sat, 26 Dec 2015 15:51:52 +0100

Conclusions: Available limited studies show that Iranian healthcare personnel need HAV vaccination. However, for selecting an appropriate preventive method for this high risk group, more original studies are still needed.,Results: A gradual shift in age of HAV infection has been seen from childhood toward adulthood. Data about HAV seropositivity among Iranian HCWs are very limited. However based on the recent studies, it seems that HAV seropositivity has been reduced among HCWs in comparison with the past. All recent studies have suggested HAV vaccination for HCWs.,Evidence Acquisition: For finding related articles, a comprehensive search was performed in Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar and all appropriate combinations of following keywords were considered; “healthcare provider”, “...



Production of False-Positive Immunoglobulin M Antibodies to Hepatitis A Virus in Autoimmune Events

Thu, 24 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Hepatitis C: A rare case report

Wed, 23 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This case report is to the first to document the association between acute HCV and AAC. Despite being uncommon in western countries, viral hepatitis should be suspected as a causative agent of AAC, particularly when there is abnormal liver function test and no biliary obstruction. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)



Postepy Hig Med Dosw 2015; 69:320-326 "Seroprevalence of anti-HEV IgG in 182 Polish patients"

Tue, 22 Dec 2015 00:23:54 +0100

Conclusions: HEV infection may occur in Poland. Anti-HAV seropositivity among Polish patients is significantly higher than anti-HEV. In contrast to HAV, HEV seroprevalence is similar in younger and older patients. The clinical course of HEV infection in Polish citizens seems to be largely asymptomatic. Polish HIV patients may be more commonly exposed to HEV than similar individuals from other countries. (Source: Postepy higieny i medycyny doswiadczalnej)



A hospital-based study of hepatic dysfunction in children with dengue fever

Sat, 19 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Tender hepatomegaly and elevated liver enzymes were seen more frequently in severe dengue. There was significant derangement between liver function and tender hepatomegaly. Altered liver function may be evident even in the absence of hepatomegaly. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)



Acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by Hepatitis C; a rare case report

Fri, 18 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This case report is to the first to document the association between acute HCV and AAC. Despite being uncommon in western countries, viral hepatitis should be suspected as a causative agent of AAC, particularly when there is abnormal liver function test and no biliary obstruction. (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)



Viruses, Vol. 7, Pages 6707-6715: The Dual Role of Exosomes in Hepatitis A and C Virus Transmission and Viral Immune Activation

Thu, 17 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article will review recent findings regarding these two viruses and outline how exosomes are involved in their transmission and immune sensing. (Source: Viruses)

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A 1-Year Study on the Detection of Human Enteric Viruses in New Caledonia

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This study reports for the first time the presence of NoV and other enteric viruses in New Caledonia and highlights the year-round presence of enteric viruses in the seawater of a popular beach. (Source: Food and Environmental Virology)



Prevalence and titre of antibodies against Hepatitis A virus in HIV-infected men having sex with men in Greece.

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 19:19:29 +0100

Authors: Kourkounti S, Paparizos V, Leuow K, Kyriakis K, Antoniou C Abstract Hepatitis A remains a serious vaccine-preventable disease for HIV patients. We tested 897 HIV-infected men having sex with men (MSM) for antibodies against hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) and measured the geometric mean antibody titres (GMTs) in a group of patients who received a hepatitis A vaccine and in patients with immunity to HAV due to infection in childhood. In all, 320 patients (35%) had positive anti-HAV antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that only age (p 0.001) and ethnic origin (OR 20.029, p 0.001) had a statistically significant effect on the presence of antibodies. In addition, age was a fairly sensitive (68.4%) and specific (64.2%) marker, patients being separated by the 36.5 years cut-of...



Safety and Immunogenicity of a Quadrivalent Meningococcal Conjugate Vaccine and Commonly Administered Vaccines After Coadministration

Sat, 12 Dec 2015 19:03:42 +0100

Conclusions: With no clinically relevant vaccine interactions or impact on vaccine reactogenicity or safety, these results support the coadministration of MenACWY-CRM with routine vaccines in all age groups. (Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal)



[Frequency of hepatitis a in children and adolescents from five cities of Peru].

Fri, 11 Dec 2015 21:24:55 +0100

Authors: Hernández R, Chaparro E, Díaz C, Carbajal M, Cieza É, Cerpa R Abstract In order to determine the frequency of hepatitis A in children and adolescents in the cities of Lima, Arequipa, Piura, Cajamarca and Iquitos, a descriptive cross-sectional study which measured serum anti-hepatitis A antibodies from 1,721 children and adolescents aged 1-15 years was performed. The overall frequency of positive serology was 50.5% (95% CI: 48.1 to 52.9), with lower rates for Lima at 37.4% (95% CI: 35.1 to 39.8) and higher rates for Iquitos at 68.7% (95% CI: 63.6 to 73.4). Seropositivity was higher in the group of 10-15 year-olds with 66.1% and in the socioeconomic status group E with 64.6%. We concluded that the cities studied have a pattern of intermediate endemicity. The frequency of ...



Rates of HIV and Hepatitis Infections in Clients Entering Heroin-Assisted Treatment between 2003 and 2013 and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Infection

Fri, 11 Dec 2015 04:43:47 +0100

Conclusion: Our results highlight the fact that efforts to prevent and test for infections and to promote vaccination against HAV and HBV in heroin users need to be continued.Eur Addict Res 2016;22:181-191 (Source: European Addiction Research)

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Hepatitis A virus loses orphan status [Microbiology]

Tue, 08 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The History of HAV Earliest descriptions of epidemic liver disease, most likely due to hepatitis A virus (HAV), can be found in ancient Chinese literature, and similar observations, often in association with conflict and social disruption, have appeared on many occasions. However, evidence that the infection was of viral etiology... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)



Nonprimate hepatitis A viruses [Microbiology]

Tue, 08 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an ancient and ubiquitous human pathogen recovered previously only from primates. The sole species of the genus Hepatovirus, existing in both enveloped and nonenveloped forms, and with a capsid structure intermediate between that of insect viruses and mammalian picornaviruses, HAV is enigmatic in its origins.... (Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)



Kawasaki Disease Masquerading as Hepatitis: A Diagnostic Challenge for Pediatricians

Mon, 07 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: Clinical Pediatrics)



Viral Hepatitis Among Non-Hispanic Asian Adults in the United States, 2011-2014.

Sat, 05 Dec 2015 05:44:04 +0100

This report provides 2011- 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) estimates on prevalence of antibody to HAV (from infection or immunization), past or current HBV infection, and current HCV infection, by race and Hispanic origin. PMID: 26633889 [PubMed - in process] (Source: NCHS data brief)

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Persistence of seropositivity among persons vaccinated for hepatitis A during infancy by maternal antibody status: 15‐year follow‐up

Sat, 05 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Most children vaccinated during early childhood available for sampling maintained seropositivity through ages 15‐16 years; however, seropositivity was less frequent among those starting vaccination at age 6 months and among maternal antibody‐positive participants who started vaccination at age 12 or 15 months. Overall, our findings support current vaccine recommendations and continued follow‐up of this cohort. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology)



WHO estimates global burden of foodborne diseases

Thu, 03 Dec 2015 09:51:11 +0100

3 December 2015 – The findings World Health Organization’s (WHO) estimates of the global burden of foodborne diseases — the most comprehensive report to date on the impact of contaminated food on health and well-being are announced today in Geneva. The report, which estimates the burden of foodborne diseases caused by 31 agents — bacteria, viruses, parasites, toxins and chemicals — states that each year as many as 600 million, or almost 1 in 10 people in the world, fall ill after consuming contaminated food. Of these, 420 000 people die, including 125 000 children under the age of 5 years. The Eastern Mediterranean Region has the third highest estimated burden of foodborne diseases per population, after the African and South-East Asia Regions. More than 100 million people living...



World Health Organization Global Estimates and Regional Comparisons of the Burden of Foodborne Disease in 2010

Thu, 03 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

by Arie H. Havelaar, Martyn D. Kirk, Paul R. Torgerson, Herman J. Gibb, Tine Hald, Robin J. Lake, Nicolas Praet, David C. Bellinger, Nilanthi R. de Silva, Neyla Gargouri, Niko Speybroeck, Amy Cawthorne, Colin Mathers, Claudia Stein, Frederick J. Angulo, Brecht Devleesschauwer, on behalf of World Health Organization Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group Illness and death from diseases caused by contaminated food are a constant threat to public health and a significant impediment to socio-economic development worldwide. To measure the global and regional burden of foodborne disease (FBD), the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), which here reports their first estimates of the incidence, mortality, and ...



Hepatitis A Associated with Chylothorax: An Uncommon Presentation of a Common Infection

Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This report highlights that pleural effusion associated with hepatitis A infection is usually a benign, self-limiting condition which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of pleural effusion or chylothorax in a patient with acute viral hepatitis. (Source: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics)