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Preview: MedWorm: Lung Cancer

MedWorm: Lung Cancer provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Lung Cancer category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 16:47:43 +0100


Preterm Births Linked to Air Pollution Cost Billions in the U.S.

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 04:01:36 +0100

Air pollution leads to 16,000 premature births in the United States each year, leading to billions of dollars in economic costs, according to new research. Researchers behind the study, published in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives, found that preterm births associated with particulate matter—a type of pollutant—led to more than $4 billion in economic costs in 2010 due to medical care and lost productivity that results from disability. And, like many other public health issues, affected populations tend to be concentrated in low-income areas home to large numbers of minorities. “This is another piece of the evidentiary pie about why we should really be doing something about air pollution,” says Tracey Woodruff, a professor who studies reproductive healt...

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[The Glasgow inflammatory score and lung cancer: A predictor of admissions to emergency units].

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 01:52:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: The mGPS is an independent predictor for hospitalization in patients with lung cancer consulting at the emergency department. PMID: 27017064 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)

[Oncogenic drivers in daily practice improve overall survival in patients with lung adenocarcinoma].

Tue, 29 Mar 2016 01:52:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: An actionable oncodriver was routinely detected in nearly half of patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. This systematic detection may influence treatment outcomes, notably with matched targeted therapy. PMID: 27017063 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires)

Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract induces apoptosis through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway and inhibits migration and invasion in non-small cell lung cancer in vitro

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

The objective of this study was to examine the anticancer effects of extract of Punica granatum (pomegranate) leaves extract (PLE) on the non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, H1299 and mouse Lewis lung carcinoma cell line LL/2 in vitro, and explore its mechanisms of action. Our results have shown that PLE inhibited cell proliferation in non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Flow cytometry (FCM) assay showed that PLE affected H1299 cell survival by arresting cell cycle progression in G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner and inducing apoptosis. Moreover, PLE could also decrease the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔYm), indicating that PLE may induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated apoptoti...

Erratum: NRF2 regulates serine biosynthesis in non–small cell lung cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Nature Genetics 48, 473 (2016). doi:10.1038/ng0329-473a Author: Gina M DeNicola, Pei-Hsuan Chen, Edouard Mullarky, Jessica A Sudderth, Zeping Hu, David Wu, Hao Tang, Yang Xie, John M Asara, Kenneth E Huffman, Ignacio I Wistuba, John D Minna, Ralph J DeBerardinis & Lewis C Cantley (Source: Nature Genetics)

A SNaPshot of potentially personalized care: Molecular diagnostics in gynecologic cancer.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 20:57:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Although SNaPshot can identify potentially important therapeutic targets, the incidence of 'drugable' targets in ovarian cancer is low. In this cohort, only 7% of subjects eventually were treated on a relevant clinical trial. Geneotyping should be used judiciously and reflect histologic subtype and available platform. PMID: 27016236 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Gynecologic Oncology)

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Mp61-12 new targets for immune checkpoint inhibition in urothelial carcinoma

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:08 +0100

Tumor cells evade immune surveillance by expressing cell surface ligands such as PD-L1 that are known to disrupt normal T cell function. Inhibition of these immunologic checkpoints has led to durable clinical remissions in metastatic melanoma, lung cancer, and bladder cancer. Zang et al. have recently described new checkpoint family members (HHLA2 and B7x) that appear to play a significant role in T-cell regulation. We sought to determine whether these newly described ligands are expressed in human urothelial carcinoma. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

Mp06-11 small cell bladder cancer: contemporary treatment outcomes including prophylactic cranial irradiation in select patients

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 19:24:03 +0100

We report our experience with the treatment of small cell bladder cancer at our institution, including 6 patients treated with prophylactic cranial irradiation. (Source: The Journal of Urology)

Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote non-small cell lung cancer cell invasion by upregulation of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) expression in an integrated bionic microfluidic device.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 17:23:02 +0100

In conclusion, these data indicated that CAFs might promote NSCLC cell invasion by up-regulation of GRP78 expression and this bionic chip microdevice is a robust platform to assess the interaction of cancer and stromal cells in tumor environment study. PMID: 27016417 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

Oncogene swap as a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitor in lung cancer

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, an “oncogene swap” from EGFR to MET is a novel resistant mechanism to the EGFR‐TKI. This novel mechanism should be considered in order to avoid futile inhibition of the original oncogene. “Oncogene swap” from EGFR to MET induces acquired resistance to EGFR‐TKI and can be overcome by MET inhibition. (Source: Cancer Science)

Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme E2T is an Independent Prognostic Factor and Promotes Gastric Cancer Progression

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2T (UBE2T) is a member of the E2 family that mediates the ubiquitin-proteasome system and regulates gene expression. It is a major oncogene in several cancers such as lung cancer and breast cancer, while the potential functions of UBE2T in gastric cancer (GC) remains largely unknown. Here, we identified the roles of UBE2T in GC progression and its potential to act as a prognostic marker of GC. Our data demonstrated that UBE2T was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues, and the high expression of UBE2T was significantly correlated with poor differentiation, high T classification, and poor prognosis. In vitro experiments indicated that UBE2T promoted cell proliferation and inhibited cell cycle arrest. In addition, we observed that ...

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Progression and metastasis of lung cancer

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Metastasis in lung cancer is a multifaceted process. In this review, we will dissect the process in several isolated steps such as angiogenesis, hypoxia, circulation, and establishment of a metastatic focus. In reality, several of these processes overlap and occur even simultaneously, but such a presentation would be unreadable. Metastasis requires cell migration toward higher oxygen tension, which is based on changing the structure of the cell (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), orientation within the stroma and stroma interaction, and communication with the immune system to avoid attack. Once in the blood stream, cells have to survive trapping by the coagulation system, to survive shear stress in small blood vessels, and to find the right location for extravasation. On...

Massive malignant pleural effusion due to lung adenocarcinoma in 13-year-old boy

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

A 13-year-old boy with no risk factors for lung cancer presented with a massive left-sided pleural effusion and a mediastinal shift on chest radiography and computed tomography. A chest tube drained bloody pleural fluid with an exudative pattern. A pleural biopsy and wedge biopsy of the left lower lobe revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma in the left lower lobe wedge biopsy and metastatic adenocarcinoma in the pleural biopsy. The patient is currently undergoing chemotherapy. Radiotherapy is planned after shrinkage of the tumor. Adenocarcinoma of the lung is very rarely seen in teenagers or children, especially in the absence of risk factors. (Source: Asian Cardiovascular and Thoracic Annals)

Nutritional status in the era of target therapy: poor nutrition is a prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutations.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Pretreatment nutritional status is a prognostic marker in NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Hence, baseline nutritional status should be more carefully evaluated and adequate nutrition should be supplied to these patients. PMID: 27017943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine)

IDEAL-CRT: A phase I/II trial of isotoxic dose-escalated radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy in patients with stage II/III non-small cell lung cancer

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Eighty-four patients (6 IIB, 57 IIIA, 21 IIIB) were recruited to IDEAL-CRT, an early phase trial of dose-per-fraction-escalated concurrent chemoradiation for NSCLC. Tumor doses of 63-73Gy (mean 67.6Gy) were isotoxically prescribed to the ICRU reference-point and delivered in 30 fractions over 40 days. Toxicity was acceptable. At 35 months median follow-up, median OS was 36.9 months, 1 year OS and PFS were 87.8% and 72.0%, and 2 year OS and PFS were 68.0% and 48.5%. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)

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Magnetic nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and treatment: a review.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:10:02 +0100

Authors: Fathi Karkan S, Mohammadhosseini M, Panahi Y, Milani M, Zarghami N, Akbarzadeh A, Abasi E, Hosseini A, Davaran S Abstract Diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer have been characterized with a variety of challenges. However, with the advancement in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) technology, many challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer are on the decline. The MNPs have led to many break-through in cancer therapy. This paper seeks to establish the role of MNPs in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. It proposes that the existing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer can be addressed through application of MNPs in the process. PMID: 27015806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology)

Hedgehog pathway maintains cell survival under stress conditions, and drives drug resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, this study showed that HH pathway is a survival signaling that drives LAC cell growth under stress conditions, and HHIP is a key regulator to block the induction of HH pathway. Targeting the HH pathway through inhibitors or HHIP thus holds promise to address EGFR-TKI resistance in LAC in clinic. PMID: 27015549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

Chronic TGFβ stimulation promotes the metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by Snail protein stabilization through integrin β3-Akt-GSK3β signaling.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, a transdifferentiated (TD) A549 cell model, established by chronically exposing A549 cells to TGFβ, showed highly invasive phenotypes in conjunction with attenuation of Smad-dependent signaling. We show that Snail protein, the mRNA expression of which strongly correlates with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients, was highly stable in TD cells after TGFβ stimulation. The increased protein stability of Snail in TD cells correlated with elevated inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β, resulting from the high Akt activity. Notably, integrin β3, whose expression was markedly increased upon sustained exposure to TGFβ, was responsible for the high Akt activity as well as the increased Snail protein stability in TD cells. Consistently, clinical database analysis on lung cancer...

miR-206 regulates cisplatin resistance and EMT in human lung adenocarcinoma cells partly by targeting MET.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chen QY, Jiao DM, Wang J, Hu H, Tang X, Chen J, Mou H, Lu W Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in drug resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aims of this study were to explore the potential role of miR-206 in governing cisplatin resistance and EMT in lung cancer cells. We found that both lung adenocarcinoma A549 cisplatin-resistant cells (A549/DDP) and H1299 cisplatin-resistant cells (H1299/DDP) acquired mesenchymal features and were along with low expression of miR-206 and high migration and invasion abilities. Ectopic expression of miR-206 mimics inhibited cisplatin resistance, reversed the EMT phenotype, decreased the migration and invasion in these DDP-resistant cells. In contrast, miR-206 inhibitors increased cisplatin resistance, E...

Chitosan-modified lipid nanovesicles for efficient systemic delivery of l-asparaginase

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 1 July 2016 Source:Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 143 Author(s): Shengli Wan, Dan He, Yuming Yuan, Zijun Yan, Xue Zhang, Jingqing Zhang The goal of this study was to evaluate the enhanced catalytic activity, increased stability, in vitro anti-cancer effects on H446 cells and in vivo bioavailability of novel enzyme delivery nanovesicles (l-asparaginase containing chitosan modified lipid nanovesicles, ACLNs) when administered intravenously. It was the first time for the chitosan-modified lipid nanovesicles to be fabricated to deliver l-asparaginase (ASP, a therapeutic enzyme) efficiently. It was indicated that ACLNs markedly increased the enzymatic activity, improved the temperature/acid-base/proteolytic stabilities and favorably changed the in vivo ...

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Ramucirumab: Boon or bane

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute Author(s): Priya Tiwari Ramucirumab is the recent addition to the list of monoclonal antibodies being tried in various malignancies. It has been approved in non-small cell lung cancer, gastric cancer and colorectal cancer after progression of one or more lines of therapies in the advanced setting. Though randomized trials have shown benefit, cost effectiveness is questionable. Moreover, the benefits shown are marginal, putting a question mark over its clinical usage. This review summarizes the latest evidence on ramucirumab. (Source: Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute)

Caspase dependent apoptotic inhibition of melanoma and lung cancer cells by tropical Rubus extracts

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: May 2016 Source:Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Volume 80 Author(s): Blassan Plackal Adimuriyil George, Heidi Abrahamse, Nanjundaswamy M. Hemmaragala Rubus fairholmianus Gard. inhibits human melanoma (A375) and lung cancer (A549) cell growth by the caspase dependent apoptotic pathway. Herbal products have a long history of clinical use and acceptance. They are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. The plants and plant derived products became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years. The effects of R. fairholmianus root acetone extract (RFRA) on the proliferation of A375 and A549 cells was examined in this study. RFRA led to a decrease in cell viability, proliferation ...

Single-port video-assisted thoracic surgery for early lung cancer: initial experience in Japan.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 22:10:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: SPVATS is a safe and feasible technique, and is promising for next-generation thoracoscopic surgery. It may also reduce postoperative wound pain and contribute to improvements in the activities of daily living of patients. PMID: 27014483 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)

Comparing the postoperative outcomes of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy using a multi-port technique versus a single-port technique for primary lung cancer.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 22:10:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that single-port VATS segmentectomy yielded comparable surgical outcomes to multi-port segmentectomy despite technique difficulties and smaller wound in our setting. PMID: 27014476 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)

Comparison of single port versus multiport thoracoscopic segmentectomy.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 22:10:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Single-port VATS segmentectomy for early lung cancer and benign lung disease, is a safe and feasible option for patients undergoing pulmonary segmentectomy. PMID: 27014475 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)

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Double-sleeve and carinal resections using the uniportal VATS technique: a single centre experience.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 22:10:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This study results suggest that a uniportal VATS approach might be a feasible option for complex sleeve resections with acceptable postoperative outcomes in the advanced stages of lung cancer. To further evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of this technique, more experience would be required. PMID: 27014469 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)

Feasibility and learning curve of uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomy.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 22:10:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Uniportal thoracoscopic segmentectomy is a safe and feasible technique for treating small pulmonary lesions, with acceptable morbidity and mortality. This technique can be applied to an operation for segments that are technically difficult and anatomically variant. An experienced surgeon can achieve a relatively stable level after 33 cases. PMID: 27014468 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease)

Advances in cancer immunology and cancer immunotherapy.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 21:34:04 +0100

The objective clinical response observed in patients treated with antibodies that block the immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed cell-death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathways, has led to their FDA approval for the treatment of melanoma in 2011 and in 2014, respectively. The anti-PD-1 antibody nivolumab has received the FDA-approval in March 2015 for squamous lung cancer treatment. In addition, antibodies targeting PD-1 or PD-L1 have demonstrated their efficacy and safety in additional tumors, including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), renal cell carcinoma (RCC), bladder cancer, and Hodgkin's lymphoma. Almost at the same time, the field of adoptive cell transfer has exploded. The chimeric antigen recept...

Platinum-based chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: optimal number of treatment cycles.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 19:40:02 +0100

Authors: Rossi A, Di Maio M Abstract Platinum-based chemotherapy remains the standard-of-care for most patients affected by advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The platinum compounds currently used in NSCLC are cisplatin and carboplatin. The availability of new generation drugs has led to the adoption of schedules with lower doses of platinum compounds leading to increased tolerability. Several data suggest that third generation cisplatin-based regimens are slightly superior to carboplatin-based chemotherapy, with a different safety profile, and so cisplatin should remain the standard reference for the treatment of selected patients with advanced NSCLC. Recent evidence emphasized that the optimal number of first-line platinum cycles should be four for any NSCLC histology. ...

Hypoxic markers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - A review.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:11:03 +0100

Authors: Xu FX, Zhang YL, Liu JJ, Zhang DD, Chen HB Abstract Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy have been the main pillars of cancer treatment. Some of the recent improvements in survival of other cancers can be attributed to novel treatment therapies. Such therapies mostly target specific molecules involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Development and clinical introduction of targeted therapies involve identification of new and potentially important molecules in cancer progression. The next important step is to evaluate its prognostic value. Prognostication by molecular markers is also important as this may identify subgroups of patients in need for additional treatment or not, which was not possible with the traditional clinic-pathological prognosticators. Hypoxic ma...

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Evaluation of Scoring Systems and Prognostic Factors in Patients With Spinal Metastases From Lung Cancer

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 08:25:25 +0100

Conclusion. Although better prognostic scores correlated with longer survival, all four scoring systems are inaccurate in prognosticating patients with lung cancer spinal metastases. Specific lung cancer histology appears prognostic and should be considered, especially given the increased survival of patients receiving new targeted therapies appropriate to their disease. Level of Evidence: 3 (Source: Spine)

From Cuba to Seattle to Parrots: A Busy Week in Science News!

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

In his blog this week, IMF Chairman Dr. Brian Durie takes readers on a fast tour of the latest cancer research news: Might a lung cancer vaccine from Cuba help treat myeloma? Is CART-cell therapy a “cancer moonshot”? And can parrots—who are apparently Einsteins at sorting out combinations and sequences—shed light on questions beyond which fat seed is most delicious? Plus, a round-up of the week's top research papers. To read Dr. Durie's blog, click HERE. (Source: International Myeloma Foundation)

Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin and S-1 or vinorelbine for patients with stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer: A retrospective study

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions CCRT with both S-1 or vinorelbine with cisplatin appears feasible based on their efficacy and toxicity profiles. Both treatments may be recommended as treatment options for patients with stage III unresectable NSCLC. (Source: Respiratory Investigation)

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of patritumab, a HER3 inhibitor, in subjects with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) or solid tumors

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The PK of patritumab was linear at the doses studied and well described by the two-compartment model. Hepatic and renal impairment did not appear to affect PK. Our results support BW-based dosing of patritumab on a q3w schedule. (Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology)

The relationship between lung cancer histology and the clinicopathological characteristics of bone metastases

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Lung Cancer)

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Is a Loved One Facing Cancer? 15 Ways You Can...

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The support of family and friends is critical to someone diagnosed with lung cancer. What things can we do to offer the best support to our loved ones with cancer? (Source: Lung Cancer)

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Rotenone induces apoptosis in human lung cancer cells by regulating autophagic flux

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we used the human lung cancer A549 cells to study the molecular mechanism(s) involved between rotenone‐dependent activation of NOX2 and impairment of autophagic machinery. We report that acute exposure to rotenone induced mild NOX2‐dependnet oxidative stress, which impaired the autophagic flux, resulting in cytosolic accumulation of LC3 and p62/STSQM1. We further show that this induction occurs through the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling pathway. We furthermore show that chronic exposure to rotenone lead to excessive NOX2‐dependent ROS generation, increases autophagy, and decreases p62 level via increased‐autophagic flux. Taken together, this study is the first mechanistic elucidation of how rotenone can be used to potently target cancer cells without overhauling the entir...

Triple targeting of Auger emitters using octreotate conjugated to a DNA-binding ligand and a nuclear localizing signal.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:58:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The DNA-binding properties of PNO and its affinity for SSTR suggests that it could potentially be used for tumour-specific delivery of PIH labelled with an Auger emitter in SSTR expressing tumours. PMID: 27010622 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology)

TKI sensitivity patterns of novel kinase-domain mutations suggest therapeutic opportunities for patients with resistant ALK+ tumors.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Amin AD, Li L, Rajan SS, Gokhale V, Groysman MJ, Pongtornpipat P, Tapia EO, Wang M, Schatz JH Abstract The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) protein drives tumorigenesis in subsets of several tumors through chromosomal rearrangements that express and activate its C-terminal kinase domain. In addition, germline predisposition alleles and acquired mutations are found in the full-length protein in the pediatric tumor neuroblastoma. ALK-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have become important new drugs for ALK-driven lung cancer, but acquired resistance via multiple mechanisms including kinase-domain mutations eventually develops, limiting median progression-free survival to less than a year. Here we assess the impact of several kinase-domain mutations that arose during...

Activation of anaphase-promoting complex by p53 induces a state of dormancy in cancer cells against chemotherapeutic stress.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In this study, 5- fluorouracil (5-FU) was used to induce cancer cell dormancy. We found that cancer cells escape the cytotoxicity of 5-FU by becoming "dormant". After exposure to 5-FU, residual non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), followed by mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). These EMT-transformed NSCLC cells were in the state of cell quiescence where cells were not dividing and were arrested in the cell cycle in G0-G1. The dormant cells underwent an EMT showed characteristics of cancer stem cells. P53 is strongly accumulated in response to 5-FU-induced dormant cells through the activation of ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) and TGF-β/Smad signaling. In contrast to the EMT-transformed cells, MET-transformed c...

mTOR regulates proteasomal degradation and Dp1/E2F1- mediated transcription of KPNA2 in lung cancer cells.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Wang CI, Chen YY, Wang CL, Yu JS, Chang YS, Yu CJ Abstract Karyopherin subunit alpha-2 (KPNA2) is overexpressed in various human cancers and is associated with cancer invasiveness and poor prognosis in patient. Nevertheless, the regulation of KPNA2 expression in cancers remains unclear. We herein applied epidermal growth factor (EGF) and five EGF receptor (EGFR)-related kinase inhibitors to investigate the role of EGFR signaling in KPNA2 expression in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. We found that EGFR signaling, particularly the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity was positively correlated with KPNA2 protein levels in NSCLC cells. The mTOR inhibitors and mTOR knockdown reduced the protein and mRNA levels of KPNA2 in NSCLC and breast cancer cells. Specif...

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Analysis of ultra-deep targeted sequencing reveals mutation burden is associated with gender and clinical outcome in lung adenocarcinoma.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

In this study we evaluated the clinical significance of mutation burden in lung adenocarcinoma and found that the male tumors harbored statistically greater burden of genetic alterations than female counterparts (Male median 3 (range 0-34) vs female median = 2 (0-24), male to female ratio = 1.636, 95% CI = 1.343-1.992) after adjustment of age at surgery, stage, smoking status. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that greater burden of genetic alterations was associated with worse overall survival. Moreover, multivariable analysis demonstrated mutation burden was an independent prognostic factor for the patients. Taken together, our analysis demonstrated gender disparity of mutation burden and their prognostic value in lung adenocarcinoma. This gender difference in mutation burden might...

Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Jolly MK, Tripathi SC, Jia D, Mooney SM, Celiktas M, Hanash SM, Mani SA, Pienta KJ, Ben-Jacob E, Levine H Abstract Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse - Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET) - are hallmarks of cellular plasticity during embryonic development and cancer metastasis. During EMT, epithelial cells lose cell-cell adhesion and gain migratory and invasive traits either partially or completely, leading to a hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (hybrid E/M) or a mesenchymal phenotype respectively. Mesenchymal cells move individually, but hybrid E/M cells migrate collectively as observed during gastrulation, wound healing, and the formation of tumor clusters detected as Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). Typically, the hybrid E/M phenotype has large...

Addressing the elephant in the room, therapeutic resistance in non-small cell lung cancer, with epigenetic therapies.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

This article reviews the role of epigenetic dysregulation in NSCLC, explores PFS2 as a possible surrogate endpoint, briefly mentions possible biomarkers and highlights combinatorial treatment epigenetic strategies to "prime" tumors and reverse resistance. PMID: 27007055 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 enhances radioresistance and aggressiveness of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Kang J, Kim W, Kwon T, Youn H, Kim JS, Youn B Abstract Acquired resistance of tumor cells during treatment limits the clinical efficacy of radiotherapy. Recent studies to investigate acquired resistance under treatment have focused on intercellular communication because it promotes survival and aggressiveness of tumor cells, causing therapy failure and tumor relapse. Accordingly, a better understanding of the functional communication between subpopulations of cells within a tumor is essential to development of effective cancer treatment strategies. Here, we found that conditioned media (CM) from radioresistant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells increased survival of radiosensitive cells. Comparative proteomics analysis revealed plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-...

Functional role of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 1 (EIF4G1) in NSCLC.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:33:04 +0100

Authors: Cao Y, Wei M, Li B, Liu Y, Lu Y, Tang Z, Lu T, Yin Y, Qin Z, Xu Z Abstract Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 1(EIF4G1) is related to tumorigenesis and tumor progression. However, its role and the underlying mechanisms in the regulation of tumor development in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) remain largely unknown. Here we report that the levels of EIF4G1 expression are much higher in NSCLC cell lines and tumor tissues than those in the normal lung cells and adjacent normal tissues from the same patients. Using shRNA to knock down EIF4G1 expression stably, we found EIF4G1 required for NSCLC cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth, migration and invasion. Furthermore, silencing of EIF4G1 induces NSCLC cell apoptosis and causes G0/G1 cell cycle arr...

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Metabonomic characteristics and biomarker research of human lung cancer tissues by HR1H NMR spectroscopy.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:40:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: MVDA in combination with1H NMR spectra highlighted the potential of metabonomics in clinical settings so that the techniques might be further exploited for future lung cancer biomarker research or identification. PMID: 27002768 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biomarkers)

Serum phosphatidylethanolamine levels distinguish benign from malignant solitary pulmonary nodules and represent a potential diagnostic biomarker for lung cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 15:40:03 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates evidence of early metabolic alterations that can possibly distinguish malignant from benign SPNs. Further studies in larger pools of samples are warranted. PMID: 27002763 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cancer Biomarkers)

Safety profiles of first-line therapies for metastatic non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 09:52:02 +0100

Authors: Losanno T, Gridelli C Abstract Introduction - Lung cancer still represents the leading cause of death for cancer. About the 70% of diagnosis are in advanced-stage. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents the 85% of all diagnosed lung cancers and non-squamous histology represents the 40% of all NSCLC. First-line therapies increase survival, control symptoms and improve quality of life, compared with best supportive care. It is crucial to choose a treatment with a low impact on patient's life considering the related toxicities. Areas covered - Adverse events (AEs) of first-line therapies for non-squamous NSCLC are here reviewed and discussed, from evidences in clinical trials conducting to drugs approval. Expert opinion - For advanced disease, palliation and preserving...

[Report] Clonal neoantigens elicit T cell immunoreactivity and sensitivity to immune checkpoint blockade

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

As tumors grow, they acquire mutations, some of which create neoantigens that influence the response of patients to immune checkpoint inhibitors. We explored the impact of neoantigen intratumor heterogeneity (ITH) on antitumor immunity. Through integrated analysis of ITH and neoantigen burden, we demonstrate a relationship between clonal neoantigen burden and overall survival in primary lung adenocarcinomas. CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes reactive to clonal neoantigens were identified in early-stage non–small cell lung cancer and expressed high levels of PD-1. Sensitivity to PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade in patients with advanced NSCLC and melanoma was enhanced in tumors enriched for clonal neoantigens. T cells recognizing clonal neoantigens were detectable in patients with durable clini...

A retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy as first- and second-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Several phase III clinical trials had authenticated that the addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel plus carboplatin or gemcitabine plus cisplatin showed encouraging efficacy as first-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients. However, the benefits of adding bevacizumab to other chemotherapy regimens in first- or second-line therapy have not been reported. To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of bevacizumab concomitant with chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC as first- or second-line therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the effects of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy regimens in naive-chemotherapy and pre-chemotherapy patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. A total of 79 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC received at least two cycles of ...

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Cancers, Vol. 8, Pages 38: Differential miRNA-Expression as an Adjunctive Diagnostic Tool in Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Lung

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Pulmonary malignancies with neuroendocrine differentiation represent a rare subclass of lung carcinomas, which vary in the extent of differentiation and grade of biological aggressiveness. In particular, neuroendocrine tumors are classified into well differentiated typical and atypical carcinoids as well as poorly differentiated large cell neuroendocrine and small cell lung carcinomas. Tiny MicroRNAs have been identified as reliable classifiers in distinct cancer types and seem to play important roles in cellular processes like regulation of cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis. In the present study, two different microRNAs (miR-21 and miR-34a) were explored for their involvements in pathogenesis of subtypes and finally in differential diagnosis of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. mi...

IJERPH, Vol. 13, Pages 362: Age- and Sex-Specific Trends in Lung Cancer Mortality over 62 Years in a Nation with a Low Effort in Cancer Prevention

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Lung cancer mortality among females aged 35–44 years has decreased. The potential reasons include an increase in the number of never smokers, following significant increases in school education since 1950, particularly among females. (Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health)

Enhancement of Radiation Sensitivity in Lung Cancer Cells by a Novel Small Molecule Inhibitor That Targets the β-Catenin/Tcf4 Interaction

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

by Qinghao Zhang, Mei Gao, Guifen Luo, Xiaofeng Han, Wenjing Bao, Yanyan Cheng, Wang Tian, Maocai Yan, Guanlin Yang, Jing An Radiation therapy is an important treatment choice for unresectable advanced human lung cancers, and a critical adjuvant treatment for surgery. However, radiation as a lung cancer treatment remains far from satisfactory due to problems associated with radiation resistance in cancer cells and severe cytotoxicity to non-cancer cells, which arise at doses typically administered to patients. We have recently identified a promising novel inhibitor of β-catenin/Tcf4 interaction, named BC-23 (C21H14ClN3O4S), which acts as a potent cell death enhancer when used in combination with radiation. Sequential exposure of human p53-null non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H1299 cel...

Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549). Graphical abstract (Source: Journal of Molecular Structure)

A parameterized logarithmic image processing method with Laplacian of Gaussian filtering for lung nodule enhancement in chest radiographs

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The enhancement of lung nodules in chest radiographs (CXRs) plays an important role in the manual as well as computer-aided detection (CADe) lung cancer. In this paper, we proposed a parameterized logarithmic image processing (PLIP) method combined with the Laplacian of a Gaussian (LoG) filter to enhance lung nodules in CXRs. We first applied several LoG filters with varying parameters to an original CXR to enhance the nodule-like structures as well as the edges in the image. We then applied the PLIP model, which can enhance lung nodule images with high contrast and was beneficial in extracting effective features for nodule detection in the CADe scheme. Our method combined the advantages of both the PLIP algorithm and the LoG algorithm, which can enhance lung nodules in c...

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Schedule-dependent cytotoxicity of sunitinib and TRAIL in human non-small cell lung cancer cells with or without EGFR and KRAS mutations

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion From our data we conclude that administration of sunitinib followed by TRAIL, as well as a simultaneous administration of both agents, serve as favorable treatment regimens for NSCLC-derived cells, irrespective of their EGFR and/or KRAS mutation status. (Source: Cellular Oncology)

Validity of ICD-9-CM codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in three Italian administrative healthcare databases: a diagnostic accuracy study protocol

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

The objective of this protocol is to assess the accuracy of International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision—Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes for breast, lung and colorectal cancers in identifying patients diagnosed with the relative disease in three Italian administrative databases. Methods and analysis Data from the administrative databases of Umbria Region (910 000 residents), Local Health Unit 3 of Napoli (1 170 000 residents) and Friuli-Venezia Giulia Region (1 227 000 residents) will be considered. In each administrative database, patients with the first occurrence of diagnosis of breast, lung or colorectal cancer between 2012 and 2014 will be identified using the following groups of ICD-9-CM codes in primary position: (1) 233.0 and (2) 17...

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Thoracoscopic Lobectomy for Non–small Cell Lung Cancer

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Lobectomy is the gold standard treatment in operable patients with surgically resectable non–small cell lung cancer. Thoracoscopic lobectomy has emerged as an option for surgeons facile with the technique. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) is used for a variety of indications, but its efficacy as a reliable oncologic procedure makes it appealing in the treatment of non–small cell lung cancer. Fewer postoperative complications and decreased postoperative pain associated with VATS procedures can lead to shorter lengths of stay and lower overall costs. Thoracoscopic surgery continues to evolve, and uniportal, robot-assisted, and awake thoracoscopic procedures have all shown promising results. (Source: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America)

Indoor radon exposure and lung cancer: a review of ecological studies

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, we aimed to review domestic and foreign research into indoor radon concentrations and to outline correlations between indoor radon concentrations in homes and lung cancer incidence, as reported in ecological studies thereof. Herein, we noted large differences in radon concentrations between and within individual countries. For Korea, we observed tremendous differences in indoor radon concentrations according to region and year of study, even within the same region. In correlation analysis, lung cancer incidence was not found to be higher in areas with high indoor radon concentrations in Korea. Through our review, we identified a need to implement a greater variety of statistical analyses in research on indoor radon concentrations and lung cancer incidence...

Flexible bronchoscopy

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

There have been dramatic advances in the field of bronchoscopy over recent years, with a multitude of standard and specialized techniques being used by bronchoscopists in the diagnosis and management of respiratory disease, particularly in lung cancer. Standard techniques universally used in respiratory departments include endobronchial and transbronchial biopsy, bronchial washing and brushing, and bronchoalveolar lavage. Specialized techniques used in the diagnosis and staging of lung cancer include endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration and autofluorescence bronchoscopy. (Source: Medicine)

Low-Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening Programs in the U.S.Low-Dose CT Lung Cancer Screening Programs in the U.S.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 16:00:00 +0100

What are the biggest challenges to implementing low-dose CT lung cancer screening programs in the United States? Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing (Source: Medscape Today Headlines)

Association between patient-provider communication and lung cancer stigma

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 14:13:52 +0100

Conclusions Results indicate that good patient-provider communication is associated with lower levels of lung cancer stigma, suggesting that improving patient-provider communication may be a good intervention target for reducing lung cancer stigma. (Source: Supportive Care in Cancer)

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Do Margins Really Affect Prognosis in Wedge Resection for Early-Stage Lung Cancer?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:32:02 +0100

Authors: Baisi A, Raveglia F, De Simone M, Cioffi U PMID: 27000595 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)

Defining Measures of Quality in Lung Cancer Diagnosis and Staging.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:32:02 +0100

Authors: Stirling RG, Russell PA, Wright GM PMID: 27000594 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)

Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Stent Graft to Facilitate Aortic Resection During Pneumonectomy and Vertebrectomy for Locally Invasive Lung Cancer.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 10:32:02 +0100

Authors: Mody GN, Janko M, Vasudeva V, Chi JH, Davidson MJ, Swanson S Abstract Endovascular stent graft placement has been used to facilitate resection of tumors invading the thoracic aorta. Here we describe the first use of an aortic endograft for preoperative protection of the thoracic descending aorta before left pneumonectomy for a primary lung cancer invading the thoracic spine and thoracic descending aorta. PMID: 27000584 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery)

Bronchoscopic Transparenchymal Nodule Access: Feasibility and Safety in an Endoscopic Unit

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 01:14:03 +0100

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that bronchoscopic transparenchymal access of solitary pulmonary nodules is feasible outside an operation theatre.Respiration (Source: Respiration)

Tumour metabolism: Feeding the TCA cycle in vivo

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Nature Reviews Cancer 16, 198 (2016). doi:10.1038/nrc.2016.29 Author: Gemma K. Alderton Two papers assess the role of glucose in lung cancer metabolism in vivo. (Source: Nature Reviews Cancer)

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Prognostic significance of RelB overexpression in non‐small cell lung cancer patients

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsHigh RelB expression could provide a basis for judgment of prognosis in patients with NSCLC. (Source: Thoracic Cancer)

Pilot study of radiofrequency hyperthermia in combination with gefitinib in gefitinib‐effective patients with advanced NSCLC

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe novel therapy of gefitinib combined with radiofrequency hyperthermia is safe and effective for advanced NSCLC patients. Whether an improvement in therapeutic efficacy is associated with the elevation of serum HSP70 concentration requires further study. (Source: Thoracic Cancer)

Tigecycline targets non‐small cell lung cancer through inhibition of mitochondrial function

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology)

Diagnostic Accuracy and Safety of CT-Guided Percutaneous Transthoracic Needle Biopsies: 14-Gauge Versus 22-Gauge Needles

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Percutaneous transthoracic CNB with a 14-gauge Spirotome needle provided better characterization of cancer lesions and allowed biomarker analyses without a significant increase in major procedural complications. (Source: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology)

Lymph node involvement influenced by lung adenocarcinoma subtypes in tumor size ≤3 cm disease: A study of 2268 cases

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Our study revealed that lung adenocarcinoma subtypes had important role in lymph node involvement for the patients with small-sized lung cancer. (Source: European Journal of Surgical Oncology (EJSO))

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Coffee consumption and the risk of cancer in the Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) Study

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, coffee consumption was associated with a modest reduced risk of cancer at any site. Residual confounding due to smoking may have contributed to the positive association between high coffee consumption and the risk of lung cancer. (Source: European Journal of Epidemiology)

Mayo Clinic Minute: Drug Combo for Lung Cancer

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. But, lung cancer is not one size fits all. There are variations in the disease that make some cases harder to treat than others. In a laboratory setting, Mayo Clinic researchers have found that a combination of a drug used to treat rheumatoid [...] (Source: News from Mayo Clinic)

Lung Cancer Survivor Says Yoga Gave Her Back Her Breath–And Life

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 15:34:33 +0100

BRAINTREE (CBS) — On any given evening, you can find two-time cancer survivor Janet McCarthy at Chakra Power Yoga–because this is where she learned to breathe again. McCarthy was just finishing up a course of treatment for breast cancer when she got the news that she had lung cancer, the same disease that took her husband six years ago. But Janet is lucky–she beat the cancer, and credits yoga for giving her back her breath and her life. Lung surgery had left her so weak, she said she could barely breathe. Someone told her yoga was good for breathing. “I just had major surgery, so I was still finding my breath,” McCarthy said. “And I came to yoga, and they found ways to help.” McCarthy now teaches a yoga class at the Braintree yoga studio. Amidst th...

Build Lung Cancer Screening Programs That Grow, Evolve

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 14:33:04 +0100

Discussions What We Can Learn From Our Customers: Perspectives From Three Non-Radiologists (and One Radiologist) ACR’s annual all-member meeting will be held May 15–19 in Washington, DC. The keynote address is being given by Ezekiel J. (Zeke) Emanuel, MD, PhD, an architect of the Affordable Care Act and a leading practitioner shaping the future of health care. Special events include Capitol Hill Day, with exclusive meetings scheduled for members to bring the “Voice of Radiology” to elected officials; the Body MRI Boot Camp and the Economics Forum. Sessions are organized into nine Program Pathways, with more than 100 hours of continuing education programming. More information may be found in the ACR 2016 program schedule. Online registration is open; take advantag...

Apolipoproteins as Differentiating and Predictive Markers for Assessing Clinical Outcomes in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 09:24:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: ApoA-1 and ApoC-III may be used as differentiating and predictive markers for SCLC. ApoA-1, ApoC-III, and ApoE may be used to monitor the efficacy of chemotherapy. PMID: 26996551 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Yonsei Medical Journal)

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High-Risk Lung Cancer Patients May Not Need Annual Screenings

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 05:00:20 +0100

Contact: Sarah Avery Phone: 919-660-1306 Email: FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE on Monday, March 21, 2016 DURHAM, N.C. – Most high-risk lung cancer patients might not need annual low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screenings if they are cleared of disease in their initial test, according to a study led by a Duke Cancer Institute researcher. The researchers found that even former heavy smokers appear to have a reduced incidence of lung cancer if their initial LDCT screening is negative, suggesting that less frequent screening might be warranted.  “This has significant public policy implications,” said Edward F. Patz, Jr., M.D., the James and Alice Chen Professor of Radiology at Duke and lead author of a study published online March 21 in The Lan...

ELCC 2016 media alert: Don't miss out!

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(European Society for Medical Oncology) Key themes at this year's meeting include some of the most topical and keenly anticipated subjects pertinent not only to lung cancer but to oncology as a whole - such as the latest advances in immunotherapy, screening and reimbursement, new steps in the treatment of molecularly defined NSCLC and the new WHO classifications. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)

M3 Muscarnic Receptor Antagonist Mediates Cell Proliferation Apoptosis
and Adhesion in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 03:29:38 +0100

Background and objective Studies have shown that muscarinic receptors 3 (M3R) plays key roles in regulating tumorigenesis and tumor growth. The aim of this study is to investigate the expression of M3R in human small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line SBC3 and to explore the effect of M3R antagonist on cell proliferation, apoptosis and adhesion. Methods SBC3 cells were cultured in vitro. RT-PCR and Western blot were used to detect the expression of M3R in SBC-3. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to determine the effects of M3R antagonist 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP) on the proliferation and apoptosis of SBC-3 cells. Flow cytometry was used to detect the integrin expression in SBC3 and alteration of integrin expression after treating the cells with cholinergi...

ACS Releases Long-term Care Guideline for Survivors of Head and Neck Cancer

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:17:05 +0100

By Stacy Simon The American Cancer Society has released a new Head and Neck Survivorship Care Guideline to help survivors of head and neck cancer and their primary care providers better manage their long-term care. The guideline addresses cancers of the oral cavity, tongue, lip, pharynx (throat), and larynx (voice box). Recommendations in the guideline may also apply to cancers of the salivary glands, nasal and paranasal sinuses, and nasopharynx. But it does not address cancers of the brain, thyroid, or esophagus because they are very different in terms of symptoms and treatment. RESOURCES: Head and Neck Cancer Survivorship Care GuidelineHead and Neck Cancer Survivorship Guideline Patient PageNutrition and physical activity guidelines for cancer survivorsSurvivorship care plansOnline co...

The Effect of Receiving Treatment Within a Clinical Trial Setting on Survival and Quality of Care Perception in Advanced Stage Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:31 +0100

In this study, we explore the survival outcomes and the perception of the quality of care delivered in stage IIIB and IV NSCLC patients treated within versus outside a clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Data were obtained from the Cancer Care Outcomes Research and Surveillance Consortium (CanCORS). Baseline characteristics according to clinical trial participation were determined. The association between clinical trial enrollment and survival was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard model after adjusting for age, income, primary data collection and research site, comorbidities, self-reported performance status, presence of brain metastasis, stage IIIB versus IV, and cancer histology. Results: Of 815 stage IIIB and IV NSCLC patients, 56 (7%) were enrolled in clinical trials. Media...

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Dose-Escalation Study of Thoracic Radiotherapy in Combination With Pemetrexed Plus Cisplatin in Japanese Patients With Locally Advanced Nonsquamous Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Post Hoc Analysis of Survival and Recurrent Sites

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:31 +0100

Conclusions: The median PFS and OS in our study were comparable to those of historical chemoradiotherapy controls. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)

Effect of Surgical Intervention on Survival of Patients With Clinical N2 Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Veterans’ Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) Database Analysis

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:31 +0100

Background: Optimal management of locally advanced non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacks consensus. A retrospective analysis of patient data entered in the Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry was conducted to evaluate these issues. Patients and Methods: Data of patients with cT1-4, cN2, and cM0 NSCLC diagnosed in the VA Health System between 1995 and 2003 were evaluated. Age, sex, race, smoking history, TNM stage, treatment, and overall survival were abstracted. Survival was compared using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Results: Of the 7328 patients analyzed, 7218 (98.5%) were male, 6061 (82.7%) were white, and 321 (4.4%) were never smokers. The treatment received included: none, 23.8%; chemotherapy alone, 14.3%; radiation alone, 23%; and chemoradiat...

Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy as Salvage for Intrathoracic Recurrence in Patients With Previously Irradiated Locally Advanced Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 00:15:31 +0100

Conclusions: We observed improved outcomes following SBRT as a means of salvage for locally advanced recurrent NSCLC over traditional radiation therapy options. The toxicities were greater than expected from naive lung irradiation, but the adverse effects remained controlled with medications. (Source: American Journal of Clinical Oncology)

Polarization of M1 tumor associated macrophage promoted by the activation of TLR3 signal pathway

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The Poly-ICLC can activate the TLR3 downstream signaling pathway to induce a M1 polarization of tumor associated macrophage, thereby inhibiting the tumor growth. (Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine)

F-18-FDG-avid lymph node metastasis along preferential lymphatic drainage pathways from the tumor-bearing lung lobe on F-18-FDG PET/CT in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The present study shows that FDG-avid LN metastasis preferentially occurs along the LDP from the tumor-bearing lobe in NSCLC patients. LDP-based visual image interpretation on FDG PET/CT can improve LN staging in these patients. (Source: Annals of Nuclear Medicine)

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What is a Wedge Resection for Lung Cancer and...

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

What type of procedure is a wedge resection for lung cancer, when might it be done, and what are some possible complications? (Source: Lung Cancer)

Psorinum 6× triggers apoptosis signals in human lung cancer cells

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Psorinum 6× triggered apoptosis in A549 cells via both up- and down-regulations of relevant signal proteins, including p53, caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. (Source: Journal of Integrative Medicine)

Robust intra-tumor partitioning to identify high-risk subregions in lung cancer: a pilot study

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

We developed a robust, intra-tumor partitioning framework to identify clinically relevant, high-risk subregions by integrating FDG-PET and CT images. In a population of 44 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, three different types of tumor subregions emerged, each with distinct imaging phenotypes. Among these, the volume of the most metabolically active and metabolically heterogeneous solid component of the tumor predicted overall survival and out-of-field failure in NSCLC patients treated with radiotherapy or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. (Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics)

Lung Cancer 1 Oral Presentations

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Respirology)