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Last Build Date: Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:22:44 +0100

 



Distribution pattern of bovine viral diarrhoea virus type 1 genome in lymphoid tissues of experimentally infected sheep

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, cellular localization and the distribution pattern of BVDV genome in lymphoid tissues during the course of experimental acute BVDV-1 infection of sheep was investigated. Tonsils, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were collected on 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days post infection (dpi) from twenty 4-month-old lambs, experimentally inoculated intra-nasally with 5 × 105 TCID50 of a non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV-1 isolate, Ind-17555. Tissues collected from ten mock-infected lambs served as controls. In situ hybridization (ISH) was carried out in paraformaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections using digoxigenin labelled riboprobe targeting 5′-UTR of BVDV-1. BVDV genome was detected at all the intervals from 3 dpi to 15 dpi in the lymphoid tissues with variations between ...

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Use of antibiotic and incidence of antibiotic associated diarrhoea in patients with spinal cord injuries: a UK National Spinal Injury Centre experience

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 01:34:48 +0100

BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The frequency of antibiotic associated diarrhoea (AAD) could be as high as 60% during hospital outbreaks or intermediate (13%–29%) during endemic periods. Little is known about the use of antibiotics and the extent of AAD in patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI). (Source: The Spine Journal)



Bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 in patients with acute leukaemia: a dose-escalation, phase 1 study

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report the results of patients with acute leukaemia (leukaemia cohort). Methods In this dose-escalation, phase 1 study we recruited patients from seven university hospital centres (in France [five], UK [one], and Canada [one]). Adults with acute leukaemia who had failed or had a contraindication to standard therapies were eligible to participate. OTX015 was given orally at increasing doses from 10 mg/day to 160 mg/day (14 of 21 days), using a conventional 3 + 3 design. In this open-label trial, OTX015 was initially administered once a day, with allowance for exploration of other schedules. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT), assessed during the first treatment cycle (21 days). The study is ongoing and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01713582. Finding...



Bromodomain inhibitor OTX015 in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma: a dose-escalation, open-label, pharmacokinetic, phase 1 study

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report the results from a cohort of patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma (non-leukaemia cohort). Methods In this dose-escalation, open-label, phase 1 study, we recruited patients from seven university hospital centres (in France [four], Switzerland [one], UK [one], and Italy [one]). Adult patients with non-leukaemia haematological malignancies who had disease progression on standard therapies were eligible to participate. Patients were treated with oral OTX015 once a day continuously over five doses (10 mg, 20 mg, 40 mg, 80 mg, and 120 mg), using a conventional 3 + 3 design, with allowance for evaluation of alternative administration schedules. The primary endpoint was dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) in the first treatment cycle (21 days). Secondary objectives were to evaluate s...



Difficulties arising from the variety of testing schemes used for bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV)

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Globally, the eradication of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is still in its infancy, but eradication has been, or is being, adopted by several countries or regions. Comparisons between countries’ schemes allow others to assess best practice, and aggregating published results from eradication schemes provides greater statistical power when analysing data. Aggregating data requires that results derived from different testing schemes be calibrated against one another. The authors aimed to evaluate whether relationships between published BVDV test results could be created and present the outcome of a systematic literature review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The results are tabulated, providing a summary of papers where ...



Mushroom poisoning in Hong Kong: a ten-year review.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 15:05:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Most cases of mushroom poisoning in Hong Kong presented with gastrointestinal symptoms and followed a benign course. Life-threatening cases of amatoxin poisoning are occasionally seen. Doctors should consider this diagnosis in patients who present with gastrointestinal symptoms that begin 6 hours or more after mushroom consumption. PMID: 26980450 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Hong Kong Medical Journal)

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Systematic review with meta‐analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for diarrhoeal diseases in children

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 06:34:09 +0100

ConclusionsIn therapeutic settings, L. reuteri administration reduces the duration of diarrhoea and increases the chance of cure. In preventive settings, L. reuteri has the potential to reduce the risk of community‐acquired diarrhoea in otherwise healthy children. (Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)



A systematic review and meta-analysis of ambient temperature and diarrhoeal diseases

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Changes in temperature due to global climate change can and may already be affecting diarrhoeal disease incidence. The vulnerability of populations may depend, in part, on local pathogen distribution. However, evidence of publication bias and the uneven geographical distribution of studies limit the precision and generalizability of the pooled estimates. (Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)



Highlights from this issue

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

What are the indications for probiotics in children  The health benefits of probiotics have been the subject of extensive research although it is not always clear to the practicing clinician if, when, which and for how long they should be used. Hania Szejewska reviews the evidence providing guidance for the clinician. Probiotics are ‘live micro-organisms' that when prescribed in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host. Probiotics can be administered as a dietary supplement, food product or a drug. It is important to remember that not all probiotics are equal and for specific indications to consider the evidence for specific probiotics strains. The review works through different potential indications. The best documented efficacy is for acute gastroenteritis, prevent...



Perinatal zinc deficiency

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Discussion and key learning points Perinatal zinc deficiency manifestations include erythematous-erosive dermatitis, alopecia, diarrhoea, central nervous system dysfunction, and immune system deficiency.1 Ex-preterm, exclusively breastfed infants may suffer from inadequate maternal zinc intake and/or defects in zinc transfer from serum to breast milk;2 gut immaturity and/or genetic defects in enterocyte zinc transporters may... (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)



Irritable bowel syndrome.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Abstract Essential facts Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, relapsing and often lifelong disorder that causes bouts of stomach cramps, bloating, diarrhoea and constipation. It is thought to affect up to one in five people at some point in their life, and around twice as many women as men. While IBS can affect people of all ages, including children, it usually develops between age 20-30. PMID: 26982841 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Nursing Standard)

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Enterovirus-related diarrhoea in Guangdong, China: clinical features and implications in hand, foot and mouth disease and herpangina

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A series of complications caused by enteroviruses, including meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, acute cardiopulmonary failure, respiratory infection, and myocardial injury have been reported in... (Source: BMC Infectious Diseases)



A healthier environment could save thousands of lives a year in the Eastern Mediterranean Region

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 07:56:04 +0100

15 March 2016 Cairo – In 2012, an estimated 854 000 people died as a result of living or working in an unhealthy environment in the Eastern Mediterranean Region – nearly one in 5 of total deaths in this Region, according to new estimates from the World Health Organization (WHO). Environmental risk factors, such as air, water and soil pollution, chemical exposures, climate change and ultraviolet radiation, contribute to more than 100 diseases and injuries. The second edition of the report "Preventing disease through healthy environments: a global assessment of burden of disease from environmental risks" reveals that since the report was first published a decade ago, deaths due to noncommunicable diseases, linked primarily to air pollution and chemical exposures, are amounting annually ...



Ximenia caffra Sond. (Ximeniaceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion In this review, the ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, biological activities and toxicity of different extracts and compounds of X. caffra have been summarized. Although many of the ethnomedicinal uses of X. caffra have been validated by phytochemical and pharmacological studies, there are still some gaps where current knowledge could be improved. There are very few to nil experimental animal studies, randomized clinical trials and target-organ toxicity studies involving X. caffra and its derivatives that have been carried out so far. At the present moment, there is not sufficient evidence to interpret the specific chemical mechanisms associated with some of the documented biological activities of the species. Therefore, future studies should identify the bioactive components,...



Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal symptoms.

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: We found insufficient evidence that Chinese herbal medicines were any more or less effective than placebo or HT for the relief of vasomotor symptoms. Effects on safety were inconclusive. The quality of the evidence ranged from very low to moderate; there is a need for well-designed randomised controlled studies. PMID: 26976671 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)



Prescription for antibiotics at drug shops and strategies to improve quality of care and patient safety: a cross-sectional survey in the private sector in Uganda

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions There is urgent need to regulate drug shop practices of prescribing and selling antibiotics, for the safety of patients seeking care at these outlets. (Source: BMJ Open)

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Sapovirus prevalence in children less than five years of age hospitalised for diarrhoeal disease in South Africa, 2009 to 2013

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Sapoviruses (SaV) are associated with acute diarrhoea and outbreaks among all age groups [1]. Along with norovirus (NoV), they are classified in the Caliciviridae family [2]. Noroviruses are the second most common cause of virus-associated diarrhoea in children (Source: Journal of Clinical Virology)



Rosuvastatin vs. protease inhibitor switching for hypercholesterolaemia: a randomized trial

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsIn adults receiving a PI/r, rosuvastatin 10 mg/day for 12 weeks yielded larger decreases in total and low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol than PI/r switching, and was better tolerated. (Source: HIV Medicine)



Heat urticaria: a revision of published cases with an update on classification and management

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: British Journal of Dermatology)



Cediranib in patients with relapsed platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer (ICON6): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 12–18 March 2016 Source:The Lancet, Volume 387, Issue 10023 Author(s): Jonathan A Ledermann, Andrew C Embleton, Fharat Raja, Timothy J Perren, Gordon C Jayson, Gordon J S Rustin, Stan B Kaye, Hal Hirte, Elizabeth Eisenhauer, Michelle Vaughan, Michael Friedlander, Antonio González-Martín, Daniel Stark, Elizabeth Clark, Laura Farrelly, Ann Marie Swart, Adrian Cook, Richard S Kaplan, Mahesh K B Parmar Background Angiogenesis is a validated clinical target in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. Cediranib is an oral antiangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1–3 inhibitor that has shown antitumour activity in recurrent ovarian cancer. We assessed efficacy and safety of cediranib in combination with platinum-based chemotherapy and as c...



Heat urticaria: a revision of published cases with an update on classification and management.

Sat, 12 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 26973062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Dermatology)

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Antitumour activity of 2-dihydroailanthone from the bark of Ailanthus altissima against U251.

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 19:47:02 +0100

Conclusion An important bioactive component, 2-dihydroailanthone, has antitumour effects, enlightening a novel source of phytomedicines in tumour therapy. PMID: 26956770 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)



Congenital intestinal diarrheal diseases: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Congenital diarrheal disorders are a heterogeneous group of inherited malabsorptive or secretory diseases typically appearing in the first weeks of life, which may be triggered by the introduction of distinct nutrients. However, they may also be unrecognised for a while and triggered by exogenous factors later on. In principle, they can be clinically classified as osmotic, secretory or inflammatory diarrhoea. In recent years the disease-causing molecular defects of these congenital disorders have been identified. (Source: Best Practice and Research. Clinical Gastroenterology)



Nutritional status of children

Fri, 11 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Mothers' engagement in income-generating employment was associated with undernutrition in children <5 years of age in urban Bangladesh. PMID: 26965048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Public Health Nutrition)



El Niño history raises fear of cholera outbreak

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 12:00:00 +0100

The current event may bring diarrhoea to South America — as past episodes seem to have done, say scientists. (Source: SciDev.Net)



Immunogenic properties of trivalent recombinant protein composed of B-subunits of LT, STX-2, and CT toxins

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016 Source:Microbes and Infection Author(s): Rouhollah Kazemi, Asal Akhavian, Jafar Amani, Jafar Salimian, Mohammad-Javad Motamedi, Amir Mousavi, Mahyat Jafari, Ali-Hatef Salmanian Infectious diarrhoea remains an emerging problem in the world health program. Among diarrheagenic agents, Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli are critical enteropathogens. AB5 toxin produced by these bacteria, heat-labile enterotoxin (LT), cholera enterotoxin (CT), and shiga-like cytotoxin (STX) can target the immune system and are subunit vaccine candidates. A chemically-synthesized chimeric construct composed of the binding subunits of these toxins (LTB, STXB, and CTXB) was developed based on bioinformatics studies. Th...

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Testing for BVD virus becomes compulsory in Northern Ireland

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ALL newborn calves in Northern Ireland now have to be tested for bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) virus after new legislation came into force on March 1. Addressing industry representatives at Stormont, Michelle O'Neill, the minister of agriculture and rural development in Northern Ireland, said: ‘The BVD eradication programme begins today with compulsory testing for bovines, including stillborns and abortions. This will help to ensure that herds reach their full health potential, which in turn will increase profitability for herd keepers, while protecting trade opportunities for farmers across the north.’ She said that although some farmers might be concerned about the initial costs of testing their animals and removing those found to be persistently infected, there was strong evi...



GS‐9857 in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1–4 infection: a randomized, double‐blind, dose‐ranging phase 1 study

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 17:07:11 +0100

In this study, the safety, tolerability, antiviral activity and pharmacokinetics (PK) of GS‐9857 were evaluated in patients with chronic HCV genotype 1–4 infection. Patients with genotype 1–4 infection received placebo or once‐daily GS‐9857 at doses ranging from 50 to 300 mg for 3 days under fasting conditions. GS‐9857 was well tolerated; all reported adverse events (AEs) were mild or moderate in severity. Diarrhoea and headache were the most commonly reported AEs. Grade 3 or 4 laboratory abnormalities were observed in 17% of patients receiving GS‐9857; there were no Grade 3 or 4 abnormalities in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase levels. GS‐9857 demonstrated potent antiviral activity in patients with chronic HCV infection, achievin...



High risk of drug‐induced microscopic colitis with concomitant use of NSAIDs and proton pump inhibitors

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 14:34:08 +0100

ConclusionsCurrent exposure to NSAIDs, PPIs or SSRIs and prolonged use for 4–12 months increased the risk of MC. Concomitant use of NSAIDs and PPIs showed the highest risk of MC. Acid suppression related dysbiosis may contribute to the PPI effect, which may be exacerbated by NSAID‐related side‐effects. (Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)



Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Gastroenterology Author(s): F. van der Heide This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focusing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive sma...



Vitamin-D status is not a confounder of the relationship between zinc and diarrhoea: a study in 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children of urban Bangladesh

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Vitamin-D status is not a confounder of the relationship between zinc and diarrhoea: a study in 6–24-month-old underweight and normal-weight children of urban Bangladesh European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, March 9 2016. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.7 Authors: A M S Ahmed, R J S Magalhaes, T Ahmed, K Z Long, MdI Hossain, M M Islam, M Mahfuz, S M A Gaffar, A Sharmeen, R Haque, R L Guerrant, W A Petri & A A Mamun (Source: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition)

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Fecal S100A12 concentration predicts a lack of response to treatment in dogs affected with chronic enteropathy

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 7 March 2016 Source:The Veterinary Journal Author(s): Romy M. Heilmann, Maria Volkmann, Cristiane C. Otoni, Niels Grützner, Barbara Kohn, Albert E. Jergens, Jörg M. Steiner S100A12 is a potential biomarker of gastrointestinal inflammation in dogs and fecal S100A12 concentrations are correlated with disease severity and outcome. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there was any association between pre-treatment fecal S100A12 concentrations in dogs affected with chronic enteropathy (CE) and the response to treatment. Dogs affected with CE were recruited into the study and were classified as antibiotic-responsive diarrhoea (ARD; n = 9), food-responsive diarrhoea (FRD; n = 30) or idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; n = 2...



[Food allergies in paediatrics: Current concepts].

Tue, 08 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Plaza-Martin AM Abstract The concept of allergic reaction currently includes all those where an immunological reaction depends on a reaction mediated by IgE, as well as those that involve other immune mechanisms, such as T-cell regulators. There are many different clinical situations, like the classic immediate reactions (IgE mediated) such as urticaria, angioedema, immediate vomiting, abdominal pain, both upper respiratory (aphonia or rhinitis) and lower (wheezing or dyspnoea) symptom, and cardiovascular symptoms. The reactions that involve more than one organ, such as anaphylaxis, which could be an anaphylactic shock if there is cardiovascular involvement. The clinical signs and symptoms produced by non-IgE mediated reactions are usually more insidious in how they start,...



Associations between prior management of cattle and risk of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): K.E. Hay, J.M. Morton, M.L. Schibrowski, A.C.A. Clements, T.J. Mahony, T.S. Barnes Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the major cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot populations worldwide. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess associations between risk factors related to on-farm management prior to transport to the feedlot and risk of BRD in a population of feedlot beef cattle sourced from throughout the cattle producing regions of Australia. Risk factors were derived from questionnaire data provided by farmers supplying cattle (N=10,721) that were a subset of the population included in a nationwide prospective study investigating numerous putative risk factors for BRD....



Safety Profile of Artemether-Lumefantrine: A Cohort Event Monitoring Study in Public Health Facilities in Tanzania

Mon, 07 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The safety profile of AL for treatment of malaria continues to be favourable. CEM as a pharmacovigilance tool has proven to provide reliable safety data in a short period. (Source: Clinical Drug Investigation)



Adolescent HIV treatment issues in South Africa.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 04:54:02 +0100

This article highlights common treatment issues in HIV adolescent care and provides guidance on their management in the South African setting. PMID: 26937511 [PubMed - in process] (Source: South African Medical Journal)

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Development of single dilution immunoassay to detect E2 protein specific classical swine fever virus antibody

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 6 March 2016 Source:Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology Author(s): Rakesh Kumar, Nagendra N. Barman, Elina Khatoon, Sachin Kumar Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease in swine. The disease is endemic in different parts of the world and vaccination is the only way to protect pigs from CSFV infection. The virus surface protein E2 is the major immunogenic protein eliciting protective immunity against CSFV infection in swine. The whole virus antigen cannot differentiate CSFV from other pestiviruses as it cross reacts with border disease and bovine viral diarrhoea viruses. Commercial available ELISA is based on the whole CSFV particle and can lead to false positive results. Moreover, the available ...



Incidence of severe diarrhoea due to Vibrio cholerae in the catchment area of six surveillance hospitals in Bangladesh

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 13:19:18 +0100

Research Articles R. C. PAUL, A. S. G. FARUQUE, M. ALAM, A. IQBAL, K. ZAMAN, N. ISLAM, A. SOBHAN, S. K. DAS, M. A. MALEK, F. QADRI, A. CRAVIOTO, S.P. LUBY, Epidemiology & Infection, Volume 144 Issue 05, pp 927-939Abstract (Source: Epidemiology and Infection)



Chromolaena odorata (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae) in sub-Saharan Africa: A synthesis and review of its medicinal potential

Sat, 05 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion While the results of this review suggest that the AWAB plant can be exploited as an alternative to other threatened plant species known to possess similar medicinal potential, the medicinal and pharmacological potential of the SAB plant remains to be established. Further studies on the phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of the SAB plants will not only advance our knowledge of ethnobotany and ethnomedicine, but may also improve the health and knowledge of the local people. (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



Knowledge, Attitude and Perception of Ebola Virus Disease among Secondary School Students in Ondo State, Nigeria, October, 2014

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 16:36:28 +0100

Conclusion We recommended the promotion and sustainability of health messages focusing on the mode of transmission and preventive measures such as demonstration of hand-washing techniques, addressing myths and misconceptions; and promoting safe burial practices. The public health action that followed this survey was the commencement of school health education and training of students on prevention of EVD in Owo Local Government Area of Ondo State, Nigeria. This should be extended to other schools across Nigeria. Competing Interests The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. (Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks)



Prevalence, risk factors and treatment practices in diarrhoeal diseases in south India

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Public education program on proper feeding and management practices is required to address the various issues identified and for containment of diarrhoea cases in future. (Source: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine)

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TOWIE's SAM FAIERS on her Crohn's battle

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 15:27:02 +0100

Reality TV star Sam Faiers, 25, answers our health quiz. She told The Mail: 'It was horrible. I had lost a lot of weight, was in pain and vomiting and had diarrhoea.' (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Best practice nursing care for ICU patients with incontinence-associated dermatitis and skin complications resulting from faecal incontinence and diarrhoea

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: : The project had created an awareness of IAD in the ICU. There was clear knowledge improvement and nursing staff were able to differentiate IAD from pressure injuries. The skin cleansing and protection regime is now more clear and consistent, and a single standardized product is being used to prevent and treat IAD. There was a small improvement in consistently documenting the condition of the perineal skin of patients with IAD; however, it was beyond the scope of this project to develop a policy and implement an IAD-specific skin assessment tool in the ICU, as this would have improved documentation of IAD in the ICU. (Source: International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare)



Zimbabwe: 50 000 Diarrhoea Cases Reported Since the Beginning of the Year

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 08:10:19 +0100

[New Zimbabwe] ABOUT 50 000 diarrhoea cases and 30 deaths have been reported throughout the country since the beginning of this year, according to the ministry of health and child care. (Source: AllAfrica News: Health and Medicine)



Radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity: Involvement of matrix metalloproteinases and the intestinal microvasculature.

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 04:46:02 +0100

Conclusions It is proposed that matrix metalloproteinases are key regulators of endothelial mediators, and may play a key role in inducing damage to intestinal microvasculature following radiotherapy. PMID: 26917115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)



Financial Impacts of Priority Swine Diseases to Pig Farmers in Red River and Mekong River Delta, Vietnam

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Summary A study was conducted between May 2013 and August 2014 in three provinces of Vietnam to investigate financial impacts of swine diseases in pig holdings in 2010–2013. The aim of the study was to quantify the costs of swine diseases at producer level in order to understand swine disease priority for monitoring at local level. Financial impacts of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), foot and mouth disease (FMD), and epidemic diarrhoea were assessed for 162 pig holders in two Red River Delta provinces and in one Mekong River Delta province, using data on pig production and swine disease outbreaks at farms. Losses incurred by swine diseases were estimated, including direct losses due to mortality (100% market value of pig before disease onset) and morbidity (abortion...

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Single motherhood and neonatal and infant mortality in Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso and Burundi

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Childhood mortality is a stubborn problem and remains highest in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Existing research on childhood mortality in SSA indicate that most of the childhood deaths are from preventable causes such as diarrhoea, pneumonia, measles, malaria, HIV and underlying malnutrition, acute respiratory infections, whooping cough, tuberculosis, bronchopneumonia, dirty feeding bottles and utensils, inadequate disposal of household refuse and poor storage of drinking water. However, insufficient attention has been given to maternal marital status and childhood mortality relationships. (Source: Public Health)



Assessment of the antidiarrhoeal properties of the aqueous extract and its soluble fractions of Chebulae Fructus (Terminalia chebula fruits).

Sun, 28 Feb 2016 17:55:02 +0100

Conclusion The CFAE possessed antidiarrhoeal property and the ethyl acetate fraction was its main active fraction. PMID: 26916441 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)



Systematic review with meta‐analysis: diagnostic overlap of microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 13:07:15 +0100

ConclusionsThere is a significant overlap of symptoms between microscopic colitis and functional bowel disorders, especially in diarrhoeal subtypes. The high proportion of microscopic colitis among diarrhoea‐dominant functional syndromes should serve as a call for more active diagnosis in selected patients. (Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)



Exploring faecal incontinence in nursing home patients: a cross‐sectional study of prevalence and associations derived from the Residents Assessment Instrument for Long‐Term Care Facilities

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionNursing home patients should be offered individualized assessment and continence care matching their patient characteristics. The Resident Assessment Instrument for Long‐Term Care Facilities is a useful instrument because of its’ combination of a comprehensive range of individual items and scales allowing for comparison of immediate or long‐term change in patients status. Studies evaluating interventions targeting faecal incontinence are warranted. (Source: Journal of Advanced Nursing)



Absence of circulation of Pestivirus between wild and domestic ruminants in southern Spain

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Ruminant pestiviruses (family Flaviviridae) affect both wild and domestic ruminants worldwide, causing reproductive disorders and severe economic losses. Wild (n=1442) and domestic (n=373) ruminants from southern Spain were tested for the presence of antibodies to pestiviruses. Seropositivity was detected by both ELISA and virus neutralisation test in 1/892 (0.1 per cent) red deer, 29/125 (23.2 per cent) cattle and 17/157 (10.8 per cent) sheep. Pestivirus-specific antibodies to bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) and border disease virus (BDV) genotypes 1, 4 and 5 were detected. Significantly higher antibody titres to BDV-4 compared with BVDV-NADL were found in one cattle farm. Results indicate that wild ruminants may act as spillover hosts from domestic ruminants, and therefore they do no...

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NetF-positive Clostridium perfringens in neonatal foal necrotising enteritis in Kentucky

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

TYPE A Clostridium perfringens has been associated with necrotising enteritis in 1–14-day-old foals in Kentucky (Donahue and Williams 2002, Timoney and others 2005) but the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, in part because few affected foals die and thus the availability of postmortem samples is rare. An autogenous bacterin-toxoid vaccine utilising a C. perfringens Type A strain (UK MF 05/00) that carries genes for the α toxin (CPA), β2 toxin (CPB2) and enterotoxin (CPE), further enriched with recombinant CPB2 toxin, is used to immunise mares on Kentucky breeding farms with histories of foal diarrhoea (Timoney and others 2005). Recently, a novel pore-forming toxin NetF has been strongly associated with foal necrotising enteritis and canine haemorrhagic ga...



Preventing diarrhoea in calves

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Virbac has launched Bovigen Scour, an emulsion for injection into cattle to reduce the severity of diarrhoea caused by bovine rotavirus, bovine coronavirus and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli F5 (K99). The company explains that the vaccine works by actively immunising pregnant cows and heifers and providing passive immunity to their calves via colostrum. The vaccine is also licensed to reduce the shedding of virus by calves infected with bovine rotavirus and coronavirus. According to Virbac, a key benefit of Bovigen Scour is the vaccination protocol, which, it says, offers a large window for injection, making vaccination planning easier. The primary course is administered in two shots, with the first dose between 12 and five weeks before calving and the booster three weeks later. The an...



Effect of SLC26 anion transporter disease-causing mutations on the stability of the homologous STAS domain of E. coli DauA (YchM)

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The human solute carrier 26 (SLC26) family of anion transporters consists of ten members that are found in various organs in the body including the stomach, intestine, kidney, thyroid and ear where they transport anions including bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate, typically in an exchange mode. Mutations in these genes cause a plethora of diseases such as diastrophic dysplasia affecting sulfate uptake into chondrocytes (SLC26A2), congenital chloride-losing diarrhoea (SLC26A3) affecting chloride secretion in the intestine and Pendred's syndrome (SLC26A4) resulting in hearing loss. To understand how these mutations affect the structures of the SLC26 membrane proteins and their ability to function properly, 12 human disease-causing mutants from SLC26A2, SLC26A3 and SLC26A4 were introduced int...



Identification of Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli in diarrhoeic calves and comparative genomics of O5 bovine and human STEC

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 23 February 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): I. Fakih, D. Thiry, J.-N. Duprez, M. Saulmont, A. Iguchi, D. Piérard, L. Jouant, G. Daube, Y. Ogura, T. Hayashi, B. Taminiau, J.G. Mainil Escherichia coli producing Shiga toxins (Stx) and the attaching-effacing (AE) lesion (AE-STEC) are responsible for (bloody) diarrhoea in humans and calves while the enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) producing the AE lesion only cause non-bloody diarrhoea in all mammals. The purpose of this study was (i) to identify the pathotypes of enterohaemolysin-producing E. coli isolated between 2009 and 2013 on EHLY agar from less than 2 month-old diarrhoeic calves with a triplex PCR targeting the stx1, stx2, eae virulence genes; (ii) to serotype the positive ...



Review article: bile acid diarrhoea – pathogenesis, diagnosis and management

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionBile acid diarrhoea is common, and likely under‐diagnosed. Bile acid diarrhoea should be considered relatively early in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhoea. (Source: Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics)

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Evaluation of flagellum-related proteins FliD and FspA as subunit vaccines against Campylobacter jejuni colonisation in chickens.

Wed, 24 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Chintoan-Uta C, Cassady-Cain RL, Stevens MP Abstract Campylobacter is the leading cause of food-borne diarrhoea in humans in the developed world and consumption of contaminated poultry meat is the main source of infection. Vaccination of broilers could reduce carcass contamination and zoonotic infections. Towards this aim, we evaluated recombinant anti-Campylobacter subunit vaccines based on the flagellum-capping protein FliD and the flagellum-secreted protein FspA as they are immunogenic in chickens and the flagellum is vital for colonisation. In three studies, a recombinant FliD vaccine induced a transient but reproducible and statistically significant decrease of c. 2log10CFU/g in caecal colonisation levels at 49 days post-primary vaccination on the day of hatch. Levels...



Provision of travel medicine advice through community pharmacies: assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practices of pharmacists in Malaysia (IJPP‐15‐0064.R2)

Tue, 23 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionThere are gaps in the knowledge and practice of travel medicine among Malaysian pharmacists. Positive attitudes of pharmacists towards travel medicine and appropriate interventions, such as incorporation of travel medicine in local pharmacy curricula, continuous pharmacy education or certified training may improve the quality of travel advice given and allow pharmacists to be recognised as a credible source of information on travel medicine. (Source: International Journal of Pharmacy Practice)



The efficacy of blueberry and grape seed extract combination on triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a randomised controlled trial.

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 17:54:02 +0100

In conclusion, this study indicated that no significant difference existed between the BGE extract group and placebo group in eradication rate under triple therapy. PMID: 26883189 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition)



A 24‐week study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of once‐weekly dulaglutide added on to glimepiride in type 2 diabetes (AWARD‐8)

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsOnce‐weekly dulaglutide 1.5 mg had a favourable benefit/risk profile when added to glimepiride monotherapy. (Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism)



Phase II trial of docetaxel, bevacizumab, lenalidomide and prednisone in patients with metastatic castration‐resistant prostate cancer

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsWith appropriate supportive measures, combination angiogenesis inhibition can be safely administered and potentially provide clinical benefit. These hypothesis‐generating data would require randomized trials to confirm the findings. (Source: BJU International)

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Efficacy and safety of gelatine tannate for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Introduction Worldwide, acute gastroenteritis in children, usually caused by viruses, leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. The treatment is aimed at preventing and treating dehydration, promoting weight gain after rehydration, and reducing the duration and severity of diarrhoea. Effective and inexpensive interventions that could add to the effect of oral rehydration therapy are of interest. Recently, in many European countries, gelatine tannate is being widely marketed for treating acute gastroenteritis. Gelatine tannate is a complex of tannic acid, which possesses astringent and anti-inflammatory properties, and a protective gelatine. Currently, there is no evidence to support the use of gelatine tannate for treating acute gastroenteritis in children and only scant evidence to s...



Prevalence and virulence factors of Shigella spp. isolated from patients with diarrhoea in Rosario, Argentina.

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study provides initial data on the prevalence and distribution in a wide variety of Shigella strains of the set, sen, ipaH, virA and ial genes. PMID: 26902216 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases)



South Vietnamese Rural Mothers' Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice in Child Health Care.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 15:51:02 +0100

Authors: Thac D, Pedersen FK, Thuong TC, Lien le B, Ngoc Anh NT, Phuc NN Abstract A study of 600 rural under-five mothers' knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) in child care was performed in 4 southern provinces of Vietnam. The mothers were randomly selected and interviewed about sociodemographic factors, health seeking behaviour, and practice of home care of children and neonates. 93.2% of the mothers were literate and well-educated, which has been shown to be important for child health care. 98.5% were married suggesting a stable family, which is also of importance for child health. Only 17.3% had more than 2 children in their family. The mother was the main caretaker in 77.7% of the families. Only 1% would use quacks as their first health contact, but 25.2% would use a privat...



Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. (Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology)



Characteristics of admissions and variations in the use of basic investigations, treatments and outcomes in Kenyan hospitals within a new Clinical Information Network

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Developing clinical networks is feasible with appropriate support. Early data demonstrate that hospital mortality remains high in Kenya, that resources to investigate severe illness are limited, that care provided and outcomes vary widely and that adoption of effective interventions remains slow. Findings suggest considerable scope for improving care within and across sites. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)

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Racecadotril for acute diarrhoea in children: systematic review and meta-analyses

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions There is some evidence that racecadotril is more effective than placebo or no intervention in reducing the duration of illness and stool output in children with acute diarrhoea. However, the overall quality of the evidence is limited due to sparse data, heterogeneity and risk of bias. Racecadotril appears to be safe and well tolerated. (Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood)



Supplementation with multiple micronutrients for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and baby.

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence to quantitatively assess the effectiveness of multiple-micronutrient supplementation in improving health outcomes in mother and baby. The results of this review are limited by the small numbers of studies available, small sample sizes and the studies not reporting on the outcomes of interest in this review. There is no evidence to evaluate potential adverse effects of multiple-micronutrient supplements, particularly excess dosages.There is a need for high-quality studies to assess the effectiveness and safety of multiple-micronutrient supplementation for breastfeeding women for improving outcomes for the mother and her baby. Further research should focus on whether multiple-micronutrient supplementation during lactation compared with none, a placebo or sup...



Abstract P3-12-24: Accelerated partial breast irradiation versus whole breast irradiation: short term quality of life results from a phase 3 trial

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion. Overall, women treated with APBI reported a significantly better short-term QoL outcome as compared with women treated using WBI.canres;76/4_Supplement/P3-12-24/TBL1T1tbl1QLQ-C30 functional scale scores in the series: difference between arms and p-value from Mann Whitney U testDomainAPBISDWBISDScore Differencep-valueQL2, mean66.418.849.718.1+16.70.0001PF2, mean86.215.277.717.3+8.50.0001RF2, mean88.519.276.821.6+11.70.0001EF, mean78.617.666.324.3+12.30.0001CF, mean86.818.281.717.8+5.10.014SF, mean88.919.482.319.5+6.60.003QL2, global health status; PF2, physical functioning; RF2, role functioning; EF, emotional functioning; CF, cognitive functioning; SF, social functioningcanres;76/4_Supplement/P3-12-24/TBL2T2tbl2QLQ-C30 symptom scale scores in the series: difference between arms...



Abstract P4-14-12: Interim results from the first open-label, multicenter, phase IIIb study investigating the combination of pertuzumab with subcutaneous trastuzumab and a taxane in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (SAPPHIRE)

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: We report the first data on the use of pertuzumab with SC trastuzumab. The observed safety profile is consistent with that previously reported in the CLEOPATRA (Baselga, et al. NEJM 2012;366:109-19), PERUSE [Bachelot, et al. JCO 2014;32:5s(abstr#548)] and HannaH (Ismael, et al. Lancet Oncol 2012;13:869-78) studies, with no unexpected safety signals. Clinical trial information:NCT02019277.Citation Format: Woodward N, De Boer RH, Redfern A, White M, Young J, Truman M, Beith J. Interim results from the first open-label, multicenter, phase IIIb study investigating the combination of pertuzumab with subcutaneous trastuzumab and a taxane in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (SAPPHIRE). [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the Thirty-Eighth Annual CTRC-AACR San Antonio Br...



Abstract P5-11-01: Preferences for chemotherapy side effect profiles in breast cancer- The view of oncologists

Thu, 18 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe effect of fatigue in cancer treatment is often underestimated. Only 9% of patients recognised fatigue as the worst side effect compared with 17.9% of oncologists, although a similar proportion of oncologists (22.6%) felt it to be most acceptable - even professionals have a varying understanding of severe fatigue. Oncologists might underestimate the impact of diarrhoea caused by drugs such as capecitabine on quality of life, but tend to rank longer term toxicities such as neuropathy higher than patients. This is the first study to assess the concerns of oncologists with regard to chemotherapy side effects and as such gives some insight into how certain regimes might be chosen or presented to patients.Citation Format: Beresford MJ, Makris A. Preferences for chemotherapy side e...

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Involvement of Bacteria Other Than Clostridium difficile in Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Larcombe S, Hutton ML, Lyras D Abstract Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is a common and unintended consequence of antibiotic use. Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious aetiology of AAD; however, only approximately 25% of all AAD cases are associated with C. difficile infection, with the aetiology in the majority of cases remaining undetermined. Numerous other bacterial infectious agents have been implicated in AAD, including Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. AAD is a complex disease that is influenced by the host, the infectious agent involved, and numerous clinical factors, including antibiotic treatment regimes. This review re-examines AAD and presents current perspectives on this disease, with a particular focus ...



Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 03:38:03 +0100

Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease. PMID: 26799747 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pharmaceutical Biology)



Fructose malabsorption

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Incomplete intestinal absorption of fructose might lead to abdominal complaints such as pain, flatulence and diarrhoea. Whether defect fructose transporters such as GLUT5 or GLUT2 are involved in the pathogenesis of fructose malabsorption is a matter of debate. The hydrogen production by colonic bacteria is used for diagnosis with the hydrogen breath test. However, the appropriate fructose test dose for correct diagnosis is unclear. Subjects with fructose malabsorption show increased breath hydrogen levels and abdominal symptoms after fructose administration but do not report any symptoms when fructose is given together with glucose. This beneficial effect of glucose, however, cannot be explained yet but might be used for clinical care of these subjects. (Source: Molecul...



Histopathological features of gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies in children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Tue, 16 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The majority of children with JIA and gastrointestinal symptoms have histological evidence of mild non-specific inflammation, but some having active colitis and prominent eosinophil infiltrate.Pediatric Research (2016); doi:10.1038/pr.2016.27. PMID: 26882369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Pediatric Research)



Health Seeking Behaviour of Mothers of Under-Five-Year-Old Children in the Slum Communities of Nairobi, Kenya.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 21:12:02 +0100

Authors: Amuyunzu-Nyamongo M, Nyamongo IK Abstract Prompt and appropriate health seeking is critical in the management of childhood illnesses. This paper examines the health seeking behaviour in under-five child morbidity. It explores in detail actions taken by 28 mothers when their children become sick. Sixty-two in-depth interviews with mothers were conducted from four study communities. The mothers were identified from a demographic surveillance system. The interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed. The study shows that mothers classify childhood illnesses into four main categories: (1) not serious-coughs, colds, diarrhoea; (2) serious but not life-threatening-malaria; (3) sudden and serious-pneumonia; and (4) chronic and therefore not requiring immedi...

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Antimicrobial therapy of acute diarrhoea: a clinical review.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 16:32:09 +0100

In conclusion, the treatment of acute diarrhoea is still primarily supportive. General empirical antibiotic therapy for acute diarrhoea is not evidence-based. PMID: 26641310 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy)



Microscopic colitis: a descriptive clinical cohort study of 795 patients with collagenous and lymphocytic colitis.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 15:25:02 +0100

Conclusions Clinical features of LC and CC are similar but not identical. CC seems to be a more severe type of bowel inflammation and LC tends to occur earlier in life. Both forms might indeed feature endoscopic findings despite the designation 'microscopic'. Our study confirms the strong association with coeliac disease. PMID: 26679722 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)



Differences of microbiota in small bowel and faeces between irritable bowel syndrome patients and healthy subjects.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 15:25:02 +0100

Conclusion Higher abundance of colonic Veillonellaceae and SI Prevotellaceae, and lower amount of oral cavity normal flora in proximal SI were found in IBS patients. We may manipulate these bacteria in IBS patients in future studies (ClinicalTrial.gov Number NCT01679730). PMID: 26595305 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology)



Irinotecan chemotherapy combined with fluoropyrimidines versus irinotecan alone for overall survival and progression-free survival in patients with advanced and/or metastatic colorectal cancer.

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: There was no overall survival benefit of the irinotecan and fluoropyrimidine treatment over irinotecan alone, thus both regimens remain reasonable options in treating patients with advanced or metastatic CRC. Given the low and moderate quality of the evidence, future studies with sufficient numbers of patients in each treatment arms are needed to clarify the benefit observed in progression-free survival with combination irinotecan and fluoropyrimidines. PMID: 26869023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)



Diarrhea caused by multiparasitic infection.

Thu, 11 Feb 2016 12:33:02 +0100

Authors: Grilo Bensusan I, Herrera Martín P Abstract Diarrhoea caused by multiple nematode infection is uncommon in Spain, therefore we are not very familiar with the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. PMID: 26856992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas)

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BMA Q and A: water poverty and the post-2015 development agenda

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 16:00:04 +0100

  BMA international committee chair Terry John answers your questions The BMA has been a member of End Water Poverty (EWP) since 2007. What are the aims of the campaign? End Water Poverty is a global coalition that is calling for action to end the crisis in water and sanitation. In 2016, more than 650 million people still don’t have clean, safe water and 2.3 billion people don’t have access to adequate sanitation — in fact, more people have mobile phones than have access to a safe toilet. As a result, more than 500,000 children die every year from diarrhoea caused by unsafe water and poor sanitation, more than the child deaths in any given year from tuberculosis, AIDS and meningitis combined. Despite this, the crisis was given low-priority status by internationa...



Optimising iron chelation therapy with deferasirox for non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia patients: 1-year results from the THETIS study.

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 15:29:03 +0100

Authors: Taher AT, Cappellini MD, Aydinok Y, Porter JB, Karakas Z, Viprakasit V, Siritanaratkul N, Kattamis A, Wang C, Zhu Z, Joaquin V, Uwamahoro MJ, Lai YR Abstract Efficacy and safety of iron chelation therapy with deferasirox in iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT) patients were established in the THALASSA study. THETIS, an open-label, single-arm, multicentre, Phase IV study, added to this evidence by investigating earlier dose escalation by baseline liver iron concentration (LIC) (week 4: escalation according to baseline LIC; week 24: adjustment according to LIC response, maximum 30mg/kg/day). The primary efficacy endpoint was absolute change in LIC from baseline to week 52. 134 iron-overloaded non-transfusion-dependent anaemia patients were enrolled a...



Traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacological properties of Neolamarckia cadamba: A review

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The present review compiles information on an ethnopharmacologically useful plant N. cadamba. Bioactive compounds responsible for its various medicinal properties and their effects at the molecular level need to be investigated in more detail. Furthermore, the detailed study of toxicity and pharmacological properties of extracts as well as molecules in N. cadamba is required to confirm the ethnomedicinal claims of N. cadamba for food and pharmaceutical applications. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)



Sleeping with a baby boosts breast-feeding: Mothers are twice as likely to continue after six months if they share their bed for at least an hour a week 

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 01:23:28 +0100

The UK study also found breastfed babies have less chance of diarrhoea and vomiting, fewer infections, less likelihood of becoming obese and therefore developing type 2 diabetes. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Fasting protects against the side effects of irinotecan treatment but does not affect anti‐tumour activity in mice

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions and ImplicationsFasting protected against irinotecan‐induced side effects without interfering with its anti‐tumour efficacy. Fasting induced a lower systemic exposure to SN‐38, which may explain the absence of adverse side effects, while tumour levels of SN‐38 remained unchanged. These data offer important new approaches to improve treatment with irinotecan in patients. (Source: British Journal of Pharmacology)

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Prognostic significance of adverse events in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma treated with sorafenib

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Sorafenib is the standard treatment for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with advanced stage disease. Although its effectiveness has been demonstrated by randomized clinical trials and confirmed by field practice studies, reliable markers predicting therapeutic response have not yet been identified. Like other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, treatment with sorafenib is burdened by the development of adverse effects, the most frequent being cutaneous toxicity, diarrhoea, arterial hypertension and fatigue. In recent years, several studies have analysed the correlation between off-target effects and sorafenib efficacy in patients with HCC. In this review, an overview of the studies assessing the prognostic significance of sorafenib-related adverse events is provided. (Source: Therapeu...



Diabetic neuropathy in the gut: pathogenesis and diagnosis

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 11:04:33 +0100

Abstract The activity of the digestive tract is usually regulated to match its content: physiological stimuli in the gut induce modulatory reflexes that control digestive function so that digestion is normally not perceived. However, under certain circumstances, digestive stimuli may activate sensory afferents and give rise to conscious sensations. Both reflex and sensory signals are modulated by a balance of excitatory and inhibitory mechanisms. Patients with diabetes may develop a neuropathy affecting the control of gastric and/or intestinal motor function and the sensory innervation as well. During fasting the stomach is contracted and relaxes to accommodate a meal. After ingestion the stomach progressively recontracts and this contraction gently produces gastric emptying. Imp...



Treatment of gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 11:04:33 +0100

Abstract The symptoms caused by gastrointestinal autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is important to highlight since it affects a large proportion of people with diabetes, regardless of whether this is type 1 or type 2. Gastroparesis and general signs of bowel dysfunction, such as constipation, diarrhoea and abdominal pain are most often encountered and involve both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment options. This mini-review summarises a presentation given at the ‘Diagnosis and treatment of autonomic diabetic neuropathy in the gut’ symposium at the 2015 annual meeting of the EASD. It is accompanied by another mini-review on a topic from this symposium (by Azpiroz and Malagelada, DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3831-1) and a commentary by the Session Chair, Péte...



Phase 3 pharmacokinetics and safety study of a posaconazole tablet formulation in patients at risk for invasive fungal disease

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In patients at high risk for invasive fungal disease, 300 mg posaconazole (as tablets) once daily was well tolerated and demonstrated a safety profile similar to that reported for posaconazole oral suspension: most patients (99%) achieved steady-state pCavg exposures >500 ng/mL and only one patient (<1%) had a pCavg <500 ng/mL. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)



Comparison of serological responses to single-dose azithromycin (2 g) versus benzathine penicillin G in the treatment of early syphilis in HIV-infected patients in an area of low prevalence of macrolide-resistant Treponema pallidum infection

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In the setting of a low prevalence of macrolide-resistant T. pallidum, 2 g single-dose azithromycin achieved a similar serological response to benzathine penicillin G in HIV-infected patients with early syphilis. Major adverse effects of azithromycin were gastrointestinal symptoms and lassitude/somnolence. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)

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A randomized, double-blind, Phase 2 study to evaluate subjective and objective outcomes in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections treated with delafloxacin, linezolid or vancomycin

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions These data show that delafloxacin is effective in the treatment of ABSSSIs and is well tolerated. (Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy)



Diacerein: Benefits, Risks and Place in the Management of Osteoarthritis. An Opinion-Based Report from the ESCEO

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Diacerein is a symptomatic slow-acting drug in osteoarthritis (SYSADOA) with anti-inflammatory, anti-catabolic and pro-anabolic properties on cartilage and synovial membrane. It has also recently been shown to have protective effects against subchondral bone remodelling. Following the end of the revision procedure by the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee of the European Medicines Agency, the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) constituted a panel of 11 experts to better define the real place of diacerein in the armamentarium for treating OA. Based on a literature review of clinical trials and meta-analyses, the ESCEO confirms that the efficacy of diacerein is similar to that of non-steroidal anti-inflamma...



Towards understanding microvillus inclusion disease.

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 15:48:03 +0100

Authors: Vogel GF, Hess MW, Pfaller K, Huber LA, Janecke AR, Müller T Abstract Microvillus inclusion disease (MVID) is characterised by onset of intractable life-threatening watery diarrhoea during infancy. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates shortening or absence of apical microvilli, pathognomonic microvillus inclusions in mature enterocytes and subapical accumulation of periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules or vesicles confirming diagnosis. Mutations in MYO5B have been found to cause MVID. In two patients with MVID, whole-exome sequencing of DNA revealed homozygous truncating mutations in STX3. Mutations in these genes disrupt trafficking between apical cargo vesicles and the apical plasma membrane. Thus, disturbed delivery of certain brush border membrane proteins i...



Associations between exposure to viruses and bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 2 February 2016 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): K.E. Hay, T.S. Barnes, J.M. Morton, J.L. Gravel, M.A. Commins, P.F. Horwood, R.C. Ambrose, A.C.A. Clements, T.J. Mahony Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most important cause of clinical disease and death in feedlot cattle. Respiratory viral infections are key components in predisposing cattle to the development of this disease. To quantify the contribution of four viruses commonly associated with BRD, a case-control study was conducted nested within the National Bovine Respiratory Disease Initiative project population in Australian feedlot cattle. Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), Bovine respiratory syncytial viru...



Anti-tumour effects of lanreotide for pancreatic and intestinal neuroendocrine tumours: the CLARINET open-label extension study

Thu, 04 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We report long-term safety and additional efficacy data from the open-label extension (OLE). Patients with metastatic grade 1/2 (Ki-67 ≤10%) non-functioning NET and documented baseline tumour-progression status received lanreotide Autogel 120 mg (n=101) or placebo (n=103) for 96 weeks or until death/progressive disease (PD) in CLARINET study. Patients with stable disease (SD) at core study end (lanreotide/placebo) or PD (placebo only) continued or switched to lanreotide in the OLE. In total, 88 patients (previously: lanreotide, n=41; placebo, n=47) participated: 38% had pancreatic, 39% midgut and 23% other/unknown primary tumours. Patients continuing lanreotide reported fewer adverse events (AEs) (all and treatment-related) during OLE than core study. Placebo-to-lanreotide switch patien...

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Randomized clinical trial comparing long‐term quality of life for Billroth I versus Roux‐en‐Y reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionThe choice of anastomotic reconstruction after distal gastrectomy resulted in no difference in long‐term QoL in patients with gastric cancer. Registration number: NCT01065688 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). (Source: British Journal of Surgery)



Randomized clinical trial comparing long-term quality of life for Billroth I versus Roux-en-Y reconstruction after distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: The choice of anastomotic reconstruction after distal gastrectomy resulted in no difference in long-term QoL in patients with gastric cancer. Registration number: NCT01065688 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). PMID: 26840944 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The British Journal of Surgery)



IBS: Treating IBS with diarrhoea

Wed, 03 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology 13, 124 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrgastro.2016.15 Author: Iain Dickson Results from two phase III trials have shown eluxadoline to be an effective therapeutic for reducing the symptoms of IBS with diarrhoea (IBS-D) in men and women.“Currently, limited treatments for patients suffering from IBS-D exist,” points out author Anthony Lembo. Eluxadoline is the third (Source: Nature Reviews Gastroenterology and Hepatology)



Effects of exposure to Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 on risk of bovine respiratory disease in Australian feedlot cattle

Tue, 02 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 1 February 2016 Source:Preventive Veterinary Medicine Author(s): K.E. Hay, R.C.K. Ambrose, J.M. Morton, P.F. Horwood, J.L. Gravel, S. Waldron, M.A. Commins, E.V. Fowler, A.C.A. Clements, T.S. Barnes, T.J. Mahony Viruses play a key role in the complex aetiology of bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1 (BVDV-1) is widespread in Australia and has been shown to contribute to BRD occurrence. As part of a prospective longitudinal study on BRD, effects of exposure to BVDV-1 on risk of BRD in Australian feedlot cattle were investigated. A total of 35,160 animals were enrolled at induction (when animals were identified and characteristics recorded), held in feedlot pens with other cattle (cohorts) and monitored for occurrenc...