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MedWorm: Cholesterol provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Cholesterol category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:25:32 +0100


Sex‐specific incidence rates and risk factors of insulin resistance and β–cell dysfunction: a decade follow‐up in a Middle Eastern population

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 07:13:16 +0100

ConclusionsModifiable risk factors are related to the incidence of insulin resistance and β‐cell dysfunction, which can be prevented with proper strategies although the difference between men and women should be taken into account.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Diabetic Medicine)

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Measurement’s Meaning in Diabetes Care Gets Attention

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 15:07:01 +0100

Quantifying progress in diabetes care, by measuring blood pressure, A1C, and cholesterol, laid the foundation of healthcare’s movement from fee-for-service toward payment for value. Today, diabetes...(PRWeb March 21, 2016)Read the full story at (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)

[Pleurisy induced by atorvastatin].

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 14:16:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Pleuropulmonary manifestations in a patient treated with atorvastatin should rapidly evoke an iatrogenic origin and the discontinuation of the drug should be discussed. PMID: 26992330 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)

Investigation of KIF6 Trp719Arg gene polymorphism in a case-control study of coronary artery disease and non-fatal myocardial infarction in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 08:22:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The absence of Trp719Arg polymorphism association with CAD and CAD in stratified myocardial infarction cases indicates that the polymorphism is not associated with an increased risk among CAD patients from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. Further studies in different provinces are required to unravel biological mechanisms underlying CAD in patients from Saudi Arabia.    LIMITATIONS: Unavailability of data on statin usage among the patient population.      (Source: Annals of Saudi Medicine)

Effect of dietary phosphorus levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism in broiler chickens

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 15 August 2016 Source:Food Chemistry, Volume 205 Author(s): Xue-ke Li, Jin-zhi Wang, Chun-qing Wang, Chun-hui Zhang, Xia Li, Chun-hong Tang, Xiu-li Wei To analyze the influence of dietary phosphorus (P) levels on meat quality and lipid metabolism, a 42-day feeding experiment (P deficient group; normal group; high P level groups of H1 and H2, respectively) using 100 one-day-old broilers was conducted. Results demonstrated that the quality of broiler chicken meat in deficient or high P groups decreased relative to the normal group. High P diets resulted in increased lightness, redness values, shear forces and decreased fatty acid contents and intramuscular fat content in breast meat (p <0.01). Compared with normal group, lower malic enzyme activity, higher f...

AJKD Atlas of Renal Pathology: Cholesterol Emboli

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: April 2016 Source:American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Volume 67, Issue 4 Author(s): Mark A. Lusco, Behzad Najafian, Charles E. Alpers, Agnes B. Fogo (Source: American Journal of Kidney Diseases)

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Advances in treatment of achondroplasia and osteoarthritis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Achondroplasia (ACH) is the prototype and most common of the human chondrodysplasias. It results from gain-of-function mutations that exaggerate the signal output of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), a receptor tyrosine kinase that negatively regulates growth plate activity and linear bone growth. Several approaches to reduce FGFR3 signaling by blocking receptor activation or inhibiting downstream signals have been proposed. Five show promise in preclinical mouse studies. Two candidate therapies target the extracellular domain of FGFR3. The first is a decoy receptor that competes for activating ligands. The second is a synthetic blocking peptide that prevents ligands from binding and activating FGFR3. Two established drugs, statins and meclozine, improve growth of ACH mice. ...

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status in Relation to Serum Biomarkers in the Black Women’s Health Study

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We examined the association of neighborhood SES with several CVD biomarkers using data from the Black Women’s Health Study (BWHS), a follow-up study of US black women reporting high levels of education and income. Blood specimens of 418 BWHS participants were assayed for C-reactive protein (CRP), hemoglobin A1C (hgA1C), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. US Census block group data were linked to the women’s addresses to reflect neighborhood SES. Multivariable-adjusted mixed linear regression models that adjusted for person-level SES and for cardiovascular risk factors were used to assess CRP, hgA1C, and HDL levels in relation to quintiles of neighborhood SES. Women living in the poorest neighborhoods had the least favorable biomarker levels. As neighborhood SES increased, ...

Association of Lipid-Related Genetic Variants with the Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation: The AFGen Consortium

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions In this large cohort study of individuals of European ancestry, gene scores for lipid fractions were not associated with incident AF. (Source: PLoS One)

Pretransplant dyslipidaemia influences primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS Dyslipidaemia seems to be an independent risk factor for PGD after lung transplantation: low circulating levels of HDL-C and hypertriglyceridaemia increase the incidence of PGD. Even if HDL-C levels are difficult to alter today, triglyceride and cholesterol levels can be addressed therapeutically and may have a positive influence on the development of PGD. (Source: Interactive CardioVascular and Thoracic Surgery)

Extremely Elevated HDL-Cholesterol Levels Are Not Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: Data from ELSA-Brasil

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

There is evidence that extremely elevated HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c), i.e. hyperalphalipoproteinemia (HALP), may indicate dysfunctional HDL, conferring increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. (Source: Journal of Clinical Lipidology)

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If triglycerides matter, why do they matter?

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Journal of Indian College of Cardiology Author(s): Allan D. Sniderman While there is no dispute that hypercholesterolemia increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, controversy as the importance of hypertriglyceridemia persists. Much of this relates to the fact that hypertriglyceridemia is not a single disorder but rather is a collection of disorders in which elevation of plasma triglycerides is due to the accumulation of different triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, some of which, such as remnant lipoprotein particles are ferociously atherogenic whereas others, such as intact chylomicrons, are not but do increase the risk of pancreatitis. Based on just the major lipoprotein lipids-cholesterol and triglycerides-the 6 major apoB dsyl...

Statins, regulatory T cells and diabetes

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Diabetic Medicine)

miR-1934, downregulated in obesity, protects against low-grade inflammation in adipocytes

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016 Source:Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Author(s): Lulu Liu, Qifu Li, Xiaoqiu Xiao, Chaodong Wu, Rufei Gao, Chuan Peng, Danting Li, Wenlong Zhang, Tingting Du, Yue Wang, Shumin Yang, Qianna Zhen, Qian Ge It has been previously demonstrated that miR-1934 was specially regulated by adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory adipokine, in adipose tissue (AT) in vivo. Herein we investigated the role of miR1934 in the regulation of inflammatory response. Compared with chow-diet fed mice, miR1934 expression was down-regulated in epididymal AT of high fat diet-induced obese mice. miR1934 expression was down-regulated as well in omental AT of obese subjects in comparison with lean subjects. The circulating miR-1934 was also lower in obese ...

Statins and prostate cancer mortality

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 21:48:19 +0100

Meng Y, Liao YB, Xu P, Wei WR, Wang J (Source: OncoTargets and Therapy)

Clinical relevance of high sensitivity C-reactive protein in cardiology.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 10:11:01 +0100

Authors: Adukauskienė D, Čiginskienė A, Adukauskaitė A, Pentiokinienė D, Šlapikas R, Čeponienė I Abstract Coping with cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which are of the main causes of death worldwide, has influenced investigation of high sensitivity CRP (hsCRP) and its role in pathogenesis, prognosis and prevention of CVD. hsCRP can be synthesized in vascular endothelium, atherosclerotic plaques, and theory of inflammatory origin of atherosclerosis is being more widely debated, raising questions, whether higher hsCRP plasma concentration might be the cause or the consequence. Summing up controversial data from multiple studies, guidelines recommend hsCRP testing for both, primary (stratifying CVD risk groups, selecting patients for statin therapy) and secondary CVD prevention ...

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Effects of Arnica comp.-Heel® on reducing cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary disease.

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 01:29:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with Arnica comp.-Heel® (one tablet/day) in combination with standard therapies for secondary prevention is effective in reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events in patients with stable coronary artery disease. PMID: 26989948 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Minerva Cardioangiologica)

Sterols and oxysterols in plasma from Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome patients

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 11 March 2016 Source:The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Author(s): William J. Griffiths, Jonas Abdel-Khalik, Peter J. Crick, Michael Ogundare, Cedric H. Shackleton, Karin Tuschl, Mei Kwun Kwok, Brian W. Bigger, Andrew A. Morris, Akira Honda, Libin Xu, Ned A. Porter, Ingemar Björkhem, Peter T. Clayton, Yuqin Wang Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder resulting from defects in the cholesterol synthesising enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase (Δ7-sterol reductase, DHCR7, EC leading to a build-up of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) in tissues and blood plasma. Although the underling enzyme deficiency associated with SLOS is clear there are likely to...

A role for mRNA trafficking and localized translation in peroxisome biogenesis and function?

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Peroxisomes edited by Ralf Erdmann. Graphical abstract (Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research)

Effect of physical and physicochemical characteristics of chitosan on fat-binding capacities under in vitro gastrointestinal conditions

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: September 2016 Source:LWT - Food Science and Technology, Volume 71 Author(s): Nootchanartch Panith, Jetsada Wichaphon, Sittiwat Lertsiri, Nuttawee Niamsiri The correlation of physical and physicochemical characteristics of five different chitosan on their fat-binding capacities was studied using in vitro model of gastrointestinal conditions. Increasing molecular weight (Mw) and tap density of chitosan could significantly increase their fat-binding ability. Higher Mw chitosan (2100 and 890 kDa) show significantly higher fat binding capacity than 30 kDa. When tested at chitosan to fat 1:40, the ratio often used as dietary supplement, higher tap density chitosan showed an improved fat-binding capacity at around 2-fold increase. Interestingly, 2100 kDa high density ...

Safety and efficacy of mizoribine treatment in nephrotic syndrome complicated with hepatitis B virus infection: a clinical study.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 21:48:03 +0100

Conclusion Treatment using MZR in combination with methylprednisolone and entecavir in HBV-positive nephrotic syndrome patients displays significant efficacy with a low incidence of adverse reactions. PMID: 26983690 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Renal Failure)

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Multiple genetic imaging study of the association between cholesterol metabolism and brain functional alterations in individuals with risk factors for Alzheimer's disease.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Bai F, Yuan Y, Shi Y, Zhang Z Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease. Genes involved in cholesterol metabolism may play a role in the pathological changes of AD. However, the imaging genetics-based endophenotypes derived from polymorphisms in multiple functionally related genes are unclear in individuals with risk factors for AD. Forty-three amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) subjects and 30 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of brain topological organization. Thirty-three previously suggested tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 12 candidate genes in the cholesterol metabolism pathway were further investigated. A choleste...

Energetics demands, and physiological responses to boxing match and subsequent recovery.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 10:58:01 +0100

CONCLUSION: The main results of this study revealed that the boxing matches stress the lipid metabolism system during boxing and post-mach (for at least 24h) even if it is widely recognized boxing being mainly composed of repeated short-duration "anaerobic'' efforts. PMID: 26990422 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness)

Efficacy of phytosterols and fish-oil supplemented high-oleic-sunflower oil rich diets in hypercholesterolemic growing rats.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 10:37:02 +0100

Authors: Alsina E, Macri EV, Lifshitz F, Bozzini C, Rodriguez PN, Boyer PM, Friedman SM Abstract Phytosterols (P) and fish-oil (F) efficacy on high-oleic-sunflower oil (HOSO) diets were assessed in hypercholesterolemic growing rats. Controls (C) received a standard diet for 8 weeks; experimental rats were fed an atherogenic diet (AT) for 3 weeks, thereafter were divided into four groups fed for 5 weeks a monounsaturated fatty acid diet (MUFA) containing either: extra virgin olive oil (OO), HOSO or HOSO supplemented with P or F. The diets did not alter body weight or growth. HOSO-P and HOSO-F rats showed reduced total cholesterol (T-chol), non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (non-HDL-chol) and triglycerides and increased HDL-chol levels, comparably to the OO rats. Total body fa...

Association of N-acetyltransferase-2 polymorphism with an increased risk of coronary heart disease in a Chinese population.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 03:01:03 +0100

Authors: Sun JD, Yuan H, Hu HQ, Yu HM Abstract We investigated the possible correlations between N-acetyltransferase-2 (NAT2) gene polymorphisms and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). CHD patients (113) and healthy controls (118) were enrolled from the First People's Hospital of Yuhang between January 2013 and June 2014. The patients were divided into mild CHD (N = 72) and severe CHD (N = 41) subgroups. DNA samples were extracted and the distributions of NAT2 polymorphisms were examined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Clinical characteristic indexes of severe CHD patients were also examined for relevant statistical analysis. WT, M1, M2, and M3 alleles were observed in both case and control groups. PCR-RFLP identified a wild-t...

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Therapeutic effect of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose on experimental fatty liver in rats.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 03:01:03 +0100

Authors: Huang JF, Zhan T, Yu XL, He QA, Huang WJ, Lin LZ, Du YT, Pan YT Abstract The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic effect of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose on experimental fatty liver in rats. Rats were fed high-fat fodder to establish a rat fatty liver model, and were then fed different concentrations of Pleurotus eryngii cellulose for six weeks. Lipitor was used as a positive control. Measured levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total cholesterol (TC), and total triglyceride (TG); the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), hepatic lipase (HL), and lipoprotein lipase; and liver histopathological changes. Successfully established rat fatty liver model after feeding high-fat fodder for one week. A diet ...

QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Percentage*(,)(†) of Adults Aged ≥20 Years Who Had Their Cholesterol Checked in the Past 5 Years,(§) by Sex and Race/Ethnicity - National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, United States, 2011-2014.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 02:32:01 +0100

Authors: Abstract During 2011-2014, 71.2% of adults aged ≥20 years had their blood cholesterol checked in the past 5 years. A smaller percentage of Hispanic adults (62.1%) had their cholesterol checked in the past 5 years compared with non-Hispanic white (73.5%), non- Hispanic black (72.3%), and non-Hispanic Asian (72.9%) adults. This pattern was observed for both men and women. A larger percentage of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women had their cholesterol checked compared with their male counterparts, but there was no difference between non-Hispanic Asian men and women. PMID: 26986177 [PubMed - in process] (Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl...)

The control of hypertension in men and women: a comparative analysis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:20:49 +0100

CONCLUSION Women had more control over their blood pressure than men, despite the presence of negative biopsychosocial factors that may have influenced their adherence to the treatments.Resumen OBJETIVO Comparar a mujeres y hombres hipertensos en cuanto al control de la hipertensión arterial, variables biosociales, hábitos y estilos de vida, desórdenes mentales comunes y apoyo social. MÉTODO Fueron analizados 290 hipertensos (el 62,1% de mujeres). La presión arterial fue medida con aparato automático; evaluación social por la Escala de Apoyo Social; y desórdenes mentales comunes porSelf Report Questionnaire , p<0,05 fue considerado significativo. RESULTADOS Las mujeres fueron distintas de los hombres (p<0,05) en los siguientes aspectos: presión más controlada (el 64,4%vs el...

Marine Sponge Cyclic Peptide Theonellamide A Disrupts Lipid Bilayer Integrity without Forming Distinct Membrane Pores

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes Author(s): Rafael Atillo Espiritu, Kimberly Cornelio, Masanao Kinoshita, Nobuaki Matsumori, Michio Murata, Shinichi Nishimura, Hideaki Kakeya, Minoru Yoshida, Shigeki Matsunaga Theonellamides (TNMs) are antifungal and cytotoxic bicyclic dodecapeptides derived from the marine sponge Theonella sp. These peptides specifically bind to 3β-hydroxysterols, resulting in 1,3-β-D-glucan overproduction and membrane damage in yeasts. The inclusion of cholesterol or ergosterol in phosphatidylcholine membranes significantly enhanced the membrane affinity of theonellamide A (TNM-A) because of its direct interaction with 3β-hydroxy groups of sterols. To better understand TNM-induced mem...

Anagliptin, a Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 Inhibitor, Decreases Macrophage Infiltration and Suppresses Atherosclerosis in Aortic and Coronary Arteries in Cholesterol-fed Rabbits

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We examined the effect of anagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor, on atherosclerosis development in the aorta and coronary arteries in a high-cholesterol diet-fed rabbits. (Source: Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental)

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Statin therapy in cardiac allograft vasculopathy progression in heart Transplant patients: Does potency matter?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is a unique pathologic process commonly encountered in heart transplant patients. Despite advances in maintenance immunosuppressive regimens and continuously evolving strategies for the detection and treatment of cellular and antibody-mediated rejection, CAV continues to be a limiting factor for long-term graft survival. The use of statin therapy for CAV has become standard of care based on numerous clinical studies demonstrating reduction in rejection and improved mortality. (Source: Transplantation Reviews)

Functional effects of milk bioactive peptides on skeletal muscle of rats

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Food Research International, Volume 84 Author(s): Carolina Soares Moura, Pablo Christiano Barboza Lollo, Priscila Neder Morato, Eder Muller Risso, Jaime Amaya-Farfan Whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) intake has shown to enhance heat shock proteins (HSPs). The presence of bioactive peptides has been suggested to affect the capacity of WPH to induce a HSP response. HSPs are responsible for maintaining normal cellular function and protecting cells from the damage induced by various stressors, including exercise. Bioactive peptides have been considered as food components that could be biofunctionality, however, studies focusing on potential bioactive peptides from WPH are still limited. The purpose of this study was to determine which WPH peptides could m...

Association of 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with obesity as well as blood glucose and lipid concentrations in children and adolescents in China

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Children and adolescents suffering from obesity are more likely to have lower concentrations of serum 25(OH)D. (Source: Clinica Chimica Acta)

The relationship between cholesterol concentration and carotid intima media thickness differs according to gender and menopausal status in Korean type 2 diabetic patients

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion The association between LDL-C and carotid IMT seems to differ according to gender and menopausal status in T2DM patients. (Source: Clinica Chimica Acta)

Blood lipids and prostate cancer: a Mendelian randomization analysis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, circulating lipids, instrumented by our genetic risk scores, did not appear to alter prostate cancer risk. We found weak evidence that higher LDL and TG levels increase aggressive prostate cancer risk, and that a variant in HMGCR (that mimics the LDL lowering effect of statin drugs) reduces risk. However, inferences are limited by sample size and evidence of pleiotropy. Using a Mendelian randomization framework, we have found some evidence to suggest an association between low‐density lipoprotein and triglycerides and more clinically severe PCa, but no evidence between high‐density lipoprotein and these outcomes. There is an unmet clinical need to distinguish between indolent PCas and those that will progress to impact a man's life. Our findings indicate that blood lipi...

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Cholesterol-lowering interventions and stroke: Insights from IMPROVE-IT

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The relationship of cholesterol with stroke is much less clear than its relationship with myocardial infarction, thus confounding the interpretation of results with cholesterol-lowering trials. Because for long time the only lipid-lowering intervention reducing stroke was statins, it has been actually argued that reduction in stroke found in statin trials is not due to statins’ ability to reduce LDL cholesterol, but to other “pleiotropic” effects, unrelated to cholesterol lowering. In re-analyzing the relationship of cholesterol lowering versus changes in the risk of stroke in a meta-regression of all cholesterol-lowering interventions, including also non-statin interventions, we had previously reached the opposite conclusion: that some reduction in stroke has to be expected proporti...

Prevalence of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia and its impact on long-term prognosis in patients with very early ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in the era of statins

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is an important cause of early onset coronary artery disease. We assessed the prevalence of clinical heterozygous FH (HeFH) among patients with very early ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), its management and its long-term prognosis in the era of widespread utilization of statins. (Source: Atherosclerosis)

A lipidomic analysis approach in patients undergoing lipoprotein apheresis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Lipoprotein apheresis such as heparin-induced extracorporal LowDensityLipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol precipitation (HELP) reduces apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins, most importantly low-density-lipoprotein (LDL), and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)]. It is used in patients with atherosclerotic disease and therapy-refractory hypercholesterolemia or progressive atherosclerotic disease in patients with elevated Lp(a). While lipid-lowering effects of lipoprotein apheresis are well-established, there are only sparse data regarding the effect of apheresis on individual omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA and n-3 PUFA), such as arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which could increase (AA) or decrease (EPA and DHA) cardiovascular ri...

Effects of statin therapy on augmentation index as a measure of arterial stiffness: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

To evaluate the effects of statin therapy on augmentation index (AIx) as a measure of arterial stiffness using a meta-analysis of clinical trials. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)

Effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events, death, and major safety outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology Author(s): Jason H Y Wu, Celine Foote, Juuso Blomster, Tadashi Toyama, Vlado Perkovic, Johan Sundström, Bruce Neal Background In patients with type 2 diabetes, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are known to reduce glucose concentrations, blood pressure, and weight, but to increase LDL cholesterol and the incidence of urogenital infections. Protection against cardiovascular events has also been reported, as have possible increased risks of adverse outcomes such as ketoacidosis and bone fracture. We aimed to establish the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on cardiovascular events, death, and safety outcomes in adults with type 2 diabetes, both overall and separately for ind...

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Influenza Vaccination of Patients Receiving Statins: Where Do We Go From Here?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Impact of Statins on Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Against Medically Attended Acute Respiratory Illness

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions. In this study, statin therapy was associated with reduced influenza VE against MAARI. Since many cases of MAARI are not caused by influenza, studies of the impact of statins on influenza VE against laboratory-confirmed influenza are needed. (Source: The Journal of Infectious Diseases)

Influence of Statins on Influenza Vaccine Response in Elderly Individuals

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Influenza vaccination strategies have targeted elderly individuals because they are at high risk of disease complications and mortality. Statins are a class of drugs used to treat hypercholesterolemia and are frequently used in the elderly population to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, statins are also known to have immunomodulatory effects that could impact influenza vaccine response. In a post hoc analysis, we performed a cross-sectional observational study nested within a comparative immunogenicity clinical trial of adjuvanted versus unadjuvanted influenza vaccine in elderly persons to evaluate the influence of statin therapy on the immune response to vaccination. Overall, data on >5000 trial participants were available for analysis. Comparison of hemagglutination-...

Non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis‐associated hepatic fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in a combined mouse model of genetic modification and dietary challenge

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: These results suggest that in a rodent NASH model with combination of genetic modification and dietary challenges, following hepatic steatosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and hepatic injury, hepatic fibrosis, hepatocellular hyperplasia, adenoma, and carcinoma can be developed in a relatively short period. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology Research)

He won his own battle against cancer. Now Biden needs him to lead a war

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 22:12:58 +0100

Greg Simon was on his way to visit a friend in San Francisco in 2014 when he called his doctor to get the results of a long-overdue physical. Your cholesterol and PSA tests are fine, his doctor said. But, he added, you have leukemia. "What I learned is, you have no idea what kind of […] (Source: Washington Post: To Your Health)

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Biden picks leukemia survivor, a former Gore aide, to head cancer moonshot

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 22:12:29 +0100

Greg Simon was on his way to visit a friend in San Francisco in 2014 when he called his doctor to get the results of a long-overdue physical. Your cholesterol and PSA tests are fine, his doctor said. But, he added, you have leukemia. The good news -- sort of -- for Simon, a lawyer with […] (Source: Washington Post: To Your Health)

He won his own battle against cancer. Biden just picked him to lead a war

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 22:12:29 +0100

Greg Simon was on his way to visit a friend in San Francisco in 2014 when he called his doctor to get the results of a long-overdue physical. Your cholesterol and PSA tests are fine, his doctor said. But, he added, you have leukemia. The good news -- sort of -- for Simon, a lawyer with […] (Source: Washington Post: To Your Health)

Tirapazamine has no Effect on Hepatotoxicity of Cisplatin and 5‐Fluorouracil but Interacts with Doxorubicin Leading to Side Changes in Redox Equilibrium

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:40 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)

HDL Cholesterol 'Bad'? Gene Variant May Increase CHD RiskHDL Cholesterol 'Bad'? Gene Variant May Increase CHD Risk

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 17:27:11 +0100

The rare gene mutation impairs function of SR-BI, the major receptor for HDL. "It's not necessarily that high HDL is doing bad things, it's the loss in SR-BI function that's bad," says a researcher. Heartwire from Medscape (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)

Utilization of antihypertensive drugs in obesity-related hypertension: a retrospective observational study in a cohort of patients from Southern Italy.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 14:38:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that no first choice protocol seems to be adopted in clinical practice for the treatment of obesity-related hypertension. Importantly, physicians do not seem to differentiate drug use according to the severity of obesity or to the presence of metabolic syndrome or to avoid drugs known to detrimentally affect body weight and metabolic profile in general population. PMID: 26980335 [PubMed - in process] (Source: BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology)

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New Era of Lipid-Lowering Drugs.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 14:18:02 +0100

Authors: Barter PJ, Rye KA Abstract There are several established lipid-modifying agents, including statins, fibrates, niacin, and ezetimibe, that have been shown in randomized clinical outcome trials to reduce the risk of having an atherosclerotic cardiovascular event. However, in many people, the risk of having an event remains unacceptably high despite treatment with these established agents. This has stimulated the search for new therapies designed to reduce residual cardiovascular risk. New approaches that target atherogenic lipoproteins include: 1) inhibition of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 to increase removal of atherogenic lipoproteins from plasma; 2) inhibition of the synthesis of apolipoprotein (apo) B, the main protein component of atherogenic lipoprotei...

CardioBrief: New Thinking on Primary Prevention, Death, and Statins

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 13:32:21 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Could lifetime benefit replace 10-year cardiovascular risk in shared decision-making? (Source: MedPage Today Cardiovascular)

Influence of pharmacotherapy complexity on compliance with the therapeutic objectives for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral treatment concomitant with therapy for dyslipidemia. INCOFAR Project.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:45:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacotherapeutical complexity represents a key factor in terms of achieving health objectives in HIV+ patients on treatment for dyslipidemia. PMID: 26980167 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Farmacia Hospitalaria)

Effect of Cholesterol on Cellular Uptake of Cancer Drugs Pirarubicin and Ellipticine

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:19:25 +0100

The Journal of Physical Chemistry BDOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcb.5b12337 (Source: Journal of Physical Chemistry B)

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Important differences in the durability of glycaemic response among second-line treatment options when added to metformin in type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 10:41:02 +0100

Conclusions and relevance In routine clinical practice, adding a DPP-4 inhibitor to MET is associated with an increased, earlier requirement for treatment intensification compared to adding an SU or TZD. Adding a TZD to MET resulted in the most durable glycaemic response. Key messages The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality has suggested that the durability of glycaemic response after treatment intensification is best investigated using well-designed long-term observational studies. In routine clinical practice, among patients with T2DM receiving a second line glucose lowering treatment as add-on to MET, the addition of a Thiazolidinediones is associated with the most durable glycaemic response, followed by a Sulfonylurea and then a DPP-4 inhibitor. Factors associated with earlier d...

Unnecessary repeated total cholesterol tests in biochemistry laboratory.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 03:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: There is a significant part of repeated T-cholesterol tests requested in our hospital. URC test requests can be evaluated by laboratories and the obtained data should be shared with clinicians. Laboratories can calculate RCV for the tests they performed and report this value with the test result. To prevent from URC tests, a warning plug-in can be added to hospital information software in accordance with guidelines to prevent from URC test requests. PMID: 26981021 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Biochemia Medica)

Chemokine Signaling Enhances CD36 Responsiveness toward Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins and Accelerates Foam Cell Formation

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Cell Reports Author(s): Harikesh S. Wong, Valentin Jaumouillé, Spencer A. Freeman, Sasha A. Doodnauth, Daniel Schlam, Johnathan Canton, Ilya M. Mukovozov, Amra Saric, Sergio Grinstein, Lisa A. Robinson Excessive uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL) by macrophages is a fundamental characteristic of atherosclerosis. However, signals regulating the engagement of these ligands remain elusive. Using single-molecule imaging, we discovered a mechanism whereby chemokine signaling enhanced binding of oxLDL to the scavenger receptor, CD36. By activating the Rap1-GTPase, chemokines promoted integrin-mediated adhesion of macrophages to the substratum. As a result, cells exhibited pronounced remodeling of the corti...

Stable liver-specific expression of human IDOL in humanized mice raises plasma cholesterol

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrates a dose-dependent physiological effect of human IDOL on LDL metabolism in mice. This provides a potential model for preclinical testing of IDOL inhibitors for reduction of LDL-C levels. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)

Counteractive effects of omentin-1 against atherogenesis

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion This study provided the first evidence that omentin-1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis and CAD. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)

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Time Trends in Lifestyle, Risk Factor Control, and Use of Evidence-Based Medications in Patients With Coronary Heart Disease in Europe

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Lifestyle habits have deteriorated over time with increases in obesity, central obesity, and diabetes and stagnating rates of persistent smoking. Although blood pressure and lipid management improved, they are still not optimally controlled and the use of evidence-based medications appears to have stalled apart from the increased use of high-intensity statins. These results underline the importance of offering coronary patients access to modern preventive cardiology programs. (Source: Global Heart)

The combination of nutraceutical and simvastatin enhances the effect of simvastatin alone in normalising lipid profile without side effects in patients with ischemic heart disease

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The association of a nutraceutical and simvastatin 20mg may be a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of hyperlipidemia in patients with ischemic heart disease intolerant to statin at high doses, in the absence of side effects. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms of action of nutraceuticals. (Source: IJC Metabolic and Endocrine)

The Adrenal Specific Toxicant Mitotane Directly Interacts with Lipid Membranes and Alters Membrane Properties Depending on Lipid Composition

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology Author(s): Holger A. Scheidt, Ivan Haralampiev, Stephan Theisgen, Andreas Schirbel, Silviu Sbiera, Daniel Huster, Matthias Kroiss, Peter Müller Mitotane (o,p’.-DDD) is an orphan drug approved for the treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma. The mechanisms, which are responsible for this activity of the drug, are not completely understood. It can be hypothesized that an impact of mitotane is mediated by the interaction with cellular membranes. However, an interaction of mitotane with (lipid) membranes has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we characterized the interaction of mitotane and its main metabolite o,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroacetic acid (o,p’-DDA) with lipid membran...

Effect of drug therapy on net cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL‐enriched serum in rheumatoid arthritis

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion. HDL's net CEC did not change significantly after 6 months of new RA therapy, except in those with impaired baseline CEC receiving TOC. Change in disease activity was associated with change in net CEC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Arthritis and Rheumatism)

People with autism die prematurely

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

People with autism die decades earlier than the general population, often through epilepsy or suicideRelated items from OnMedicaHypertension more likely in men easily stressed when youngMaternal suicides remain a concern, report showsNHS should remove unproven apps from libraryThose bereaved through suicide, at risk of doing the sameReducing threshold for statins even further might be cost-effective (Source: OnMedica Latest News)

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Statins as Targeted "Magical Pills" for the Conservative Treatment of Endometriosis: May Potential Adverse Effects on Female Fertility Represent the "Dark Side of the Same Coin"? A Systematic Review of Literature

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The aim of the study was to analyze all the available evidence from both in vitro and in vivo studies regarding the efficacy of statin therapy in the treatment of endometriosis, evaluating the potential efficacy, side effects, and contraindications of their administration in humans. We focused on defining the potential benefits that the administration of statins may have on patients affected by endometriosis and the possible adverse effects of such a therapy on ovarian function and fertility profile. According to our article selection criteria, we included in the review in vitro and in vivo studies performed on human or animal models. The systematic review of literature identified 24 eligible articles, 12 of which reported evidence regarding the effects of statins on endometrial/endometrio...

Myeloid ACAT1 Deficiency Suppresses Atherosclerosis [Lipids]

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (Acat1) converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters and is considered a drug target for treating atherosclerosis. However, in mouse models for atherosclerosis, global Acat1 knockout (Acat1−/−) did not prevent lesion development. Acat1−/− increased apoptosis within lesions and led to several additional undesirable phenotypes, including hair loss, dry eye, leukocytosis, xanthomatosis, and a reduced life span. To determine the roles of Acat1 in monocytes/macrophages in atherosclerosis, we produced a myeloid-specific Acat1 knockout (Acat1−M/−M) mouse and showed that, in the Apoe knockout (Apoe−/−) mouse model for atherosclerosis, Acat1−M/−M decreased the plaque area and reduced lesion size without causing leukocytosis, dry eye,...

PKC{alpha} Is Resistant to Diacylglycerol-induced Desensitization [Protein Synthesis and Degradation]

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Sustained activation of PKCα is required for long term physiological responses, such as growth arrest and differentiation. However, studies with pharmacological agonists (e.g. phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)) indicate that prolonged stimulation leads to PKCα desensitization via dephosphorylation and/or degradation. The current study analyzed effects of chronic stimulation with the physiological agonist diacylglycerol. Repeated addition of 1,2-dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol (DiC8) resulted in sustained plasma membrane association of PKCα in a pattern comparable with that induced by PMA. However, although PMA potently down-regulated PKCα, prolonged activation by DiC8 failed to engage known desensitization mechanisms, with the enzyme remaining membrane-associated and able to support sustain...

A Loop Region in ApoA-I Critical for LCAT Activity [Molecular Bases of Disease]

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The interaction of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) plays a critical role in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation. We previously identified a highly solvent-exposed apoA-I loop domain (Leu159–Leu170) in nascent HDL, the so-called “solar flare” (SF) region, and proposed that it serves as an LCAT docking site (Wu, Z., Wagner, M. A., Zheng, L., Parks, J. S., Shy, J. M., 3rd, Smith, J. D., Gogonea, V., and Hazen, S. L. (2007) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 14, 861–868). The stability and role of the SF domain of apoA-I in supporting HDL binding and activation of LCAT are debated. Here we show by site-directed mutagenesis that multiple residues within the SF region (Pro165, Tyr166, Ser167, and Asp168) of apoA-I are critical for both LCAT binding...

β2-1 Fructan supplementation alters host immune responses in a manner consistent with increased exposure to microbial components: results from a double-blinded, randomised, cross-over study in healthy adults.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Clarke ST, Green-Johnson JM, Brooks SP, Ramdath DD, Bercik P, Avila C, Inglis GD, Green J, Yanke LJ, Selinger LB, Kalmokoff M Abstract β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d. Fasting blood and 1-d faecal collections were obtained at the beginning and at the end of each phase. Blood...

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Angiotensin‐(1‐7) improves non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis via an adiponectin‐independent mechanism

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThese results demonstrated the protective role of Ang‐(1‐7) in the development of NASH through adiponectin‐independent mechanism, which may partially attribute to the activation of hepatic AMPK pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Hepatology Research)

Characterization of the Binding of Hydroxyindole, Indoleacetic acid, and Morpholinoaniline to the Salmonella Type III Secretion System Proteins SipD and SipB.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: McShan AC, Anbanandam A, Patnaik S, De Guzman RN Abstract Many Gram-negative bacteria require the type III secretion system (T3SS) to cause infectious diseases in humans. A looming public health problem is that all bacterial pathogens that require the T3SS to cause infectious diseases in humans have developed multidrug resistance to current antibiotics. The T3SS is an attractive target for the development of new antibiotics because of its critical role in virulence. An initial step in developing anti-T3SS-based therapeutics is the identification of small molecules that can bind to T3SS proteins. Currently, the only small molecules that are known to bind to the Salmonella T3SS proteins SipD and SipB are bile salts (to SipD) and sphingolipids and cholesterol (to SipB). Her...

Deformability properties of timolol-loaded transfersomes based on the extrusion mechanism. statistical optimization of the process.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 19:28:01 +0100

DEFORMABILITY PROPERTIES OF TIMOLOL-LOADED TRANSFERSOMES BASED ON THE EXTRUSION MECHANISM. STATISTICAL OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS. Drug Dev Ind Pharm. 2016 Mar 16;:1-38 Authors: González-Rodríguez ML, Arroyo CM, Cózar-Bernal MJ, González-R PL, León JM, Calle M, Canca D, Rabasco AM Abstract The purpose of this work was to analyze the deformability properties of different timolol maleate loaded transfersomes by extrusion. This was performed because elastic liposomes may contribute to the elevation of amount and rate of drug permeation through the corneal membrane. This paper describes the optimization of a transfersome formulation by use of Taguchi orthogonal experimental design and two different statistical analysis approaches were utilized. The amount of choleste...

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol on a roller coaster: where will the ride end?

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 18:07:03 +0100

Bowe et al. report an association between low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and various incident chronic kidney disease end points in a cohort of almost 2 million US veterans followed for 9 years. These impressive data should be a starting point for further investigations including genetic epidemiologic investigations as well as post hoc analyses of interventional trials that target high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and, finally, studies that focus on the functionality of high-density lipoprotein particles. (Source: Kidney International)

Schistosoma mansoni and membranous nephropathy

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 18:07:03 +0100

A 53-year-old Brazilian man presented with lower limb edema that progressed to anasarca. He had no personal or family history of renal disease. Laboratory tests revealed urea level, 35 mg/dl; hemoglobin value, 9.8 g/dl; leukocyte count, 7500/mm3; platelet count, 204,000/mm3; serum albumin level, 1.2 g/dl; total cholesterol level, 239 mg/dl; and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 92 mg/dl. Urinalysis showed no leukocyturia or hematuria; the 24-hour urinary protein level was 19.7 g. Serum complement levels were normal. (Source: Kidney International)

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Healthy Heart May Also Mean Healthy Brain

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 15:36:05 +0100

Reuters Health - If you eat right, exercise and take care of your heart, you may also be doing good things for your brain, a U.S. study suggests. Researchers assessed memory, thinking and brain processing speed in more than 1,000 New York City residents and found people did much better on these tests when they had heart-healthy habits like avoiding cigarettes, maintaining a normal weight and keeping blood pressure and cholesterol in check. “Our findings reinforce current recommendations for cardiovascular disease prevention but suggest that they may also promote cognitive health,” lead study author Hannah Gardener, a neurology researcher at the University of Miami Medical School, said by email. At the start of the study, the 1,033 participants were 72 years old on average. They...

Prevalence of Carotid Artery Disease among Ambulatory Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 15:01:05 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Carotid atherosclerosis is very common in stable ambulatory patients with CAD regularly taking statins. The risk is higher in patients with peripheral arterial disease, a greater number of involved coronary arteries, and older age at onset of CAD. PMID: 26979002 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Israel Medical Association Journal)

Cholesterol pill boosts cancer immunotherapy, at least in mice

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 11:50:02 +0100

Tweaking cholesterol levels with a simple pill may boost the effectiveness of new immunotherapy drugs that are starting to revolutionize the treatment of cancers, experiments in mice suggest.03/17/2016 (Source: Kidney Cancer Association)

LDL cholesterol response and statin adherence among high-risk patients initiating treatment.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 11:50:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: In a real-world setting, many patients did not achieve a 30% or larger LDL-C reduction. These data support the ACC/AHA recommendation to monitor LDL-C response among patients initiating statins. PMID: 26978237 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The American Journal of Managed Care)

What Doctors Got Wrong About 'Good' Cholesterol

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 11:12:33 +0100

A new genetic study published in the journal Science suggests that contrary to the conventional wisdom, high levels of good cholesterol aren't necessarily heart-protective for everyone. "Twenty years ago, if you had high bad cholesterol and high good cholesterol, doctors said don’t worry about it -- one offsets the other," Dr. Scott Wright, a cardiologist at the Mayo Clinic, who wasn't involved in the study, told The Huffington Post."I never really bought that, and time has proven my skepticism to be correct. You can have a heart attack despite having a high level of good cholesterol." Doctors have long assumed that high levels of good cholesterol were intrinsically heart-protective, in recent years companies have focused on developing medications that boost these levels, w...

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Statin Use and the Risk for Incident Diabetes Mellitus in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Our study indicated an association between increased risk for new-onset diabetes mellitus and statin use. Because the benefits of statins in prevention of morbidity and mortality in patients with ACS are well-established, clinical decision making should not be changed for patients with existing cardiovascular disease in whom statin therapy is recommended. (Source: Canadian Journal of Diabetes)

Six-month changes in ideal cardiovascular health vs. Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease risk among young adults enrolled in a weight loss intervention

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to compare 6-month changes in the FR-10 vs. IDEAL score among young adults with BMI ≥25 to <40kg/m2 enrolled in a behavioral weight loss intervention at the University of Pittsburgh (2010–12). Medians [25th, 75th percentiles] are reported. Weight decreased by 8kg [−12, −4] among 335 participants. Of 7 possible points, IDEAL score was 4 [3, 4] at baseline, improved (i.e., increased) by 1 [0, 2] over 6months, and improved in 64.2% and worsened in 6.6% of participants (p<0.001). IDEAL classification of BMI, physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose improved (all p<0.001), but not of smoking or diet (both p≥0.05). FR-10 was <1% at baseline for 88.1% of participants and changed in few participants (improved, i.e. decr...

Learning from anomalies: the case of cholesterol and ischaemic heart disease

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

(Source: International Journal of Epidemiology)

General and Genetic Toxicology of Guayusa Concentrate (Ilex guayusa)

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Tea from the leaves of guayusa (Ilex guayusa) has a long history of consumption by Ecuadorian natives in regions where the plant is indigenous. The tea contains the methylxanthines caffeine and theobromine as well as chlorogenic acids, flavonoids, and sugars. Various studies were performed to evaluate the general and genetic toxicology of a standardized liquid concentrate of guayusa (GC). Guayusa concentrate was found to be negative in in vitro genotoxicity tests including the Ames test and a chromosome aberration study in human lymphocytes. The oral median lethal dose (LD50) of GC was >5,000 mg/kg for female rats. Guayusa concentrate was administered to male and female rats in a 90-day subchronic study at 1,200, 2,500, and 5,000 mg/kg/d of GC and a caffeine-positive control at 150 mg/k...

Spatial distribution and activity of Na+/K+-ATPase in lipid bilayer membranes with phase boundaries

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 16 March 2016 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes Author(s): Tripta Bhatia, Flemming Cornelius, Jonathan Brewer, Luis A. Bagatolli, Adam C. Simonsen, John H. Ipsen, Ole G. Mouritsen We have reconstituted functional Na +/K +-ATPase (NKA) into giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) of well-defined binary and ternary lipid composition including cholesterol. The activity of the membrane system can be turned on and off by ATP. The hydrolytic activity of NKA is found to depend on membrane phase, and the water relaxation in the membrane on the presence of NKA. By collapsing and fixating the GUVs onto a solid support and using high-resolution atomic-force microscopy (AFM) imaging we determine the protein orientation and spatial distribut...

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Inflammation Activation Contributes to Adipokine Imbalance in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, 586 subjects were categorized into: (1) control group; (2) SA (stable angina) group; and (3) ACS group. Circulating levels of hs-CRP, adiponectin and resistin were measured by ELISA. Furthermore, forty C57BL/6 mice were randomized into: sham, AMI, low-statin (atorvastatin, 2 mg/kg/day) and high-statin (atorvastatin, 20 mg/kg/day) group. After 3 weeks, AMI models were established by surgical coronary artery ligation. Circulating levels and adipose expressions of adiponectin and resistin were assessed in animals. Besides, we investigate the effects of atorvastatin on ox-LDL-induced adipokine imbalance in vitro. As a result, we found that ACS patients had higher hs-CRP and resistin levels and lower adiponectin levels. Our correlation analysis demonstrated hs-CRP concentrations ...

Anti-Retroviral Therapy Increases the Prevalence of Dyslipidemia in South African HIV-Infected Patients

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

by Joel A. Dave, Naomi S. Levitt, Ian L. Ross, Miguel Lacerda, Gary Maartens, Dirk Blom Purpose Data on the prevalence of dyslipidaemia and associated risk factors in HIV-infected patients from sub-Saharan Africa is sparse. We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of HIV-infected South African adults. Methods We studied HIV-infected patients who were either antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive or receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based or protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART. Evaluation included fasting lipograms, oral glucose tolerance tests and clinical anthropometry. Dyslipidemia was defined using the NCEP ATPIII guidelines. Results The median age of the participants was 34 years (range 19–68 years) and 78% were women. The prevalence of dyslipidemi...

The effect of prolonged simvastatin application on serotonin uptake, membrane microviscosity and behavioral changes in the animal model

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 May 2016 Source:Physiology & Behavior, Volume 158 Author(s): Jan Vevera, Karel Valeš, Zdeněk Fišar, Jana Hroudová, Namrata Singh, Aleš Stuchlík, Petr Kačer, Tereza Nekovářová Simvastatin and other statins (HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase inhibitors) are extensively used in clinical practices and are very effective in decreasing serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, their effect on cholesterol synthesis in central nervous system and its behavioral consequences have not been fully understood yet. We have studied selected biologic traits potentially affected by statin treatment — serotonin (5-HT) uptake in platelets, membrane microviscosity in erythrocytes, cholesterol level in the brain (amygdala; hippo...

Serum CETP status is independently associated with reduction rates in LDL-C in pitavastatin-treated diabetic patients and possible involvement of LXR in its association

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Statins decrease cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) levels, which have been positively associated with hepatic lipid content as well as serum low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. However... (Source: Lipids in Health and Disease)

Roles for Lipid Heterogeneity in Immunoreceptor Signaling

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids Author(s): David Holowka, Barbara Baird Immune receptors that specifically recognize foreign antigens to activate leukocytes in adaptive immune responses belong to a family of multichain cell surface proteins. All of these contain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs in one or more subunits that initiate signaling cascades following stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation by Src-family kinases. As highlighted in this review, lipids participate in this initial activation step, as well as in more downstream signaling steps. We summarize evidence for cholesterol-dependent ordered lipids serving to regulate the store-operated Ca2+ channel, Orai1, and we ...

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Serum Osteoprotegerin Levels Related With Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chronic Kidney Disease

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionOur findings revealed increased serum levels of OPG in dialysis and preD patients compared to RT and controls. In the patient groups receiving two dialysis treatment, the levels were worse, indicating a more pronounced vascular injury. Age, C‐reactive protein (CRP), high‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‐C), and cystatin C (CysC) in CKD patients, CRP and PTH in the control subjects, and age and BMI in the overall population were the significant correlates of serum OPG levels. (Source: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis)

Simulation of early calcific aortic valve disease in a 3D platform: A role for myofibroblast differentiation

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most prevalent valve disease in the Western world. Recent difficulty in translating experimental results on statins to beneficial clinical effects warrants the need for understanding the role of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) in CAVD. In two-dimensional culture conditions, VICs undergo spontaneous activation similar to pathological differentiation, which intrinsically limits the use of in vitro models to study CAVD. Here, we hypothesized that a three-dimensional (3D) culture system based on naturally derived extracellular matrix polymers, mimicking the microenvironment of native valve tissue, could serve as a physiologically relevant platform to study the osteogenic differentiation of VICs. (Source: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiolog...

ATR-101, a Selective and Potent Inhibitor of Acyl-CoA Acyltransferase 1, Induces Apoptosis in H295R Adrenocortical Cells and in the Adrenal Cortex of Dogs.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: LaPensee CR, Mann JE, Rainey WE, Crudo V, Hunt SW, Hammer GD Abstract ATR-101 is a novel, oral drug candidate currently in development for the treatment of Adrenocortical Cancer (ACC). ATR-101 is a selective and potent inhibitor of acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1), an enzyme located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane that catalyzes esterification of intracellular free cholesterol. We aimed to identify mechanisms by which ATR-101 induces adrenocortical cell death. In H295R human adrenocortical carcinoma cells, ATR-101 decreases the formation of cholesteryl esters and increases free cholesterol levels, demonstrating potent inhibition of ACAT1 activity. Caspase-3 levels and TUNEL-positive cells are increased by ATR-101 treatment, indicating acti...

Cholesterol metabolism in cardiac sarcoidosis

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Patients with cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) suffer from myocardial inflammation, but atherosclerosis is not infrequent in these patients. However, the classical atherosclerotic risk factors, such as perturbed serum lipids and whole-body cholesterol metabolism, remain unravelled in CS. (Source: Atherosclerosis)

Effects of combination therapy of statin and N-acetylcysteine for the prevention of contrast–induced nephropathy in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a risk factor for contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). We investigated whether pretreatment with statin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) reduces the risk of CIN. (Source: International Journal of Cardiology)

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Language Concordance as a Determinant of Patient Outcomes in a Pharmacist-Managed Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: These results suggest that similar clinical outcomes between ES and SS patients may be achieved with the ability of pharmacists to speak the same language as their patients. (Source: Journal of Pharmacy Practice)

Effect of ethanol extract of an ayurvedic preparation (Pathyadya Churna) on arthritis in rats

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: PCE has a significant anti-arthritic activity in rats and is free from toxic effects. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)

A novel method of extraction of bamboo seed oil (Bambusa bambos Druce) and its promising effect on metabolic symptoms of experimentally induced polycystic ovarian disease

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: A novel and promising drug was isolated in the treatment and maintenance of various metabolic symptoms associated with polycystic ovary disease. (Source: Indian Journal of Pharmacology)

Meaning of Illness and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Meaning of illness had a significant effect on measured outcomes of CVD risk. The specific factor included in the overarching concept of meaning of illness differed in its influence, with more positive views of stress/commitments associated with lower blood pressure and LDL but more positive views of the challenge/hope/motivation and negative views of non-anticipated vulnerability associated with diabetes associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (Source: The Diabetes Educator)