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MedWorm: Physiology News



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Thousands of medical RSS feeds are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news in Physiology



Last Build Date: Fri, 23 Feb 2018 13:00:36 +0100

 



Temporal and fine-grained pedestrian action recognition on driving recorder database - Kataoka H, Satoh Y, Aoki Y, Oikawa S, Matsui Y.

Fri, 23 Feb 2018 12:24:28 +0100

The paper presents an emerging issue of fine-grained pedestrian action recognition that induces an advanced pre-crush safety to estimate a pedestrian intention in advance. The fine-grained pedestrian actions include visually slight differences (e.g., walki... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Age matters behind the wheel – but not how you might expect

Wed, 21 Feb 2018 16:00:00 +0100

FINDINGSA UCLA researcher explored the relationship between new drivers ’ skills and four factors. Instructors from a Los Angeles driving school rated students’ driving skills on a scale of 1 to 4, and the researchers analyzed the results based on these variables:Age: Among males, the older the student, the worse his driving skills score. There was a similar trend among female drivers, but it was not as significant.Gender: Students were asked to rate their confidence in their own driving skills. Although female students on average were less confident than their male counterparts, men and women received almost the same average score from driving instructors.Sports participation: A history of playing any kind of organized sport was linked to better driving skills among both men and women...



Driving with drug-resistant and controlled seizures from a patient's perspective: assessment of attitudes and practices - Arcot Jayagopal L, Samson KK, Taraschenko O.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

BACKGROUND: Driving restrictions in epilepsy are intended to safeguard public and personal safety; however, these limitations inhibit socialization, restrict employment, and reduce self-esteem in patients with seizures. A large proportion of patients with ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Classification of scapular body fractures - Barton ícek J, Klika D, Tucek M.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to present, on the basis of 3D CT reconstructions of 187 of scapular body fractures, a clinically oriented classification respecting the biomechanical architecture of the scapula. METHODS: In a series of 375 s... (Source: SafetyLit)



A systematic review of approaches to modelling lower limb muscle forces during gait: applicability to clinical gait analyses - Trinler U, Hollands K, Jones R, Baker R.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

Computational methods to estimate muscle forces during walking are becoming more common in biomechanical research but not yet in clinical gait analysis. This systematic review aims to identify the current state-of-the-art, examine the differences between a... (Source: SafetyLit)



Increased morbidity and mortality associated with falls among patients with cirrhosis - Ezaz G, Murphy SL, Mellinger J, Tapper EB.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

BACKGROUND: Injuries are more morbid and complicated to manage in patients with cirrhosis. However, data are limited regarding the relative risk of injury and severity of injury from falls in patients with cirrhosis compared to those without cirrhosis. ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Monitoring walker assistive devices: a novel approach based on load cells and optical distance measurements - Viegas V, Dias Pereira JM, Postolache O, Gir ão PS.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

This paper presents a measurement system intended to monitor the usage of walker assistive devices. The goal is to guide the user in the correct use of the device in order to prevent risky situations and maximize comfort. Two risk indicators are defined: o... (Source: SafetyLit)



Material properties of the brain in injury-relevant conditions - experiments and computational modeling - Zhao W, Choate B, Ji S.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

Material properties of the brain have been extensively studied but remain poorly characterized. The vast variations in constitutive models and material constants are well documented. However, no study exists to translate the variations into disparities in ... (Source: SafetyLit)



The risks of sarcopenia, falls and fractures in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - Sarodnik C, Bours SPG, Schaper NC, van den Bergh JP, van Geel TACM.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

Fracture risk in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increased, and the mechanism is multifactorial. Recent research on T2DM-induced bone fragility shows that bone mineral density (BMD) is often normal or even slightly elevated. However, bone ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Preventing non-contact ACL injuries in female athletes: what can we learn from dancers? - Turner C, Crow S, Crowther T, Keating B, Saupan T, Pyfer J, Vialpando K, Lee SP.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of dance experience and movement instruction on lower extremity kinematics and muscle activation during a landing task. DESIGN: Cross-sectional case control. SETTING: Laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: 27 femal... (Source: SafetyLit)



Timing, not magnitude, of force may explain sex-dependent risk of ACL injury - Sigur ðsson HB, Sveinsson Þ, Briem K.

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 18:03:30 +0100

PURPOSE: The anterior cruciate ligament is loaded through valgus moment, vertical ground reaction force, and internal rotation moment. The aim of this study was to compare the timing of force peaks during early stance between youth girls and boys. ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Epidemiology of acetabular fractures in Qatar - Ahmed M, Abuodeh Y, Alhammoud A, Salameh M, Hasan K, Ahmed G.

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

This study aimed to review the epidemiological aspects of acetabular fractures treated at Hamad Medical Corporation in Qatar. The study is the first orthopaedic trauma epidemiological study in Qatar and will provide a platform to advance high-l... (Source: SafetyLit)



Estimating the international burden of sport-related death: a review of data sources - Kucera KL, Fortington LV, Wolff CS, Marshall SW, Finch CF.

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

INTRODUCTION: Despite detailed recommendations for sports injury data capture provided since the mid-1990s, international data collection efforts for sport-related death remains limited in scope. The purpose of this paper was to review the data sources ava... (Source: SafetyLit)



Estimation of driver injury severity in traffic collisions -

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

An automated collision notification system installed in vehicles could inform emergency response teams of the crash and its' severity. Tracking information and recognition of the extent of injuries would assist in prompt arrival of appropriate teams to the... (Source: SafetyLit)



Participatory approaches to workplace safety management: bridging the gap between behavioral safety and participatory ergonomics - Rost KA, Alvero AM.

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

Many researchers and practitioners argue the importance of end-user involvement in workplace safety management, but the research literature and practices remain fractured across orientations. The primary aim of this paper is to bridge the gap between two m... (Source: SafetyLit)



Spine trauma from personal watercraft usage - Donnally CJ, Metser G, Roth ES, Young JPM, Rush AJ, Al Maaieh MA.

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study OBJECTIVE.: To identify patient characteristics and associated injuries in those sustaining a spine fracture from personal watercraft (PWC) usage. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There are few studies regarding PWC use ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Spatiotemporal and kinematic characteristics of gait initiation across a wide speed range - Stansfield B, Hawkins K, Adams S, Church D.

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

BACKGROUND: Gait initiation can be performed at a range of speeds. Those with disability tend to use a slower speed compared to those without disability. In assessing the spatiotemporal and kinematic characteristics of gait initiation it is therefore impor... (Source: SafetyLit)



The effect of luminance condition on form, form-from-motion and motion perception - Sara G, Tony P, Roberto B, Kerstin H, Mariagrazia B.

Sat, 17 Feb 2018 10:36:27 +0100

This study investigated to what extent rod-dominated vision affects motion and form perception accuracy. Twenty-nine healthy subjects took part in the experiment. Form coherence (FC), form-from-motion (FFM) and motion coherence (MC) tests were assessed in ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Why People Are Swimming in Freezing Water

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 13:15:10 +0100

Forget dipping your toe in the deep end. In countries around the world, intrepid swimmers of all ages plunge into ice-cold waters for a thrill that can feel as sharp as daggers–and bragging rights that last all winter. Welcome to the fun and frigid world of cold-water swimming. The hobby is nothing new. It’s been around for centuries in chilly climes such as Russia and Finland, and people have been crossing the notoriously frosty, 21-mile-long English Channel without wet suits since at least the 1800s. The Coney Island Polar Bear Club hosted its first U.S. ocean dip in 1903. And while polar plunges have become relatively common, some of these swims are not for the faint of heart. Only 11 people in recorded history, for example, have completed the so-called Ice Zero: a mile-long...



Is an Anti-Aging Pill on the Horizon?

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 13:15:10 +0100

Anti-aging products from skin creams to chemical peels are part of a $250 billion industry, but scientists have yet to discover a longevity elixir that stands up to medical scrutiny. A group of researchers believe they’re getting closer, however, thanks to a compound called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, or NAD+ for short. “NAD+ is the closest we’ve gotten to a fountain of youth,” says David Sinclair, co-director of the Paul F. Glenn Center for the Biology of Aging at Harvard Medical School. “It’s one of the most important molecules for life to exist, and without it, you’re dead in 30 seconds.” NAD+ is a molecule found in all living cells and is critical for regulating cellular aging and maintaining proper function of the whole body. Lev...



Why Rock Climbing May Be the Ultimate Full-Body Workout

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 13:00:43 +0100

The muscles in your hips and torso strain to hold your lower half against the wall. You arch backward and extend one hand up to clasp the next hold—your thighs and calves burning with the effort of holding you steady and in balance. A moment later, when the tips of your fingers have secured their grip, there’s a wholesale shift in the muscles you call on to maintain your safe purchase on the climbing wall. Exercise is all about engaging your muscles—from your heart to your biceps and quads—and asking those muscles to perform work. And when it comes to activating and training a diverse range of muscles, few exercises rival climbing. Both climbing and bouldering, the name for climbing on low rock formations without a rope, involve “nearly the whole body’s...

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Ketone drinks could reduce blood sugar spikes in diabetes

Wed, 14 Feb 2018 12:00:00 +0100

Ketone supplements could be an alternative to reduce blood sugar levels in diabetic patients, research in theJournal of Physiology suggests.Medical Xpress (Source: Society for Endocrinology)



Hot stuff: the thermal cameras giving us a new way of seeing our bodies

Wed, 14 Feb 2018 08:01:13 +0100

How do our bodies regulate themselves – and is it even true that we have a single body temperature? New technology will tell usI ’m one of those people who always feels cold. Maybe it’s my upbringing in the chilly north, or maybe it’s down the quirks of my own physiology, but I’m reliably found next to the fire, hiding from draughts that no-one else had noticed, or buried inside enough jumpers to stock a small shop. A t the other end of the scale, when everyone else is sweating buckets, I’m basking smugly because I’m finally at a comfortable temperature.Like most of us, my attitude towards my body temperature is similar to Goldilocks ’ attitude to porridge – it’s either too cold, too hot, or 37C, which is just right. But I’ve rarely considered the fascinating details ...



Newly discovered gene may protect against heart disease

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 20:46:00 +0100

Scientists have identified a gene that may play a protective role in preventing heart disease. Their research revealed that the gene, called MeXis, acts within key cells inside clogged arteries to help remove excess cholesterol from blood vessels.Published in the journal  Nature Medicine, the UCLA-led study in mice found that MeXis controls the expression of a protein that pumps cholesterol out of cells in the artery wall.MeXis is an example of a “selfish” gene, one that is presumed to have no function because it does not make a protein product. However, recent studies have suggested that these so-called “unhelpful” genes can actually perform important biological functions without making proteins and instead producing a special class of molecules called long non-coding RNAs, or ln...



Research Fellow – Full-time (Fixed Term) at the Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), University of Birmingham

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 12:00:00 +0100

Location:Department of Physiology, Development and NeuroscienceSalary: £29,799 -£38,832Closing Date: 8 March 2018Post Duration: 36 monthsUniversity of Birmingham are seeking a talented and motivated postdoctoral fellow to join Prof. David Hodson’s research group atthe Institute of Metabolism and Systems Research (IMSR), University of Birmingham. The project, funded for 36 months by a Diabetes UK Research Grant, seeks to understand how stress hormones (termed glucocorticoids) influence beta cell function and insulin release, and how this may interact with obesity To do this, we will combine mouse metabolic phenotyping with cutting-edge imaging and transcriptomic analyses applied directly to rodent and human islets. The overarching aim will be ...



True to type: From human biopsy to complex gut physiology on a chip

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard) Published in Scientific Reports, Donald Ingber's team at the Wyss Institute leverages the organoid approach to isolate intestinal stem cells from human biopsies, but goes on to break up the organoids and culture the patient-specific cells within our Organ Chips where they spontaneously form intestinal villi oriented towards the channel lumen, and the epithelium in close apposition to human intestinal microvascular endothelium (Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases)

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Ghrelin levels do not adjust after weightloss

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 12:00:00 +0100

A study, published in theAmerican Journal of Physiology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, reports that ghrelin levels remain high in those that have lost weight, which increases levels of hunger and may contribute to rebound weight gain.News Medical (Source: Society for Endocrinology)



The pediatric patella: normal development, anatomical variants and malformations, stability, imaging, and injury patterns - Maloney E, Stanescu AL, Ngo AV, Parisi MT, Iyer RS.

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 08:42:05 +0100

We discuss the pediatric patella, with an emphasis on diagnostic imaging. Topics include normal patellar development, anatomical variants and their physiologic significance, genetic syndromes that alter the appearance of the patella, physiology of patellar... (Source: SafetyLit)



Neuromodulation 2.0: Enabling the Next Generation of Device-Based Therapies for Treating Chronic Diseases

Tue, 06 Feb 2018 18:16:13 +0100

The neuromodulation device industry is enjoying a period of tremendous growth and diversification. A 2016 article by Neurotech Reports estimated the global market for neurotechnology products to be $7.6 billion predicted it will hit $12 billion by 2020. Neuromodulation devices such as neurostimulators targeting the brain, vagus nerve, and spinal cord account for the largest segment and represent some of the most mature applications of neurotechnology for treating diseases such as movement disorders, epilepsy, and pain. However, there are new neuromodulation devices under development aimed at less traditional applications, including sleep apnea, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. Electrode and implantable electronics technologies for neuromodulation devices cont...



Ventromedial hypothalamus and the generation of aggression - Hashikawa Y, Hashikawa K, Falkner AL, Lin D.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

Aggression is a costly behavior, sometimes with severe consequences including death. Yet aggression is prevalent across animal species ranging from insects to humans, demonstrating its essential role in the survival of individuals and groups. The question ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Sensing passive eye response to impact induced head acceleration using MEMS IMUs - Meng Y, Bottenfield B, Bolding M, Liu L, Adams ML.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

The eye may act as a surrogate for the brain in response to head acceleration during an impact. Passive eye movements in a dynamic system are sensed by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMU) in this paper. The technique is v... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Pedestrians' road crossing decisions and body parts' movements - Kalantarov S, Riemer R, Oron-Gilad T.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

This study aims to examine pedestrians' crossing decision, body parts' movement and full body movement, just before and during road crossing in a simulated setup. To accomplish this, a novel experimental setup for analyzing pedestrians' crossing behavior a... (Source: SafetyLit)



On the road again: the barriers and benefits of automobility for people with disability - Darcy S, Burke PF.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability (PWD) has been signed by over 160 nations to achieve greater social participation, with public and private transport clearly identified as an area to improve accessibility. Whilst the majority of s... (Source: SafetyLit)



No difference in the prevalence of Alzheimer-type neurodegenerative changes in the brains of suicides when compared with controls: an explorative neuropathologic study - Matschke J, Sehner S, Gallinat J, Siegers J, Murroni M, P üschel K, Glatzel M.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

Suicide ranks among the leading causes of death for individuals of all ages with highest rates in the elderly. The cause of suicide is considered a multifactorial phenomenon. A variety of neurodegenerative diseases, notably Alzheimer's disease, or, more re... (Source: SafetyLit)



Neurological disorders of gait, balance and posture: a sign-based approach - Nonnekes J, Goselink RJM, R ůžička E, Fasano A, Nutt JG, Bloem BR.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

Neurological disorders of gait, balance and posture are both debilitating and common. Adequate recognition of these so-called disorders of axial mobility is important as they can offer useful clues to the underlying pathology in patients with an uncertain ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Linear acceleration in direct head contact across impact type, player position, and playing scenario in collegiate women's soccer - Caccese JB, Lamond LC, Buckley TA, Glutting J, Kaminski TW.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

CONTEXT:   Heading, an integral component of soccer, exposes athletes to a large number of head impacts over a career. The literature has begun to indicate that cumulative exposure may lead to long-term functional and psychological deficits. Quantifying ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Integrated analysis of the genetic basis of suicidal behavior: what has been shown by structural genetic studies so far - Bozorgmehr A, Ghadirivasfi M, Tavakoli M, Rahmani H, Heydari F, Shahsavand Ananloo E.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

OBJECTIVE: In recent decades, the role of genetic factors in the predisposition to suicidal behavior has attracted considerable attention. Although each genetic investigation appears to be valuable, no one study on its own can comprehensively explain the e... (Source: SafetyLit)



Evaluation of wearable immersive augmented reality technology in safety-critical systems - Grabowski M, Rowen A, Rancy JP.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

New technologies in safety-critical systems offer the promise of next generation system features and capabilities; predictive analytics; enhanced and remote monitoring; and perhaps improved operator performance. At the same time, however, questions arise a... (Source: SafetyLit)



Diffuse axonal injury after traumatic brain injury is a prognostic factor for functional outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis - van Eijck MM, Schoonman GG, van der Naalt J, de Vries J, Roks G.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognosis of adult patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and diffuse axonal injury (DAI). METHODS: Online search (PubMed, Embase and Ovid Science Direct) of articles providing information about outcome in (1) patien... (Source: SafetyLit)



Development of a simple driving simulator and determination of the reference range of normative performance - Kato N, Saeki S, Okazaki T, Matsunaga K, Hachisuka K.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

OBJECTIVE: To establish the reference range for assessment items of the 'Simple Driving Simulator' (SiDS) in a normative population and to compare performance of age-matched young adults with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) to this reference data. M... (Source: SafetyLit)



A  comparative brief on conducted electrical weapon safety - Kunz SN, Adamec J.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

The variety and high number of published research articles on conducted electrical weapons (CEW) provides a  detailed, yet in some parts inconclusive overview of medical aspects of CEW. Due to different research approaches and the use of dissimilar test su... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Androstadienone, a chemosignal found in human sweat, increases individualistic behavior and decreases cooperative responses in men - Banner A, Frumin I, Shamay-Tsoory SG.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

A growing body of evidence suggests that humans can communicate socially relevant information, such as aggression, dominance and readiness for competition, through chemosensory signals. Androstadienone (androsta-4,16,-dien-3-one), a testosterone-derived co... (Source: SafetyLit)



A longitudinal study of women's depression symptom profiles during and after the postpartum phase - Fox M, Sandman CA, Davis EP, Glynn LM.

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 09:42:48 +0100

BACKGROUND: An issue of critical importance for psychiatry and women's health is whether postpartum depression (PPD) represents a unique condition. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders asserts that major depressive disorder (MDD) may p... (Source: SafetyLit)



Persistent Respiratory Issues in Youth May Decline Lung Function

Fri, 02 Feb 2018 18:00:00 +0100

Respiratory symptoms also associated with increased odds of incident and restrictive physiology (Source: Pulmonary Medicine News - Doctors Lounge)



Forever young? Naked mole rats may know the secret

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)



A demanding lifestyle

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: ScienceNOW)

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High-energy, high-fat lifestyle challenges an Arctic apex predator, the polar bear

Thu, 01 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100

Regional declines in polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations have been attributed to changing sea ice conditions, but with limited information on the causative mechanisms. By simultaneously measuring field metabolic rates, daily activity patterns, body condition, and foraging success of polar bears moving on the spring sea ice, we found that high metabolic rates (1.6 times greater than previously assumed) coupled with low intake of fat-rich marine mammal prey resulted in an energy deficit for more than half of the bears examined. Activity and movement on the sea ice strongly influenced metabolic demands. Consequently, increases in mobility resulting from ongoing and forecasted declines in and fragmentation of sea ice are likely to increase energy demands and may be an important factor exp...



Protection before impact: the potential neuroprotective role of nutritional supplementation in sports-related head trauma - Oliver JM, Anzalone AJ, Turner SM.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 23:42:16 +0100

Even in the presence of underreporting, sports-related concussions/mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) are on the rise. In the absence of proper diagnosis, an athlete may return to play prior to full recovery, increasing the risk of second-impact syndrome... (Source: SafetyLit)



Move faster, think later: women who play action video games have quicker visually-guided responses with later onset visuomotor-related brain activity - Gorbet DJ, Sergio LE.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 23:42:16 +0100

A history of action video game (AVG) playing is associated with improvements in several visuospatial and attention-related skills and these improvements may be transferable to unrelated tasks. These facts make video games a potential medium for skill-train... (Source: SafetyLit)



The influence of immunological stressors on traumatic brain injury - Sun M, McDonald SJ, Brady RD, O'Brien TJ, Shultz SR.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 12:36:26 +0100

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, and typically involves a robust immune response. Although a great deal of preclinical research has been conducted to identify an effective treatment, all phase III clinical ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Lower limbs heterometry correction in patients with osteoporosis and increased risk of falls - Pratelli E, Alito A, Zanella C, Busi L, Mangone G, Scarselli M, Pasquetti P.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 12:36:26 +0100

Osteoporotic fractures are associated with a significant increase in morbidity, mortality and medical costs. There is also a strong link between fractures and increased mortality. Among effective measures for the prevention of falls, instability treatment ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Effect of history of mild traumatic brain injury on optic nerve sheath diameter changes after valsalva maneuver - Lyon M, Agrawal P, Friez K, Gordon R, Morales I, Zhang LF, Xu H, Heger I, Gibson RW.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 12:36:26 +0100

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between optic nerve sheath (ONS) dilation after a Valsalva maneuver and ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Do active modes of transport cause lower body mass index? Findings from the HABITAT longitudinal study - Turrell G, Hewitt BA, Rachele JN, Giles-Corti B, Busija L, Brown WJ.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 12:36:26 +0100

We examined between-person differences and within-person changes in BMI by transport mode over four time points between 2007 an... (Source: SafetyLit)



Dissociating orienting biases from integration effects with eye movements - Hilchey MD, Rajsic J, Huffman G, Klein RM, Pratt J.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 12:36:26 +0100

Despite decades of research, the conditions under which shifts of attention to prior target locations are facilitated or inhibited remain unknown. This ambiguity is a product of the popular feature discrimination task, in which attentional bias is commonly... (Source: SafetyLit)



A concept mapping approach to identifying the barriers to implementing an evidence-based sports injury prevention programme - Donaldson A, Callaghan A, Bizzini M, Jowett A, Keyzer P, Nicholson M.

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 12:36:26 +0100

This study investigated the barriers to coaches of adolescent female soccer teams, in Victoria,... (Source: SafetyLit)



Sex hormone differences affect eye health

Mon, 29 Jan 2018 09:13:33 +0100

According to a study, published in theJournal of Cellular Physiology, gender-based fluctuations in sex hormone levels may directly affect eye physiology, and the progression of age-related macular degeneration.News Medical (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

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Network disruption following mild traumatic brain injury: clinical and experimental research implications - Swick C, Andersen T, Flores AM.

Fri, 26 Jan 2018 18:42:07 +0100

Illuminating the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie persistent post concussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a growing area of study. Alhourani et al. (J Neurophysiol 116: 1840-1847, 2016) added to this emerging body of ... (Source: SafetyLit)






Network disruption following mild traumatic brain injury: clinical and experimental research implications - Swick C, Andersen T, Flores AM.

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 21:06:26 +0100

Illuminating the pathophysiological mechanisms that underlie persistent post concussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a growing area of study. Alhourani et al. (J Neurophysiol 116: 1840-1847, 2016) added to this emerging body of ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Discussion about visual dependence in balance control: European Society for Clinical Evaluation of Balance Disorders - Maire R, Mallinson A, Ceyte H, Caudron S, Van Nechel C, Bisdorff A, Magnusson M, Petersen H, Kingma H, Perrin P.

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 21:06:26 +0100

The executive committee of the European Society for the clinical evaluation of balance disorders meets annually to address equilibrium problems that are not well understood. This is a review paper on discussions in the latest meeting we held. MATER... (Source: SafetyLit)



"Failure-to-identify" hunting incidents: a resilience engineering approach - Bridges KE, Corballis PM, Hollnagel E.

Thu, 25 Jan 2018 21:06:26 +0100

The objective was to develop an understanding, using the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), of the factors that could cause a deer hunter to misidentify their intended target. Background Hunting is a popular activity in many communities... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Plasma metabolome analysis of patients with major depressive disorder - Kawamura N, Shinoda K, Sato H, Sasaki K, Suzuki M, Yamaki K, Fujimori T, Yamamoto H, Osei-Hyiaman D, Ohashi Y.

Wed, 24 Jan 2018 11:42:32 +0100

This study sought to characterize the plasma metabolite profiling of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Psychiatric assessments were made with the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis. In the exploratory cohort, pla... (Source: SafetyLit)



Omega-3 supplements reduce self-reported physical aggression in healthy adults - B ègue L, Zaalberg A, Shankland R, Duke A, Jacquet J, Kaliman P, Pennel L, Chanove M, Arvers P, Bushman BJ.

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 13:42:08 +0100

There is emerging evidence that Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements can decrease aggression. However, experimental studies with adults from non-specific populations are scarce. We hypothesized that Omega-3 supplements would decrease self... (Source: SafetyLit)



Regulation or criminalisation: what determines legal standards of safety culture in commercial aviation? - Lawrenson AJ, Braithwaite GR.

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 13:42:08 +0100

This paper highlights that further development of safety culture as a quantifiable standard presents a considerable dilemma to policy makers. The imposition of legal standards in any area of human endeavour is generally predicated on the assumption that th... (Source: SafetyLit)



Study shows invading toads adjusting rapidly to different environmental conditions

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Oxford University Press USA) A new paper published in Conservation Physiology examines the thermal tolerance of Cane Toads in Hawaii and Australia and finds that some of them are adapting very quickly to lower temperatures. This has serious implications for the spread of the toad within Australia, a major and persistent ecological problem. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)



Tennessee's Tyson Raper named 2018 Outstanding Young Cotton Physiologist

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture) Tyson Raper received the Dr. J. Tom Cothren Outstanding Young Cotton Physiologist Award at the 2018 Cotton Beltwide Conferences. The award goes young scientists who have already made significant research contributions in cotton physiology. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)

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Adrenergic and metabolic effects of electrical weapons: review and meta-analysis of human data - Kunz SN, Calkins HG, Adamec J, Kroll MW.

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 02:24:26 +0100

INTRODUCTION: Electronic control with the CEW (conducted electrical weapon) has gained widespread acceptance as the preferred force option due to its significant injury reduction. However, a CEW application does stress the human body. In the case of the CE... (Source: SafetyLit)



Conflict-sensitive neurons gate interocular suppression in human visual cortex - Katyal S, Vergeer M, He S, He B, Engel SA.

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 02:24:26 +0100

Neural suppression plays an important role in cortical function, including sensory, memory, and motor systems. It remains, however, relatively poorly understood. A paradigmatic case arises when conflicting images are presented to the two eyes. These images... (Source: SafetyLit)



Physiological demands, morphological characteristics, physical abilities and injuries of female soccer players - Milanovi ć Z, Sporiš G, James N, Trajković N, Ignjatović A, Sarmento H, Trecroci A, Mendes BMB.

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 02:24:26 +0100

The popularity of female soccer is increasing as well as the number of females playing soccer. Similarly, over the last twenty or so years, research in soccer has increased significantly, but a large disparity exists in the volume of studies involving male... (Source: SafetyLit)



Glycaemic control targets after traumatic brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis - Hermanides J, Plummer MP, Finnis M, Deane AM, Coles JP, Menon DK.

Tue, 23 Jan 2018 02:24:26 +0100

BACKGROUND: Optimal glycaemic targets in traumatic brain injury (TBI) remain unclear. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing intensive with conventional glycaemic control in TBI requiring admissi... (Source: SafetyLit)



The relationship between gait variability and cognitive functions differs between fallers and non-fallers in MS - Kalron A, Aloni R, Dolev M, Frid L, Givon U, Menascu S.

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 15:09:07 +0100

The objective of the study was to determine if cognitive function is associated with step time variability in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS). The study included 355 PwMS (218 women), average age 41.1 (SD  = 13.5), disease duration 5.9 (SD = 7.3) ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Low cholesterol, impulsivity and violence revisited - Tomson-Johanson K, Harro J.

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 15:09:07 +0100

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent findings on the association of cholesterol levels with impulsivity and violence. RECENT FINDINGS: Several authors have recently highlighted the importance of confounding factors that mask the association between c... (Source: SafetyLit)



Climate is not a good candidate to account for variations in aggression and violence across space and time - Mell H, Safra L, Baumard N, Jacquet PO.

Mon, 22 Jan 2018 15:09:07 +0100

We agree with Van Lange et al. that climate is likely to affect individuals' social behavior in many ways. However, we suspect that its impact on physiology and psychology is so remote that its predictive power disintegrates almost completely through the c... (Source: SafetyLit)



The effects of an unanticipated side-cut on lower extremity kinematics and ground reaction forces during a drop landing - Yom JP, Owens T, Arnett S, Beebe J, Son V.

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 16:42:31 +0100

Unanticipated direction to cut after landing may alter the lower extremity landing biomechanics when performing landing motions. These alterations may potentially increase the risk of ACL injury. The purpose of this study was to determine if an unanticipat... (Source: SafetyLit)



Systolic dysfunction following traumatic brain injury - Venkata C.

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 16:42:31 +0100

[Abstract unavailable] Language: en... (Source: SafetyLit)



Intrasexual competition mediates the relationship between men's testosterone and mate retention behavior - Arnocky S, Albert G, Carr é JM, Ortiz TL.

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 16:42:31 +0100

Previous research has established a link between testosterone concentrations in males and their mating effort as it relates to their mate seeking behaviors. However, very little research has analyzed how variability in basal testosterone concentrations of ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Hypocholesterolemia is an independent risk factor for depression disorder and suicide attempt in Northern Mexican population - Segoviano-Mendoza M, C árdenas-de la Cruz M, Salas-Pacheco J, Vázquez-Alaniz F, La Llave-León O, Castellanos-Juárez F, Méndez-Hernández J, Barraza-Salas M, Miranda-Morales E, Arias-Carrión O, Méndez-Hernández E.

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 16:42:31 +0100

BACKGROUND: Cholesterol has been associated as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, however, there is growing evidence about crucial requirement of neuron membrane cholesterol in the organization and function of the 5-HT1A serotonin receptor... (Source: SafetyLit)



Femoral neck stress injuries: analysis of 156 cases in a U.S. Military population and proposal of a new MRI classification system - Rohena-Quinquilla IR, Rohena-Quinquilla FJ, Scully WF, Evanson JRL.

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 16:42:31 +0100

The objective of this study is to formulate a new MRI classification system for fatigue-type femoral neck stress injuries (FNSIs) that is based on patient management and return-to-duty (RTD) time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective r... (Source: SafetyLit)



Alterations in peripheral fatty acid composition in bipolar and unipolar depression - Scola G, Versace A, Metherel AH, Monsalve-Castro LA, Phillips ML, Bazinet RP, Andreazza AC.

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 16:42:31 +0100

In this study, we aimed to evaluate levels of fatty acids in patients with unipolar (MDD) and bipolar depression (BDD) in comparison to patients with ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Using Hawkeye from the Avengers to communicate on the eye

Thu, 18 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(Delft University of Technology) Superheroes can be used to communicate learning objectives to students in an interesting, fun, and accessible manner. Hawkeye, a member of the Avengers, is one such superhero, as Barry Fitzgerald of Delft University of Technology (TU Delft, The Netherlands) argues in the article 'Using Hawkeye from the Avengers to communicate on the eye', published in the journal Advances in Physiology Education. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)






Does inside passing contribute to the high incidence of groin injuries in soccer? A biomechanical analysis - Dupr é T, Funken J, Müller R, Mortensen KRL, Lysdal FG, Braun M, Krahl H, Potthast W.

Wed, 17 Jan 2018 18:39:21 +0100

Groin injuries are common in soccer and often cause time-loss from training. While groin injuries have been linked to full effort kicking, the role of inside passing is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate hip joint kinematics a... (Source: SafetyLit)



Anaemia worsens early functional outcome after traumatic brain injury: a preliminary study - Litofsky NS, Miller DC, Chen Z, Simonyi A, Klakotskaia D, Giritharan A, Feng Q, McConnell D, Cui J, Gu Z.

Wed, 17 Jan 2018 05:45:22 +0100

OBJECTIVE: To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. HYPOTHESIS: Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. ... (Source: SafetyLit)



What do the genetic association data say about the high risk of suicide in people with depression? A novel network-based approach to find common molecular basis for depression and suicidal behavior and related therapeutic targets - Bozorgmehr A, Alizadeh F, Ofogh SN, Hamzekalayi MRA, Herati S, Moradkhani A, Shahbazi A, Ghadirivasfi M.

Wed, 17 Jan 2018 05:45:22 +0100

BACKGROUND: Available sources indicate that the risk of suicide in people with major depression is higher than other psychiatric disorders. Although it seems that these two conditions may have a shared cause in some cases, no studies have been conducted to... (Source: SafetyLit)



A comparison of ground reaction force components according to the foothold heights in 16-t truck during downward step - Hyun SH, Ryew CC.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the components of ground reaction force (GRF) relative to the foothold heights during downward step of 16-t truck. Adult males (n= 10) jumped downward from each 1st, 2nd, 3rd foothold step and driver's seat o... (Source: SafetyLit)



Detection of American football head impacts using biomechanical features and support vector machine classification - Wu LC, Kuo C, Loza J, Kurt M, Laksari K, Yanez LZ, Senif D, Anderson SC, Miller LE, Urban JE, Stitzel JD, Camarillo DB.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

Accumulation of head impacts may contribute to acute and long-term brain trauma. Wearable sensors can measure impact exposure, yet current sensors do not have validated impact detection methods for accurate exposure monitoring. Here we demonstrate a head i... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Construct validity and reliability of the SARA Gait and Posture Sub-scale in early onset ataxia - Lawerman TF, Brandsma R, Verbeek RJ, van der Hoeven JH, Lunsing RJ, Kremer HPH, Sival DA.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

AIM: In children, gait and posture assessment provides a crucial marker for the early characterization, surveillance and treatment evaluation of early onset ataxia (EOA). For reliable data entry of studies targeting at gait and posture improvement, uniform... (Source: SafetyLit)



Characterizing the type and location of intracranial abnormalities in mild traumatic brain injury - Isokuortti H, Iverson GL, Silverberg ND, Kataja A, Brander A, Ohman J, Luoto TM.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

This study describes the characteristics of intracranial abnormalities (acute/preexisting) in a large representative sample of head-... (Source: SafetyLit)



Allocating less attention to central vision during vection is correlated with less motion sickness - Wei Y, Zheng J, So RHY.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

Visually induced motion sickness (VIMS) is a common discomfort response associated with vection-provoking stimuli. It is suggested that VIMS susceptibility depends on the ability to regulate visual performance during vection. To test this, in total 29 part... (Source: SafetyLit)



Injuries sustained in falling fatalities in relation to different distances of falls - Abder-Rahman H, Jaber MSO, Al-Sabaileh SS.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

This study focused on analyzin... (Source: SafetyLit)



The current state of biomarkers of mild traumatic brain injury - Kim HJ, Tsao JW, Stanfill AG.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a common occurrence, with over 3 million cases reported every year in the United States. While research into the underlying pathophysiology is ongoing, there is an urgent need for better clinical guidelines that allow ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Normalization of deviation: quotation error in human factors - Lock J, Bearman C.

Tue, 16 Jan 2018 04:45:18 +0100

The objective of this paper is to examine quotation error in human factors. Background Science progresses through building on the work of previous research. This requires accurate quotation. Quotation error has a number of adverse consequences: l... (Source: SafetyLit)



Standing on a sliding board affects generation of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments - Chen B, Lee YJ, Aruin AS.

Mon, 15 Jan 2018 07:44:25 +0100

Postural control is compromised in the presence of body instability. We studied anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments people use to maintain balance while standing on an unstable surface and performing voluntary arm movements. Nine healthy par... (Source: SafetyLit)



Neurodegeneration and sensorimotor deficits in the mouse model of traumatic brain injury - Bhowmick S, D'Mello V, Ponery N, Abdul-Muneer PM.

Mon, 15 Jan 2018 07:44:25 +0100

In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that neurodegeneration caused by TBI ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Motion cueing in high-performance vehicle simulators - Salisbury IG, Limebeer DJN.

Mon, 15 Jan 2018 07:44:25 +0100

The majority of motion cueing algorithms have been developed for passenger car applications, with correspondingly less research dedicated to race-car and high-performance vehicle simulators. In the high-performance context, the focus is on cueing the vehic... (Source: SafetyLit)



Effects of sport climbing on multiple sclerosis - Steimer J, Weissert R.

Mon, 15 Jan 2018 07:44:25 +0100

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) with different types of disease courses (relapsing-remitting, secondary-progressive, primary progressive) that leads to physical as well as mental di... (Source: SafetyLit)

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A video review of multiple concussion signs in National Rugby League match play - Gardner AJ, Howell DR, Iverson GL.

Mon, 15 Jan 2018 07:44:25 +0100

BACKGROUND: Video review has been introduced in many professional sports worldwide to help recognize concussions. However, to date, there has been very little research on the accuracy of using video analysis to identify signs of concussion and the various ... (Source: SafetyLit)



Researchers identify enzyme that regulates the physiology of white and brown fat

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 12:00:00 +0100

A study published inDiabetes reports that enzyme SNRK promotes the burning of calories in brown fat, and reduces inflammation in white fat tissue.Medical Xpress (Source: Society for Endocrinology)



Penn-led team uncovers the physiology behind the hour-long mating call of midshipman fish

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Pennsylvania) A new study led by University of Pennsylvania researchers provides an explanation for how Pacific midshipman fish can generate a mating call that emits continuously from their bodies for a full hour, entailing 360,000 muscle contractions. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Which U.S. states pose the greatest threats to military readiness and public health? Public health policy implications for a cross-sectional investigation of cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass index, and injuries among U.S. Army recruits - Bornstein DB, Grieve GL, Clennin MN, McLain AC, Whitsel LP, Beets MW, Hauret KG, Jones BH, Sarzynski MA.

Fri, 12 Jan 2018 02:44:34 +0100

OBJECTIVE: Many states in the southern region of the United States are recognized for higher rates of obesity, physical inactivity, and chronic disease. These states are therefore recognized for their disproportionate public health burden. The purpose of t... (Source: SafetyLit)