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MedWorm: Gastroenteritis



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Gastroenteritis category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:33:21 +0100

 



Differential dendritic cells responses to infection with various serotypes of shigella

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Dendritic cells (DC) are key regulators of immune response with the ability to affect both the innate and adaptive immune responses and are abundant in the gut mucosa. The severity of shigellosis varies with the serotype involved with S. dysenteriae (SD) producing the severest infections and complications with S. sonnei (SS) being at other end of spectrum usually causing mild self-limiting diarrhea. While shigellae are known to induce the apoptosis of mature DCs, there is no information in cytokine milieu of DCs incubated with different serotypes of Shigellae. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Antimicrobial resistance, phylogenetic distribution and molecular docking of integrons in multidrug resistant diarrheagenic E.coli isolates from children under five in Delhi, India.

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Integrons are versatile gene acquisition systems commonly found in bacterial genomes. They are ancient elements that are a hot spot for genomic complexity, generating phenotypic diversity and shaping adaptive responses. Mobile gene cassettes captured within integron arrays encompass a vast and diverse pool of genetic novelty. These elements are able to capture and express gene cassettes encoding antibiotic resistance. The main aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of integrons in multidrug resistant diarrheagenic E.coli isolates, to analyze the possible relationship between the antimicrobial resistances profiles, phylogenetic grouping with presence of integrons and to perform molecular docking of integron proteins. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Di...



Zinc restores altered intestinal ion-transport,barrier functions and counteract inflammatory mediators induced by Shigella infection in T84 cells

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: In recent years Zinc(Zn) has emerged as a major anti-diarrheal therapeutic and preventive strategy in the current management of diarrhea;however the mechanisms behind this protective effect are yet to be elucidated. We investigated the potential benefits of Zn in restoring paracellular and transcellular ion transport by modulating tight junction protein expression and chloride(Cl-)secretion altered upon Shigella infection. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Identification of biofilm-stage specific proteins associated with multidrug resistance and quorum sensing pathway in a pandemic strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus isolated from India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a Gram negative halophilic bacterium, is rated as one of the leading etiological agent of food borne diseases in humans. Gastroenteritis is the most common clinical manifestation and specific serotypes of this pathogen were associated with pandemic outbreaks in several parts of the world since 1996. Recent studies conducted in the related Vibrio pathogens has revealed the role of biofilm mode of life in the emergence of multidrug resistance and pathogenicity. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Guillain–Barré syndrome in Bangladesh: The role TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Background: Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success to eradicate poliomyelitis, however, Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) is frequently diagnosed. GBS is an autoimmune mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system preceded by infections. Campylobacter jejuni has been identified as the predominant cause of antecedent infection in GBS. C. jejuni lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces antibodies cross-reactive with gangliosides and has shown to be involved in peripheral nerve damage. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pathogen recognition receptor that recognizes mainly lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of gram-negative bacteria. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Norovirus infection and vaccine development: Where are we?

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:40 +0100

Abstract: Noroviruses are currently recognized as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis outbreaks associated with contaminated food and/or water consumption in industrialized countries and second to rotavirus as cause of childhood gastroenteritis. Individuals are infected many times throughout their lifetime, most of which are asymptomatic infections with fewer episodes of moderate to severely symptomatic infections which are particularly significant in young children living in resource-deprived countries. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Clinical spectrum of Aeromonas infections in hospitalized patients

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: The genus Aeromonas is a member of the family Vibrionaceae. Aeromonas hydrophila is the most commonly isolated species associated with human infections. Aeromonas species are gram negative,oxidase positive, non fermenting rods found in fresh water and are known to cause gastroenteritis, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, meningitis, bacteremia and urinary tract infections. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Characterization of diarrhoegenic escherichia coli using a novel multiplex PCR

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Diarrheal diseases are the second most common cause of infant mortality and morbidity in children less than five years of age. Among all the diarrheal pathogens, Diarrhoegenic Escherichia coli (DEC) plays an important role in epidemic and endemic diarrhea. For the identification of these pathogens, serotypic markers may correlate but are rarely reliably sufficient in identifying a strain as diarrheagenic. PCR targeting the virulence factors is a reliable and rapid way of detecting DEC. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Single-domain antibody selected from the phage display library neutralizes Escherichia coli endotoxin-induced effects on leukocytes in vitro and in Swiss albino mice

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

The objective of the present study was to assess the ability of single-domain antibody clones selected from phage display library to neutralize LPS-induced effects on murine and buffalo leukocytes in vitro and in Swiss albino mice. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



In vitro and in vivo activity of “compound A” against gram-positive and -negative pathogens including MDR strains

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Compound A is a novel Topo-IV inhibitor with broad spectrum activity against both Gram- negative and positive pathogens, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter. baumannii, Escherichia coli, and MRSA. The present study focuses on its in vitro activity, in vivo efficacy and pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics in murine infection models. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Characterization of multidrug-resistant escherichia coli and salmonella isolated from food producing animals in Northeastern India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Unraveling the determinants of multidrug resistance (MDR) in food animals is either poorly reported or scarce from northeastern India. Given the propensity of low and middle-income countries towards unprecedented global resistance hotspots, the present study aims to characterize MDR Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolated from food producing animals in this part of the country, a region of strategic significance. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Antibiotic sensitivity patterns among ESBL UTIs in Sri Lanka

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms causing urinary tract infections (UTI) are increasing in incidence and poses a major burden to health care requiring treatment with expensive antimicrobials and prolonged hospital stay. The prevalence of ESBL producing organisms particularly in the Asian region remains unknown. In a study carried out in a tertiary care center in India,70/218(32.1%) clinical isolates of Enterobacteriaceae were confirmed as ESBL. Of them K. pneumonia were the most common ESBL producers(46.4%), followed by E coli (31.7%). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Concentration dependent carbapenem exposure alters the plasmid copy number within nosocomial isolates of Escherichia coli harboring blaNDM-1: A study from Northeast India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

This study investigates the change in plasmid copy number of blaNDM-1 under the pressure of different concentration of carbapenem antibiotics within nosocomial isolates of E. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli from children less than 5 years

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: There is limited data on the resistance mechanisms of Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) from our centre which prompted us to perform this study to determine the antimicrobial resistance pattern. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular serogrouping of serologically atypical shigella isolates from South India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Shigellae are the causative agents of bacillary dysentery, represents a significant public health problem worldwide especially in developing countries. New serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are not uncommon and are reported from different parts of the world. Notably, atypical Shigella exhibit greater antibiotic resistance than typical Shigella serotypes and also found to harbour integrons which has the ability to acquire resistance genes. The purpose of this work was to amplify rfb regions (contains the genes coding for the enzymes responsible for O-antigen synthesis) of non-agglutinating Shigella isolates to characterize these by endonuclease restriction and to study the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (AMR). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases...



The emergence of cotrimoxazole and quinolone resistance in Shigella sonnei

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: The emergence of cotrimoxazole resistance has been a dominant and consistent character in our isolates of Shigella sonnei. To study the behaviour of these emerging strains and characterise mechanisms of resistance to cotrimoxazole & ciprofloxacin the following study was performed. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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AmpC β-lactamase producing Escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infection from a tertiary health care centre in North East India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Escherichia coli are the major causes of urinary tract infection (UTI) and an emerging problem worldwide. These organisms harbouring AmpC beta-lactamase is a major cause of therapeutic failure leaving cephalosporins inactive along with co-existing mechanism of resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Escherichia coli producing AmpC beta- lactamase in UTI and analyse their antibiotic susceptibility pattern from a tertiary care hospital in North Eastern part of India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antibiogram characterization of salmonella serovars isolated from food-animal and abattoir effluents

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

The objective of this study was to evaluate Salmonella serovars recovered from slaughtered food-animals and wastewater in abattoir environment. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Analysis of quinolone resistance due to mutational changes in escherichia coli associated with urinary tract infections: A study from North East India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Background: Quinolone group of antibiotics are predominantly used drugs for treatment of urinary tract infections. However, in recent decade's treatment failure to this drug is due to bacterial adaptation by acquisition of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance determinants. There also exists an intrinsic resistance mechanism by mutational changes in bacteria in type II and type IV bacterial topoisomerase. The study was designed to analysis point mutation in the gyrA and parC gene leading quinolone resistance in uropathogenic Eshcerichia coli from community settings. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Bacteriological profile of blood culture isolates in a cancer hospital with special reference to E. coli and its Antibiotic susceptibility pattern in patients with Haematological malignancies

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Blood stream infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality especially in febrile neutropenic patients. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a pathogen of great concern in immunosuppressed patients. On time diagnosis and appropriate medication will be the best way to save the lives of the affected ones. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Transcriptional response of AcrAB-TolC conferring carbapenems resistance within escherichia coli associated with community acquired infection

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Escherichia coli, an important member of Enterobacteriaceae is responsible for both hospital and community acquired infections. They have developed different mechanisms for survival in antibiotic stress. One of the well known mechanisms of resistance is the Efflux pump activity. These efflux pumps have the ability to export a wide range of compounds like antibiotics, detergents, organic solvents etc. A major tripartite multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, AcrAB–TolC, confers resistance to a wide variety of compounds. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Molecular characterization of escherichia coli isolated from hospital acquired infections from two different geographical areas, Ujjain and Bangalore

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:39 +0100

Background: Background (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Genotypic, phenotypic and functional profiles of NDM harboring Carbapenem resistant Escherichia coli from India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The emergence of Carbapenem resistant E. coli has been established as a major public health threat and represents a new challenge in the treatment of infectious diseases. India has been implicated in the transmission of NDM1 E. coli across the continent. It is therefore pertinent to investigate the current prevalence and characterize Carbapenem resistant superbugs in India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Staphylococcal foodborne illness outbreak, Tshwane District, Gauteng Province - South Africa, June 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Staphylococcus enterotoxin A is one of the few Staphylococcus aureus strains producing gastroenteritis symptoms and is a common cause of food-borne illness worldwide. Although food-borne illness is a notifiable disease in South Africa, its burden is not well known, possibly due to under-reporting. On May 31 2015, three public hospitals in Pretoria notified Tshwane-Outbreak-Response-Unit (ORU) of 51 cases presenting with vomiting and stomach cramps following consumption of food at a local hotel on May 30 2015. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



First molecular detection and genotyping of group A rotaviruses by semi-nested RT-PCR from Sewage in Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

The objective of this study was to detect and identify the circulating G genotypes of rotavirus in sewage from Nigeria using molecular method. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Prevalence of severe rotavirus associated gastroenteritis among children under five years of age in Chennai, India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

In this report, we present findings from the first year of surveillance carried out in the largest pediatric care facility in Chennai, a metropolis in southern India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Characterization of antibiotic resistance in escherichia coli isolates from abattoir drains

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The increase in antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria has emerged as an important risk in public health and in human medicine. This may lead to significant health risk to humans with records of disease outbreaks. The aim of this study was to characterize antibiotics resistance of Escherichia coli strains from abattoir effluents. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antibiotic susceptibility profile of enteric organisms from healthy individuals in a tertiary institution in Nigeria

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The world health organization has declared antibiotic resistance as a pandemic which calls for urgent attention. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella spp. and Escherichia coli isolates from diarrheal patients in Nigeria has been reported to be on the increase (Iwalokun et al., 2001; Yah et al., 2007; Kimang’a, 2012). M. morganii had been previously implicated in nosocomial infections, sepsis and other infections (Singla et al., 2010) . M. morganii has been reported to possess resistance plasmid which is of great importance when implicated in infections. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Tracking the emergence of multidrug resistant, extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli in India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of antibiotic resistance and to gather evidence on spread of antimicrobial resistance by clonal expansion of clinical E. coli lineages. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Demonstration of horizontal gene transfer of fluoroquinolone resistance by plasmids in clinical isolates of shigella spp. and salmonella spp.

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

This study was aimed to investigate the horizontal transfer of fluoroquinolone resistant gene harbouring plasmid from multi-drug resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Campylobacter jejuni infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome: An emerging cause of acute flaccid paralysis after the eradication of poliomyelitis in Bangladesh

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: Bangladesh has achieved a remarkable success with the eradication of poliomyelitis. However, non-polio acute flaccid paralysis and its clinical presentation as the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is still frequently diagnosed. GBS has a diverse clinical phenotype that varies according to geography. Campylobacter jejuni enteritis is the predominant bacterial infection preceding GBS. The purpose of the study was to define the clinical phenotype of GBS and the relation with preceding C. jejuni infection and anti-ganglioside antibodies (GM1, GD1 and GQ1b) in a large GBS cohort from Bangladesh. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Fluoroqunilone resistance in Shigella over a decade In India: Do we have Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance?

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:38 +0100

Background: The qnr gene family consists of plasmid mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes that confer low level resistance to nalidixic acid and reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. At our tertiary care referral centre in Chandigarh, which caters to a large population of 5 neighboring states, antibiotic resistance in Shigella is being constantly monitored (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular identification of beta lactamase producing gram negative bacteria in water samples collected from River Yamuna in Agra Region

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: River Yamuna is recoded to have microbial pollution including drug resistance pathogens. Pathogens like extended spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) is derived from β- lactamases and has the ability to hydrolyse the beta lactam ring of cephalosporins and other durgs. Extended spectrum-β-lactamase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli are arising as multi-national threat that could become multi-drug resistant infections. The presence of reference genes blaCTX-M, blaSHV and blaTEM coding for the β-lactamases enzymes are important marker to identify ESBL producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular characterization of human enteric adenovirus circulating among children below five years of age in Kolkata, India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

In this study we aimed at detecting and serotyping human enteric adenovirus subgenus F from fecal specimens based on one to three hypervariable region of the hexon gene and partial shaft region of fiber gene respectively. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular characterization of group A rota viral diarrhea complicated by enteropathogenic E.coli- Study of dual infections in children from Kashmir-Himalaya

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:37 +0100

Background: Rotavirus genotypes G12 & G9 with P[6] specifity were detected among children with acute gastroenteritis in Kashmir-India. Sequence analysis of the VP7 gene indicated a high level of aminoacid homology (98-99%) to other G12 strains reported worldwide, suggesting introduction of novel rotavirus strain serotype into the community.The study documents the first detection of G12 strain from Kashmir-India.G & P types detected were G1,G2,G9 & G12 and P[4],P[6] & P[8] respectively. Escherichia coli strains that produce AE lesions and carry the eaeA gene but not stx genes are designated as EPEC. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Giardia lamblia infection in institutionalized Romanian children

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Parasitic diseases have a worldwide distribution and represent an important public health problem. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in a Romanian Children Care Unit. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Biological pollution of drinking water ponds (hafirs) with toxoplasma gondii, giardia and cryptosporidium spp in Eastern Sudan

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Many classes of pathogens excreted in animals and human feces are responsible for waterborne disease. Protozoans are known to cause outbreaks disease worldwide and they are very robust in water environments and are strongly resistant to most disinfectants, including chemical procedures. Access to adequate supplies of good quality drinking water continues to be limited among many nomadic communities in Sudan where the major source of water, for both humans and livestock, is a rain-fed natural surface reservoir (hafir). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Effect of Valeriana officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on Giardia lamblia cysts

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Giardia lamblia is an important and prevalent parasitic cause of diarrhea and gastroenteritis. Regarding the significance of giardiasis treatment particularly by medicinal plants and G. lamblia resistance to chemical drugs, this study was conducted to study in vitro effect of Valeriana officinalis hydroalcoholic extract on G. lamblia cysts. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis and distribution of rotavirus strains in India: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea and diarrhea associated morbidity in Indian children. Vaccination is one of the most effective approaches to reduce the morbidity. Vaccine composition depends on the prevalence of most common strains. Therefore, it is important to understand the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and prevalence of different strains. This systematic review was aimed to estimate the burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) and distribution of rotavirus strains in India. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Antibiotic resistance among gastrointestinal and respiratory tract bacterial pathogens in Mauritius

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Antibiotic resistance rates vary markedly according to geographical region. It is thus essential to have local data on antibiotic resistance to determine the choice of antibiotics for empirical treatment of bacterial infections. A survey was therefore conducted to determine antibiotic resistance rates in 2014 of the main bacterial causes of gastroenteritis and respiratory tract infections in humans, namely nontyphoidal Salmonella, Campylobacter, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Population structure and molecular epidemiology of human clinical multi-drug resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli strains from Pune, India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) cause different infectious diseases in humans and animals, accounting 80% of urinary tract infections (UTIs), worldwide. Increase in the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli and global dissemination of these clonal organisms is a significant risk to the public health. The present study investigates the prevalence, population structure, phylogenetic affinities and molecular basis of ESBL and antimicrobial resistance and also highlights the spread of multi-drug resistant E. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Five-year review of non-typhoidal salmonella meningitis in Cape Town, 2010 - 2015

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

We report three cases of NTS meningitis in paediatric patients in Cape Town (Note: two more cases have been identified). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



In silico comparison of different PFGE and wgMLST

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:36 +0100

Background: Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) is acknowledged to be the ‘gold standard’ for the typing of strains of a number of bacterial species, including E. coli, and is used widely in clinical settings (van Belkum A., 2007). (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Development of safe, effective and immunogenic vaccine candidate for diarrheagenic Escherichia coli main pathotypes in mouse model

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Glanders is a highly contagious and fatal zoonotic disease primarily of horses, mules and may occur in felids in wild fields. At once time, B.mallei infection occurred worldwide, but over last 100 years occurrence decreased and many parts of world has been eradicated. However, sporadic cases of glanders are still registering in Far East, South America, North Africa, Middle East and Asia. In Mongolia, major glanders outbreaks were reported during the middle of last Century and due to specific measures, the prevalence was decreased to 0.05% by the end of 1980s. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Predominance of “atypical” enteroaggregative escherichia coli among human, animal, foods and associated environmental sources

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Infectious diarrhoea particularly due to pathogenic bacteria is a major health problem in developing countries, including India. Despite significant reports of diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes across the globe, there is paucity of studies which reveal their relatedness with respect to their isolation from different sources. This present study determines isolation and identification of DEC pathotypes from different sources, their genetic characterization and antibiogram sensitivity profiling. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Surveillance and molecular characterization of Rotavirus strains in hospitalized children with gastroenteritis in West Bengal

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Rotavirus (RV) is a segmented, double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Reoviridae family. It is a leading cause of severe gastroenteritis among children less than 5 years old. In India it was estimated 2 million visit outpatient and 457000–884000 hospitalized due to diarrhea disease. The aim of this study was to analyse prevalence and characterization of rotavirus strains among children admitted with gastroenteritis in two hospitals in West Bengal. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)

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Detection and molecular characterization of unusual rotavirus group A genotypes G12P[11] and G10P[14] in hospitalized children with acute gastroenteritis in Kolkata, India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Group A rotavirus induced acute gastroenteritis affects infants and children (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular detection and characterization of Sapovirus from hospitalized cases of acute gastroenteritis from western India

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) accounts for 2.5-3 million deaths per year in children below 5 years of age. Among enteric viruses, Rotavirus is the leading cause of this diarrhoeal disease, followed by Norovirus, Adenovirus, Astrovirus and Aichivirus. Sapovirus (SaV), members of the Caliciviridae family are known to cause outbreaks and sporadic cases of AGE. SaVs are classified into 5 genogroups: GI-V, based on nucleotide variation in their capsid region. Among the 5 genogroups, GI, GII, GIV and GV are known to infect humans while GIII infect porcine and mink hosts. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Molecular diversity of rotavirus strains from hospitalized children in Central Kerala

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

This study was aimed to characterize circulating rotavirus genotypes in a tertiary care centre in Central Kerala. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Development of Safe, Effective and Immunogenic Vaccine Candidate for Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Main Pathotypes in Mouse Model

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 09:23:35 +0100

Background: Enteric and diarrheal diseases are important causes of childhood death in the developing world. These diseases are responsible for more than 750 thousand deaths in children under 5 years old, ranking second cause of death, after lower respiratory diseases, in this age group . Among the major causative agents of diarrhea is Escherichia coli (E. coli). There are several vaccine trials for diarrheagenic E. coli. However, diarrheagenic E. coli has many categories and pathotypes and vaccines are directed for one or two of the five main pathotypes-causing diarrhea. (Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases)



Pericardial Salmonella with Cardiac Tamponade and Ventricular Wall Rupture: A Case Report

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Discussion In our review of literature, only 19 cases of NTS pericarditis have been reported. Prior to our case, salmonellosis resulting in ventricular rupture has been reported once. Early diagnosis and treatment is crucial in minimizing morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion based on electrocardiogram and hemodynamic assessment is critical in suspecting pericardial effusion in a patient with nonspecific symptoms and Salmonella bacteremia. The key to recovery involves aggressive treatment, including pericardiectomy and antibiotic treatment. (Source: Annals of Medicine and Surgery)

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Mp21-04 screening for fluoroquinolone resistant e. coli prior to trus guided prostate biopsy is cost effective and significantly reduces the risk of sepsis.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:09 +0100

Sepsis after transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB) is secondary to the transmission of rectal flora. The standard oral prophylaxis is ciprofloxacin. Screening the rectal flora for fluoroquinolone resistant E. coli (FRE) prior to biopsy offers the opportunity to adjust the prophylactic antibiotic to cover FRE. A prospective audit of septic events after TRUSPB at a single unit was performed to assess if screening for FRE and the subsequent use of targeted antibiotics reduced sepsis rates and if there was any associated cost benefits. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-15 clinically diverse lps isolates directly stimulate drg neurons: relevance for bladder pain

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

E. coli evoke a spectrum of pain responses when instilled into the bladder, ranging from no pelvic pain to post-UTI chronic pain that persists after transient infection. Previous studies indicate that E. coli-induced pain is mediated by TLR4 independent of inflammation. Because TLR4 activation is associated with TRPV1-mediated calcium responses in DRG neurons, we evaluated the hypothesis that differential bacterial pain phenotypes correlate with LPS-induced responses of DRG neurons. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-12 molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum ?-lactamase-producing escherichia coli isolated urinary tract infection in a university teaching hospital

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

In this study, we investigated the molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-10 diabetic conditions impair neutrophil recruitment into the urothelium and markedly delay the clearance of intracellular bacterial community of uropathogenic e. coli

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

In this study, we examined whether experimental DM in mice affects neutrophil infiltration into and clearance of uropathogenic E. coli from the urothelium. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-09 reg3γ stratifies the bladder urothelium with subversion of this pathway by upec during chronic cystitis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Reg3γ is an antimicrobial peptide whose physiologic function in vivo is unknown. We previously demonstrated urothelial production of Reg3γ peptide during Gram-negative cystitis despite absent antimicrobial activity toward uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) suggesting alternative functions for Reg3γ in the urinary tract. We tested the consequence of Reg3γ deletion on urothelial structure and susceptibility to UPEC infection. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Mp24-07 multinucleated urothelial umbrella cells as initiators of innate host defenses against uropathogenic e. coli

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

This study was undertaken to explore the in vivo role of urothelial umbrella cells in innate host defenses against uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-06 in vivo role of nlrp3 inflammasome in innate urothelial defenses against uropathogenic e. coli

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multi-protein complex consisting of a pattern recognition receptor (NLRP3), an adaptor (ASC) and caspase 1. It is a critical integrator of innate host defenses in myeloid and non-myeloid cells by promoting the maturation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1beta and 18. To date, no study has been reported regarding the in vivo role of NLRP3 inflammasome in urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp24-04 the uropathogenic escherichia coli pilus usher controls protein interactions via domain masking and is functional as an oligomer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Urinary tract infections (UTIs), the majority of which are caused by E. coli, are among the most common and costly human infections. Uropathogenic E. coli strains use the chaperone/usher (CU) pathway to construct surface structures termed pili, adhesive organelles that facilitate binding to bladder or kidney epithelial cells, thus promoting colonization and infection. The CU pilus biogenesis pathway requires a periplasmic chaperone protein and an outer membrane protein, the usher. We sought to gain a mechanistic understanding of how the usher protein catalyzes the assembly of pili and identify new opportunities for therapeutics designed to target specific steps of the process. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp33-02 clinical characteristics of postoperative febrile urinary tract infection after ureteroscopic lithotripsy

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:06 +0100

E. coli is known to be the most common pathogen causing urinary tract infections (UTI), accounting for 85% of community-acquired and 50% of hospital-acquired infections. Therefore, fluoroquinolone or cephalosporin is commonly used as prophylactic antibiotics for ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URS). Despite of using these prophylactic antibiotics, febrile UTI after URS is not uncommon. We aimed to analyze the risk factors and causative pathogen of febrile UTI after URS in this study. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp36-17 urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: exposing a novel culprit in prostatitis

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:05 +0100

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of natural and anthropogenic environmental contaminants. In addition to being potentially mutagenic and carcinogenic, PAHs are associated with several adverse health effects commonly linked to the cascade of events which play a role in the multifactorial pathogenesis of prostatitis. Several studies have now documented links between PAHs and chronic/acute inflammation, endocrine and reproductive disturbances, depression, increased prevalence of unmet emotional needs and genotoxicity of common genitourinary pathogens such as Escherichia coli. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

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Lb-s&t-35 siderophore vaccine conjugates protect against uropathogenic escherichia coli in a murine model of urinary tract infection

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:00 +0100

The objective of this study was to identify novel vaccine strategies for the prevention of UTIs. Bacteria-derived siderophores, which are secreted small molecules used for iron acquisition, were targeted for use in our UTI vaccine. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mp26-04 over the counter antibiotics? effects on escherichia coli incidence and resistance in uncomplicated urinary tract infections in jordan

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:00 +0100

Antibiotics are readily available over the counter in Jordan and self-treatment of infections is a common practice. The effects of this health behavior on local microbial resistance and incidence of different microbes in uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) has not been investigated. Current American Urological Association (AUA) treatment guidelines for uncomplicated UTI recommend a 3-day course of Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) if resistance is less than 20% and the usage of a Fluoroquinolone if resistance is higher. (Source: The Journal of Urology)



Mutagenic and genotoxic potential of direct electric current in Escherichia coli and Salmonella thyphimurium strains

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 17:37:44 +0100

Direct electric current has several therapeutic uses such as antibacterial and antiprotozoal action, tissues scarring and regeneration, as well as tumor treatment. This method has shown promising results in vivo and in vitro, with significant efficacy and almost no side effects. Considering lack of studies regarding direct electric current mutagenic and/or genotoxic effects, the present work evaluated both aspects by using five different bacterial experimental assays: survival of repair‐deficient mutants, Salmonella‐histidine reversion mutagenesis (Ames test), forward mutations to rifampicin resistance, phage reactivation, and lysogenic induction. In these experimental conditions, cells were submitted to an approach that allows evaluation of anodic, cathodic, and electro‐ionic effect...



The 10-second second rule is a 'dangerous myth' and could actually KILL you

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 15:11:39 +0100

Judging food as OK to eat if it only touches the floor momentarily is misguided, says Dr Lisa Ackerely, of Salford University. Bugs like E. coli and Salmonella on the floor can stick to foods in an instant. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



What is the Recurrence Risk for Clostridium difficile Infection?

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 00:27:04 +0100

Discussion Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a common cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Clostridium difficile is an obligate, anaerobic, gram-positive bacillus that is spore-forming and toxin producing. It is resistant to acid, heat, antibiotics and many antiseptic agents. Spores are acquired from the environment or by oral-fecal route. Once in the colon, the bacteria attach and proliferate making vegetative forms. Two main toxins are produced which disrupt the colonic integrity. Toxin A (TcdA) is an endotoxin that disrupts the mucosal cells. Toxin B (TcdB) is a cytotoxin that is 1000x more potent than TcdA and causes apoptosis. An inflammatory reaction occurs along with cell death. There has been a significant increase in childhood CDI over the past 20 years. While this is mainly in ...

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Analysing the mutational status of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene in breast cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disorder for which the underlying genetic basis remains unclear. We developed a method for identifying adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) mutations and we evaluated the possible ass... (Source: Cancer Cell International)



Severe Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis in a Crohn’s Disease Patient Treated With Infliximab and Adalimumab

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Severe Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis in a Crohn’s Disease Patient Treated With Infliximab and Adalimumab American Journal of Gastroenterology 111, 437 (March 2016). doi:10.1038/ajg.2015.438 Authors: Amanda Muir, Lea Surrey, Alyssa Kriegermeier, Ala Shaikhkalil & David A Piccoli (Source: The American Journal of Gastroenterology)



Danio rerio ABC transporter genes abcb3 and abcb7 play a protecting role against metal contamination

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract ATP‐binding cassette (ABC) proteins are efflux transporters and some of them are involved in xenobiotic detoxification. The involvement of four zebrafish ABC transporters in cadmium, zinc and mercury detoxification was characterized in a metal hypersensitive mutant of Escherichia coli. The E. coli tolC mutant expressing ABCB3 or ABCB7 transporters exhibited higher survival ratios and lower metal accumulation under a metal exposure condition than the controls. For instance, in the presence of 8 and 10 μM of HgCl2, the survival ratios of bacteria expressing ABCB3 were four and six‐times higher than the control whereas the mercury concentrations were 2.5 and 2‐times lower than in the control. This work provides new data on the function of zebrafish ABCB3 and ABCB7 transporte...



Qualitative Analysis and Antibacterial Activity of Pelargonium graveolenL’Herit

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Medicinal plants are an important source of phytochemicals that offer traditional medicinal treatment of various ailments and one of the plants is Pelargonium Graveolens which was grown in Hyderabad province. The preliminary screening of their aerial leaves showed best results the presence of different phytochemical like alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenol, sterol and lignin found in Methanolic and Ethyl acetate extract. However chloroform extract revealed the absence of alkaloids and sterols, where as in Water extract flavonoids, phenol, sterol and lignin. The best resulted extracts from preliminary screening test were subjected to Antimicrobial studies like some on gram positive and gram negative bacterial strains which exhibited a significant effect.  The both ethyl acetate  and...



Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts obtained from the roots bark of Arbutus andrachne L. a Lebanese tree.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Context and purpose of the study: The leaves, fruits, barks and roots of Arbutus andrachne L (A. andrachne), have been adopted to have high therapeutic value resulting from the presence of antioxidant compounds such as flavonoids, phenolic and tannins. In the present work, three extracts obtained from A. andrachne roots bark were evaluated for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities .The total phenolic content, flavonoid, condensed tannins and anthocyanins were determined in order to correlate them with the antioxidant activity of extracts.Main findings: The highest amounts of phenolic and tannins were found in the ethyl-acetate, while the anthocyanins ones were highly observed in the methanol-water extract. The lowest IC50 values for DPPH (0.6 µg/mL), and metal chelating assay (13...

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Molecules, Vol. 21, Pages 268: The Current Case of Quinolones: Synthetic Approaches and Antibacterial Activity

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Quinolones are broad-spectrum synthetic antibacterial drugs first obtained during the synthesis of chloroquine. Nalidixic acid, the prototype of quinolones, first became available for clinical consumption in 1962 and was used mainly for urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli and other pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. Recently, significant work has been carried out to synthesize novel quinolone analogues with enhanced activity and potential usage for the treatment of different bacterial diseases. These novel analogues are made by substitution at different sites—the variation at the C-6 and C-8 positions gives more effective drugs. Substitution of a fluorine atom at the C-6 position produces fluroquinolones, which account for a large proportion of the quinolones in clinical ...



A screening algorithm for diagnosing bacterial gastroenteritis by real-time PCR in combination with guided culture

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

We have introduced a real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection of Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp./ Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) and Yersinia enterocolitica in fecal samples in our routine laboratory. This new approach showed consistent results, with minimal inter-sample variation. When compared to conventional culture, the hands-on time decreased by 13h/week, and the median turnaround time drastically shortened from 73h to 29h (p (Source: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease)



Antimicrobial resistance in faecal Escherichia coli isolates from farmed red deer and wild small mammals. Detection of a multiresistant E. coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:20:02 +0100

Authors: Alonso CA, González-Barrio D, Tenorio C, Ruiz-Fons F, Torres C Abstract Eighty-nine Escherichia coli isolates recovered from faeces of red deer and small mammals, cohabiting the same area, were analyzed to determine the prevalence and mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance and molecular typing. Antimicrobial resistance was detected in 6.7% of isolates, with resistances to tetracycline and quinolones being the most common. An E. coli strain carrying blaCTX-M-1 as well as other antibiotic resistant genes included in an unusual class 1 integron (Intl1-dfrA16-blaPSE-1-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH-IS440-sul3-orf1-mef(B)Δ-IS26) was isolated from a deer. The blaCTX-M-1 gene was transferred by conjugation and transconjugants also acquired an IncN plasmid. This strain was typed as ST22...



Multidrug resistance dissemination by extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing community-acquired urinary tract infection in the Central-Western Region, Brazil

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, the results showed worrisome evidence of the potential for antibiotic multiresistant dissemination among community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by UPEC. (Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance)



Rotavirus infection markers in children with rotaviral gastroenteritis and their relation to disease severity

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Accordingly, we can conclude that rotaviral antigenemia and viremia were common in children with rotaviral diarrhea, however, the impact of rotavirus antigenemia/viremia on clinical manifestations of infection is unknown. (Source: Pediatric Infectious Disease)

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Optimization of peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH) for the detection of bacteria: the effect of pH, dextran sulfate and probe concentration

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study shows that, for an optimum hybridization protocol, dextran sulfate and pH should be adjusted according to the target bacteria. (Source: Journal of Biotechnology)



Human xanthine oxidase recombinant in E. coli: a whole cell catalyst for preparative drug metabolite synthesis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Journal of Biotechnology Author(s): Márcia Ferreira Antunes, Fabian Kurt Eggimann, Matthias Kittelmann, Stephan Lütz, Steven P. Hanlon, Beat Wirz, Thorsten Bachler, Margit Winkler Human xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), which is responsible for the final steps of the purine metabolism pathway and involved in oxidative drug metabolism, was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) Gold. Recombinant human (rh) XOR yielded higher productivity with the gene sequence optimized for expression in E.coli than with the native gene sequence. Induction of XOR expression with lactose or IPTG resulted in complete loss of activity whereas shake flasks cultures using media rather poor in nutrients resulted in functional XOR expre...



Molecules, Vol. 21, Pages 419: Antibacterial Properties and Effects of Fruit Chilling and Extract Storage on Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Anthocyanin Content of Four Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) Cultivars

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Phoenix dactylifera or date palm fruits are reported to contain natural compounds that exhibit antioxidant and antibacterial properties. This research aimed to study the effect of fruit chilling at 4 °C for 8 weeks, extract storage at −20 °C for 5 weeks, and extraction solvents (methanol or acetone) on total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties of Saudi Arabian P. dactylifera cv Mabroom, Safawi and Ajwa, as well as Iranian P. dactylifera cv Mariami. The storage stability of total anthocyanin content (TAC) was also evaluated, before and after storing the extracts at −20 °C and 4 °C respectively, for 5 weeks. Mariami had the highest TAC (3.18 ± 1.40 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW) while Mabroom had the lowest TAC (0.54 ± 0.15 mg cyd 3-glu/100 g DW). The ...



Design, synthesis and antibacterial activity of isatin derivatives as FtsZ inhibitors

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 5 August 2016 Source:Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 1117 Author(s): Zhi-Min Lian, Juan Sun, Hai-Liang Zhu Seven isatin derivatives have been designed, and their chemical structures were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, 1H NMR, MS, and elemental analysis. Structural stabilization followed by intramolecular as well as intermolecular H-bonds makes these molecules as perfect examples in molecular recognition with self-complementary donor and acceptor units within a single molecule. These compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activities. Docking simulations have been performed to position compounds into the FtsZ active site to determine their probable binding models. All of the compounds exhibited better antibacterial activities. Int...



Selective detection of Escherichia coli DNA by fluorescent carbon spindles

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:22:16 +0100

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2016, Accepted ManuscriptDOI: 10.1039/C5CP07849K, PaperAnurag Roy, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Srikrishna Pramanik, Parukuttyamma Sujatha Devi, Gopinatha Suresh KumarWe investigated the interaction of hydrophilic blue emitting carbon spindles with various deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) having different base pair compositions such as Herring testes (HT), Calf thymus (CT), Escherichia coli...The content of this RSS Feed (c) The Royal Society of Chemistry (Source: RSC - Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. latest articles)

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Association of Cell-adhesion Activities with Virulence in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O103:H2.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:05:02 +0100

Authors: Kobayashi N, Maeda E, Saito S, Furukawa I, Ohnishi T, Watanabe M, Terajima J, Hara-Kudo Y Abstract The characteristics of 11 strains of Stx1-producing and Stx2-non-producing STEC O103:H2 were analyzed to investigate the differences in virulence in a single serotype of Shiga toxin (Stx) -producing Escherichia coli (STEC). Differences in the cell-adhesion activity to Caco-2 cells were observed among the strains. The activity of the one strain, isolated from a patient with hemolytic uremic syndrome was 4-20-fold higher than those of the other strains. Although the strains with high cell-adhesion activity showed high expressions of eae, espB, espD, and tir in the locus of enterocyte effacement related with cell-adhesion, those were not specific for this strain. In addition, ...



Fate of Escherichia coli O157 Cells Inoculated into Lightly Pickled Chinese Cabbage during Processing, Storage and Incubation in Artificial Gastric Juice.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:05:02 +0100

Authors: Inatsu Y, Ohata Y, Ananchaipattana C, Latiful Bari M, Hosotani Y, Kawasaki S Abstract Fate of Escherichia coli O157 cells was evaluated when inoculated into each step after production of lightly pickled Chinese cabbage. The efficacy of surface sterilization by 100 mg/L of chlorine water for 10 min on raw leaves (6.0 log CFU/g) was 2.2 log CFU/g reduction. No meaningful change of the population of E. coli O157 (3.5 log CFU/g to 1.5 log MPN/g) contaminated into 19 kinds of products was observed. These results indicated the difficulty of estimating the viable count of the cells between contaminated on farms and further processing and storage steps. The population of E. coli O157 (3 log CFU/g to 1 log MPN/g) inoculated into the Chinese cabbage products was reduced less than 0....



Epidemiology of hospital-acquired pneumonia: Results of a Central European multicenter, prospective, observational study compared with data from the European region.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:35:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The present study was the first to collect multicenter data on the epidemiology of HAP in the Central European Region, with respect to the incidence of etiologic agents causing HAP. It was concerned with relationships between 30-day patient mortality and the type of HAP, etiologic agent and adequacy of initial empirical antibiotic therapy. PMID: 27003315 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub)



CodHonEditor: Spreadsheets for Codon Optimization and Editing of Protein Coding Sequences.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:07:01 +0100

Authors: Takai K Abstract Gene synthesis is getting more important with the growing availability of low-cost commercial services. The coding sequences are often "optimized" as for the relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) before synthesis, which is generally included in the commercial services. However, the codon optimization processes are different among different providers and are often hidden from the users. Here, the d'Hondt method, which is widely adopted as a method for determining the number of seats for each party in proportional-representation public elections, is applied to RSCU fitting. This allowed me to make a set of electronic spreadsheets for manual design of protein coding sequences for expression in Escherichia coli, with which users can see the process of codon o...



Strategies to Block Bacterial Pathogenesis by Interference with Motility and Chemotaxis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:18:01 +0100

Authors: Erhardt M Abstract Infections by motile, pathogenic bacteria, such as Campylobacter species, Clostridium species, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Listeria monocytogenes, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, Vibrio cholerae, and Yersinia species, represent a severe economic and health problem worldwide. Of special importance in this context is the increasing emergence and spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria. Due to the shortage of effective antibiotics for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant, pathogenic bacteria, the targeting of novel, virulence-relevant factors constitutes a promising, alternative approach. Bacteria have evolved distinct motility structures for movement across surfaces and in aqueous environmen...

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Outbreak of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae ST76 and ST37 isolates in neonates

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:13 +0100

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) in Shanghai Children’s Hospital in China. Twenty-two non-duplicate CRKP strains were collected from pediatric patients between March and June in 2014. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted by the agar dilution method. Beta-lactamases were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The transferability of bla NDM-1 was investigated by conjugation experiment. The plasmids bearing antibiotic resistance genes were characterized by S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (S1-PFGE) and Southern hybridization. Clonal relatedness was evaluated by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST)...



Time to positivity of blood culture and its prognostic value in bloodstream infection

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:12 +0100

Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the time to positivity (TTP) of blood cultures and outcome in patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs). Between January 1st, 2011 and December 31st, 2013, the blood cultures of inpatients with BSI or catheter-related BSI were collected at Peking University Third Hospital. The TTP of different isolates was analyzed, and the relationship between the TTP of isolates and outcome of patients with Enterobacter BSI was retrospectively analyzed. We analyzed the TTP of 886 isolates. Escherichia coli has the shortest (11.97 ± 10.06 h) and Candida has the longest first TTP (61.62 ± 42.77 h). 68.01 % of isolates reached positivity within 24 h and 88.33 % within 48 h. Over 90 % of E. coli isolat...



Epidemiological and clinical features for cefepime heteroresistant Escherichia coli infections in Southwest China

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:23:12 +0100

This study aimed to report the characteristics of invasive E. coli with FEP-PHR traits and further to investigate the predisposing factors for its acquisition. A retrospective case–control study was conducted in a teaching hospital in Southwest China. A total of 319 successive and non-duplicate E. coli strains were isolated from blood and other sterile body fluids between July 2011 and August 2013. Among the seventy (70/319, 21.9 %) isolates harboring FEP-PHR traits, 30 (42.9 %) isolates were isolated from blood, 14 (20.0 %) isolates were isolated from bile, and 13 (18.6 %) isolates were isolated from drainage. FEP-PHR isolates were verified by population analysis profile (PAP) assays. Male gender, receipt of total parenteral nutrition, cephalosporins exposure, and production of exte...



Graphene oxide decorated electrospun gelatin nanofibers: Fabrication, properties and applications

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We report the effect of incorporation of graphene oxide on the mechanical, thermal and biological performance of the gelatin nanofibers. The tensile strength of gelatin nanofibers was increased from 8.29±0.53MPa to 21±2.03MPa after the incorporation of GO. In order to improve the water resistance of nanofibers, natural based cross-linking agent, namely, dextran aldehyde was employed. The cross-linked composite nanofibers showed further increase in the tensile strength up to 56.4±2.03MPa. Graphene oxide incorporated gelatin nanofibers are evaluated for bacterial activity against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria and cyto compatibility using mouse fibroblast cells (L-929 cells). The results indicate that the graphene oxide incorporated gel...



Detailed functional analysis of two clinical glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) variants, G6PDViangchan and G6PDViangchan+Mahidol: Decreased stability and catalytic efficiency contribute to the clinical phenotype

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We describe an overexpression and purification method to obtain substantial amounts of functionally active protein. The K M for G6P of the two variants was comparable to the K M of the native enzyme, whereas the K M for NADP+ was increased 5-fold for G6PDViangchan and 8-fold for G6PDViangchan + Mahidol when compared with the native enzyme. Additionally, k cat of the mutant enzymes was markedly reduced, resulting in a 10- and 18-fold reduction in catalytic efficiency for NADP+ catalysis for G6PDViangchan and G6PDViangchan + Mahidol, respectively. Furthermore, the two variants demonstrated significant reduction in thermostability, but similar susceptibility to trypsin digestion, when compared with the wild-type enzyme. The presence of NADP+ is shown to improve the stability of G6PD enzymes. ...

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Interaction of B. subtilis PNPase and RNase Y [RNA]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase), a 3′-to-5′ phosphorolytic exoribonuclease, is thought to be the primary enzyme responsible for turnover of Bacillus subtilis mRNA. The role of PNPase in B. subtilis mRNA decay has been analyzed previously by comparison of mRNA profiles in a wild-type strain versus a strain that is deleted for pnpA, the gene encoding PNPase. Recent studies have provided evidence for a degradosome-like complex in B. subtilis that is built around the major decay-initiating endonuclease, RNase Y, and there is ample evidence for a strong interaction between PNPase and RNase Y. The role of the PNPase-RNase Y interaction in the exonucleolytic function of PNPase needs to be clarified. We sought to construct a B. subtilis strain containing a catalytically active PNPase tha...



C. kronotskyensis SLH Glycoside Hydrolases [Enzymology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The genome of the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis encodes 19 surface layer (S-layer) homology (SLH) domain-containing proteins, the most in any Caldicellulosiruptor species genome sequenced to date. These SLH proteins include five glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and one polysaccharide lyase, the genes for which were transcribed at high levels during growth on plant biomass. The largest GH identified so far in this genus, Calkro_0111 (2,435 amino acids), is completely unique to C. kronotskyensis and contains SLH domains. Calkro_0111 was produced recombinantly in Escherichia coli as two pieces, containing the GH16 and GH55 domains, respectively, as well as putative binding and spacer domains. These displayed endo- and exoglucanase activity on the β-1,3-1,6-gl...



Glutathionylation of DnaK [Protein Synthesis and Degradation]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study confirms that glutathionylation down-regulates the functions of DnaK under oxidizing conditions, and this down-regulation may facilitate release of σ32 from its interaction with DnaK, thus triggering the heat shock response. Such a mechanism provides a link between oxidative stress and the heat shock response in bacteria. (Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry)



Bioinspired double-positively charged phosphodicholine-chitosan and zwitterionic phosphorylcholine-chitosan conjugates: The associated water structure, biocompatibility and antibacterial action

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Reactive and Functional Polymers Author(s): Zhaoyu Cao, Minming Wu, Yunfei Zhao, Lisha Dai, Rong Zeng, Mei Tu, Jianhao Zhao Bioinspired double-positively charged phosphodicholine (PdC)-chitosan conjugate was synthesized via Atherton-Todd reaction, which can hydrolyze to zwitterionic phosphorylcholine (PC)-chitosan in basic solutions, confirmed by 1H and 31P NMR spectra. Thermal analysis revealed that there existed the freezing bound water due to the introduction of PdC and PC groups for both PdC-chitosan and PC-chitosan, implying that double-positively charged PdC-chitosan may exhibit excellent biocompatibility as zwitterionic PC-chitosan. Cytotoxicity, hemolysis and antibacterial activity evidenced that PdC-chitosan displaye...



Small angle X-ray scattering as a high-throughput method to classify antimicrobial modes of action

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)

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Recombinant expression, antimicrobial activity and mechanism of action of tritrpticin analogs containing fluoro-tryptophan residues

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antimicrobial peptides edited by Karl Lohner and Kai Hilpert. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Biomembranes)



Synthesis, spectral characterization, crystal structure and molecular docking study of 2,7-diaryl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, a series of variously substituted r-2,c-7-diaryl-1,4-diazepan-5-ones 9–16 have been synthesized using Schmidt rearrangement and are characterized by IR, mass and 1D & 2D NMR spectral data. The proton NMR coupling constant and estimated dihedral angles reveal that the compounds 9–16 prefer a chair conformation with equatorial orientation of alkyl and aryl groups. Single crystal X-ray structure has been solved for compounds 9 and 11 which also indicates the preference for distorted chair conformation with equatorial orientation of substituents. The compounds 9–16 have been docked with the structure of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the results demonstrate that compound 10 is having better docking score and glide energy than others and it i...



Evaluation of a New Device for Simplifying and Standardizing Stool Sample Preparation for Viral Molecular Testing with Limited Hands-On Time [Virology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Sensitive molecular assays have greatly improved the diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis. However, the proper preparation of stool samples for clinical testing remains an issue. bioMérieux has developed a stool preprocessing device (SPD) that includes a spoon for calibrated sampling and a vial containing buffer, glass beads, and two filters. The resulting stool filtrate is used for nucleic acid extraction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SPD for the quantification of human adenovirus (HAdV) DNA in stool samples collected from hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. HAdV DNA was quantified with the Adenovirus R-gene kit. The suitability of the device to reproducibly quantify HAdV DNA in stools using different extraction platforms (easyMAG...



Cumulative Antimicrobial Susceptibility Data from Intensive Care Units at One Institution: Should Data Be Combined? [Epidemiology]

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, susceptibility data for two different ICUs at a tertiary care hospital in Toronto, Canada, were used to create a traditional CSTD report, which combined data from different ICUs, and a rolling-average CSTD report, which pooled 2 years of data for each ICU separately. For simplicity, data for only the most common Gram-negative organisms (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and the most relevant antibiotics (ciprofloxacin, piperacillin-tazobactam) were examined. With the rolling-average method, significant differences in susceptibility were seen between the ICUs in 50% of the organism-antimicrobial combinations. Furthermore, the 3% median year-over-year difference in susceptibilities seen for the 16 organism-antibiotic combinations by using the traditional method was low...