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MedWorm: Endocrinology provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Endocrinology

Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 16:08:51 +0100


Efficacy and Safety of Combination Therapy with Vildagliptin and Metformin versus Metformin Up‐Titration in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Inadequately Controlled with Metformin Monotherapy (VISION): A Randomized, Open‐Label, Prospective Study

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:07:15 +0100

ConclusionsVLDM is non‐inferior and statistically superior to HDM in glycemic control in Chinese T2DM patients inadequately controlled with low‐dose metformin. NCT01541956.Novartis Pharmaceuticals (China). (Source: Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism)

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[Endogenous bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis at Nice University Medical Center: A 15-year case review].

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 05:54:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and serious condition with a poor prognosis. Gram-positive microorganisms, mostly S. aureus, were the main causative pathogens found. PMID: 27016334 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie)

Controversies in the peripartum management of diabetes

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

(Source: Anaesthesia)

Burden of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japan, 2010–2030

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, this study suggests a modest but steady increase in cancers associated with type 2 diabetes. (Source: Cancer Science)

Millions of Hispanics at Risk for This Serious Sleep Problem

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 14:46:33 +0100

Did you know that up to 14 percent of Hispanic men and 6 percent of Hispanic women could have obstructive sleep apnea, according to the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos? Obstructive sleep apnea is a potentially life-threatening disease involving episodes of complete or partial airway obstruction during sleep. This is bad news, as research shows that sleep apnea is related to increased risk of heart disease, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and depression. The study also shows that Hispanics in the U.S. with sleep apnea have a 40 percent higher chance of hypertension, a 50 percent higher odds of impaired glucose tolerance and a 90 percent higher risk of diabetes. This is compounded by the high levels of obesity and diabetes already prevalent among Hispanics. While excess body ...

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Non-invasive measurement of skin autofluorescence to evaluate diabetic complications.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

This study provides the first evidence that the accumulation of fluorophore in the fingertip increases with an increasing number of microvascular complications, demonstrating that the presence of diabetic microvascular complications may be predicted by measuring the fluorophore concentration in the fingertip. PMID: 27013780 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition)

Soft-shelled turtle eggs inhibit the formation of AGEs in the serum and skin of diabetic rats.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

This report provides the first evidence that the oral administration of STE reduces the formation of AGEs, suggesting that one of the health effects of STE may be the inhibition of AGEs formation. PMID: 27013779 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition)

Should we interpret the results of 'two-step' glucose screening again according to the obstetric outcomes?

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 03:07:01 +0100

Authors: Seval MM, Cavkaytar S, Atak Z, Cagman M Abstract We aimed to re-evaluate the 'two-step' antenatal glucose screening programme in relation to maternal and foetal outcomes in pregnant women screened for gestational diabetes mellitus and to compare maternal and foetal outcomes between different groups divided according to glucose tolerance test results. Two-thousand four-hundred and two pregnant women attending for antenatal care were recruited retrospectively for the study. Mean birthweight for pregnancies with single-value abnormality (SVA) in 100-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was significantly higher than the control group [3420 ± 378 vs. 3294 ± 444]. We found a significantly higher rate of macrosomia in the subgroup of 50-g glucose challenge test (GCT) be...

Shear wave elastography of the placenta in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 03:07:01 +0100

Authors: Yuksel MA, Kilic F, Kayadibi Y, Alici Davutoglu E, Imamoglu M, Bakan S, Mihmanli I, Kantarci F, Madazli R Abstract To evaluate placental elasticty in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-diabetic controls. Thirty-three pregnant women with GDM according to the current criteria of the American Diabetes Association and 43 healthy pregnant women who were admitted to the antenatal clinic were recruited for this case-control study. Elasticity values of both the peripheral and the central parts of the placentas of the patients in both groups were determined by shear wave elastography (SWE) imaging. Mean elasticity values of both the central and the peripheral part of the placentas were significantly higher in GDM pregnancies (p < 0.001). No difference was...

VIP protects human retinal microvascular endothelial cells against high glucose-induced increases in TNF-α and enhances RvD1

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that VIP’s therapeutic effect on HREC, occurs in part, through the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, and the pro-resolving mediator, RvD1. Although VPAC1 is considered the major VIP receptor, VPAC2 is predominantly expressed on HREC under both normal and high glucose conditions. (Source: Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators)

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Preface – Disturbances of water and electrolyte balance

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 10 March 2016 Source:Best Practice & Research Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Peter A. Kopp (Source: Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism)

Regulation of Multidrug Resistance P‐Glycoprotein in the Developing Blood–Brain Barrier: Interplay between Glucocorticoids and Cytokines

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, maternal treatment with synthetic glucocorticoids appears to prematurely mature P‐gp mediated drug resistance at the foetal BBB in vivo and profoundly impact the subsequent responsiveness of P‐gp to pro‐inflammatory cytokines in the foetal BEC. The significance of these findings to foetal brain protection against xenobiotics and other P‐gp substrates in vivo requires further elaboration. However, the results of the present study may have implications for human pregnancy and foetal brain protection, particularly in cases of preterm birth combined with infection. (Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology)

Acute Effects of Lysergic Acid Diethylamide on Circulating Steroid Levels in Healthy Subjects

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, LSD produces significant acute effects on circulating steroids, especially glucocorticoids. LSD‐induced changes in circulating glucocorticoids were associated with plasma LSD concentrations over time and showed no acute pharmacological tolerance. (Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology)

Consequences of Recipient Obesity on Postoperative Outcomes in a Renal Transplant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:17:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis clearly demonstrated greater risks for obese renal transplant recipients and poorer postoperative outcomes with obesity. We confidently recommend renal transplant candidates seek medically supervised weight loss before transplant. PMID: 27015529 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation : official journal of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation)

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Ocular, Neurologic and Systemic Findings of the Cases with Optic Nerve Hypoplasia.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:54:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The vision of young children with ONH should be monitored at least annually, and any refractive errors should be treated. Neuroimaging of the brain and endocrinologic evaluation is necessary in all cases with ONH. PMID: 27014380 [PubMed] (Source: Open Ophthalmology Journal)

Medication adherence and the use of new pharmaceutical formulations: the case of levothyroxine.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:41:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: All the characteristics of new levothyroxine oral liquid formulations allow to administer the drug also in patients with gastrointestinal comorbidities or patients who are already treated with other drugs. The availability of different dosages let the clinician to adapt the treatment for each individual patient. These benefits contribute to a better medication adherence and to the maintenance of normal TSH levels. In conclusion, the use of different pharmaceutical formulations represents a therapeutic approach innovative, effective and inexpensive in the treatment of the hypothyroid patient. PMID: 27015567 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)

A review of prevention strategies for gestational diabetes: is there a missing x-factor?

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:41:02 +0100

Authors: Castorino K, Bradley PK, Truong L, Martinez J Abstract Gestational Diabetes affects up to one in five pregnancies and can have significant consequences for both mother and baby. There have been great efforts to identify strategies to prevent gestational diabetes during pregnancy. These efforts have been extended to the pre-pregnancy and postpartum periods to address limitations during pregnancy. In this review we explore how diet, exercise and lifestyle modification can be used to prevent gestational diabetes. PMID: 27012154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)

Association of apelin, endoglin and endocan with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Endoglin, apelin and endocan may reflect angiogenesis and endothelial dysfunction in diabetic peripheral neuropathy and they may be used as a marker in the future. PMID: 27010147 [PubMed - in process] (Source: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences)

Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:34:19 +0100

Abstract To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examinatio...

Epicardial fat thickness: distribution and association with diabetes mellitus, hypertension and the metabolic syndrome in the ELSA-Brasil study

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 09:34:19 +0100

In conclusion, the amount of EFT in this large multiethnic population is smaller than reported in other populations. EFT reference values varied across demographic and clinical variables, EFT associations with cardiometabolic variables being largely explained by age, sex, ethnicity and central obesity. Although EFT can help identify individuals at increased cardiometabolic risk, it will likely have a limited additional role compared to current risk stratification strategies. (Source: The International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging)

Diagnosing CKD in Older Patients: Vigilance vs Undue AnxietyDiagnosing CKD in Older Patients: Vigilance vs Undue Anxiety

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 05:14:00 +0100

Our classification schemes for CKD need to adjust for age and gender, argues Dr Epstein. Medscape Nephrology (Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines)

Energy Density, Portions Both Matter to Kids' Lunches (CME/CE)

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 02:35:01 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Lighter foods could be key to cutting calories (Source: MedPage Today Endocrinology)

Smart patch for diabetes

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 26 March 2016 Source:New Scientist, Volume 229, Issue 3066 Author(s): Sam Wong A wearable glucose monitor could soon save lives, says Sam Wong (Source: New Scientist)

Neuroprotective Effect of Ischemic Preconditioning via Modulating the Expression of Adropin and Oxidative Markers against Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Diabetic Rats

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The study results supported the neuroprotective effects of ischemic preconditioning in MCA infarcts correlated with the level of oxidative damage markers and adropin. (Source: Peptides)

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) therapy: Mitochondrial dysfunction and diseases

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 25 March 2016 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease Author(s): M.C. Sádaba, I. Martín-Estal, J.E. Puche, I. Castilla-Cortázar This review resumes the association between mitochondrial function and diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, it summarizes the major role of IGF-1 as a mitochondrial protector, as studied in several experimental models (cirrhosis, aging…). The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to impairments in insulin metabolic signaling is also suggested by gene array analysis showing that reductions in gene expression, that regulates mitochondrial ATP production, are associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Moreover, reductions in oxidative capa...

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Evidence of stable insulin and its increased efficacy during oral administration with Desmodium gangeticum extract in rats

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Insulin-DG mix is a potent anti-diabetic agent and importantly, DG extract is protective to insulin when used in prescribed combination and delivered orally. This could be a possible solution for painful subcutaneous injections. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease)

Quercetin: A wonder bioflavonoid with therapeutic potential in disease management

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: March 2016 Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Volume 6, Issue 3 Author(s): Alka Gupta, Kavita Birhman, Indira Raheja, Surender Kumar Sharma, Hemant Kumar Kar In the last decade, considerable efforts have been made to develop health promising nutritional supplements. Quercetin is a plant-derived bioflavonoid which is recently gaining scientific interest for its antioxidant free radical scavenging effects and anti-inflammatory properties. This wonder flavanol exhibits therapeutic potential in various ailments like cancer, coronary artery, asthma and alzheimer (neurodegeneration) diseases. Additional clinical uses include treatment of inflammatory conditions like gout, pancreatitis and prostatitis. It has been extensively studied for its gastroprotectiv...

Triboelectric liquid volume sensor for self-powered lab-on-chip applications

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Nano Energy, Volume 23 Author(s): Hao Wang, Zhuolin Xiang, Pastorin Giorgia, Xiaojing Mu, Ya Yang, Zhong Lin Wang, Chengkuo Lee Technology for enabling drug delivery with precise control is strongly demanded by patients with diabetes or other chronic diseases. More intelligent functions such as drug loading and delivery in controllable manner without requiring electrical power will make low-cost drug delivery patches come true. One of the promising candidates is triboelectric technology which has been deployed as nanogenerators and self-powered glucose sensors recently. In this paper, the drug delivery is triggered by finger-pressing on a polymer based micropump. Considering that the finger-pressing should be an action of very low frequency, e.g.,...

Assessment of left ventricular function in young type 1 diabetes mellitus patients by two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography: Relation to duration and control of diabetes

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion STE is useful to detect subclinical LV dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with T1DM. Control of DM but not duration of disease was an independent predictor of LV systolic dysfunction. (Source: The Egyptian Heart Journal)

How do the full-generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers activate blood platelets? Activation of circulating platelets and formation of “fibrinogen aggregates” in the presence of polycations

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 30 April 2016 Source:International Journal of Pharmaceutics, Volume 503, Issues 1–2 Author(s): Cezary Watala, Kamil Karolczak, Hassan Kassassir, Marcin Talar, Tomasz Przygodzki, Katarzyna Maczynska, Magdalena Labieniec-Watala Direct use of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers as drugs may be limited, due to uncertain (cyto)toxicity. Peripheral blood components, which constitute the first line of a contact with administered pharmaceuticals, may become vastly affected by PAMAM dendrimers. The aim of this study was to explore how PAMAMs’ polycationicity might affect blood platelet activation and reactivity, and thus trigger various haemostatic events. We monitored blood platelet reactivity in rats with experimental diabetes upon a long-term administration of the ...

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Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Cecropia glaziovii leaves

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion CAE of C. glaziovii exerts significant antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities and this effect can be attributed, at least in part, to the presence of chlorogenic acid and the C-glycosylflavonoids. Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology)

Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism Author(s): Jin Zhou, Bin Liu, Chun Liang, Yangxin Li, Yao-Hua Song Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often a...

Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as an early predictor of outcome in critically-ill septic patients

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:The Egyptian Journal of Critical Care Medicine Author(s): Osama Tayeh, Khaled M. Taema, Mohamed I. Eldesouky, Adel A. Omara Several cumbersome scoring systems were developed for prognosis and outcome prediction in sepsis. We intended in this study to evaluate the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) as a prognostic predictor in sepsis. We included 40 adult septic patients in a prospective observational study. We excluded patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease or diabetes mellitus. After clinical evaluation, urine spot samples were collected on admission and 24h later for ACR1 and ACR2. Admission APACHE IV score and the highest recorded SOFA score of their daily estimation were considered. We also evaluated the need f...

Cutaneous Markers of Systemic Disease in the Lower Extremity

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The skin of the lower extremity can be a helpful diagnostic tool for systemic disease. Diabetes, renal disease, genetic disorders, and even cancer can have cutaneous manifestations in the legs and feet; moreover, proper diagnosis can facilitate earlier treatment of these diseases and not only clear up the skin symptoms but also bring about resolution of the systemic disease causing them. Although not comprehensive, this article discusses many of these disorders presenting with integumentary manifestations in the lower extremities. Where appropriate, it also enumerates the treatments involved, both systemic and localized. (Source: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery)

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Phosphorylation of MafA enhances interaction with Beta2/NeuroD1

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Phosphorylation of MafA plays a critical role in β-cell function by regulating multiple functionalities, including binding to DNA, interaction with Beta2, and transactivation. (Source: Acta Diabetologica)

Telemedical assessment of optic nerve head and retina in patients after recent minor stroke or TIA

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The aim of the study is to telemedically assess the prevalence of simple optic nerve atrophy and retinal arteriolar anomalies in subjects who have had a minor stroke or TIA within 14 days, and to compare these results with an age-matched control group. By using a mobile examination unit, retinal photographs were taken with a 45° non-mydriatic colour fundus camera (KOWA NM-45, non-mydriatic-alpha) in patients who had suffered from a minor stroke or TIA within 14 days of the time of the examination. Retinal photographs were focused on the optic nerve head region. Pupils were not dilated. The documented medical history and the retinal images were stored on a server using browser independent web-based software running on PCs, tablets and smartphones. After completing the u...

Digital Mammograms Could Also Reveal Heart Disease Risk

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 21:46:48 +0100

This study demonstrates that accurate cardiovascular risk can be determined by evaluating the extent of calcification in blood vessels seen on digital mammograms, without the use of any additional radiation or risk. These exciting findings will allow women to be screened for the two most frequent life-threatening diseases at once - breast cancer and cardiovascular disease - (and allow) for determination of cardiovascular risk in a large population of women who might otherwise not get this potentially life-saving information.”   SOURCE: JACC: Imaging, released March 24, 2016. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website....

[Hyperglycemia assessment in the post-anesthesia care unit].

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:50:01 +0100

CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hyperglycemia was high in the PACU, and factors such as age, BMI, corticosteroids, blood pressure, and duration of surgery are strongly related to this complication. PMID: 27005828 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia)

Hyperglycemia and Inflammatory Property of Circulating Monocytes are Associated with Inflammatory Property of Carotid Plaques in Patients Undergoing Carotid Endarterectomy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:47:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The inflammatory property of circulating monocytes was associated with that of carotid plaques. Hyperglycemia increased inflammatory properties and decreased anti-inflammatory properties of carotid plaques. PMID: 27001002 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis)

Therapy Modalities for Antibody Mediated Rejection in Renal Transplant Patients.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:12:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: AMR leads to progressive loss of renal function and has low graft survival. More effective treatment alternatives are needed for this clinical issue. PMID: 27002854 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Investigative Surgery)

Liquid liothyronine to obtain target TSH in differentiated thyroid cancer patients.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:08:02 +0100

This study is aimed at assessing the reliability of liquid L-T3 in achieving target TSH in patients with differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC). Twenty-one high risk DTC patients in whom levothyroxine treatment up to 2.0 mcg/kg/day did not suppress TSH levels (i.e. >0.1 mIU/L) were selected. Maintaining the same L-T4 dose, they started to assume liquid L-T3 at an initial fixed dose of 3.55 mcg (5 drops). Further adjustments of L-T3 dose were tailored according to individual assessment. Initial serum TSH ranged from 0.8 to 12.0 mIU/L, when patients assumed high dose of L-T4 alone. Following the addition of a daily single dose of 3.55 mcg L-T3, the target TSH was attained in five patients (23.8%). After increasing L-T3 dose up to a mean of 7.3±3.4 mcg/day all patients reached target serum ...

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Pinkies Up! There Could Be Some Real Health Benefits To Drinking Tea

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:05:01 +0100

Tea gets short shrift as coffee’s milder little sister. But these leaves may have a lot more to offer drinkers than just their subtle taste. Large, observational studies have found lifelong tea drinkers are less likely to face early cognitive decline and get certain types of cancer, stroke, coronary heart disease, and type 2 diabetes. We should also note that by “tea,” we mean the leaves from the Camellia sinensis plant that are plucked and processed in different ways to make black, green, white, oolong and pu’er teas -- not herbal infusions like peppermint, hibiscus and chamomile teas. Researchers suspect that active ingredients in tea, like flavonoids, caffeine, fluoride and theanine, may have positive effects on our body’s functioning. However, observationa...

Bile Acids, FXR, and Metabolic Effects of Bariatric Surgery.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:32:04 +0100

Authors: Noel OF, Still CD, Argyropoulos G, Edwards M, Gerhard GS Abstract Overweight and obesity represent major risk factors for diabetes and related metabolic diseases. Obesity is associated with a chronic and progressive inflammatory response leading to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) mellitus, although the precise mechanism mediating this inflammatory process remains poorly understood. The most effective intervention for the treatment of obesity, bariatric surgery, leads to glucose normalization and remission of T2D. Recent work in both clinical studies and animal models supports bile acids (BAs) as key mediators of these effects. BAs are involved in lipid and glucose homeostasis primarily via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) transcription factor....

N-Adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine suppresses amyloid β-induced neuronal oxidative damage in cortical neurons.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:48:02 +0100

Authors: Cho CH, Kim EA, Kim J, Choi SY, Yang SJ, Cho SW Abstract Recently, we have reported that N-adamantyl-4-methylthiazol-2-amine (KHG26693) successfully reduced the production of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced BV-2 microglial cells by increasing their antioxidant capacity. However, antioxidative effects of KHG26693 against Aβ-induced oxidative stress have not yet been reported. In the present study, we further investigated the antioxidative function of KHG26693 in Aβ-mediated primary cultured cortical neurons. We show here that KHG26693 attenuated Aβ-induced cytotoxicity, increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, elevation of caspase-3 expression, and impairment of mitochondrial membrane potential in cultured primary cortical neur...

Genetic overlap between type 2 diabetes and major depressive disorder identified by bioinformatics analysis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Ji HF, Zhuang QS, Shen L Abstract Our study investigated the shared genetic etiology underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D) and major depressive disorder (MDD) by analyzing large-scale genome wide association studies statistics. A total of 496 shared SNPs associated with both T2D and MDD were identified at p-value ≤ 1.0E-07. Functional enrichment analysis showed that the enriched pathways pertained to immune responses (Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis, T cell and B cell receptors signaling), cell signaling (MAPK, Wnt signaling), lipid metabolism, and cancer associated pathways. The findings will have potential implications for future interventional studies of the two diseases. PMID: 27007159 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

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Men With Psoriasis Could Be More Likely To Have This Sexual Problem

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:18:45 +0100

(Reuters Health) - Men with psoriasis may be more prone to erectile dysfunction than their peers without this skin disease, and their odds of sexual difficulties are even higher if they are depressed or have other health problems like diabetes or high blood pressure, a Chinese study suggests.  Researchers studied sexual function in 191 patients with psoriasis and an equal number of healthy men. They found 53 percent of the men with psoriasis reported erectile dysfunction, compared with 40 percent in the healthy control group. Men with psoriasis were significantly more likely to report severe erectile dysfunction, while the men without the condition were much more apt to describe milder difficulties. When men with psoriasis do develop erectile dysfunction, they may be able to improve t...

Heart Attack Patients Are Getting Younger And Sicker

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:00:06 +0100

People who experience the most severe type of heart attack have become younger and more obese in the past two decades, according to a new study. This group is also increasingly more likely to smoke, and to have high blood pressure and diabetes, all of which are preventable risk factors for a heart attack, the researchers found. "On the whole, the medical community has done an outstanding job of improving treatments for heart disease, but this study shows that we have to do better on the prevention side," study co-author Dr. Samir Kapadia, an interventional cardiologist at Cleveland Clinic, said in a statement. "When people come for routine checkups, it is critical to stress the importance of reducing risk factors through weight reduction, eating a healthy diet and being physically active."...

EndoBreak: Vit D Errors? Docs' Diet Books; Orgasmic Blueberries

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:36:01 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- News and highlights from around the endocrinology world (Source: MedPage Today Endocrinology)

HNF1B-associated clinical phenotypes: the kidney and beyond

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Abstract Mutations in HNF1B, the gene encoding hepatocyte nuclear factor 1β are the most commonly identified genetic cause of renal malformations. HNF1B was first identified as a disease gene for diabetes (MODY5) in 1997, and its involvement in renal disease was subsequently noted through clinical observations in pedigrees affected by MODY5. Since then, a whole spectrum of associated phenotypes have been reported, including genital malformations, autism, epilepsy, gout, hypomagnesaemia, primary hyperparathyroidism, liver and intestinal abnormalities and a rare form of kidney cancer. The most commonly identified mutation, in approximately 50 % of patients, is an entire gene deletion occurring in the context of a 17q12 chromosomal microdeletion that also includes several other ge...

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Hyperfiltration and uricosuria in adolescents with type 1 diabetes

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:22:21 +0100

Conclusions The adolescents with T1D enrolled in the study had higher eGFR, higher UUA and more acidic urine than the non-diabetic controls, which may have increased their risk of UUA crystallization. Adolescents with T1D and hyperfiltration had higher FeUA than those without hyperfiltration. These hypothesis-generating observations may suggest a potential pathophysiologic association between uricosuria and hyperfiltration. (Source: Pediatric Nephrology)

Development of the Community Health Improvement Navigator Database of Interventions

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:00:56 +0100

This report describes the development of the database of interventions included in the Community Health Improvement Navigator. The database of interventions allows the user to easily search for multisector, collaborative, evidence-based interventions to address the underlying causes of the greatest morbidity and mortality in the United States: tobacco use and exposure, physical inactivity, unhealthy diet, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, and obesity. (Source:

Yap1 plays a protective role in suppressing free fatty acid-induced apoptosis and promoting beta-cell survival.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:42:04 +0100

Authors: Deng Y, Matsui Y, Pan W, Li Q, Lai ZC Abstract Mammalian pancreatic β-cells play a pivotal role in development and glucose homeostasis through the production and secretion of insulin. Functional failure or decrease in β-cell number leads to type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite the physiological importance of β-cells, the viability of β-cells is often challenged mainly due to its poor ability to adapt to their changing microenvironment. One of the factors that negatively affect β-cell viability is high concentration of free fatty acids (FFAs) such as palmitate. In this work, we demonstrated that Yes-associated protein (Yap1) is activated when β-cells are treated with palmitate. Our loss- and gain-of-function analyses using rodent insulinoma cell lines revealed that Yap1 sup...

Antibiotics Side Effects on the Mitochondria

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:38:08 +0100

Science is just beginning to understand how important your mitochondria are to warding off the diseases of aging. And, as usual, mainstream medicine is lagging way behind. Along with your telomeres, the cellular time keepers at the ends of your chromosomes, your mitochondria are another key component of the anti-aging equation. You see, these tiny organelles in your cells are the power plants that turn fuel into energy for your body. Healthy mitochondria keep you young and energetic.  Research shows that damaged mitochondria can lead to: Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder; Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease; Epilepsy, migraines, and nerve pain; Loss of muscle control and balance; Strokes, heart disease, and coronary artery disease; Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia;...

Aromatase Inhibition Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy MenAromatase Inhibition Reduces Insulin Sensitivity in Healthy Men

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:29:38 +0100

Aromatase inhibition decreases insulin sensitivity in healthy men, most likely by suppressing estrogen action in skeletal muscle, according to researchers from the University of Edinburgh in the UK. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

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Surgeons’ Experience Matters With Thyroid Removal

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:00:00 +0100

Track record best for doctors who perform 25-plus thyroidectomies a year, researchers say (Source: The Doctors Lounge - Oncology)

The Use of Contact Lenses as Biosensors

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:22:36 +0100

The tear film is a complex multilayer film consisting of various proteins, enzymes, and lipids and can express a number of biomarkers in cases of disease. The development of a contact lens sensor presents a noninvasive alternative for the detection and management of various diseases. Recent work has resulted in the commercialization of a device to monitor intraocular pressure for up to 24 h, and there are extensive efforts underway to develop a contact lens sensor capable of continuous glucose tear film monitoring to manage diabetes. This clinical perspective will highlight the major developments within this field and list some of the major challenges that still need to be addressed. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)

Noninvasive Continuous Monitoring of Tear Glucose Using Glucose-Sensing Contact Lenses

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:22:36 +0100

This article reviews studies on ocular glucose and its monitoring methods as well as the attempts to continuously monitor the concentration of tear glucose by using contact lens–based sensors. (Source: Optometry and Vision Science)

GI Dynamics taps medtech vet Schorer for CEO | Personnel Moves March 25, 2016

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:20:30 +0100

GI Dynamics taps medtech vet Schorer for CEO Troubled GI Dynamics (ASX:GID) said this week that it named a veteran medical device executive, Scott Schorer, to be its new president & CEO effective immediately. Schorer spent the last 6 years as a consultant, advising and helping run companies including stealthy Auris Robotics and Neograft Technologies, and led sales improvement efforts at Medtronic (NYSE:MDT), Zimmer Biomet (NYSE:ZBH), Covidien, Teleflex (NYSE:TFX) and Stryker (NYSE:SYK), according to his LinkedIn profile. He spent a year as Americas president at Systagenix, the wound care business spun out of JNJ in 2009. Schorer was also founder & CEO of Innovative Spinal Technologies for 8 years, before that company declared bankruptcy and was sold to Integra LifeSciences fo...

Influence of osteoclasts and osteoprotegerin on the mode of calcific degeneration of aortic valves.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:02:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS    The presence of osteoclasts in stenotic valves associated with low circulating OPG levels and an enhanced proportion of M2 macrophages can represent a variant of calcific aortic valve disease with a specifically regulated calcification process. PMID: 27003233 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Polskie Archiwum Medycyny Wewnetrznej)

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Effects of canagliflozin on body weight and body composition in patients with type 2 diabetes over 104 weeks.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:00:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin 100 and 300mg provided sustained reductions in body weight, BMI, and waist circumference in a greater proportion of patients with T2DM versus glimepiride or placebo over 104 weeks. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT00968812, NCT01106651. PMID: 27002421 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Postgraduate Medicine)

Atom-Thin Patch Could Help Control Diabetes--without Needles

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:00:00 +0100

Ultraslim graphene sensor monitors blood sugar levels through skin -- Read more on (Source: Scientific American)

The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:51:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules. PMID: 27001115 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Epidemiology)

Pretty Much Nobody In The U.S. Leads A Healthy Lifestyle

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:45:07 +0100

Only 2.7 percent of U.S. adults hit the four key metrics of living a healthy lifestyle -- abstaining from smoking, eating well, exercising and maintaining a healthy body fat percentage -- according to a disheartening new study. The study's lifestyle benchmarks for health weren't particularly high. Being smoke-free, exercising moderately and eating USDA recommended foods don't seem like particularly difficult marks to hit. So why do so many Americans fall short of living healthy lives?  "That is the million dollar question," Ellen Smit, a senior author of the study and an associate professor at the Oregon State University College of Public Health and Human Sciences, told The Huffington Post. "We did not look at why few Americans have healthy lifestyles in this study, but I can spe...

Blood Glucose Meters in ICUs

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:44:16 +0100

Controversies surround potential restrictions on their off-label use. (Source: AJN)

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Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Women With Breast CancerAutoimmune Thyroid Disease in Women With Breast Cancer

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:34:28 +0100

How prevalent are thyroid disorders among breast cancer patients? Endocrine Practice (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Factors related to oral candidiasis in elderly users and non-users of removable dental prostheses.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 12:16:02 +0100

This study examined the association between oral candidiasis in elderly users and nonusers of prosthesis and its predisposing factors. To this end, we performed a cross-sectional study where saliva samples from 48 patients were collected they used prosthesis and 43 patients (control group) who did not use. Among the 91 patients, Candida spp were isolated in 40 (83.3%) who used prosthesis and in 23 (53.5%) in the control group. A statistically significant association was determined between the two groups, the isolation of yeasts and dental prosthesis (p < 0.05, OR = 4.3). The most common etiological agent was Candida albicans (37 isolates), with 23 (62.2%) in the denture group and 14 (37.8%) (control group). Among patients who presented clinical manifestations of oral candidiasis (n = 24...

Acute Erosive Esophagitis As a Rare Complication of Severe Pediatric Diabetes Ketoacidosis

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:13:48 +0100

No abstract available (Source: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition)

Health Highlights: March 25, 2016

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:09:00 +0100

Comedian Garry Shandling Dies at 66 New ACL Repair Method Shows Promise Medicare May Soon Cover Program to Help Prevent Diabetes (Source: U.S. News - Health)

Reversible mycordial perfusion defects in patients not suffering from obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease as assessed by coronary angiography: a review of the literature.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 10:50:01 +0100

Authors: VAN DE Wiele C, Rimbu A, Belhocine T, DE Spiegeleer B, Sathekge M, Maes A Abstract In approximately 10-30% of patients presenting with angina complaints, normal or non- obstructive coronary arteries are found on angiography. In this review paper, available literature on the underlying pathophysiological substrate explaining these discrepancies is reviewed. Both histological studies as well as studies using intravascular ultrasound e.g. the PROSPECT trial, show that epicardial coronary vessel significant lumen stenosis may be delayed until a plaque occupies 40% of the internal elastic lamina area. Limited available data suggest that these angiographically undetectable plaques are associated with an abnormal vasodilation capacity of the coronary circulation and may results i...

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The 411 on Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 10:00:00 +0100

The good news: Many diabetic foot ulcers can heal without any major interventions or amputation. (Source: U.S. News - Health)

Effect of IFN-γ, IL-12 and IL-10 cytokine production and mRNA expression in tuberculosis patients with diabetes mellitus and their household contacts.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 09:55:01 +0100

CONCLUSION: Cytokine responses of the patients retained after treatment highlighting the antigen importance, hence further studies with recombinant cytokines may help in coming up with a biomarker. Analogous immune responses of household contacts with the TBDM and PTB patients may assist in recognizing the high risk individuals. PMID: 27002606 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Cytokine)

Hormone Exposure in Womb May Boost Later Type 2 Diabetes Risk

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 07:00:00 +0100

Title: Hormone Exposure in Womb May Boost Later Type 2 Diabetes RiskCategory: Health NewsCreated: 3/24/2016 12:00:00 AMLast Editorial Review: 3/25/2016 12:00:00 AM (Source: MedicineNet Diabetes General)

Major osteoporotic fragility fractures: Risk factor updates and societal impact.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:50:02 +0100

This report provides analytic evidences to assess the best practices in osteoporosis management and indications for the adoption of a correct healthcare strategy to significantly reduce the osteoporosis burden. Early diagnosis is the key to resize the impact of osteoporosis on healthcare system. In this context, attention must be focused on the identification of high fracture risk among osteoporotic patients. It is necessary to increase national awareness campaigns across countries in order to reduce the osteoporotic fractures incidence. PMID: 27004165 [PubMed] (Source: World Journal of Orthopaedics)

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Continuous passive motion in adhesive capsulitis patients with diabetes mellitus: A randomized controlled trial.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:48:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Both the CPM and CPT therapies seemed to be beneficial for the treatment of AC in DM patients, however CPM revealed more distinctive improvements in the function and pain levels of the AC patients. PMID: 27002662 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation)

Visual Functioning and Health-related Quality-of-Life are Compromised in Patients with Uveitis.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:34:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with uveitis have significantly poorer VR- and HR-QoL than healthy control subjects. Uveitis has a more debilitating impact on VR-QoL than DR. PMID: 27002552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation)

Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Beginning in Adolescence Predict Insomnia in the Mid Thirties.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and treatment programs for individuals who suffer from insomnia should be implemented in parallel with programs for smoking cessation. From a public health perspective, our longitudinal study that examined the association between earlier smoking trajectories and later insomnia suggests that treatments designed to reduce or cease smoking may lessen the occurrence of symptoms of insomnia. PMID: 27008539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)

Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status of Lifetime Abstainers, Ex-Drinkers, Bingers, and Nonbingers Among Baby Boomers and Older Adults.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusions/Importance: Diabetes screening/monitoring and stroke prevention/care are recommended for both age groups of abstainers and exdrinkers. PMID: 27007029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)

Patients Immobilized with a Long Spine Board Rarely Have Unstable Thoracolumbar Injuries.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:35:03 +0100

Authors: Clemency BM, Bart JA, Malhotra A, Klun T, Campanella V, Lindstrom HA Abstract Most Emergency Medical Services (EMS) protocols require spine immobilization with both a cervical collar and long spine board for patients with suspected spine injuries. The goal of this research was to determine the prevalence of unstable thoracolumbar spine injuries among patients receiving prehospital spine immobilization: a 4-year retrospective review of adult subjects who received prehospital spine immobilization and were transported to a trauma center. Prehospital and hospital records were linked. Data was reviewed to determine if spine imaging was ordered, whether acute thoracolumbar fractures, dislocations, or subluxations were present. Thoracolumbar injuries were classified as unstable i...

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Effective Use of Naloxone by Law Enforcement in Response to Multiple Opioid Overdoses.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:35:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: This article presents case descriptions demonstrating the feasibility and safety of law enforcement naloxone programs. KEY WORDS: opioid; heroin; EMS; naloxone; overdose; substance abuse. PMID: 27002349 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Prehospital Emergency Care)

Acute Alcohol Use and Injury Patterns in Young Adult Prehospital Patients.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:35:03 +0100

The objective was to determine if acute alcohol consumption is associated with differences in injury pattern among young adult patients with traumatic injuries presenting to emergency medical services (EMS). A cross-sectional, retrospective review of prehospital patient care reports (PCRs) was conducted evaluating injured patients who presented to a collegiate EMS agency from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2012. Included patients were age 18-24 y and sustained an injury within the previous 24 h. PCRs were reviewed independently by two abstractors to determine if the patient was documented to have acutely consumed alcohol proximate to his/her injury. Primary and secondary sites of regional body injury were recorded. Injury severity was recorded using the Revised Trauma Score (RTS). The as...

MicroRNAs in Metabolism

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:43:05 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Acta Physiologica)

Survival of Dental Implants Placed in Grafted and Nongrafted Bone: A Retrospective Study in a University Setting.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:03:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: There was no difference in the dental implant survival rate when implants were placed in native bone or bone-grafted sites. Smoking and lack of professional maintenance were significantly related to increased implant loss. PMID: 27004278 [PubMed - in process] (Source: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants)

The association of plasma cystatin C proteoforms with diabetic chronic kidney disease

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Cystatin C (CysC) is an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor that can be used to assess the progression of kidney function. Recent studies demonstrate that CysC is a more specific indicator of glomerular fil... (Source: Proteome Science)

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Bypass Surgery vs Diet, Exercise for DiabetesBypass Surgery vs Diet, Exercise for Diabetes

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:54:48 +0100

After one year, gastric bypass surgery did a better job of bringing type 2 diabetes into remission than an intensive diet and exercise regimen, according to results of a small trial among obese patients. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape General Surgery Headlines)

Modulation of circulating vasoactive peptides and extracellular matrix proteins are two novel mechanisms in the cardioprotective action of acarbose.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:46:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Plasma MR- proANP and CT-proET-1 concentrations, but not MR- prADM concentrations, were affected by treatment with acarbose over 12 weeks. Our findings provide new possible mechanisms of acarbose action in diabetes and metabolic syndrome. PMID: 27007919 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Endocrinologica)

Role of myokines in the maintenance of whole-body metabolic homeostasis.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:46:03 +0100

Authors: Kostrominova TY Abstract Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries and is on the rise in developing countries. Obesity-related changes in lipid and glucose metabolism predispose to the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle constitutes about 40 percent of total body weight and is unique compared to other muscle types since it is one of the most important organs for insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in humans. Abnormalities in skeletal muscle lipid and glucose metabolism as well as abnormal accumulation of intramyocellular lipids could predispose for the development of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes factors with autocrine/paracrine/endocrine functions that can regulate skeletal muscle metabo...

Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Pituitary Adenomas.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Buchfelder M, Schlaffer SM Abstract Surgery for pituitary adenomas attempts the optimally possible amount of tumor resection, which ideally is total excision. However, there are limitations in the resectability and in the intraoperative assessment of the radicality of an adenomectomy. Postoperative imaging is usually performed with a few months delay after tumor resection. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used to depict the extent of tumor removal already achieved in the operating theater during surgery. To date, there are different low- and high-field intraoperative MRI systems available. Decompression of optic pathways, preservation of the pituitary and residual tumor can be largely predicted from the intraoperative images. Several studies convincingly ...

Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Pituitary Tumors.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Bonneville JF Abstract Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is currently considered a major keystone of the diagnosis of diseases of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region. However, the relatively small size of the pituitary gland, its location deep at the skull base and the numerous physiological variants present in this area impede the precise assessment of the anatomical structures and, particularly, of the pituitary gland itself. The diagnosis of the often tiny lesions of this region - such as pituitary microadenomas - is then difficult if the MRI technology is not optimized and if potential artifacts and traps are not recognized. Advanced MRI technology can not only depict small lesions with greater reliability, but also help in the differential diagnosis of large tumors. In...

Gonadal Imaging in Endocrine Disorders.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Lanfranco F, Motta G Abstract Ultrasound (US) is the most widely available method of diagnostic imaging for the evaluation and characterization of gonadal lesions and is usually the method of choice because of its high accuracy, low cost and wide availability. Today's high-resolution images allow for a confident diagnosis of many scrotal and adnexal lesions, with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is reliable in the detection of gonadal lesions in males, allowing the differentiation into testicular or nontesticular lesions, and their characterization. It is also an accurate and cost-effective diagnostic adjunct in those patients with solid scrotal lesions for whom the findings of clinical and US evaluations are inconclusive. In females, MRI ...

Adrenal Molecular Imaging.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Sundin A Abstract The major workload in the field of adrenal imaging comprises patients with adrenal tumors incidentally depicted by imaging performed for other reasons than adrenal disease. These so-called 'incidentalomas' are generally managed by CT and MRI, and molecular imaging techniques are required only for a few patients. PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) is useful for establishing whether an adrenal metastasis is the only lesion, and therefore is available for surgical resection, or if the disease is disseminated. 18F-FDG PET/CT may be applied to differ benign from malignant incidentalomas and can be helpful in the imaging of pheochromocytoma and adrenocortical cancer (ACC). 11C-metomidate PET/CT can differentiate adrenocortical from nonadrenocortical t...

Adrenal Imaging: Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Computed Tomography.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: McCarthy CJ, McDermott S, Blake MA Abstract The adrenal glands are located superior to the kidneys and play an important role in the endocrine system. Each adrenal gland contains an outer cortex, responsible mainly for the secretion of androgens and corticosteroids, and an inner medulla, which secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine. Here, we review the anatomy of the adrenal glands and explain the current imaging modalities that are most useful for the assessment of the various conditions - both benign and malignant - that can affect these glands. As adrenal lesions are often identified incidentally on cross-sectional imaging performed for other reasons, the management of such adrenal 'incidentalomas' is also discussed. In many cases, adrenal lesions have distinctive imag...

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Endoscopic Ultrasound in Endocrinology: Imaging of the Adrenals and the Endocrine Pancreas.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Kann PH Abstract Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of adrenal glands and its application to diagnostic procedures of adrenal diseases has been reported since 1998. It can be considered a relevant advantage in the field of adrenal diseases. Indeed, EUS allows the detection of adrenal lesions (even very small ones) and their characterization, the assessment of malignancy criteria, the early detection of neoplastic recurrences, the preoperative identification of morphologically healthy parts of the glands, the differentiation of extra-adrenal from adrenal tumors, and of the pathological entities associated with adrenal insufficiency, and the fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNA) of suspicious lesions. At the same time, its clinical relevance depends on the experience of t...

Hybrid Molecular Imaging in Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Schmidt D, Kuwert T Abstract Radioactive isotopes of radioiodine are frequently used in differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) both for diagnosis and therapy. Their accumulation in thyroid cancer tissue is dependent on the expression and activity of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS). Scintigraphic imaging using either planar or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) cameras allows the visualization of their distribution within the human body. Due to only a poor visualization of morphology by these techniques, their diagnostic accuracy is, however, limited. This limitation is overcome when hybrid systems integrating a SPECT camera with an X-ray CT scanner are used. Roughly one third of patients with diagnostically unclear foci of radioiodine accumulation will be...

Role of Nuclear Medicine in the Diagnosis of Benign Thyroid Diseases.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Garberoglio S, Testori O Abstract A deep understanding of thyroid pathophysiology is the basis for diagnosing and treating benign thyroid diseases with radioactive materials, known as radiopharmaceuticals, which are introduced into the body by injection or orally. After the radiotracer administration, the patient becomes the emitting source, and several devices have been studied to detect and capture these emissions (gamma or beta-negative) and transform them into photons, parametric images, numbers and molecular information. Thyroid scintigraphy is the only technique that allows the assessment of thyroid regional function and, therefore, the detection of areas of autonomously functioning thyroid nodules. Scintigraphy visualizes the distribution of active thyroid tissue an...

Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Warren Frunzac R, Richards M Abstract Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are advanced imaging modalities that are not typically utilized as part of the initial evaluation of thyroid and parathyroid pathology. However, both modalities have applications in complex cases, particularly in the reoperative setting and in operative planning for initial or recurrent carcinomas. As part of a multimodal approach, CT and MRI can increase the successful preoperative localization of abnormal parathyroid glands. Newer imaging modalities, such as PET-CT and SPECT-CT in thyroid imaging, and 4D-CT in parathyroid imaging, can provide information on the anatomy as well as the function of pathologic tissues. Both modalities provide excellent assessment of the extent...

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Sonography of Normal and Abnormal Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Andrioli M, Valcavi R Abstract Ultrasonography (US) represents the most sensitive and efficient method for the evaluation of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Infectious and autoimmune thyroiditis are common diseases, usually diagnosed and followed up by clinical examination and laboratory analyses. Nevertheless, US plays an important role in confirming diagnoses, predicting outcomes and, in autoimmune hyperthyroidism, in titrating therapy. Conversely, in nodular thyroid disease US is the imaging method of choice for the characterization and surveillance of lesions. It provides consistent clues in predicting the risk of malignancy, thus directing patient referral for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Suspicious US features generally include marked hypoechogenicity, a ...

Imaging of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: Öberg K, Sundin A Abstract Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of malignancies with a very variable clinical expression and progression. They present unique properties that are important to consider for radiological and nuclear imaging, such as APUD-characteristics (amine precursor uptake and dearboxylation), as well as the expression of somatostatin receptors. The most common localizations are the lungs, gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The only curative treatment is surgery, but more than 50% present metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. The systemic treatment includes chemotherapy and targeted agents, as well as peptide receptor radiotherapy. The diagnosis and follow-up of these tumors necessitate a large number of different imaging m...

Molecular Imaging of Pituitary Pathology.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:44:02 +0100

Authors: de Herder WW Abstract The presence of large numbers and/or the high affinity of dopamine D2 and/or somatostatin receptors on pituitary adenomas may enable their visualization with radionuclide-coupled receptor agonists or antagonists. However, the role of these imaging modalities in the differential diagnosis of or therapeutic purposes for pituitary lesions is very limited. Only in very specific cases might these molecular imaging techniques become helpful. These include the differential diagnosis of pituitary lesions, ectopic production of pituitary hormones, such as adrenocorticotrophic hormone, growth hormone (GH) or their releasing hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone and GH-releasing hormone), and the localization of metastases from pituitary carcinomas. PMI...

Safety and Effectiveness of Total Thyroidectomy and Its Comparison with Subtotal Thyroidectomy and Other Thyroid Surgeries: A Systematic Review.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:41:06 +0100

Authors: Padur AA, Kumar N, Guru A, Badagabettu SN, Shanthakumar SR, Virupakshamurthy MB, Patil J Abstract Diseases associated with the thyroid gland are one of the most frequently seen endocrine disorders across the globe. Total thyroidectomy is currently the preferred treatment for many thyroid diseases. Controversies exist among surgeons regarding safety of total thyroidectomy due to the risk associated with it like postoperative hypoparathyroidism or recurrent laryngeal nerve damage. Since, in the recent years, the incidence of thyroidectomy is in increasing trend in south Indian population, this review aims to study the available data regarding the appropriateness and safety of total thyroidectomy and compares it with subtotal thyroidectomy and other thyroid surgeries. This is...

Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis and Its Association with Adrenal Insufficiency: Assessment with the Low-Dose ACTH Stimulation Test.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:39:02 +0100

Conclusions. In patients with MDR-TB, using the low-dose ACTH stimulation test, a low prevalence of mild adrenal insufficiency was observed. After antituberculosis treatment adrenal function was restored in all cases. Given the increasing and worrying epidemic of MDR-TB these findings have important clinical implications that may help clinicians and patients make better decisions when deciding to test for adrenocortical dysfunction or treat insufficient stimulated cortisol levels in the setting of MDR-TB. PMID: 27006656 [PubMed] (Source: International Journal of Endocrinology)

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