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MedWorm: Addison's Disease News provides a medical RSS filtering service. Thousands of medical RSS feeds are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news in Addison's Disease

Last Build Date: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 15:26:18 +0100


New drugs approved for rare paediatric disorders

Wed, 20 Dec 2017 11:29:54 +0100

The EU has given approval for the use of new treatments in treating two rare paediatric endocrine disorders, primary adrenal insufficiency and X-linked hypophosphatemia.Medscape (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

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EU Gives Okay to Two Drugs for Rare Pediatric Endocrine Disorders EU Gives Okay to Two Drugs for Rare Pediatric Endocrine Disorders

Mon, 18 Dec 2017 13:29:25 +0100

Pediatric primary adrenal insufficiency and X-linked hypophosphatemia are rare and debilitating conditions for which current treatments are limited.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

Once a day glucocorticoid therapy improves health in adrenal insufficiency

Fri, 15 Dec 2017 12:00:00 +0100

According to an Italian study, published in theLancet Diabetes& Endocrinology, adrenal insufficiency patients treated once a day with hydrocortisone have improved immune and metabolic function compared with those on conventional therapy.Healio (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

Long-Term Care Hospital Quality Reporting Program Provider Training

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 17:02:57 +0100

December 6-7, 2017; Addison, TX. (Source: HSR Information Central)

‘Please take good care of our baby sister’: Help for Addison’s hemangioma

Mon, 30 Oct 2017 16:12:37 +0100

Most parents dress their baby girls in headbands for fun. But for Addison Quandt, these accessories, adorned with bows and flowers, weren’t a frivolous fashion statement. Instead, they helped hold in place the gauze that covered a large hemangioma on the back of her neck. “People always said what a fashionable baby she was,” says her mom, Dianne. “If they only knew.” Addison was born with four hemangiomas, common benign vascular tumors that typically appear as red birthmarks within a week or two of birth. In many cases, they don’t cause problems and clear up without treatment. But not only weren’t Addison’s hemangiomas going away — the one on her neck was growing at an alarming pace. “It bled a lot,” says Dianne. “And because of where it was located, it was causing ...

Perception of Policy and Environmental Action to Promote Healthy Behaviors in African American Communities - Addison C, Jenkins BW, White M, Henderson F, McGill DJ, Antoine-LaVigne D, Payton M.

Mon, 23 Oct 2017 14:21:03 +0100

The present study aimed to examine the perceptions of African American communities regarding the involvement of political leaders in facilitating policy and environmental change promoting healthy eating and physical activity. We selected the Metro Jackson ... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Worried About Getting Around London if Uber ’s Gone? Here Are 3 Alternatives

Fri, 22 Sep 2017 18:43:37 +0100

The news that London’s transportation agency declined to renew Uber’s operating license set off panic Friday as commuters could face the prospect of navigating without one of the city’s accessible forms of transport. But there are a few Uber alternatives in London for people who want to get around without their own car. Unfortunately for riders, Lyft is not one of them, as it doesn’t operate in London. The Underground, the city’s subway system, is of course an option, though the London Tube does have limited service during the late-night hours. And while busses and bicycles are also an option, Uber users might be looking for an alternative closer to the Uber transportation model. With that being said, here are three car-service apps you can use as an alternat...

Mystery baby born with a DIPG-like tumor puzzles doctors

Fri, 25 Aug 2017 22:09:30 +0100

Addison Faith Richburg was born 17 weeks early with liquid pooling in her brain. When doctors at the Medical University of South Carolina did an MRI they realized she had a tumor on her brain stem. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Franklin expedition study says tuberculosis led to deaths

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 06:31:17 +0100

A new study suggests that some of the death's of the crew on the 1845 Franklin expedition in the Arctic may have been due to tuberculosis resulting in Addison's disease, which causes dehydration. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Central adrenal insufficiency following traumatic brain injury: a missed diagnosis in the critically injured - Fan E, Skippen PW, Sargent MA, Cochrane DD, Chanoine JP.

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 07:41:36 +0100

BACKGROUND: High-dose steroid administration is no longer recommended in the treatment of acute traumatic brain injury (TBI) as it failed to prove beneficial in improving patients' outcome. However, a masked benefit of steroid administration in TBI managem... (Source: SafetyLit)

Cosmetics dev Bellus Medical wins CE Mark for SkinPen

Tue, 11 Jul 2017 18:46:06 +0100

Bellus Medical said today it won CE Mark approval for its SkinPen microneedling cartridge, with clearance to treat surgical scars. The microneedling device uses collagen induction therapy to treat cosmetic conditions, the Addison, Texas-based company said.  A rollout is planned in Europe during this year. “Receiving the CE Mark represents a significant milestone for Bellus Medical. When we started Bellus Medical in 2012, our goal was to create a company that was patient-focused, as well as product-focused. Today, we are an industry leader, a trusted provider, and now we can share that same level of service and commitment with our new partners in Europe. The aesthetics community has eagerly anticipated the expected quality improvements of devices in the microneedling category, and we...

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The Medical Emergency Of Otto Warmbier

Thu, 22 Jun 2017 23:01:38 +0100

All that the doctors who treated Cincinnati, Ohio resident Otto Warmbier knew is what they had seen or maybe read in the news. They knew he had just been released on June 13 from imprisonment in North Korea where he had been held by for more than 17 months. He had been sentenced in March 2016 to 15 years of hard labor for allegedly removing a propaganda poster from a wall at a Pyongyang hotel where he had been staying. The University of Virginia honors student had been visiting the authoritarian state during a five-day trip with a group called Young Pioneer Tours, which is a group out of China – an important note. Otto Warmbier’s ordeal began on Jan. 2, 2016 when he was removed from a flight that was about to leave Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea, by two North Korean offi...

Are you suffering exercise burnout? Take this quiz

Wed, 17 May 2017 17:19:18 +0100

Personal trainer Nicola Addison - who's trained celebrities such as Elle Macpherson, Erin O'Connor and Daisy Lowe - says you can overdo it. Take this quiz to find out if you're suffering burn-out. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Elle Macpherson's trainer says lifting gets a perfect body

Wed, 10 May 2017 15:45:28 +0100

Nicola Addison, celebrity trainer to the likes of Elle Macpherson and Erin O'Connor shares her mantra that lifting weights is the secret to getting a perfect figure. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Lower quality of life in Addison ’s disease & Cushing ’s syndrome patients

Fri, 21 Apr 2017 12:00:00 +0100

Patients with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulations report health-related quality of life that is far lower than that of the general population, according to findings of a study published in theEuropean Journal of Endocrinology.Healio  (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

Salt craving: A symptom of Addison's disease?

Wed, 12 Apr 2017 00:00:00 +0100

  (Source: - Ask a Specialist)

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A naturalistic study of driving behavior in older adults and preclinical Alzheimer disease - Babulal GM, Stout SH, Benzinger TL, Ott BR, Carr DB, Webb M, Traub CM, Addison A, Morris JC, Warren DK, Roe CM.

Tue, 11 Apr 2017 09:41:25 +0100

A clinical consequence of symptomatic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is impaired driving performance. However, decline in driving performance may begin in the preclinical stage of AD. We used a naturalistic driving methodology to examine differences in driving b... (Source: SafetyLit)

Prednisolone May Raise Cholesterol in Adrenal Insufficiency Prednisolone May Raise Cholesterol in Adrenal Insufficiency

Mon, 03 Apr 2017 19:10:34 +0100

The findings point to hydrocortisone as first-line treatment, but it is exceptionally expensive compared with prednisolone, at least in some countries, so studying lower doses of prednisolone may be worthwhile.Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines)

20 fitness tips from Elle Macpherson's trainer

Wed, 29 Mar 2017 15:15:07 +0100

London-based fitness guru Nicola Addison has trained Daisy Lowe, Elle Macpherson and Erin O'Connor. Here she shares the advice she gives celebs to achieve their enviable figures. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

The world's easiest exercise plan

Mon, 27 Mar 2017 22:36:10 +0100

Personal trainer Nicola Addison, of Eqvvs Training in London has devised a unique, low-intensity exercise programme for those who are returning after a long break from working out. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Salivary Cortisol and Cortisone in Adrenal Insufficiency Salivary Cortisol and Cortisone in Adrenal Insufficiency

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 10:47:50 +0100

Find out more about the diagnostic roles of salivary cortisol and cortisone levels in adrenal insufficiency.Journal of the Endocrine Society (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

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Why sit-ups WON ’T give you a flat stomach

Tue, 14 Mar 2017 01:09:20 +0100

Plenty of us have spent time doing sit-ups with the aim of getting washboard abs. But trainer Nicola Addison, who's worked with stars including Elle MacPherson, says that's not going to help. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Immune system defect makes Addison ’s patients prone to respiratory infections

Fri, 03 Mar 2017 12:00:00 +0100

According to research in theEuropean Journal of Endocrinology, people suffering from Addison's disease suffer from an immune system defect which makes them prone to potentially deadly respiratory infections.News Medical (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

Stonehaven Purchase Surpasses $7.1 Million (Real Deals)

Mon, 06 Feb 2017 06:00:00 +0100

The sale of a 60-unit assisted living project in Maumelle weighed in at $7.15 million. CHG Senior Living RE Stonehaven LLC, an affiliate of Cornerstone Healthcare Group of Dallas, purchased Stonehaven Assisted Living at 101 Olympia Drive. The seller is Stonehaven Assisted Living LLC, led by James Thomas. The deal is financed with a $5.2 million loan from First Security Bank of Searcy. The 7.59-acre development previously was tied to a July 2005 mortgage of $4.3 million held by Farmers Bank & Trust of Camden. Stonehaven Assisted Living acquired the site for $500,000 more than 11 years ago from Osborne Development Ltd., led by Cindy Bixler.Trampoline TransactionThe future site of an extreme aerial sports facility in west Little Rock tipped the scales at $1.87 million. CT BTS LLC, an affi...

What is in the Differential Diagnosis of Fatigue?

Mon, 23 Jan 2017 00:52:46 +0100

Discussion Fatigue is a subjective feeling of decreased energy, tiredness or feeling of exhaustion. Lethargy is often used synonymously, but lethargy is a state of being drowsiness or sleepy, and implies mental status changes. Both can cause the person to be apathetic or less active. Fatigue is a common state that almost everyone experiences multiple times in his or her lifetime. For most people it is a relatively acute or short-term chronic problem, often with a relatively easily identifiable problem cause, such as inadequate sleep, acute illness, or overexertion. For some, it can be less readily identifiable such as depression, anemia, or hypothyroidism or because of a chronic illness with its waxing and waning natural history or being under- or over-treated. Chronic fatigue and cause d...

Nicola Addison reveals three easy moves that will give you a better bust  

Tue, 10 Jan 2017 11:54:07 +0100

According to celebrity personal trainer  Nicola Addison, the secret to a bigger bust lies in your body posture - and there's three moves you can do whilst waiting for the kettle to boil. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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The Christmas Letters

Sun, 18 Dec 2016 00:47:09 +0100

One of my greatest regrets after the loss of my late husband is that he never wrote our kids special letters telling them just how much he loved them. His death was an accident, so we didn’t know better – we didn’t expect him to go. I’d love to be able to bring that individual letter out when they are sad or when they are missing him, but that’s just not possible. It has been seven years since his untimely death, and despite knowing better, I’ve never written a letter to my kids. I’m rectifying that this Christmas and writing them both a special message to keep forever that explains just how mommy feels about both of them. I’m also writing letters to my bonus kids and my husband Keith is doing the same for all four as well. We are hand-writin...

Peabody announces fifth Verrill Medalist: British naturalist Sir David Attenborough

Tue, 08 Nov 2016 15:46:00 +0100

Renowned British naturalist, broadcaster and documentary filmmaker Sir David Frederick Attenborough was among five luminaries in the fields of natural history and natural science to be named winners of the Addison Emery Verrill Medal, the highest honor bestowed by the curators of the Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History. (Source: Yale Science and Health News)

Development and interval testing of a naturalistic driving methodology to evaluate driving behavior in clinical research - Babulal GM, Addison A, Ghoshal N, Stout SH, Vernon EK, Sellan M, Roe CM.

Sat, 05 Nov 2016 12:28:10 +0100

BACKGROUND: The number of older adults in the United States will double by 2056. Additionally, the number of licensed drivers will increase along with extended driving-life expectancy. Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of injury and death in older ... (Source: SafetyLit)

Your NEJM Group Today: New Resident Coaching Model, Hydrocortisone Dosing for Adrenal Insufficiency, Rocky Mountain IM Opportunity (FREE)

Thu, 03 Nov 2016 23:00:00 +0100

By the Editors NEJM Group offers so many valuable resources for practicing clinicians. Here's what we chose for you today:NEJM Knowledge+ Blog: A new … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)

Very Few Health Conditions Should Disqualify You From The Presidency

Thu, 15 Sep 2016 22:08:23 +0100

“When you’re running for president, I think, you have an obligation to be healthy,” Donald Trump, the Republican presidential nominee, told Dr. Mehmet Oz on “The Dr. Oz Show” Thursday. The interview came in the same week that the media and Republicans criticized Trump’s opponent, Democratic nominee Hillary Clinton, about being less than candid about her recent bout with pneumonia. Trump revealed that his blood pressure, liver and thyroid function are within the normal range on the much-anticipated show, and acknowledged some concerns about his weight. Trump ― who weighs 236 pounds, doesn’t exercise regularly and enjoys fast food ― said he “could lose a little weight” when Oz questioned him about his body-mass index, which is in the ...

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Steroid treatments for arthritis 'may be possible with fewer side effects'

Mon, 22 Aug 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This study was mostly focused on application in the treatment of Addison's disease and congenital adrenal hyperplasia, but the researchers stated that with further development, it could lead to improved therapies for other conditions that respond to steroid treatment, includingrheumatoid arthritis and asthma. Dr Mark Nixon of the British Heart Foundation Centre for Cardiovascular Science at the University of Edinburgh said:"The discovery of this selective corticosterone pump in fat cells could lead to a completely new approach in our search for safer steroid medications." The Arthritis Research UK view Dr Natalie Carter, head of research liaison and evaluation at Arthritis Research UK, said:"This is a very interesting study that could have an impact on the treatment of t...

Veterans, families get free mental health care at new Addison clinic

Tue, 09 Aug 2016 11:58:39 +0100

As North Texas continues to be a hotbed for corporate expansions and job growth, an infrastructure of integrated health care becomes increasingly crucial. That integration includes accessibility to mental health care. On Monday, a billionaire hedge fund investor, who founded a national network of clinics devoted to veterans mental health issues, toured a clinic that bears his name in Addison, and he liked what he saw. “I’m really impressed,” Steven Cohen told me after the tour. “I like… (Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)

Diurnal reports positive headline data from pivotal Phase III trial of Infacort to treat paediatric AI

Mon, 11 Jul 2016 23:00:00 +0100

UK-based pharmaceutical company Diurnal has reported positive headline data from its pivotal study of Infacort in Europe to treat paediatric adrenal insufficiency (AI). (Source: Drug Development Technology)

Glucocorticoid Therapy for Adrenal InsufficiencyGlucocorticoid Therapy for Adrenal Insufficiency

Tue, 07 Jun 2016 16:00:00 +0100

How do patients with adrenal insufficiency feel about glucocorticoid therapy -- and how common is the problem of non-adherence? Clinical Endocrinology (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Weakness and hypotension: case study

Tue, 07 Jun 2016 12:46:15 +0100

A case of weakness and hypotension that led to a diagnosis of Addison's disease. (Source: GP Online Education)

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[Technical Comment] Comment on “Cycling Li-O2 batteries via LiOH formation and decomposition”

Thu, 05 May 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Based on a simple thermodynamic analysis, we show that iodide-mediated electrochemical decomposition of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) likely occurs through a different mechanism than that proposed by Liu et al. (Research Article, 30 October 2015, p. 530). The mismatch in thermodynamic potentials for iodide/triiodide (I−/I3−) redox and O2 evolution from LiOH implies a different active iodine/oxygen electrochemistry on battery charge. It is therefore possible that the system described in Liu et al. may not form the basis for a rechargeable lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery. Authors: Venkatasubramanian Viswanathan, Vikram Pande, K. M. Abraham, Alan C. Luntz, Bryan D. McCloskey, Dan Addison (Source: ScienceNOW)

Morning cortisol rules out adrenal insufficiency

Wed, 06 Apr 2016 20:28:52 +0100

BOSTON – A random morning serum cortisol above 11.1 mcg/dL safely rules out adrenal insufficiency in both inpatients and outpatients, according to a review of 3,300 adrenal insufficiency work-ups at... (Source: Clinical Endocrinology News)

FDA releases February 2016 510(k) clearances

Tue, 05 Apr 2016 16:36:07 +0100

February 2016 510(k) Clearances 510(k) summaries or 510(k) statements for final decisions rendered during the period February 2016. TOTAL 510(k)s THIS PERIOD 224 TOTAL WITH SUMMARIES 213 TOTAL WITH STATEMENTS 11 February 2016 510(k) Clearances 510(K) SUMMARIES OR 510(K) STATEMENTS FOR FINAL DECISIONS RENDERED DURING THE PERIOD February 2016 DEVICE: ANI Monitor MDOLORIS MEDICAL SYSTEMS SAS 510(k) NO: K142969(Traditional) ATTN: MATHILDE COLLET PHONE NO : 011 333 62092081 6, RUE DU PR LAGUESSE SE DECISION MADE: 23-FEB-16 LILLE FR 59037 510(k) SUMMARY AVAILABLE FROM FDA DEVICE: DBSWIN and VistaEasy Imaging Software Durr Dental AG 510(k) NO: K143290(Traditional) ATTN: Oliver Lange PHONE NO : 49 07142 7050 Hopfigheimer Strasse 17 SE DECISION MADE: 18-FEB-16 Bietigheim-Bissingen DE D-74321 510(k)...

Endocrine Society issues first ever clinical practice guideline on diagnosis & treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency

Fri, 12 Feb 2016 12:00:00 +0100

New guideline details diagnosis and treatment of Addison's Disease. Endocrinology Advisor (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

No One Knows Why Sperm Whales Are Stranding On Europe's North Sea Beaches

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 15:47:27 +0100

LONDON, Feb 5 (Reuters) - A sixth sperm whale has died on a British beach, the latest of nearly 30 to have become stranded in shallow waters on the coastline of Europe's North Sea over the past month. As marine pathologists cut samples from the whale's carcass on the windswept expanse of sand at low tide, scientists said it was too early to know exactly why so many whales had taken a wrong turn into the North Sea. Since mid-January, 29 sperm whales have died on beaches in the Netherlands, France, Germany and Britain. They are thought by experts to be members of the same pod, a group of young males migrating south from sub-polar waters. "What we've got here is a bunch of teenagers out having a good time but taking a wrong turning into the North Sea," said British Divers Marine Life Rescue o...

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New guidelines for treatment of severe primary adrenal insufficiency symptoms

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 12:00:00 +0100

The Endocrine Society has issued a Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) on diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency. Guidelines (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

New PAI Guidelines Stress Importance of Treating Adrenal CrisisNew PAI Guidelines Stress Importance of Treating Adrenal Crisis

Thu, 21 Jan 2016 13:55:30 +0100

The first-ever Endocrine Society clinical-practice guidelines on diagnosis and management of primary adrenal insufficiency in adults and children stress the urgency of treating adrenal crisis. Medscape Medical News (Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines)

Experts recommend immediate treatment for severe primary adrenal insufficiency symptoms

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 15:35:05 +0100

A Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) has been issued on the diagnosis and treatment of primary adrenal insufficiency, a condition commonly known as Addison's disease that occurs when the body produces too little of the hormone cortisol. (Source: ScienceDaily Headlines)

7 Things Insanely Healthy People Have In Their Kitchens

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 05:00:18 +0100

Having a well-stocked kitchen can be the difference between preparing a healthy a meal and blasting through your daily calorie count by giving up and ordering in. To stay healthy, knowing your kitchen is set up with the all right tools can be especially important. In partnership with Tropicana, we talked to a few of our favorite health-food bloggers and health nuts to find out what goes into stocking the perfect kitchen. 1. It Starts With Great Knives It’s hard to describe why it feels so good to slice through a tomato with a razor-sharp edge or chop herbs with a perfectly balanced knife -- it just does, and a great set of steel in the kitchen can change the way we view dinner time. "My kitchen knife has had the biggest influence on the way I cook!" says Sonja Overhiser, one half of the ...

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Quantitation of Plasma Renin Activity in Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography & ndash;Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

Thu, 07 Jan 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We describe a semi-automated and simple method for the accurate and precise measurement of PRA from 500 & mu;L of plasma (250 & mu;L if blank subtraction is omitted, as discussed) using a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for angiotensin I (AngI) in 96-well format. After a 3 h AngI generation step at 37 & deg;C in buffering conditions at pH 6, the reaction is quenched with 10 % formic acid containing AngI internal standard. Sample preparation then proceeds with offline solid phase extraction, two wash steps, and methanol elution followed by injection into the LC-MS/MS system. Quantitation is performed against a 7-point calibration linear curve prepared in buffer. The assay calibration range is 0.34 & ndash;30.0 ng/mL which corresponds to PRA values of 0.1...

FDA takes action against Vermont dairy farm for illegally administering drugs to cattle

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 17:59:00 +0100

Today, the U.S. Department of Justice entered a consent decree of permanent injunction in the District of Vermont against the Correia Family Limited Partnership, doing business as Wynsum Holsteins, a dairy farm located in West Addison, Vermont, and its partners, Anthony Correia, Barbara Correia and Stephen Correia. The decree accompanies a complaint filed at the request of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (Source: Food and Drug Administration)

ACTH testing may be ‘misleading’ in identifying adrenal insufficiency

Tue, 15 Dec 2015 12:00:00 +0100

Both low-dose and high-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests have similar diagnostic accuracy in identifying adrenal insufficiency; however, the tests have limitations and cannot necessarily rule out the condition, according to research in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Healio (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

Cosyntropin may help diagnose adrenal insufficiency

Mon, 14 Dec 2015 12:00:00 +0100

The diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency may be made using the serum free cortisol response to cosyntropin as an alternative to serum total cortisol, according to recent findings reported in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Healio (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

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Quantitation of Plasma Renin Activity in Plasma Using Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)

Fri, 27 Nov 2015 03:46:33 +0100

We describe a semi-automated and simple method for the accurate and precise measurement of PRA from 500 μL of plasma (250 μL if blank subtraction is omitted, as discussed) using a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for angiotensin I (AngI) in 96-well format. After a 3 h AngI generation step at 37 °C in buffering conditions at pH 6, the reaction is quenched with 10 % formic acid containing AngI internal standard. Sample preparation then proceeds with offline solid phase extraction, two wash steps, and methanol elution followed by injection into the LC-MS/MS system. Quantitation is performed against a 7-point calibration linear curve prepared in buffer. The assay calibration range is 0.34–30.0 ng/mL which corresponds to PRA values of 0.11&nda...

Blanket forts, healthy hearts and life: What our families are thankful for

Thu, 26 Nov 2015 11:00:58 +0100

When parents and children first arrive at our front door — no matter why or from where they come — they forever become part of our extended family. On this Thanksgiving, just like the 47 million others who are traveling to see loved ones, we too packed up the car and drove to visit 11 of the families who have stayed with us at Boston Children’s over the years. We wanted to find out what they were most thankful for and what makes this season special to them. Thank you to the families of Ella S., Julian, Ella D., Addison, Callum, Nora, Avery, Jace, Molly, Charlotte, Murphy and Robbie for welcoming us into your homes. And thank you for sharing your stories of hope with the parents who may be carrying their child through our front door right now.   Click on a child’s ...

Utah Mechanic Critically Burned in Shop Fire

Thu, 05 Nov 2015 19:29:00 +0100

A South Salt Lake mechanic remained in critical condition Tuesday, the day after he was burned in a gasoline fire at his shop. South Salt Lake Deputy Fire Chief Terry Addison said the man was working on vehicle on a lift about 3 p.m. Monday when fuel leaked and pooled around his feet. Fumes from the gasoline were ignited by a nearby space heater, engulfing the mechanic in flames. Firefighters and paramedics rushed to the shop, at 166 E. 3825 South, doused the flames and rendered first aid to the victim before rushing him to the hospital. Addison said the man, whose identity was not released, suffered burns of varying degrees to 50-75 percent of his body. Fire damage to the shop and its contents was estimated at $25,000. Twitter: @remims (Source: JEMS Patient Care)

11 Hospitalized by Carbon Monoxide Leak

Tue, 20 Oct 2015 16:34:00 +0100

Authorities in Villa Park believe a furnace was the source of a carbon monoxide leak that sickened 11 people in a home early Sunday morning. Villa Park Fire Department Lt. Chris Gilliland said an ambulance was called to the single-family home on the 200 block of West Division Street at 8:57 a.m. for a report of a 15-year-old with a headache. Crews that arrived found 10 others in the home between the ages of 6 and 61 suffering from carbon monoxide poisoning, according to a news release. All 11 were taken to local hospitals and have since been released, officials said. At the house's entrance, the level of carbon monoxide — an odorless, colorless and tasteless gas — was at 300 parts per million, which can cause dizziness, nausea and headaches, authorities said. The carbon monoxide le...

5 Things Your Pet Insurance Policy Should Cover

Wed, 30 Sep 2015 23:06:39 +0100

Currently, there are over a dozen companies in the U.S. and Canada offering pet insurance, and if you've tried sorting out the differences between them, like many pet owners, you probably wound up more confused than when you started. As is the case with insurance of any kind, pet health care coverage is a wonderful thing to have if you need it -- and providing there are no big surprises when you submit a claim for reimbursement. Here's the scenario you want to avoid: You faithfully pay your monthly premium for years and enjoy peace of mind knowing your pet's health care will be paid for in the event of an expensive illness or emergency. When that dreaded day unfortunately arrives, you submit a claim to your pet insurance provider for reimbursement... and learn that the illness or injury ...

Graduated driver license compliant teens involved in fatal motor vehicle crashes - Pressley JC, Addison D, Dawson P, Nelson SS.

Sat, 29 Aug 2015 18:21:55 +0100

BACKGROUND: Significant reductions in motor vehicle injury mortality have been reported for teen drivers after passage of graduated driver licensing (GDL), seat belt, and no tolerance alcohol and drug laws. Despite this, teen drivers remain a vulnerable po... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))

Here are Inc.'s 168 fastest growing companies in Dallas-Fort Worth

Tue, 18 Aug 2015 10:43:27 +0100

North Texas is more than well-represented on this year's Inc. 5000 list of fastest-growing private companies. The 168 companies that call DFW home represent the full spectrum of our diverse economy – ranging from energy powerhouse Bridger with its $4 billion in annual revenue to business consulting company Bond Group with its $2 million in annual revenue. You can see the full Inc. 5000 list here. The top ranked Texas company is Nerium International, an Addison firm that develops and distributes… (Source: Health Care:Biotechnology headlines)

Relative Adrenal Insufficiency in Premature Infants: State of the Art

Fri, 31 Jul 2015 00:00:00 +0100

This article discusses of the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis during gestation, aspects of what is considered normal function, and the diagnosis and management of the entity of relative adrenal insufficiency in the premature infant. (Source: NeoReviews recent issues)

Trillion Dollar Space Industry Started, and You Missed Out

Tue, 28 Jul 2015 20:04:08 +0100

Planetary Resources Inc. released the first ever spacecraft aimed specifically to test technologies for a near future commercial asteroid mining mission. ASTEROID MINING Asteroids are leftover rocks from the creation of the Solar System 4.5 billion years ago. Because they were formed with the same materials as the rest of the planets and moons, they have big deposits of water, gold, cobalt, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, osmium, palladium, platinum, rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium and tungsten. It is believed that most of these elements, mined on Earth, actually came from ancient impacts of asteroids on our planet's surface. Of particular importance are "rare earths", a group of chemical elements that are...ehem...rarely found on the surface of the Earth. They are heavily used in circuit...

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Supply problems with Efcortesol used in the management of Adrenal Crisis

Tue, 23 Jun 2015 12:00:00 +0100

The sole UK manufacturer of liquid injectable hydrocortisone – Efcortesol (hydrocortisone sodium phosphate) – has withdrawn supplies pending validation and licensing approvals of its new active ingredient supply. They now give an estimated availability date of September. Alternative forms of liquid injectable steroid, such as dexamethasone, are not advisable for emergency treatment due to their delayed onset. The alternative preparation of injectable hydrocortisone – Solu-Cortef (hydrocortisone sodium succinate) – should be substituted. This should be prescribed as the IV/IM pack, with 100mg powder and solvent (2ml sterile water). Patients should be given training as the Solucortef pack needs mixing of the powder and water vials prior to administra...

Solving Addison’s puzzle: Uncovering a congenital heart defect

Thu, 21 May 2015 14:22:09 +0100

Addison is a smart, sweet and caring child who brings a smile to everyone she meets. She is known for her hugs and frequently doles them out to anyone and everyone. She loves elephants—and her heart is elephant-sized! However, until last fall, Addison’s heart was causing mysterious and persistent medical issues that prevented her from doing all the things she loves. Unbeknownst to my husband and me, Addison was born with a congenital heart defect. As a baby, Addison thrived but always seemed to have something going on. She had issues with reflux and did not enjoy tummy time or sleeping on her back. Waking several times during the night is not uncommon for a baby, but Addison seemed to be waking in pain every hour or two. When she was 9 months old, a GI specialist diagnosed her with ref...

Spike In Dolphin Deaths Directly Tied To Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Researchers Say

Wed, 20 May 2015 23:12:49 +0100

A dramatic increase in dolphin deaths in the Gulf of Mexico is directly linked to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, scientists concluded in a report published Wednesday. Following the 2010 explosion on the drilling rig owned by British Petroleum (BP) and the subsequent spill of 4.9 million barrels (205.8 million gallons) of oil into the ocean, scientists have documented 1,281 dead and stranded cetaceans, primarily bottlenose dolphins, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico. In this photo taken May 10, 2015, a dead dolphin washes ashore in the Gulf of Mexico on Grand Isle, Louisiana. In 2011, Louisiana saw 163 dolphins stranded, while Mississippi had 111. By comparison, each of those states saw an average of 20 such incidents per year from 2002 through 2009, reported the National...

How Do You Treat Adrenal Crisis?

Mon, 04 May 2015 00:41:55 +0100

Discussion Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a disorder of midline prosencephalic development early in gestation. It causes agenesis of the septum pellucidum and/or thinning or absence of the corpus callosum and pituitary hormone deficiencies. It has an incidence of 1:10,000 live births. Most cases appear to be due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors but there are rare familial cases which are most often autosomal recessive. The phenotype is variable and diagnosis can occur at birth with more severe problems or later with milder ones. Patients must have at least 2 of 3 problems for diagnosis including uni- or bi-lateral optic nerve hypoplasia, midline brain defects (e.g. septum pellucidum absence or agenesis of the corpus callosum) and hypopituitarism (which is a hypothalam...

Management of adrenal crisis

Mon, 27 Apr 2015 12:00:00 +0100

Adrenal crisis (AC) is a life-threatening emergency that may occur in patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency (AI). Due to the rarity of AI, physicians are often unfamiliar with the correct emergency treatment of AC. However, objective data supporting this assumption are lacking. Hahner et al. conducted a prospective study to assess the current management of AC with a special focus on the time needed for initiation of parenteral glucocorticoid treatment in a well characterised cohort of patients with chronic AI and compared the results with expert opinion on optimal time targets and time limits in AC. Their data demonstrates that patient care in AC needs to be improved, particularly, the time from arrival of emergency health professionals until administration of parenteral glucocorti...

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​Lahey Hospital CEO eyeing community hospitals for potential expansion

Fri, 24 Apr 2015 08:02:11 +0100

Lahey Health has been on an expansion spree for the last several years, and according to the CEO of the health system’s biggest institution, the hospital's next acquisition might be a community hospital. The organization was founded from a merger, with the formerly known Lahey Clinic growing beyond its footprint in Burlington, Lexington and Peabody to include Northeast Health System's Beverly Hospital and Addison Gilbert Hospital. In July, the company finalized the acquisition of Winchester Hospital. Rumors… (Source: Health Care:Physician Practices headlines)

Merseyside woman who thought she was allergic to gin and tonic told symptoms are CANCER

Fri, 10 Apr 2015 07:39:46 +0100

Eve Addison, from Merseyside, was suffering from Hodgkin Lymphoma - cancer of the lymphatic system. It can cause lumps in the neck which become painful after drinking alcohol. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Opioid EndocrinopathyOpioid Endocrinopathy

Fri, 03 Apr 2015 08:19:56 +0100

Are opioids adverse effects more of a "pain" than you realized? Learn how opioids may be associated with hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, and other endocrine disorders. Endocrine Practice (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Select Medical to buy Concentra for $1B

Mon, 23 Mar 2015 14:26:31 +0100

Select Medical Corp. has entered into a deal to buy Concentra for $1.055 billion, in a deal that will combine two national competitors of physical-therapy services. Both companies have a strong local presence. Concentra, based in Addison, Texas, is a national health care company that operates urgent care centers and provides occupation medicine, physical therapy, primary care and wellness programs. A subsidiary of Humana Inc. (NYSE: HUM), the company operates more than 300 medical centers in 38… (Source: Health Care:Pharmaceuticals headlines)

I Wish I'd Known Then What I Know Now

Mon, 23 Feb 2015 14:46:42 +0100

Dear Addison, Five years ago today, we met you for the very first time. Your body was broken. Your cry was weak. Your grasp was nonexistent. Your muscle tone was low. I will never forget bending over your bed in the NICU isolation room with my mind full of questions. I didn't know how to be a mother, let alone to a baby who was so sick. I didn't know how to love a baby, let alone a baby with Down syndrome. I wish I could say that after 20 weeks of pregnancy worrying about that call from the genetics counselor informing us that "your daughter has Trisomy 21," I held you and all worries fled. I wish I could say that I wrapped my arms around your warm body and knew that your Down syndrome diagnosis meant nothing. But the truth is, I couldn't hold you. I wasn't allowed, and my worrie...

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High rates of adrenal crisis seen in patients with chronic insufficiency

Wed, 10 Dec 2014 12:00:00 +0100

A prospective study carried out by researchers at the University of Wuerzburg has found that adrenal crisis occurs in a large proportion of patients with chronic adrenal insufficiency, even if they are educated about managing the disease; the study was published this week in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Healio   (Source: Society for Endocrinology)

Gratitude for the Other 364 Days of the Year

Thu, 04 Dec 2014 20:44:16 +0100

There are few healthy habits with more immediate results than gratitude. This is why English author Joseph Addison declared, "There is not a more pleasing exercise of the mind." Unlike other virtues, he said, gratitude offers "natural gratification" as the "duty is sufficiently rewarded by the performance." Likewise, there are few healthy habits with more reverberating effects. Unlike eating broccoli or meditating, expressing appreciation is discernibly beneficial for both the practitioner and recipient. Both research and thought leaders agree. A growing body of data shows that people who cultivate an attitude of gratitude experience more energy, happiness and resilience. Furthermore, expressing thanks appears to be a gateway to improved relationships and better mental health by shifting...

How my dog sniffed out breast cancer and saved my life

Thu, 20 Nov 2014 07:00:36 +0100

Five years ago, Dr Claire Guest's labrador Daisy discovered a lump in her owner's breast. Now, Dr Guest has founded Medical Detection Dogs - one of the Telegraph's Christmas charities (Source: Telegraph Health)

Adrenal insufficiency - 2014 Lancet review

Wed, 12 Nov 2014 14:22:03 +0100

Adrenal insufficiency is the deficient production or action of glucocorticoids, with or without deficiency also in mineralocorticoids and adrenal androgens. It is a life-threatening disorder that can result from:- primary adrenal failure- secondary adrenal disease due to impairment of the hypothalamic—pituitary axis Prompt diagnosis and management are essential. The clinical manifestations of primary adrenal insufficiency result from deficiency of all adrenocortical hormones, but they can also include signs of other concurrent autoimmune conditions. In secondary or tertiary adrenal insufficiency, the clinical picture results from glucocorticoid deficiency only, but manifestations of the primary pathological disorder can also be present. Diagnostic investigation can be challenging, especi...

Evaluation of adrenal function in critically ill children

Tue, 21 Oct 2014 12:00:00 +0100

The activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to critical illness and the resulting release of cortisol from the adrenal cortex are essential to stress adaptation and maintenance of cardiovascular homeostasis. However, there is no consensus on adequate adrenal response to critical illness.   Balbão et al., conducted  a prospective study  to evaluate adrenal function in critically ill children compared with a control group of healthy children by measuring  salivary cortisol and serum total cortisol at baseline and after ACTH stimulation test. Another objective of their study was to  verify the association of adrenal function with clinical outcome.   The study shows that adrenal insufficiency define...

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When lethargy can be fatal

Mon, 08 Sep 2014 06:12:15 +0100

A condition usually considered psychological might indicate Addison's disease, says Dr James LeFanu (Source: Telegraph Health)

5ɑ-reductase and adrenal insufficiency

Fri, 29 Aug 2014 12:00:00 +0100

Patients with critical illness or hepatic failure exhibit impaired cortisol response to ACTH, or ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’. The mechanism could be that elevated bile acids inhibit inactivation of cortisol in liver by 5α-reductases, leading to downregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis and adrenocortical atrophy. Livingstone and colleagues investigated the consequences of 5α-reductase type 1 deficiency in mice. Their results confirm that impaired peripheral clearance of glucocorticoids can cause ‘relative adrenal insufficiency’ in mice, an observation with important implications for patients with critical illness or hepatic failure, and for patients receiving 5α-reductase inhibito...

Hip but not thigh intramuscular adipose tissue is associated with poor balance and increased temporal gait variability in older adults - Addison O, Young P, Inacio M, Bair WN, Prettyman MG, Beamer BA, Ryan AS, Rogers MW.

Fri, 18 Jul 2014 20:28:04 +0100

BACKGROUND: Intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of the lower extremity is a strong negative predictor of mobility function. Variability in temporal gait factors is another important predictor of mobility function. The purpose of this study was to examine t... (Source: SafetyLit: All (Unduplicated))

Genetics Home Reference: autoimmune Addison disease

Tue, 01 Jul 2014 14:20:53 +0100 (Source: NLM General Announcements)

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Thursday consumer health tips

Thu, 26 Jun 2014 00:00:00 +0100

Autism spectrum disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Salt craving: A symptom of Addison's disease? Brain aneurysm Vitamin B-12: Can it improve memory in Alzheimer's? (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)

As pediatric cancer survivors, mother and daughter share unique bond

Mon, 23 Jun 2014 13:44:29 +0100

This story originally appeared on Insight, Dana-Farber’s blog.  Jessica Tierney never thought she’d experience a harder moment than learning she had cancer at age 15 – until her 7-year-old daughter, Emma, was diagnosed with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) last October. Emma is undergoing treatment at Boston Children’s Hospital and Dana-Farber’s Jimmy Fund Clinic, just as Jessica did in 1991. “Emma already knew I had once been really sick, so I told her, ‘Look at me. I was treated a long time ago, and the medicine is even better now,” Jessica Tierney recalls of hearing her daughter’s diagnosis. Jessica is a survivor of acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, a different leukemia than Emma has. Jessica was always told there was no danger of passing AML down to her two childre...

Teenager has Addison's disease where organs shut down if she gets too excited

Fri, 13 Jun 2014 15:38:50 +0100

Hannah Bowness-Major, 13, from Cheshire, has Addison's disease, which means her adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormone cortisol. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Salt craving: A symptom of Addison's disease?

Fri, 30 May 2014 00:00:00 +0100

  (Source: - Ask a Specialist)

Wednesday's pick of the day

Wed, 26 Mar 2014 12:00:00 +0100

Today sees our two nurses' sessions, as well as two more Plenary Lectures together with a further satellite symposia New insights in the management of adrenal insufficiency and the importance of circadian rhythm, sponsored by ViraPharma Make sure you're up and about for our first ever Society for Endocrinology Journal Awards. Five authors of winning papers from the Society's five official journals will present their work from  8am in room 1C. We're also looking forward to our second Education Workshop:  Practical publishing advice at 9.30, room 3B in which seven speakers will guide you through the various challenges of publishing your work, including publishing ethics, open access and the art of scientific writing. (Source: Society for En...

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This week's new live comedy

Sat, 07 Dec 2013 09:42:35 +0100

Nine Lessons And Carols For Godless People | Mae Martin | British Radio new comedy awards 2013 finalNine Lessons And Carols For Godless People, LondonThe news that Robin Ince is calling time on his annual secular celebration of Christmas was greeted with a loud clap of thunder, and the veil of the temple was rent in twain. In fact, the dismay among faithful attendees of Nine Lessons And Carols For Godless People is a testament to how securely the event has been established in the comedy calendar. For six years now, Ince has brought a cohort of luminaries from the worlds of comedy, music and popular science together to provide an alternative festive communion: a show that eschews religion, but delights in upbeat moments rather than displays of breastbeating atheism. This year's final run in...

Comfort eating now classified by doctors as 'psychiatric condition' that needs treatment

Tue, 29 Oct 2013 14:45:23 +0100

When life gets stressful, do you find yourself reaching for the biscuit tin, or for a large bag of crisps? So do Hayley Bennett (left) and Keith Addison. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Boy who could be killed by argument: Morgan Taylor's body could shut down in stressful event

Tue, 08 Oct 2013 12:12:15 +0100

Four-year-old Morgan Taylor, from Burnley, has adrenal insufficiency which means his body does not produce the stress hormone cortisol. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

Addison's disease patient resources from the ADSHG

Thu, 08 Aug 2013 12:00:00 +0100

The Addison's Disease Self Help Group (ADSHG) has extended its resources for patients by publishing its 2004-2012 series of medical lectures free-to-view online at The most recent lecture was delivered by Professor Richard Ross (Sheffield) on new therapy developments. The ADSHG has also introduced a one-stop web shop for print packs of its medical literature. Resources available at cost-price include a 'Hospital folder' (comprising nurse leaflets, surgical guidelines, steroid alert stickers, emergency treatment guidelines, How to avoid precipitating an adrenal crisis pamphlet) and an outpatient information pack. Find out more at http://www.addisons.or...

Balint Group Process (Richard B Addison PhD)

Mon, 20 May 2013 04:00:00 +0100

Introduction to Balint Group Process for first time participants, a review for those who have participated, and a resource for those who are introducing Balint to their residents/students. (Source: Family Medicine Digital Resources Library (FMDRL) Recently Uploaded)

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What Is the Best Approach to Tailoring Hydrocortisone Dose?What Is the Best Approach to Tailoring Hydrocortisone Dose?

Fri, 03 May 2013 16:00:00 +0100

Do you consider circadian rhythm when dosing hydrocortisone for patients with adrenal insufficiency? Clinical Endocrinology (Source: Medscape Diabetes Headlines)

Predictive Factors of Adrenal InsufficiencyPredictive Factors of Adrenal Insufficiency

Thu, 28 Mar 2013 16:00:00 +0100

What is the strongest predictor for potential adrenal failure? BMC Endocrine Disorders (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

What Causes Hypercalcemia?

Mon, 25 Mar 2013 00:57:01 +0100

Discussion Calcium homeostasis is regulated by mechanisms involving the absorption from the gastrointestinal tract, bone deposition and resorption, and renal excretion. To review Vitamin D homeostasis click here. Serum calcium is found in three forms: free (47%), protein bound (43%) and diffusable calcium complexes (10%). The protein binding proteins are albumin (80%) and globulin (20%). The free calcium is the most important biologically. Acidosis also increases free calcium and alkalosis decreases free calcium. Problems associated with hypercalcemia include nausea, emesis, abdominal pain, constipation, polyuria, dehydration, mental status changes and coma. Learning Point The differential diagnosis of hypercalcemia includes: Hyperparathyroidism Primary Familial isolated Familial hyperc...

Opioids can cause endocrine dysfunction

Tue, 26 Feb 2013 21:12:32 +0100

3 out of 5 stars The Effect of Opioid Therapy on Endocrine Function. Brennan MJ. Am J Med 2013 Mar;126:S12-S18. Abstract In recent months, TPR has discussed recent medical literature detailing various averse effects of chronic opioid therapy, including narcotic bowel syndrome and opioid-induced hyperalgesia, Additional adverse effects include sedation, immune suppression, and worsening sleep apnea. This well done review article provides a helpful outline of yet another complication: depressed endocrine function. The author notes that opioids affect 2 endocrine pathways. The first pathway is the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Opioids decrease secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone by the hypothalamus, directly depress pituitary function and also impair sex -hormone productio...

Tired and listless? You may need more stress hormone

Tue, 19 Feb 2013 01:42:38 +0100

Kaye Occleston was diagnosed with a potentially fatal disorder called adrenal insufficiency, 12 years after she became ill. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Hysterectomy After Childbirth – Laura’s Story

Wed, 13 Feb 2013 08:56:47 +0100

My name is Laura Boot-Handford and I recently turned 30. I grew up in the beautiful town Lewes, East Sussex. I met my Husband there whilst at college. We both went to University in Leicester and settled in Northampton nearby once we had finished. We bought our first house and two cats. We got married and soon thought about starting a family of our own.I was 27 when we had our first son, Harry. I had a consultant led pregnancy as I have Addisons, although I rarely saw the consultant.  I started to get high blood pressure and traces of protein in my urine which was indicating the onset of pre eclampsia so the registrar decided it would be best for baby if I was induced at 38 weeks.  I had three stretch and sweeps over the weekend to try and start things off but Baby was nice and happy and ...

Living with Addison's disease

Fri, 08 Feb 2013 19:07:45 +0100

When the body struggles to produce steroids. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)

Personalized Medicine Eliminates Need For Drug In 2 Children

Mon, 04 Feb 2013 09:00:00 +0100

Using genome-wide analysis, investigators at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center and the University of Montreal have potentially eliminated a lifetime drug prescription that two children with a previously unknown type of adrenal insufficiency had been receiving for 14 years. Over a lifespan, the adjustment in treatment represents an approximate saving of $10,000 in drug and test costs per patient. Moreover, the less invasive treatment regime can potentially reduce the lifetime risk of hypertension in the patients... (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)

Personalized medicine eliminates need for drug in 2 children

Thu, 31 Jan 2013 05:00:00 +0100

(University of Montreal) Using genome-wide analysis, investigators at the Sainte-Justine University Hospital Research Center and the University of Montreal have potentially eliminated a lifetime drug prescription that two children with a previously unknown type of adrenal insufficiency had been receiving for 14 years. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)