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MedWorm: Physiology



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Physiology



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 06:24:11 +0100

 



Venous hemodynamic changes in lower limb venous disease: the ULP consensus according to scientific evidence.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:01:01 +0100

Authors: Lee BB, Nicolaides A, Myers K, Meissner M Abstract There are excellent guidelines for clinicians to manage venous diseases but few reviews to assess their hemodynamic background. Hemodynamic concepts that evolved in the past have largely remained unchallenged in recent decades, perhaps due to their often complicated nature and in part due to emergence of new diagnostic techniques. Duplex ultrasound scanning and other imaging techniques which evolved in the latter part of the 20th century have dominated investigation. They have greatly improved our understanding of the anatomical patterns of venous reflux and obstruction. However, they do not provide the physiological basis for understanding the hemodynamics of flow, pressure, compliance and resistance. Hemodynamic investig...

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mTOR complex-2 stimulates acetyl-CoA and de novo lipogenesis through ATP citrate lyase in HER2/PIK3CA-hyperactive breast cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chen Y, Qian J, He Q, Zhao H, Toral-Barza L, Shi C, Zhang X, Wu J, Yu K Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of cell growth and is frequently dysregulated in cancer. While mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) is a validated cancer target, the role of mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) remains less defined. Here, we reveal mTORC2 as a critical regulator of breast cancer metabolism. We showed that hyperphosphorylation in ATP citrate lyase (ACL) occurs frequently in human breast tumors and correlates well with HER2+ and/or PIK3CA-mutant (HER2+/PIK3CAmut) status in breast tumor cell lines. In HER2+/PIK3CAmut cells, mTORC2 controls Ser-455 phosphorylation of ACL thereby promoting acetyl-CoA production, de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial physiology, all of which w...



Activity-dependent plasticity in the isolated embryonic avian brainstem following manipulations of rhythmic spontaneous neural activity

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology Author(s): Michael A. Vincen-Brown, Ann L. Revill, Jason Q. Pilarski When rhythmic spontaneous neural activity (rSNA) first appears in the embryonic chick brainstem and cranial nerve motor axons it is principally driven by nicotinic neurotransmission (NT). At this early age, the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine is known to critically disrupt rSNA at low concentrations (0.1-0.5μM), which are levels that mimic the blood plasma levels of a fetus following maternal cigarette smoking. Thus, we quantified the effect of persistent exposure to exogenous nicotine on rSNA using an in vitro developmental model. We found that rSNA was eliminated by continuous bath applic...



Dry matter and digesta particle size gradients along the goat digestive tract on grass and browse diets

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:22:19 +0100

Summary Physical properties of the digesta vary along the ruminant digestive tract. They also vary within the forestomach, leading to varying degrees of rumen contents stratification in ‘moose‐type’ (browsing) and ‘cattle‐type’ (intermediate and grazing) ruminants. We investigated the dry matter concentration (DM) and the mean digesta particle size (MPS) within the forestomach and along the digestive tract in 10 goats fed grass hay or dried browse after a standardized 12‐h fast, euthanasia and freezing in the natural position. In all animals, irrespective of diet, DM showed a peak in the omasum and an increase from caecum via colon towards the faeces and a decrease in MPS between the reticulum and the omasum. Both patterns are typical for ruminants in general. In the forestom...



Spatial data warehouses and spatial OLAP come towards the cloud: design and performance

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:07:09 +0100

Abstract Cloud computing systems handle large volumes of data by using almost unlimited computational resources, while spatial data warehouses (SDWs) are multidimensional databases that store huge volumes of both spatial data and conventional data. Cloud computing environments have been considered adequate to host voluminous databases, process analytical workloads and deliver database as a service, while spatial online analytical processing (spatial OLAP) queries issued over SDWs are intrinsically analytical. However, hosting a SDW in the cloud and processing spatial OLAP queries over such database impose novel obstacles. In this article, we introduce novel concepts as cloud SDW and spatial OLAP as a service, and afterwards detail the design of novel schemas for cloud SDW and spa...



On visualizing large multidimensional datasets with a multi-threaded radial approach

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:07:09 +0100

Abstract In this paper, we study how to visualize large amounts of multidimensional data with a radial visualization. For such a visualization, we study a multi-threaded implementation on the CPU and the GPU. We start by reviewing the approaches that have visualized the largest multidimensional datasets and we focus on the approaches that have used CPU or GPU parallelization. We consider the radial visualizations and we describe our approach (called POIViz) that uses points of interest to determine a layout of a large dataset. We detail its parallelization on the CPU and the GPU. We study the efficiency of this approach with different configurations and for large datasets. We show that it can visualize, in less than one second, millions of data with tens of dimensions, and that i...



Scalable graph-based OLAP analytics over process execution data

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:07:09 +0100

We report on experiments performed on both synthetic and real-world datasets that show the viability and efficiency of the approach. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)



Chronos: a NoSQL system on flash memory for industrial process data

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:07:09 +0100

Abstract Within Électricité de France (EDF) hydroelectric power stations, IGCBoxes are industrial mini PCs dedicated to industrial process data archiving. These equipments expose distinctive features, mainly on their storage system based exclusively on flash memory due to environmental constraints. This type of memory had notable consequences on data acquisition performance, with a substantial drop compared with hard disk drives. In this setting, we have designed Chronos, an open-source NoSQL system for sensor data management on flash memories. Chronos includes an efficient quasi-sequential write pattern along with an index management technique adapted for process data management. As a result, Chronos supports a higher velocity for inserted data, with acquisition rates improved...

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Guest Editorial: A Special Issue in Physical Design for Big Data Warehousing and Mining

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:07:09 +0100

(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)



Benchmarking SQL on MapReduce systems using large astronomy databases

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 15:07:09 +0100

Abstract In the era of bigdata, with a massive set of digital information of unprecedented volumes being collected and/or produced in several application domains, it becomes more and more difficult to manage and query large data repositories. In the framework of the PetaSky project (http://com.isima.fr/Petasky), we focus on the problem of managing scientific data in the field of cosmology. The data we consider are those of the LSST project (http://www.lsst.org/). The overall size of the database that will be produced is expected to exceed 60 PB (Lsst data challenge handbook, 2012). In order to evaluate the performances of existing SQL On MapReduce data management systems, we conducted extensive experiments by using data and queries from the area of cosmology. The goal of this wo...



Biomechanical behavior of brain injury caused by sticks using finite element model and Hybrid-III testing - Li K, Wang J, Liu S, Su S, Feng C, Fan X, Yin Z.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

In this study, the Hybrid-III anthropomorphic test device and finite element model (FEM) of the total human ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Patterned injury due to flash suppressor: a case report - Tatiya HS, Jadhao VT, Taware AA, Bandgar AL.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

In cases of contact or near contact firearm injury due to a rifled weapon fitted with a flash suppressor, the emerging soot-laden gas in the barrel escapes from the slits of the flash suppressor. This produces a characteristic patterned injury; like petals... (Source: SafetyLit)



Management of Respiratory Failure

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 07:44:23 +0100

The management of acute respiratory failure varies according to the etiology. A clear understanding of physiology of respiration and pathophysiological mechanisms of respiratory failure is mandatory for managing these patients. The extent of abnormality in arterial blood gas values is a result of the balance between the severity of disease and the degree of compensation by cardiopulmonary system. Normal blood gases do not mean that there is an absence of disease because the homeostatic system can compensate. However, an abnormal arterial blood gas value reflects uncompensated disease that might be life threatening. (Source: Critical Care Nursing Quarterly)



iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis reveals the mechanisms of silicon-mediated cadmium tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) cells

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 104 Author(s): Jie Ma, Huachun Sheng, Xiuli Li, Lijun Wang Silicon (Si) can alleviate cadmium (Cd) stress in rice (Oryza sativa) plants, however, the understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the single-cell level remains limited. To address these questions, we investigated suspension cells of rice cultured in the dark environment in the absence and presence of Si with either short- (12 h) or long-term (5 d) Cd treatments using a combination of isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ), fluorescent staining, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). We identified 100 proteins differentially regulated by Si under the short- or long-term Cd stress. 70% of these proteins...



Phenolic compounds as indicators of drought resistance in shrubs from Patagonian shrublands (Argentina)

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 104 Author(s): M. Celeste Varela, Idris Arslan, Mariana A. Reginato, Ana M. Cenzano, M. Virginia Luna Summary Plants exposed to drought stress, as usually occurs in Patagonian shrublands, have developed different strategies to avoid or tolerate the lack of water during their development. Production of phenolic compounds (or polyphenols) is one of the strategies used by some native species of adverse environments to avoid the oxidative damage caused by drought. In the present study the relationship between phenolic compounds content, water availability and oxidative damage were evaluated in two native shrubs: Larrea divaricata (evergreen) and Lycium chilense (deciduous) of Patagonian shrublands by their mean...

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Seasonal dynamic of morpho-physiological properties and the lipid composition of Plantago media (Plantaginaceae) in the Middle Volga region

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: July 2016 Source:Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, Volume 104 Author(s): Olga Rozentsvet, Tatyana Grebenkina, Viktor Nesterov, Elena Bogdanova The changes in morpho-physiological properties and lipid composition have been studied in the leaves of the plant Plantago media collected from two different places in the Middle Volga region during the summer of 2010. The plants gathered from the first plot (P1 plants) grew on plain ground in the midst of typical meadow-steppe perennial plants. The plants of the second group (P2 plants) grew on a flat slope of the South–West exposition, in the grass community. The leaves of the plants Р1 had lower specific area densities but larger areas and masses; they accumulated more levels lipid peroxide products. The changes in lip...



Acute effects of exercise under different levels of blood-flow restriction on muscle activation and fatigue

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Muscular activation, as well as neuromuscular fatigue, varies as a function of relative BFR intensity. Therefore, the individual determination of vascular restriction levels is crucial before engaging in BFR exercise. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)



Lower thermal sensation in normothermic and mildly hyperthermic older adults

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Skin warmth detection thresholds at forearm and whole body warmth perception under NT and HT and skin cold detection thresholds at forearm under NT deteriorated with aging. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)



Clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) improved blood and hepatic antioxidant indices in laying hens receiving low n‐6 to n‐3 ratios

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different levels of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) powder and vitamin E on serum lipid profile, enzyme activities and antioxidant indices, as well as hepatic biochemical and histological alterations in laying hens receiving different n‐6 to n‐3 ratios. A total of 160 laying hens, 43 weeks of age, were allotted to 8 experimental diets with 5 cages of 4 birds each. Dietary treatments consisted of two ratios of n‐6 to n‐3 (16.71 and 2.35), three levels of clove bud (0.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg) and a high vitamin E level (200 mg/kg, as a positive control in each level of n‐6 to n‐3 ratio) in a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement during 70 days of the experiment. Results showed that a decline in the n‐6 to n‐3 ratio led to a red...



A novel approach for measuring energy expenditure of a single sit-to-stand movement

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This study demonstrated that the EE of an instantaneous movement can be quantified by relating the gross EE and different frequencies of movement. Using this method, we quantified the EE of an STS, which varied depending on participants’ anthropometrics. Mets of repetitive STS movement ranged from 2.6 to 7.2. This physiological profile is useful when performing repetitive STS movements as a form of exercise. (Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)



Natural chemopreventive alternatives in oral cancer chemoprevention.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Scrobota I, Bolfa P, Filip AG, Catoi C, Alb C, Pop O, Tatomir C, Baciut G Abstract We studied the effect of grape seed extract Burgund Mare (BM) on oral carcinogenesis and compared it with that of curcumin (CU). Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 10): 4-nitro-quinoline-1-oxide (4NQO) oral carcinogenesis was induced to groups 1 - 5; groups 2 and 3 received BM and CU respectively during initiation and groups 4 and 5 BM and CU during post-initiation of carcinogenesis; group 6 represented the negative control group. Total malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were assayed fluorometrically in oral tissue (gingival, jugal, palatal, lingual mucosa) and serum. Histopathological exam was performed and a dysplasia score given to each oral mucosal lesion. Ki6...



Expression of neurotrophins and their receptors in human CD34+ bone marrow cells.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Paczkowska E, Piecyk K, Luczkowska K, Kotowski M, Roginska D, Pius-Sadowska E, Oronowicz K, Ostrowski M, Machalinski B Abstract Bone marrow (BM) CD34+ cells have the ability to secrete growth factors, cytokines, and chemotactic factors. We sought to better characterize this population and to investigate whether human BM CD34+ cells express neurotrophins (NTs) and their relevant receptors. We also compared their expression levels with BM nucleated cells (NCs). BM CD34+ cells were evaluated with respect to the expression levels of neurotrophins using qRT-PCR, immunofluorescent staining, and Western blotting. Next, the expression of specific (TrkA, TrkB, TrkC) and non-specific (p75NTR) neurotrophin receptors was detected by qRT-PCR and immunofluorescent staining in BM CD34+ c...

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Changes in contractile properties and action potentials of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle during maturation.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Dobrzynska Z, Celichowski J Abstract The early phase of development of muscles stops following the disappearance of embryonic and neonatal myosin and the elimination of polyneuronal innervation of muscle fibres with the formation of motor units (MUs), but later the muscle mass still considerably increases. It is unknown whether the three types are visible among newly formed MUs soon after the early postnatal period and whether their proportion is similar to that in adult muscle. Moreover, the processes responsible for MU-force regulation by changes in motoneuronal firing rate as well as properties of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) during maturation are unknown. Three groups of Wistar rats were investigated - 1 month old, 2 months old and the adult, 9 months old. The ...



Genistein alleviates testicular ischemia and reperfusion injury-induced spermatogenic damage and oxidative stress by suppressing abnormal testicular matrix metalloproteinase system via the Notch 2/Jagged 1/Hes-1 and caspase-8 pathways.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Al-Maghrebi M, Renno WM Abstract The aim of the study is to examine the role of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors (TIMP) during testicular ischemia/reperfusion (t I/R). The involvement of the Notch pathway, and their modulation by the antioxidant genistein is also studied. Three groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: sham rats, t I/R rats, and genistein-treated rats (10 mg/kg). The t I/R rat model underwent testicular artery occlusion of the left testis and was subjected to 60 min ischemia followed by 4 h reperfusion. Protein expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2 were measured in testicular tissue. Histological examination was performed to assess spermatogenesis. Protein levels of Notch 2, Jagged 1, and hairy/enhancer of split 1 (hes-1) ...



Pharmacological characterization of lipidized analogs of prolactin-releasing peptide with a modified C- terminal aromatic ring.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

In this study, myristoylated and palmitoylated PrRP31 analogs with a modified C-terminal Phe were designed and tested. Lipidized analogs containing Phe(31) replaced by aromatic non-coded amino acids or tyrosine revealed high binding affinity to rat pituitary RC-4B/C cells with endogenous PrRP and neuropeptide FF 2 receptors and to CHO-K1 cells overexpressing either PrRP or neuropeptide FF 2 receptors. The analogs also showed strong agonistic properties at the GPR10 receptor using the beta-lactamase reporter gene assay. Moreover, lipidized PrRP analogs, especially those that were palmitoylated, demonstrated strong and long-lasting anorexigenic effects in fasted mice after subcutaneous administration. The most efficient PrRP31 analogs with PheCl2(31), either palmitoylated or myristoylated at...



Dynamics of the melatonin MT1 receptor in the rat parotid gland upon melatonin administration.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Isola M, Ekstrom J, Lilliu MA, Isola R, Loy F Abstract Our recent ultrastructural study of human parotid glands revealed that the melatonin receptors, MT1 and MT2, are localised in the plasma cell membranes of acinar and ductal cells but also, and intriguingly, predominantly in acinar secretory granules, giving rise to the working hypothesis that secretory granules are a part of a transcytotic transport system for melatonin. To put this hypothesis to the test in rat parotid glands, anaesthetised animals were exposed to a high melatonin dose (3 mg/kg per hour), infused intravenously over two hours and aiming to stimulate a glandular melatonin-receptor-dependent intracellular transport system, if any. Thirty minutes later, the right parotids were removed. Pre-stimulation, le...



Effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors on fibrosis in patients with alcoholic chronic pancreatitis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Madro A, Kurzepa J, Celinski K, Slomka M, Czechowska G, Kurzepa J, Kazmierak W, Buszewicz G, Ciesielka M, Madro R Abstract Chronic pancreatitis (CP) results in impairment of exocrine as well as endocrine functions and progressive fibrosis. Previous studies, have demonstrated the presence of renin-angiotensin system receptors within different pancreatic cells. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors on serum levels of fibrosis biomarkers (matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP- 1, TIMP-2), hyaluronic acid (HA)) and fasting glucose levels in patients with alcoholic CP. Seventy seven outpatients (mean age 43 years, 62 males) with diagnosed alcoholic CP were randomly enrolled in...

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The role of the tissue plasminogen activator as a prognostic and differentiation factor in patients with pancreatic canceer and chronic pancreatitis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Baluka D, Urbanek T, Lekstan A, Swietochowska E, Wiaderkiewicz R, Kajor M, Jedrzejewska-Szypulka H, Kusnierz K, Lampe P Abstract Unsatisfactory pancreatic cancer treatment outcomes have prompted multiple avenues of research focused on identifying not only biomarkers of pancreatic adenocarcinoma progression but also potential prognostic survival factors in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Study consisted of 75 patients who underwent pancreatic resections between 2006 and 2011: 35 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC), 30 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and a non-malignant control group (NMCG) of 10 patients who underwent surgery due to benign tumors. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) concentrations in tissue homogenates and sera were evaluat...



The renin-angiotensin system and its vasoactive metabolite angiotensin-(1-7) in the mechanism of the healing of preexisting gastric ulcers. The involvement of Mas receptors, nitric oxide, prostaglandins and proinflammatory cytokines.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Pawlik MW, Kwiecien S, Ptak-Belowska A, Pajdo R, Olszanecki R, Suski M, Madej J, Targosz A, Konturek SJ, Korbut R, Brzozowski T Abstract The inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) or the blockade of angiotensin (Ang) AT-1 receptors affords protection against acute gastric mucosal injury, but whether the major metabolite of renin-angiotensin system (RAS), Ang-(1-7), accelerates the healing process of preexisting gastric ulcers remains unknown. Previous studies documented that Ang-(1-7) acting via its own Mas receptor exerts vascular responses opposing those of Ang II. We studied the effects of the Ang-(1-7)/Mas receptor axis on the healing rate of acetic-acid-induced gastric ulcers with or without the blockade of Mas receptors by A 779 and compared it with the ef...



Involvement of the histaminergic system in the resuscitating effect of centrally acting leptin in haemorrhagic shock in rats.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

In conclusion, the histaminergic system is involved in centrally-acting leptin-induced resuscitating effect in haemorrhagic shock in rats. PMID: 27010896 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology)



Effects of surfactant/budesonide therapy on oxidative modifications in the lung in experimental meconium-induced lung injury.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

In conclusion, budesonide added into surfactant enhanced effect of therapy on oxidative damage of the lung. PMID: 27010895 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology)



Regular exercise alleviates renovascular hypertension-induced cardiac/endothelial dysfunction and oxidative injury in rats.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Kumral ZN, Sener G, Ozgur S, Koc M, Suleymanoglu S, Hurdag C, Yegen BC Abstract The importance of physical activity in the management of renovascular diseases is well-known, but lacks evidence of underlying mechanisms. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the protective/therapeutic effects of regular exercise on experimental renovascular hypertension (RVH)-induced oxidative stress and cardiac dysfunction. Wistar albino rats underwent a RVH surgery (2K1C, Goldblatt). Three weeks later half of the rats started swimming exercise for 9 weeks (n = 15), while the sedentary RVH group (n = 15) had no exercise during that period. Sham-operated control rats (n = 10), had the similar surgical procedures but the left renal artery was left unclipped. Body weights were monitored, a...

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Enhanced expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in the myocardium ameliorates the progression of left ventricular hypertrophy in L-arginine treated Wistar-Kyoto rats.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Ahmad A, Sattar MA, Rathore HA, Abdulla MH, Khan SA, Abdullah NA, Johns EJ Abstract The present study investigated the role of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) enzyme in the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in Wistar-Kyoto rats. The effect of L-arginine administration on cardiac structure, arterial stiffness, renal and systemic hemodynamic parameters was studied and the change in expression of eNOS and cystathione γ lyase (CSE) in the myocardium of LVH rats was evaluated. LVH was induced using isoprenaline (5 mg/kg, S.C.) and caffeine (62 mg/L in drinking water) for 14 days. Following to that, L-arginine (1.25g/L in drinking water) was given for 5 weeks as a donor of NO. eNOS and CSE gene expressions were down regulated in the LVH group by about 3...



Latest aspects of aldosterone actions on the heart muscle.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Kritis AA, Gouta CP, Liaretidou EI, Kallaras KI Abstract The genomic action of aldosterone has already been known to the scientific community and is well-documented to a satisfactory degree. However, the existence of rapid, non-genomic aldosterone actions has repeatedly been proven. These actions are apparent to a lot of tissues, among which the cardiac tissue, with the cardiac cells being responsible for the secretion of endogenous aldosterone. In the genomic pathway, the connection between the hormone and its receptor results increased reabsorption of sodium and water and excretion of potassium. Thus, the genomic procedure reacts indirectly on cardiovascular system by altering the blood pressure. New studies have shed light on unknown aspects of the non-genomic mechanism...



Overview of the role of vitamins and minerals on the kynurenine pathway in health and disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:51:02 +0100

Authors: Majewski M, Kozlowska A, Thoene M, Lepiarczyk E, Grzegorzewski WJ Abstract The kynurenine pathway (KP) of L-tryptophan metabolism produces several neuroactive metabolites with an amino acid structure. These metabolites may play an important role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, schizophrenia, AIDS-dementia complex, depression, epilepsy and the aging process. Modulation of the KP through inhibition or stimulation of enzyme synthesis and activity can be an alternative approach to traditional therapy. Furthermore, it may be responsible for the altered functioning of the enteric nervous system and the central nervous system. There is evidence that the KP is sensitive to changes in the concentrat...



NonLocal via Local–NonLinear via Linear: A New Part-coding Distance Field via Screened Poisson Equation

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:43:08 +0100

Abstract Interesting phenomena in shape perception is nonlocal and nonlinear. Thus, it is crucial that a shape perception system exhibits a nonlocal and nonlinear behaviour. From the computational point of view, however, neither nonlinearity nor nonlocality is desired. We propose a repeated use of Screened Poisson PDE (leading to a sparse linear system) to compute a part coding and extracting distance field, a mapping from the shape domain \(\varOmega \subset R^n\) to the real line. Despite local and linear computations, the field exhibits highly nonlinear and nonlocal behaviour, leading to efficient and robust coding of both the local and the global structures. The proposed computation scheme is applicable to shapes in arbitrary...



Did you know? Neocytolysis, how to halt EPO

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:43:06 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Physiologica)






A quality improvement project in balance and vestibular rehabilitation and its effect on clinical outcomes - ALMohiza MA, Sparto PJ, Marchetti GF, Delitto A, Furman JM, Miller DL, Whitney SL.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Unwarranted variation in practice is among the principal contributors of suboptimal outcomes in health care. This variation can be minimized via quality improvement initiatives. However, quality improvement projects focus mostly on ... (Source: SafetyLit)



A simple test of choice stepping reaction time for assessing fall risk in people with multiple sclerosis - Tijsma M, Vister E, Hoang P, Lord SR.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

PURPOSE To determine (a) the discriminant validity for established fall risk factors and (b) the predictive validity for falls of a simple test of choice stepping reaction time (CSRT) in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD People with MS (n... (Source: SafetyLit)



Intra-individual gait pattern variability in specific situations: implications for forensic gait analysis - Ludwig O, Dillinger S, Marschall F.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

In this study, inter- and intra-individual gait pattern differences are examined in various gait situations by means of phase diagrams of the extremity angles (cyclograms). 8 test subjects walked along a walking distance of 6m under different conditions th... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Meta-analysis of the serotonin transporter promoter variant (5-HTTLPR) in relation to adverse environment and antisocial behavior - Tielbeek JJ, Karlsson Linnér R, Beers K, Posthuma D, Popma A, Polderman TJ.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Several studies have suggested an association between antisocial, aggressive, and delinquent behavior and the short variant of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR). Yet, genome wide and candidate gene studies in humans have not convincing... (Source: SafetyLit)



Physical and verbal aggressive behavior and COMT genotype: sensitivity to the environment - Tuvblad C, Narusyte J, Comasco E, Andershed H, Andershed AK, Colins OF, Fanti KA, Nilsson KW.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype has been implicated as a vulnerability factor for several psychiatric diseases as well as aggressive behavior, either directly, or in interaction with an adverse environment. The present study aimed at investiga... (Source: SafetyLit)



Plasma oxytocin concentration and depressive symptoms: a review of current evidence and directions for future research - Massey SH, Backes KA, Schuette SA.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

There is substantial recent interest in the role of oxytocin in social and affiliative behaviors-animal models of depression have suggested a link between oxytocin and mood. We reviewed literature to date for evidence of a potential relationship between pe... (Source: SafetyLit)



Postural instability and falls in Parkinson's disease - Crouse JJ, Phillips JR, Jahanshahi M, Moustafa AA.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Postural instability (PI) is one of the most debilitating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), as it is associated with an increased risk of falls and subsequent medical complications (e.g. fractures), fear of falling, decreased mobility, self-restr... (Source: SafetyLit)



Predicting and preventing injury in Major League Baseball - Erickson BJ, Chalmers PN, Bush-Joseph CA, Romeo AA.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Major League Baseball (MLB) players are at significant risk for both chronic, repetitive overuse injuries as well as acute traumatic injuries. Pitchers have been shown to be at higher risk for sustaining injuries, especially upper extremity injuries, than ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Review of transcranial photobiomodulation for major depressive disorder: targeting brain metabolism, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neurogenesis - Cassano P, Petrie SR, Hamblin MR, Henderson TA, Iosifescu DV.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

We examined the use of near-infrared and red radiation (photobiomodulation, PBM) for treating major depressive disorder (MDD). While still experimental, preliminary data on the use of PBM for brain disorders are promising. PBM is low-cost with potential fo... (Source: SafetyLit)



Towards a determination of the physiological characteristics distinguishing successful mixed martial arts athletes: a systematic review of combat sport literature - James LP, Haff GG, Kelly VG, Beckman EM.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

BACKGROUND: Mixed martial arts (MMA) is a combat sport underpinned by techniques from other combat disciplines, in addition to strategies unique to the sport itself. These sports can be divided into two distinct categories (grappling or striking) based on ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Archaeal Community Changes Associated with Cultivation of Amazon Forest Soil with Oil Palm.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:21:02 +0100

This study compared soil archaeal communities of the Amazon forest with that of an adjacent area under oil palm cultivation by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Species richness and diversity were greater in native forest soil than in the oil palm-cultivated area, and 130 OTUs (13.7%) were shared between these areas. Among the classified sequences, Thaumarchaeota were predominant in the native forest, whereas Euryarchaeota were predominant in the oil palm-cultivated area. Archaeal species diversity was 1.7 times higher in the native forest soil, according to the Simpson diversity index, and the Chao1 index showed that richness was five times higher in the native forest soil. A phylogenetic tree of unclassified Thaumarchaeota sequences showed that most of the OTUs belong to Miscellaneo...



[Correspondence] Medical education and medical professionalism in China

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:07:08 +0100

In October, 2015, Youyou Tu, a Chinese medical researcher, won the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology for her discovery of artemisinin as an anti-malarial therapy.1 This announcement has drawn national attention and caused fierce controversy in the scientific community in mainland China. (Source: LANCET)



Mental Fatigue Impairs Technical Performance in Small-Sided Soccer Games.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Mental fatigue impairs technical, but not physical performance in small-sided soccer games. PMID: 27003948 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)

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3-Min All-Out Test in Swimming.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: 3MT is a valid protocol for swimming to estimate CS. The demonstrated concurrent validity of the 3MT may allow more widespread use of CSM to evaluate participants and responses to training. PMID: 27003111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



The Decremental Protocol as an Alternative Protocol to Measure VO2max in Athletes.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the decremental protocol does not elicit higher VO2max than an incremental protocol but may be used as an alternative protocol to measure VO2max in runners and triathletes. PMID: 27002933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



The Relationship Between Whole-Body External Loading and Body-Worn Accelerometry During Team Sports Movements.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Whilst body-worn accelerometry correlates to whole-body loading in team sports movements and can reveal useful estimates concerning loading, these correlations are not strong. Body-worn acclerometry should therefore be used with caution to monitor whole-body mechanical loading in the field. PMID: 27002795 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



Concurrent Validity of GPS for Deriving Mechanical Properties of Sprint Acceleration.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the concurrent validity for all variables derived from 20 Hz GPS measurements was better than that obtained from the 5 Hz GPS units. However, in the current state of GPS devices accuracy for speed-time measurements over a maximal sprint acceleration, we recommend that radar, laser devices and timing gates remain the reference methods for implementing Samozino et al.'s computations. PMID: 27002693 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



Validity of a Simple Method for Measuring Force-Velocity-Power Profile in Countermovement Jump.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the simple method presented here is valid and reliable for computing CMJ force, velocity, power, and force-velocity profiles in athletes and could be used in practice under field conditions when body mass, push-off distance, and jump height are known. PMID: 27002490 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)

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Changes in Strength, Power and Speed Across a Season in English County Cricketers.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that both the demands of the competitive cricket season and current in-season training practices do not provide a sufficient stimulus to maintain strength, jump, and sprint performances in these cricketers. Therefore, coaches should implement a more frequent, higher load strength training program across the competitive cricket season. PMID: 27002385 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



Maximal Aerobic Power Assessment is Dependent of the Nature of the Pedalling Activity.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that PO depends on the nature of the pedalling activity. Moreover, PO under CE TT4 is a relevant predictor of MAP. It seems to be important to measure the MAP by taking into account the cycling conditions, considering that coaches and scientists use this parameter to assess the aerobic potential of athletes and determine the exercise intensities useful for monitoring adaptation to training. PMID: 27002343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



Longitudinal Changes and Seasonal Variation in Body Composition in Professional Australian Football Players.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Early career players may benefit from greater emphasis upon specific nutrition and resistance training strategies aimed at increasing FFSTM, whilst all players should balance training and diet towards the end of season to minimise increases in FM. PMID: 27002304 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



Player Load in Elite Netball: Match, Training and Positional Comparisons.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:19:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Accelerometry is a valuable method of measuring player load in netball and the present results provide new information about the activity profile of different playing positions. PMID: 27001768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance)



The Role of Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Growth, Injury and Disease.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:05:03 +0100

This article will discuss the shared and distinct processes that LIFR cytokines regulate in a variety of experimental models with the common theme of skeletal muscle physiology. PMID: 27003396 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology)

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The proposed physiology-based FDG PET/CT criteria in reducing false-positive results in advanced head and neck cancer after chemoradiotherapy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 10:50:01 +0100

CONCLUSION: By incorporating physiological changes following CCRT, our visual rating criteria improved the accuracy of the currently used FDG PET/CT visual rating system, especially the number of false-positive cases with advanced HNSCC after CCRT. PMID: 27007664 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging)



Cycle‐phase dependent associations between CRP, leptin, and reproductive hormones in an urban, Canadian sample

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:43:12 +0100

This study is a first comprehensive assessment of the relationship between multiple ovarian function components and inflammatory biomarkers. The results are interpreted to mean that inflammatory and energetic stressors produce differential effects depending on population, adiposity, and cycle phase. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology)



MicroRNAs in Metabolism

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:43:05 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Physiologica)



How Schools Are Failing Their Quietest Students

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:05:22 +0100

(Photo: Ron Koeberer/Getty Images) By Melissa Dahl In 2013, educator and writer Jessica Lahey wrote a convincing piece for The Atlantic in which she argued that her introverted students needed to learn to speak up in class. In it, she defended her decision to keep class participation as a small but significant portion of her students' grades. The quieter kids in the class simply needed to learn how to speak up in "a world where most people won't stop talking," she wrote. Related: Tell Your Kids Even Einstein Struggled in Science Two years later, she changed her mind. Last summer, Lahey wrote about her new, more nuanced take on class participation in a post for Quiet Revolution, a site launched last year by Susan Cain, the author of the 2012 mega best seller Quiet: The Power of Introverts i...



Short-term UV-B exposure induces metabolic and anatomical changes in peel of harvested lemons contributing in fruit protection against green mold

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology, Volume 159 Author(s): V.E. Ruiz, R. Interdonato, L. Cerioni, P. Albornoz, J. Ramallo, F.E. Prado, M. Hilal, V.A. Rapisarda UV-B radiation (UVBR) is a small fraction of the solar spectrum from 280 to 315nm. UVBR produces photomorphogenic acclimation responses in plants, modulating their cellular structure and physiology. Here, changes in the peel of harvested lemons after short time exposure to UVBR were analyzed and its potential effects against fungal infection were studied. In the flavedo, UVBR treatment induced variations in the respiratory profiles and increased the phenolic compound contents. Final products of the flavonoid pathway (flavones, flavonols and anthocyanins) increased more m...

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Photoreceptor ARL3 [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Arf-like protein 3 (ARL3) is a ubiquitous small GTPase expressed in ciliated cells of plants and animals. Germline deletion of Arl3 in mice causes multiorgan ciliopathy reminiscent of Bardet-Biedl or Joubert syndromes. As photoreceptors are elegantly compartmentalized and have cilia, we probed the function of ARL3 (ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf)-like 3 protein) by generating rod photoreceptor-specific (prefix rod) and retina-specific (prefix ret) Arl3 deletions. In predegenerate rodArl3−/− mice, lipidated phototransduction proteins showed trafficking deficiencies, consistent with the role of ARL3 as a cargo displacement factor for lipid-binding proteins. By contrast, retArl3−/− rods and cones expressing Cre recombinase during embryonic development formed neither connecting cilia nor...



Autotaxin, Pruritus and Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC)

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Autoimmunity Reviews Author(s): Ying Sun, Weici Zhang, Jilly F. Evans, Annarosa Floreani, Zhengsheng Zou, Yukiko Nishio, Ruizhao Qi, Patrick S.C. Leung, Christopher L. Bowlus, M. Eric Gershwin Autotaxin (ATX) is a 125-kD type II ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (ENPP2 or NPP2) originally discovered as an unknown “autocrine motility factor” in human melanoma cells. In addition to its pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase activities ATX has lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity, catalyzing the conversion of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) into lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). ATX is the only ENPP family member with lysoPLD activity and it produces most of the LPA in circulation. In support of this, ATX heterozygou...



Effect of Bolus Viscosity on the Safety and Efficacy of Swallowing and the Kinematics of the Swallow Response in Patients with Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: White Paper by the European Society for Swallowing Disorders (ESSD)

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The ESSD concludes that there is evidence for increasing viscosity to reduce the risk of airway invasion and that it is a valid management strategy for OD. However, new thickening agents should be developed to avoid the negative effects of increasing viscosity on residue, palatability, and treatment compliance. New randomised controlled trials should establish the optimal viscosity level for each phenotype of dysphagic patients and descriptors, terminology and viscosity measurements must be standardised. This white paper is the first step towards the development of a clinical guideline on bolus modification for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. (Source: Dysphagia)



Silencing of hypoxia inducible factor-1α by RNA interference inhibits growth of SK-NEP-1 Wilms tumor cells in vitro, and suppresses tumorigenesis and angiogenesis in vivo.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 27015631 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology)



A disturbed processing of graviceptive pathways may be involved in the pathophysiology of balance disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis - Fonseca BA, Pereira CB, Jorge F, Simm R, Apostolos-Pereira S, Callegaro D.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 21:13:23 +0100

The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between perception of verticality and balance disorders in multiple sclerosis patients. We evaluated patients and healthy controls. Patients were divided into two groups according to their risk of... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of lumbar spine injuries in Major League Baseball players - Camp CL, Conti MS, Sgroi T, Cammisa FP, Dines JS.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 21:13:23 +0100

In recent years, increased attention has been paid to injuries occurring in Major League Baseball (MLB) players. Although most of the current orthopedic literature regarding baseball injuries pertains to the shoulder and elbow, lumbar spine injuries are an... (Source: SafetyLit)



Injury trends in Major League Baseball over 18 seasons: 1998-2015 - Conte S, Camp CL, Dines JS.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 21:13:23 +0100

Since Major League Baseball (MLB) expanded to its current size of 30 teams in 1998, a comprehensive and longitudinal study of injury trends has not been performed. The purpose of this work is to report the epidemiology of injuries in MLB over that time uti... (Source: SafetyLit)



The epidemiology of hip and groin injuries in professional baseball players - Coleman SH, Mayer SW, Tyson JJ, Pollack KM, Curriero FC.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 21:13:23 +0100

Injuries of the hip and groin among professional baseball players can result in a significant number of disabled list days. The epidemiology of these injuries has not been delineated. The purpose of this study is to describe the incidence, mechanism, type,... (Source: SafetyLit)



The Use of Minipigs for Preclinical Safety Assessment by the Pharmaceutical Industry: Results of an IQ DruSafe Minipig Survey.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 19:34:01 +0100

Conclusions of this survey indicate that minipig is an acceptable nonrodent species largely limited to studies using small molecules, primarily dermal products, and results are comparable to those reported 5 years ago. PMID: 27006130 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Toxicologic Pathology)



Plasticity of Hippocampal Excitatory-Inhibitory Balance: Missing the Synaptic Control in the Epileptic Brain.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:28:02 +0100

Authors: Bonansco C, Fuenzalida M Abstract Synaptic plasticity is the capacity generated by experience to modify the neural function and, thereby, adapt our behaviour. Long-term plasticity of glutamatergic and GABAergic transmission occurs in a concerted manner, finely adjusting the excitatory-inhibitory (E/I) balance. Imbalances of E/I function are related to several neurological diseases including epilepsy. Several evidences have demonstrated that astrocytes are able to control the synaptic plasticity, with astrocytes being active partners in synaptic physiology and E/I balance. Here, we revise molecular evidences showing the epileptic stage as an abnormal form of long-term brain plasticity and propose the possible participation of astrocytes to the abnormal increase of glutamate...

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Heat Killed Attenuated Leishmania Induces Apoptosis of HepG2 Cells Through ROS Mediated p53 Dependent Mitochondrial Pathway

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 11:43:45 +0100

Conclusion: It has been reported earlier that some parasites show prominent cytotoxic effect and prevent tumor growth. From our study we found that Leishmania donovani UR6 efficiently induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells through ROS mediated p53 dependent mitochondrial pathway. This study has rejuvenated the age old idea of bio-therapy.Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;38:1303-1318 (Source: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry)



Reduced Dietary Sodium Intake Increases Heart Rate. A Meta-Analysis of 63 Randomized Controlled Trials Including 72 Study Populations

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 06:07:22 +0100

Niels A. Graudal, Thorbjørn Hubeck-Graudal, Gesche Jürgens (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)



Ouabain Enhances ADPKD Cell Apoptosis via the Intrinsic Pathway

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 06:07:22 +0100

Jessica Venugopal, Gustavo Blanco (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)



New World Paleoethnobotany in the New Millennium (2000–2013)

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 06:07:06 +0100

This article evaluates the current state of paleoethnobotany since Hastorf’s 1999 review published in this journal. We discuss advances in methods, ancient subsistence reconstructions, the origins and intensification of agriculture, and how plants inform on issues of political economy and identity. Significant methodological developments in the extraction, identification, and analysis of starch grains and phytoliths have led to advancements in our knowledge of early plant domestication and the transition to food production. Paleoethnobotanists increasingly are using more complex quantitative techniques to characterize their data, which have resulted in more nuanced interpretations of plants that fall within the purview of social archaeology and allow us to address issues related to gende...



Recognizing and Moving on from a Failed Paradigm: The Case of Agricultural Landscapes in Anglo-Saxon England c. AD 400–800

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 06:07:06 +0100

Abstract A central preoccupation for archaeologists is how and why material culture changes. One of the most intractable examples of this problem can be found between AD 400 and 800 in the enigmatic transformation of sub-Roman into Anglo-Saxon England. That example lies at the heart of this review, explored through the case of the agricultural economy. Although the ideas critically examined below relate specifically to early medieval England, they represent themes of universal interest: the role of migration in the transformation of material culture, politics, and economy in a post-imperial world, the significance of “core” and “periphery” in evolving polities, ethnogenesis as a strategy in kingdom building, property rights as a lens for investigating cultural change, and...



Werner Forssmann - A Nobel Prize Winner and His Political Attitude before and after 1945

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 02:26:08 +0100

Conclusion: Werner Forssmann's political attitudes during the Third Reich and in the post-war era can be characterized as early agreement that gradually changed to a more critical distance to Nazi ideology. In this respect, Forssmann appears to be quite a typical example of a larger proportion of German medical doctors during these eras.Urol Int (Source: Urologia Internationalis)

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Active and passive discrimination of moving sounds: rhythmic activity of human brain - Shestopalova LB, Petropavlovskaia EA, Nikitin NI, Vaitulevich SP.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 02:14:48 +0100

The spectral dynamics of the EEG rhythmicity during active and passive discrimination of stationary and moving sound stimuli presented according to the oddball paradigm were investigated. Standard stimuli represented stationary midline sounds. Deviant stim... (Source: SafetyLit)



Behavioural and functional vestibular disturbances after space flight. 1. Mammals - Lychakov DV.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 02:14:48 +0100

The review contains data on functional changes in mammals caused by changes in the operation of vestibular system after space flight. These data show that the vestibular system of mammals responds to weightlessness challenge differently at various ontogene... (Source: SafetyLit)



Center of mass velocity based predictions in balance recovery following pelvis perturbations during human walking - Vlutters M, Van Asseldonk EH, van der Kooij H.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 02:14:48 +0100

In many simple walking models foot placement dictates the center of pressure location and ground reaction force components, whereas humans can modulate these aspects after foot contact. Because of the differences, it is unclear to what extend predictions m... (Source: SafetyLit)



Effects of breech bolt movement on felt recoil of a gas-operated semi-automatic sporting gun - Hall MJ.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 02:14:48 +0100

The recoil forces characteristic of shoulder-mounted firearms can create discomfort and distraction for the shooter. A modified version of a previously developed system for measuring felt recoil was adapted to approximate the force interaction between gun ... (Source: SafetyLit)



An Analytical Framework for Studying Small-Number Effects in Catalytic Reaction Networks: A Probability Generating Function Approach to Chemical Master Equations

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Masaki Nakagawa, Yuichi Togashi (Source: Frontiers in Physiology)

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Trading new neurons for status: Adult hippocampal neurogenesis in eusocial Damaraland mole-rats

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2 June 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 324 Author(s): M.K. Oosthuizen, I. Amrein Diversity in social structures, from solitary to eusocial, is a prominent feature of subterranean African mole-rat species. Damaraland mole-rats are eusocial, they live in colonies that are characterized by a reproductive division of labor and a subdivision into castes based on physiology and behavior. Damaraland mole-rats are exceptionally long lived and reproductive animals show delayed aging compared to non-reproductive animals. In the present study, we described the hippocampal architecture and the rate of hippocampal neurogenesis of wild-derived, adult Damaraland mole-rats in relation to sex, relative age and social status or caste. Overall, Damaraland mole-rats were found to have a...



Microfluidic Technologies for Yeast Replicative Lifespan Studies

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 23 March 2016 Source:Mechanisms of Ageing and Development Author(s): Kenneth L Chen, Matthew M Crane, Matt Kaeberlein The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used as a model organism for the study of aging for over 50 years. In this time, the canonical aging experiment—replicative lifespan analysis by manual microdissection—has remained essentially unchanged. Recently, microfluidic technologies have been developed that may be able to substitute for this time- and labor-intensive procedure. These technologies also allow cell physiology to be observed throughout the entire lifetime. Here, we review these devices, novel observations they have made possible, and some of the current system limitations. (Source: Mechanisms of Ageing and Dev...



Haemoglobin mass alterations in healthy humans following four‐day head‐down tilt bed rest

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

New Findings What is the central question of this study? Is haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) decreased following 4 days of head‐down tilt bed rest (HDTBR), and does increased red blood cell (RBC) destruction mediate this adaptation? What is the main finding and its importance? Haemoglobin mass was increased immediately following HDTBR, before decreasing below baseline 5 days after return to normal living conditions. The transient increase in Hbmass might be the result of decreased RBC destruction, but it is also possible that spleen contraction after HDTBR contributed to this adaptation. Our data suggest that the decreased Hbmass 5 days following HDTBR resulted from decreased RBC production, not increased RBC destruction. Rapid decreases in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) have been reported i...



Experimental investigation of the biomechanics of urethral tissues and structures

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

New Findings What is the central question of this study? Prostheses for treatment of urinary incontinence elicit complications associated with an inadequate mechanical action. This investigation aimed to define a procedure addressed to urethral mechanical characterization. Experimental tests are the basis for constitutive formulation, with a view to numerical modelling for investigation of the interaction between the tissues and a prosthesis. What is the main finding and its importance? Horse urethra, selected for its histomorphometric similarity to human urethra, was characterized by integrated histological analysis and mechanical tests on the biological tissue and structure, leading to constitutive formulation. A non‐linear, anisotropic and time‐dependent response was found, represen...



Timely exercise for controlling glucose and oxidative stress

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: European Journal of Applied Physiology)



Morphological covariation between the maxillary sinus and midfacial skeleton among sub‐Saharan and circumpolar modern humans

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThese results suggest that the maxillary sinus serves as a zone of accommodation at the confluence of multiple facial components, potentially minimizing effects of morphological alterations to certain components on adjacent structures. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: American Journal of Physical Anthropology)

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How good is this food? A study on dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event using infrared thermography

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 May 2016 Source:Physiology & Behavior, Volume 159 Author(s): Tiziano Travain, Elisa Silvia Colombo, Laura Clara Grandi, Eugenio Heinzl, Annalisa Pelosi, Emanuela Prato Previde, Paola Valsecchi Understanding how animals express positive emotions is becoming an interesting and promising area of research in the study of animal emotions and affective experiences. In the present study, we used infrared thermography in combination with behavioral measures, heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), to investigate dogs' emotional responses to a potentially pleasant event: receiving palatable food from the owner. Nineteen adult pet dogs, 8 females and 11 males, were tested and their eye temperature, HR, HRV and behavior were recorded during a 30-minutes...



Hippotherapy acute impact on heart rate variability non-linear dynamics in neurological disorders

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 May 2016 Source:Physiology & Behavior, Volume 159 Author(s): Ramona Cabiddu, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Renata Trimer, Vitor Trimer, Paula Angélica Ricci, Clara Italiano Monteiro, Marcela Camargo Magalhães Maniglia, Ana Maria Silva Pereira, Gustavo Rodrigues das Chagas, Eliane Maria Carvalho Neurological disorders are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Hippotherapy (HT) is a therapy treatment strategy that utilizes a horse in an interdisciplinary approach for the physical and mental rehabilitation of people with physical, mental and/or psychological disabilities. However, no studies have been carried out which evaluated the effects of HT on the autonomic control in these patients. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate the ...



Effects of sheltering on physiology, immune function, behavior, and the welfare of dogs

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 May 2016 Source:Physiology & Behavior, Volume 159 Author(s): Alexandra Protopopova Approximately 4 million dogs live in animal shelters each year. However, understanding and measuring the welfare of these kenneled dogs presents a challenge. One way to determine welfare is by assessing how stay at the shelter influences physiology, immune function, and behavior of the dogs. Prior research, from all of these domains, has not resulted in clear conclusions on how the animal shelter influences the well-being of dogs. One robust finding is that, when placed into a kennel environment, dogs experience a spike in cortisol levels followed by a decrease to original at-home levels. Current evidence cannot differentiate between several proposed hypotheses that may be res...

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CrossTalk opposing view: The middle cerebral artery diameter does not change during alterations in arterial blood gases and blood pressure.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Brothers RM, Zhang R PMID: 27010011 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)



CrossTalk proposal: The middle cerebral artery diameter does change during alterations in arterial blood gases and blood pressure.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Hoiland RL, Ainslie PN PMID: 27010010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)



Rebuttal from Ryan L. Hoiland and Philip N. Ainslie.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Hoiland RL, Ainslie PN PMID: 27010009 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)



Rebuttal from R. Matthew Brothers and Rong Zhang.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Brothers RM, Zhang R PMID: 27010008 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of Physiology)