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Preview: MedWorm: Cancer & Oncology

MedWorm: Cancer & Oncology



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Cancer & Oncology



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 14:30:50 +0100

 



Meet Our Editorial Board Member:

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

(Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)

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Editorial (Thematic Issue: Chemoresistance in Gynecologic Cancers)

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

(Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)



The Involvement of Heat Shock Proteins and Related Molecules in the Resistance to Therapies in Breast and Gynecologic Cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

The HSP response is implicated in conferring to breast and gynecologic malignancies different sensitivities to anticancer therapies including chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and immunotherapy (we are in the need of more studies about radiotherapy). The heat shock proteins are mainly implicated in cell death mechanisms, in cell differentiation including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, in tumor dormancy, in angiogenesis, metastasis formation, and in the escape of immunosurveillance. Considering the ample functions where the HSPs are implicated and that the HSP response is quite complex it is not surprising that the HSP response affects the anticancer therapies. Several of the HSPs have different predominant roles according to the molecular partners with which they interact, thus it is dif...



New Ways to Improve Breast Cancer Therapy Targeting Specific Molecular Pathways

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Preclinical laboratory science has revealed multiple new targets for breast cancer therapy. Clinical trials targeting key signaling pathways are underway and a number of new drugs have been approved for treatment. Targeting of growth factor receptors by monoclonal antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors were among the first to be approved, but new small molecules inhibiting the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway have also shown promise. This review will evaluate potential new targets and specifically targets in hormone receptor positive and triple negative breast cancer. (Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)



Chemotherapy Resistance in Breast Cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Chemoresistance is a major cause of breast cancer recurrence and death. Currently, drug-resistant disease is treated by selection of another drug(s), without understanding the molecular mechanism(s) involved in a given patient’s chemoresistance. Better understanding of chemoresistance may enable a more informed selection of chemotherapeutic agents and improve patient outcomes. The article reviews mechanisms of resistance to common chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer: anthracyclines, taxanes and antimetabolites. Gene amplification of YWHAZ, encoding an anti-apoptotic protein, and LAPTM4B, encoding lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane 4B, decrease sensitivity to anthracyclines. Overproduction of p-170 glycoprotein, encoded by MDR1 gene, pumps these drugs out of cancer cells. Ov...



Understanding Trastuzumab Resistance in HER2 Positive Breast Cancer and Further Therapeutic Options

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Trastuzumab has been clearly demonstrated to improve overall survival for both early and metastatic HER2 positive breast cancer. However, despite the improved clinical outcomes seen with the addition of HER2 targeted therapy to conventional cytotoxic agents, the response rates remain between 30-55% and the majority of patients with advanced breast cancer experience disease progression within 1 year. In this review article, we provide a summary of the key mechanisms of resistance to trastuzumab, including the truncated form of HER2 (p95HER2), compensatory up-regulation of receptor cross-talk, genetic mutations and aberrancies in molecular pathways that allow tumor cells to evade cell cycle regulations. In recent years, treatment options for patients with trastuzumab-resistant disease have b...

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Treatment of Uterine Carcinomas

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Uterine epithelial cancers are the most common type of gynecologic cancer in the United States. The American Cancer Society estimated 53,000 new cases of uterine cancers in 2014 with 8,600 deaths from advanced or recurrent cases, 99% of which are endometrial cancer. The 5-year survival rate of low-stage, low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma is greater than 90%. In contrast, advanced stage endometrioid adenocarcinomas and Type II (serous and carcinosarcoma) endometrial cancers have a much poorer prognosis, with the 5-year survival rate of advanced stage uterine carcinosarcoma as low as 9%. Together, these endometrial cancers with poor prognoses comprise almost half of all cases in the US, creating a significant medical obstacle for management. The authors present a review of endometrial ca...



Treatment of High-Grade Pelvic-Type Serous Carcinomas (Ovary, Fallopian Tube and Peritoneum): Current Therapeutic Paradigms, Prospects, and Challenges

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Ovarian cancer represents the second most common gynecologic cancer in the United States, with an estimated 22,000 new diagnoses and 14,000 deaths attributed in 2014 [1]. While the term loosely encompasses a large and varied assortment of malignancies, greater than 90% of ovarian cancers are epithelial carcinomas. Again within this category, there are a number of different histologic subtypes however, 60-70% of ovarian cancers are high-grade serous carcinomas. Overall, high-grade serous carcinomas account for 90% of deaths due to ovarian cancer. Early stage diagnosis has good prognosis with a predicted 5-year survival rate of over 90%. In contrast, late stage diagnosis has a 5-year survival of only 30%, a number which has not significantly changed over the past roughly half century [2]. Un...



Current Strategies and Future Directions in Classification and Treatment of Uterine Sarcomas

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

Uterine sarcomas comprise endometrial stroma tumors (EST) and uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS), with ESTs accounting for less than 2% and ULMS accounting for approximately 1% of uterine neoplasms. Recent classifications of ESTs denote as many as four categories: benign endometrial stromal nodule (ESN), low-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS), high-grade endometrial stromal sarcomas (HGESS), and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas (UUS). The designation UUS has been suggested to encompass undifferentiated endometrial sarcomas (UES) and undifferentiated uterine sarcomas of other tissue origins. The prognosis for ESS is good. Although a third of cases recur, the 5-year survival rate for Stage I disease can be as high as 98%. In contrast the prognosis for UES is poor, with a 5-year survival r...



Acknowledgements to Reviewers:

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:30:44 +0100

(Source: Current Cancer Therapy Reviews)



[Castration modalities in prostate cancer: Are they all equal?]

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 12:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Recent studies suggest differences between GnRH agonists and antagonist that could impact the patient clinical outcomes. However, further high level of evidence comparative studies remains warranted. PMID: 27017327 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Progres en Urologie)

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Coinfection of Schistosoma Species with Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C Viruses.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 10:25:02 +0100

Authors: Abruzzi A, Fried B, Alikhan SB Abstract Although a considerable number of studies have been undertaken to date, it is still controversial as to whether or not coinfection with schistosomiasis increases the susceptibility to or progression from Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This review is a closer examination of the key studies conducted on human populations on clinical factors that were published in English between 1975 and January 2015. Our review is mainly based on tables containing the salient information, which are arranged first by study population, country of study and publication date. We provide further explanation, clarification and discussion in the text. As such, it includes both studies that have been conducted on general populat...



[Endogenous bacterial and fungal endophthalmitis at Nice University Medical Center: A 15-year case review].

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 05:54:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a rare and serious condition with a poor prognosis. Gram-positive microorganisms, mostly S. aureus, were the main causative pathogens found. PMID: 27016334 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal Francais d Ophtalmologie)



Versatile microfluidic complement fixation test for disease biomarker detection.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:27:02 +0100

We report here, for the first time, a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)/glass slide hybrid microfluidic device that was used to manipulate the solution compartment and communication within the microchannel to establish sampler and indicator systems of CFT. Two types of on-chip CFT, solution-based and solid phase agar-based assays, were successfully demonstrated for biomarker carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and recombinant avian influenza A (rH7N9) virus protein detection. In addition, the feasibility of the on-chip CFT in assaying real biopsy was successfully demonstrated by specifically detecting rH7N9 and CEA in human serum. The results demonstrated that the miniaturized assay format significantly reduced the assay time and sample consumption. Exemption from protein immobilization, blocking, ...



Cascaded strand displacement for non-enzymatic target recycling amplification and label-free electronic detection of microRNA from tumor cells.

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:27:02 +0100

Authors: Shi K, Dou B, Yang J, Yuan R, Xiang Y Abstract The monitoring of microRNA (miRNA) expression levels is of great importance in cancer diagnosis. In the present work, based on two cascaded toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions (TSDRs), we have developed a label- and enzyme-free target recycling signal amplification approach for sensitive electronic detection of miRNA-21 from human breast cancer cells. The junction probes containing the locked G-quadruplex forming sequences are self-assembled on the senor surface. The presence of the target miRNA-21 initiates the first TSDR and results in the disassembly of the junction probes and the release of the active G-quadruplex forming sequences. Subsequently, the DNA fuel strand triggers the second TSDR and leads to cyclic r...



Cigarettes cheaper than e-cigarettes in 44 of 45 countries studied

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(American Cancer Society) Combustible tobacco cigarettes cost less to purchase than equivalent amounts of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in 44 of 45 countries sampled around the world. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)

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Choosing to die at home does not hasten death for patients with terminal cancer

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Wiley) A large study from Japan found that cancer patients who died at home tended to live longer than those who died in hospitals. (Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer)



Medulloblastoma: Tumor Biology and Relevance to Treatment and Prognosis Paradigm

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Abstract Medulloblastoma is a malignant embryonic brain tumor arising in the posterior fossa and typically occurring in pediatric patients. Current multimodal treatment regimes have significantly improved the survival rates; however, a marked heterogeneity in therapy response is observed, and one third of all patients die within 5 years after diagnosis. Large-scale genetic and transcriptome analysis revealed four medulloblastoma subgroups (WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4) associated with different demographic parameters, tumor manifestation, and clinical behavior. Future treatment protocols will integrate molecular classification schemes to evaluate subgroup-specific intensification or de-escalation of adjuvant therapies aimed to increase tumor control and reduce iatrogenic induc...



Burden of cancer associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japan, 2010–2030

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, this study suggests a modest but steady increase in cancers associated with type 2 diabetes. (Source: Cancer Science)

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Effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of TAS‐102 and its efficacy and safety in patients with advanced solid tumors

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This study demonstrates that postprandial administration after morning and evening meals is considered to be an adequate regimen for TAS‐102. Furthermore, the results suggest that TAS‐102 would be an effective treatment for various carcinomas, especially small cell lung, thymic, and colorectal cancers. (Source: Cancer Science)



CD44 variant 9 is a potential biomarker of tumor initiating cells predicting survival outcome in hepatitis C virus‐positive patients with resected hepatocellular carcinoma

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This study investigated whether the expression of CD44 variant 9 (CD44v9) might be a functional marker of tumor‐initiating stem‐like cells in primary hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) of hepatitis C virus (HCV)+ patients and provide an indicator of patient survival, as well as associated mechanisms. A total of 90 HCV+ HCC patients who underwent surgery from 2006 to 2011 were enrolled and monitored for 2–8 years. Expression of CD44v9 was validated immunohistochemically in all HCCs, followed by comparative proteome, survival, and clinicopathological analyses. CD44 variant 8–‐10 was further evaluated in diethylnitrosamine‐induced HCCs of C57Bl/6J mice. Focally localized CD44v+ cells with a membranous staining pattern were detected in human HCV+ and mouse HCCs. CD44v9+ cells of HCCs...



Preclinical and first‐in‐human phase I studies of KW‐2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with insulin‐like growth factor receptor‐1/insulin receptor selectivity

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Numerous solid tumors overexpress or have excessively activated insulin‐like growth factor receptor‐1 (IGF‐1R). We summarize preclinical studies and the first‐in‐human study of KW‐2450, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor with IGF‐1R and insulin receptor (IR) inhibitory activity. Preclinical activity of KW‐2450 was evaluated in various in vitro and in vivo models. It was then evaluated in a phase I clinical trial in 13 patients with advanced solid tumors (NCT00921336). In vitro, KW‐2450 inhibited human IGF‐1R and IR kinases (IC50 7.39 and 5.64 nmol/L, respectively) and the growth of various human malignant cell lines. KW‐2450 40 mg/kg showed modest growth inhibitory activity and inhibited IGF‐1‐induced signal transduction in the murine HT‐29/GFP colon carcinoma xe...



Oncogene swap as a novel mechanism of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor‐tyrosine kinase inhibitor in lung cancer

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, an “oncogene swap” from EGFR to MET is a novel resistant mechanism to the EGFR‐TKI. This novel mechanism should be considered in order to avoid futile inhibition of the original oncogene. “Oncogene swap” from EGFR to MET induces acquired resistance to EGFR‐TKI and can be overcome by MET inhibition. (Source: Cancer Science)



Fibroblast growth factor receptor‐1 protein expression is associated with prognosis in estrogen receptor‐positive/human epidermal growth factor receptor‐2‐negative primary breast cancer

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Recently, research into the development of new targeted therapies has focused on specific genetic alterations to create advanced, more personalized treatment. One of the target genes, fibroblast growth factor receptor‐1 (FGFR1), has been reported to be amplified in estrogen receptor (ER)‐positive subtype breast cancer, and is considered one possible mechanism of endocrine resistance through cross‐talk between ER and growth factor receptor signaling. We performed a comprehensive analysis of FGFR1 at the levels of gene copy number, transcript and protein expression, and examined the relationships between FGFR1 status and clinicopathological parameters, including prognosis in 307 ER‐positive/HER2‐negative primary breast cancer patients treated with standard care at our institute. Mo...

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Nimotuzumab plus paclitaxel and cisplatin as the first line treatment for advanced esophageal squamous cell cancer: A single centre prospective phase II trial

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

Nimotuzumab (N) is a humanized anti‐epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody. This prospective, single‐armed, open label phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of paclitaxel (T)/cisplatin (P) with nimotuzumab (N) as first‐line treatment in advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Patients with pathologic confirmed unresectable locally advanced or metastatic ESCC were treated with the TPN regimen: nimotuzumab 200 mg weekly, paclitaxel 175 mg/m2 on day 1 and cisplatin 30 mg/m2 on days 1 and 2; repeat cycle every 3 weeks for six cycles. Radiotherapy was allowed to be admitted after four cycles of TPN treatment. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate (ORR). The secondary endpoint was the overall survival (O...



Palliative Management of Unresectable Pancreas Cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 21:38:02 +0100

This article reviews the palliative management of unresectable pancreatic cancer, including potential palliative resection, surgical and endoscopic biliary and gastric decompression, and pain control with celiac plexus block. PMID: 27013367 [PubMed - in process] (Source: The Surgical Clinics of North America)



IL-6 Overexpression in ERG-Positive Prostate Cancer Is Mediated by Prostaglandin Receptor EP2.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Merz C, von Mässenhausen A, Queisser A, Vogel W, Andrén O, Kirfel J, Duensing S, Perner S, Nowak M Abstract Prostate cancer is the most diagnosed cancer in men and multiple risk factors and genetic alterations have been described. The TMPRSS2-ERG fusion event and the overexpression of the transcription factor ERG are present in approximately 50% of all prostate cancer patients, however, the clinical outcome is still controversial. Prostate tumors produce various soluble factors, including the pleiotropic cytokine IL-6, regulating cellular processes such as proliferation and metastatic segregation. Here, we used prostatectomy samples in a tissue microarray format and analyzed the co-expression and the clinicopathologic data of ERG and IL-6 using immunohistochemical double...

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The Dualistic Model of Ovarian Carcinogenesis: Revisited, Revised, and Expanded.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 18:55:02 +0100

Authors: Kurman RJ, Shih IeM Abstract Since our proposal of a dualistic model of epithelial ovarian carcinogenesis more than a decade ago, a large number of molecular and histopathologic studies were published that have provided important insights into the origin and molecular pathogenesis of this disease. This has required that the original model be revised and expanded to incorporate these findings. The new model divides type I tumors into three groups: i) endometriosis-related tumors that include endometrioid, clear cell, and seromucinous carcinomas; ii) low-grade serous carcinomas; and iii) mucinous carcinomas and malignant Brenner tumors. As in the previous model, type II tumors are composed, for the most part, of high-grade serous carcinomas that can be further subdivided in...



Magnetic nanoparticles in cancer diagnosis and treatment: a review.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:10:02 +0100

Authors: Fathi Karkan S, Mohammadhosseini M, Panahi Y, Milani M, Zarghami N, Akbarzadeh A, Abasi E, Hosseini A, Davaran S Abstract Diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer have been characterized with a variety of challenges. However, with the advancement in magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) technology, many challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer are on the decline. The MNPs have led to many break-through in cancer therapy. This paper seeks to establish the role of MNPs in diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer. It proposes that the existing challenges in the diagnosis and treatment of lung cancer can be addressed through application of MNPs in the process. PMID: 27015806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology)



Evaluation of host-guest system to enhance the tamoxifen efficiency.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 17:10:02 +0100

Authors: Heidari Majd M, Akbarzadeh A, Sargazi A Abstract Hydrophobic drugs can absorb as guest molecules inside the cavity of cyclodextrins as host sites. So, forming the drug-cyclodextrin complex can exert a profound effect on the physicochemical and biological properties of the drugs. According to these advantages, in this study, we synthesized the tamoxifen (TMX) loaded cyclodextrin (CD)-conjugated MNPs to evaluate simultaneously the cytotoxicity and sustained release as well as hepatoprotective effect of this nanomedicine. The average size of Fe3O4-DPA-PEG-CD-TMX NPs was approximately 31 nm. By energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), it was revealed that Fe3O4 constitutes 14.34% of the composition of modified MNPs. In the other words, nearly 85% of Fe3O4-DPA-PEG-CD NPs a...



VIDEO: Cancer survivor meets her life-saver

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 15:44:25 +0100

A woman from Twickenham who survived leukaemia meets the man who donated the stem cells which saved her life. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)



Pleural mesothelioma in a school teacher: asbestos exposure due to DAS paste.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 15:04:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: This case suggests i) the need to carry out any possible detailed studies of the circumstances and exposure sources whenever any mesothelioma case is classified as "asbestos exposure unknown", according to the guidelines of the National Mesothelioma Register, ii) handling of DAS paste can be considered as sure asbestos exposure and iii) it should be borne in mind that mesothelioma cases can occur even after cumulative low, occupational exposure, even only to chrysotile. PMID: 27015029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Medicina del Lavoro)

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Cancer Care Groups Attack Medicare Drug Payment Plan

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 14:30:00 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Oncologists unhappy with CMS proposal to restructure Part B (Source: MedPage Today Public Health)



Yoga 'cures cancer,' claims senior Indian government official

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 13:07:35 +0100

The head of India's ministry for alternative medicine said research at a Bangalore institute showed that yoga techniques could prevent or arrest the disease (Source: Telegraph Health)



Lifelong widespread warts associated with human papillomavirus type 70/85: a new diagnostic entity?

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 12:33:04 +0100

We present a patient with HPV 70/85-positive widespread cutaneous warts characterized by clinical and histological features atypical for classic generalized verrucosis or epidermodysplasia verruciformis. The cutaneous HPV infection is characterized by verrucous papules or plaques variable in size, number, and distribution depending on the genotype of HPV involved and the immune status of the patient. Human papillomaviruses comprise five genera (alpha, beta, gamma, mu, and nu papillomavirus) with different life-cycle characteristics, epithelial tropisms, and disease associations. Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare, lifelong, autosomal recessive skin disease characterized by persistent cutaneous human papillomavirus infection not necessarily associated with immune system defects...



Accelerated partial breast irradiation: advances and controversies.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 08:49:02 +0100

Authors: Akhtari M, Teh BS Abstract The management of localized breast cancer has changed dramatically over the past three to four decades. Breast-conserving therapy, which involved lumpectomy followed by adjuvant irradiation, is now widely considered the standard of care in women with early-stage breast cancer. Accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI), which involves focal irradiation of the lumpectomy cavity over a short period of time, has developed over the past two decades as an alternative to whole breast irradiation (WBI). Multiple APBI modalities have been developed including brachytherapy, external beam irradiation, and intraoperative irradiation. These new techniques have provided early-stage breast cancer patients with shorter treatment duration and more focused irr...



Altered expression of stromal interaction molecule (STIM)-calcium release-activated calcium channel protein (ORAI) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in cancer: will they become a new battlefield for oncotherapy?

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 08:49:02 +0100

Authors: Wen J, Huang YC, Xiu HH, Shan ZM, Xu KQ Abstract The stromal interaction molecule (STIM)-calcium release-activated calcium channel protein (ORAI) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) play pivotal roles in the modulation of Ca(2+)-regulated pathways from gene transcription to cell apoptosis by driving calcium-dependent signaling processes. Increasing evidence has implicated the dysregulation of STIM-ORAI and IP3Rs in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. By controlling the activities, structure, and/or expression levels of these Ca(2+)-transporting proteins, malignant cancer cells can hijack them to drive essential biological functions for tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the participation of STIM-ORAI and IP3Rs in the biological ...



The role of thoracic surgery in the management of mesothelioma: an expert opinion on the limited evidence.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:06:02 +0100

Authors: Bertoglio P, Waller DA Abstract Surgery has a key role at different points in the management of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma. Diagnosis with video assisted thoracoscopy offers excellent sensitivity and specificity and a direct view of the pleural cavity to verify the extent of the tumor. Nodal involvement can be assessed by mediastinoscopy and either talc pleurodesis or partial pleurectomy can be used for symptom control in advanced stage disease. Extra Pleural Pneumonectomy (EPP) and Extended Pleurectomy Decortication (EPD) are used to prolong survival although the benefit of radical surgery has not has been fully clarified; EPP failed to show its benefit in the MARS trial and EPD is currently under investigation in the MARS2 trial. More randomized prospective trial dat...



Redox signaling regulated by electrophiles and reactive sulfur species.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 07:01:02 +0100

Authors: Nishida M, Kumagai Y, Ihara H, Fujii S, Motohashi H, Akaike T Abstract Redox signaling is a key modulator of oxidative stress induced by nonspecific insults of biological molecules generated by reactive oxygen species. Current redox biology is revisiting the traditional concept of oxidative stress, such that toxic effects of reactive oxygen species are protected by diverse antioxidant systems upregulated by oxidative stress responses that are physiologically mediated by redox-dependent cell signaling pathways. Redox signaling is thus precisely regulated by endogenous electrophilic substances that are generated from reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide and its derivative reactive species during stress responses. Among electrophiles formed endogenously, 8-nitroguanosine ...



[Pemetrexed + Sorafenib] lethality is increased by inhibition of ERBB1/2/3-PI3K-NFκB compensatory survival signaling.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Booth L, Roberts JL, Tavallai M, Chuckalovcak J, Stringer DK, Koromilas AE, Boone DL, McGuire WP, Poklepovic A, Dent P Abstract In the completed phase I trial NCT01450384 combining the anti-folate pemetrexed and the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib it was observed that 20 of 33 patients had prolonged stable disease or tumor regression, with one complete response and multiple partial responses. The pre-clinical studies in this manuscript were designed to determine whether [pemetrexed + sorafenib] -induced cell killing could be rationally enhanced by additional signaling modulators. Multiplex assays performed on tumor material that survived and re-grew after [pemetrexed + sorafenib] exposure showed increased phosphorylation of ERBB1 and of NFκB and IκB; with reduced IκB a...

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MicroRNA signatures in vitreous humour and plasma of patients with exudative AMD.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Ménard C, Rezende FA, Miloudi K, Wilson A, Tétreault N, Hardy P, SanGiovanni JP, De Guire V, Sapieha P Abstract Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide affecting individuals over the age of 50. The neovascular form (NV AMD) is characterized by choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and responsible for the majority of central vision impairment. Using non-biased microRNA arrays and individual TaqMan qPCRs, we profiled miRNAs in the vitreous humour and plasma of patients with NV AMD. We identified a disease-associated increase in miR-146a and a decrease in miR-106b and miR-152 in the vitreous humour which was reproducible in plasma. Moreover, miR-146a/miR-106b ratios discriminated patients with NV AMD with an area under the Receiver Oper...



mTOR complex-2 stimulates acetyl-CoA and de novo lipogenesis through ATP citrate lyase in HER2/PIK3CA-hyperactive breast cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chen Y, Qian J, He Q, Zhao H, Toral-Barza L, Shi C, Zhang X, Wu J, Yu K Abstract The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a major regulator of cell growth and is frequently dysregulated in cancer. While mTOR complex-1 (mTORC1) is a validated cancer target, the role of mTOR complex-2 (mTORC2) remains less defined. Here, we reveal mTORC2 as a critical regulator of breast cancer metabolism. We showed that hyperphosphorylation in ATP citrate lyase (ACL) occurs frequently in human breast tumors and correlates well with HER2+ and/or PIK3CA-mutant (HER2+/PIK3CAmut) status in breast tumor cell lines. In HER2+/PIK3CAmut cells, mTORC2 controls Ser-455 phosphorylation of ACL thereby promoting acetyl-CoA production, de novo lipogenesis and mitochondrial physiology, all of which w...



Methylomic predictors demonstrate the role of NF-κB in old-age mortality and are unrelated to the aging-associated epigenetic drift.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Jylhävä J, Kananen L, Raitanen J, Marttila S, Nevalainen T, Hervonen A, Jylhä M, Hurme M Abstract Changes in the DNA methylation (DNAm) landscape have been implicated in aging and cellular senescence. To unravel the role of specific DNAm patterns in late-life survival, we performed genome-wide methylation profiling in nonagenarians (n=111) and determined the performance of the methylomic predictors and conventional risk markers in a longitudinal setting. The survival model containing only the methylomic markers was superior in terms of predictive accuracy compared with the model containing only the conventional predictors or the model containing conventional predictors combined with the methylomic markers. At the 2.55-year follow-up, we identified 19 mortality-associate...

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Effect of sorafenib on cisplatin-based chemoradiation in head and neck cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study we investigated its effect on combined CRT treatment using cisplatin.Radio- and chemosensitivity with and without sorafenib was measured in four HNSCC cell lines and normal fibroblasts (NF) by colony formation assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle analysis were performed by flow cytometry.In HNSCC cells, sorafenib enhanced the antiproliferative effect of cisplatin without affecting apoptosis induction and with only minor effects on cell inactivation. Sorafenib added prior to irradiation enhanced cellular radiosensitivity in three of the tested HNSCC cell lines and caused massive overall cell inactivation when combined with CRT. In contrast, sorafenib did not radiosensitize NF and reduced cisplatin-induced cell inactivation. Cell inactivation by IR and cisplatin is further increased...



Androgen deprivation therapy sensitizes triple negative breast cancer cells to immune-mediated lysis through androgen receptor independent modulation of osteoprotegerin.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Kwilas AR, Ardiani A, Gameiro SR, Richards J, Hall AB, Hodge JW Abstract Among breast cancer types, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has the fewest treatment options and the lowest 5-year survival rate. Androgen receptor (AR) inhibition has displayed efficacy against breast cancer preclinically and is currently being examined clinically in AR positive TNBC patients. Androgen deprivation has been shown to induce immunogenic modulation; the alteration of tumor cell phenotype resulting in increased sensitivity to immune-mediated killing. We evaluated the ability of AR inhibition to reduce the growth and improve the immune-mediated killing of breast cancer cells with differing expression of the estrogen receptor and AR. While AR expression was required for the growth inhib...



Bcl6 modulation of acute lymphoblastic leukemia response to chemotherapy.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

This study suggests that marrow microenvironment regulation of BCL6 in ALL is one factor that may be involved in the transition between proliferative and quiescent states of ALL cells. Utilizing ALL cell lines, and primary patient tumor cells we observed that tumor cell BCL6 protein abundance is decreased in the presence of primary human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) and osteoblasts (HOB). Chemical inhibition, or shRNA knockdown, of BCL6 in ALL cells resulted in diminished ALL proliferation. As many chemotherapy regimens require tumor cell proliferation for optimal efficacy, we investigated the consequences of constitutive BCL6 expression in leukemic cells during co-culture with BMSC or HOB. Forced chronic expression of BCL6 during co-culture with BMSC or HOB sensitized the tumor to che...

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Molecular insights into the OGG1 gene, a cancer risk modifier in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carriers.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Benitez-Buelga C, Vaclová T, Ferreira S, Urioste M, Inglada-Perez L, Soberón N, Blasco MA, Osorio A, Benitez J Abstract We have recently shown that rs2304277 variant in the OGG1 glycosidase gene of the Base Excision Repair pathway can increase ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers. In the present study, we aimed to explore the role of this genetic variant on different genome instability hallmarks to explain its association with cancer risk.We have evaluated the effect of this polymorphism on OGG1 transcriptional regulation and its contribution to telomere shortening and DNA damage accumulation. For that, we have used a series of 89 BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, 74 BRCAX cases, 60 non-carrier controls and 23 lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) derived from BRCA1...



Long noncoding RNAs as auxiliary biomarkers for gastric cancer screening: A pooled analysis of individual studies.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA profiling hallmarks a moderate diagnostic value in the management of GC and that lncRNA expression patterns may potentially be utilized as auxiliary biomarkers in confirming GC. PMID: 27015554 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Progerin impairs chromosome maintenance by depleting CENP-F from metaphase kinetochores in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria fibroblasts.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, we investigated whether progerin elicits spatiotemporal deviations in mitotic processes in HGPS fibroblasts. We analyzed the nuclear distribution of endogenous progerin during mitosis in relation to components of the nuclear lamina, nuclear envelope (NE) and nuclear pores. We found that progerin caused defects in chromosome segregation as early as metaphase, delayed NE reformation and trapped lamina components and inner NE proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum at the end of mitosis. Progerin displaced the centromere protein F (CENP-F) from metaphase chromosome kinetochores, which caused increased chromatin lagging, binucleated cells and genomic instability. This accumulation of progerin-dependent defects with each round of mitosis predisposes cells to premature senescence. ...

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EFEMP1 is repressed by estrogen and inhibits the epithelial-mesenchymal transition via Wnt/β-catenin signaling in endometrial carcinoma.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, we demonstrated that estrogen/ERα signal suppresses EFEMP1. Besides, EFEMP1 inhibits EMT via interfering the Wnt/β-catenin signaling. PMID: 27015552 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



shRNA targeting long non-coding RNA CCAT2 controlled by tetracycline-inducible system inhibits progression of bladder cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Li J, Zhuang C, Liu Y, Chen M, Zhou Q, Chen Z, He A, Zhao G, Guo Y, Wu H, Cai Z, Huang W Abstract Recent reports show that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as significant functional regulators in the development of tumors, including bladder cancer. Here, we found that CCAT2 was upregulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines. Through the statistical analyses, we also found that the high expression level of CCAT2 was positively correlated with histological grade and TNM stage of bladder cancer. Further experimental results revealed that knockdown of CCAT2 could decrease cell proliferation and migration as well as induce apoptosis in bladder cancer cells. Besides, using the post-transcriptional device of synthetic biology, we create the tetracycline-inducible...



Prevention of cisplatin-based chemotherapy-induced delayed nausea and vomiting using triple antiemetic regimens: a mixed treatment comparison.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Shi Q, Li W, Li H, Le Q, Liu S, Zong S, Zheng L, Hou F Abstract A variety of triple antiemetic regimens are being used to prevent cisplatin-based chemotherapy induced delayed emesis and nausea in cancer patients. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the efficacies of the different regimens. Electronic searches of the PubMed, Cochrane Library and MEDLINE databases were performed to identify randomized controlled trials, and data were analyzed using JAGS, Stata 14.0 and R project. The primary outcome was a complete response (CR). The secondary outcomes were no vomiting (NV) and no nausea (NN). Among the 398 studies identified, 10 were eligible and included, providing data on nine regimens. In the CR analysis, the absolute rank of netupitant + palonosetron + dexame...

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Hedgehog pathway maintains cell survival under stress conditions, and drives drug resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, this study showed that HH pathway is a survival signaling that drives LAC cell growth under stress conditions, and HHIP is a key regulator to block the induction of HH pathway. Targeting the HH pathway through inhibitors or HHIP thus holds promise to address EGFR-TKI resistance in LAC in clinic. PMID: 27015549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



The retinoblastoma protein regulates hypoxia-inducible genetic programs, tumor cell invasiveness and neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this report, we further characterized the role Rb plays in mediating hypoxia-regulated genetic programs by stably ablating Rb expression with retrovirally-introduced short hairpin RNA in LNCaP and 22Rv1 human prostate cancer cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that loss of Rb in conjunction with hypoxia leads to aberrant expression of hypoxia-regulated genetic programs that increase cell invasion and promote neuroendocrine differentiation. For the first time, we have established a direct link between hypoxic tumor environments, Rb inactivation and progression to late stage metastatic neuroendocrine prostate cancer. Understanding the molecular pathways responsible for progression of benign prostate tumors to metastasized and lethal forms will aid in the development of more effective ...



Oxidative stress at low levels can induce clustered DNA lesions leading to NHEJ mediated mutations.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Sharma V, Collins LB, Chen TH, Herr N, Takeda S, Sun W, Swenberg JA, Nakamura J Abstract DNA damage and mutations induced by oxidative stress are associated with various different human pathologies including cancer. The facts that most human tumors are characterized by large genome rearrangements and glutathione depletion in mice results in deletions in DNA suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause gene and chromosome mutations through DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). However, the generation of DSBs at low levels of ROS is still controversial. In the present study, we show that H2O2 at biologically-relevant levels causes a marked increase in oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs) with a significant elevation of replication-independent DSBs. Although it is frequ...



CCL20 mediates RANK/RANKL-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in endometrial cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, we firstly showed that RANK/RANKL activation was correlated with EC staging and EMT markers in human EC tissue specimen. RANK/RANKL promoted migration/invasion and initiated EMT of EC cell lines. Then, protein chip analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed that the expression and secretion of chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) was dramatically enhanced in RANKL-treated RANK over-expressed EC cells. Moreover, the higher level of CCL20 in both serum and tumor tissue was detected in orthotopic transplantation mouse models. Finally, we confirmed that CCL20 contributed to invasion and EMT of RANK over-expressed EC cells. In summary, all data supported the hypothesis that RANK/RANKL elevated the expression and secretion of CCL20 in EC cells, which promoted cancer pr...



Characterization of site-specific glycosylation of secreted proteins associated with multi-drug resistance of gastric cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Wu J, Qin H, Li T, Cheng K, Dong J, Tian M, Chai N, Guo H, Li J, You X, Dong M, Ye M, Nie Y, Zou H, Fan D Abstract Multi-drug resistance (MDR) remains a great obstacle to effective chemotherapy for gastric cancer. A number of secreted glycoproteins have been reported to be involved in the development of MDR in gastric cancer. However, whether glycosylation of secreted glycoproteins changes during MDR of gastric cancer is unclear. Our present work manifested that N-glycosites and site-specific glycoforms of secreted proteins in drug-resistant cell lines were distinctly different from those in the parental cell line for the first time. Further characterization highlighted the significance of some aberrantly glycosylated secretory proteins in MDR, suggesting that manipulating...

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Twist promotes angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer by targeting miR-497/VEGFA axis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, our results suggested that the Twist/miR-497/VEGFA axis is significantly correlated with metastasis and angiogenesis in pancreatic cancer. PMID: 27015364 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Long noncoding RNA MALAT1 promotes malignant development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma by targeting β-catenin via Ezh2.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Wang W, Zhu Y, Li S, Chen X, Jiang G, Shen Z, Qiao Y, Wang L, Zheng P, Zhang Y Abstract Evidences have shown that lncRNAs involve in the initiation and progression of various cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The aberrant expression of lncRNA MALAT1 was investigated in 106 paired ESCC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues by qRT-PCR. Down-regulated MALAT1 and Ezh2 over-expression plasmid were constructed respectively to analyze the expression of β-catenin, Lin28 and Ezh2 genes. We found that the MALAT1 expression level was higher in human ESCC tissues (P=0.0011), which was closely correlated with WHO grade (P=0.0395, P=0.0331), lymph node metastasis (P=0.0213) and prognosis (P=0.0294). Silencing of MALAT1 expression inhibited cell prolifera...



Cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) is linked to integrin β1 and required for tumor cell migration and invasion in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Winkler J, Roessler S, Sticht C, DiGuilio AL, Drucker E, Holzer K, Eiteneuer E, Herpel E, Breuhahn K, Gretz N, Schirmacher P, Ori A, Singer S Abstract Importins and exportins represent an integral part of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery with fundamental importance for eukaryotic cell function. A variety of malignancies including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) show de-regulation of nuclear transport factors such as overexpression of the exportin Cellular Apoptosis Susceptibility (CAS). The functional implications of CAS in hepatocarcinogenesis remain, however, poorly understood. Here we integrated proteomics, transcriptomics and functional assays with patient data to further characterize the role of CAS in HCC. By analyzing ~ 1700 proteins using quantitative mass ...



Loss of HIF-1α in macrophages attenuates AhR/ARNT-mediated tumorigenesis in a PAH-driven tumor model.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Henke N, Ferreirós N, Geisslinger G, Ding MG, Essler S, Fuhrmann DC, Geis T, Namgaladze D, Dehne N, Brüne B Abstract Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) and macrophage infiltration of solid tumors independently promote tumor progression. As little is known how myeloid HIF affects tumor development, we injected the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and procarcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA; 100 μg/100 μl) subcutaneously into myeloid-specific Hif-1α and Hif-2α knockout mice (C57BL/6J) to induce fibrosarcomas (n = 16). Deletion of Hif-1α but not Hif-2α in macrophages diminished tumor outgrowth in the MCA-model. While analysis of the tumor initiation phase showed comparable inflammation after MCA-injection, metabolism of MCA was impaired in the absence o...



Chronic TGFβ stimulation promotes the metastatic potential of lung cancer cells by Snail protein stabilization through integrin β3-Akt-GSK3β signaling.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, a transdifferentiated (TD) A549 cell model, established by chronically exposing A549 cells to TGFβ, showed highly invasive phenotypes in conjunction with attenuation of Smad-dependent signaling. We show that Snail protein, the mRNA expression of which strongly correlates with a poor prognosis in lung cancer patients, was highly stable in TD cells after TGFβ stimulation. The increased protein stability of Snail in TD cells correlated with elevated inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK3β, resulting from the high Akt activity. Notably, integrin β3, whose expression was markedly increased upon sustained exposure to TGFβ, was responsible for the high Akt activity as well as the increased Snail protein stability in TD cells. Consistently, clinical database analysis on lung cancer...

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Mining distinct aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) isoenzymes in gastric cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Shen JX, Liu J, Li GW, Huang YT, Wu HT Abstract Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) consists of a family of intracellular enzymes, highly expressed in stem cells populations of leukemia and some solid tumors. Up to now, 6 isoforms of ALDH1 have been reported. However, the expression patterns and the identity of ALDH1 isoenzymes contributing to ALDH1 activity, as well as the prognostic values of ALDH1 isoenzymes in cancers all remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the expressions of ALDH1 transcripts in gastric cancer (GC) compared with the normal controls using the ONCOMINE database. Through the Kaplan-Meier plotter database, which contains updated gene expression data and survival information of 876 GC patients, we also investigated the prognostic values of ALDH1 isoenzy...



A comprehensive repertoire of tRNA-derived fragments in prostate cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

This study provides a systematic catalogue of tRFs and their dysregulation in PCa and can serve as the basis for further research on the biomarker potential and functional roles of tRFs in this disease. PMID: 27015120 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



MicroRNA-371-5p targets SOX2 in gastric cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Li YJ, Dong M, Kong FM, Zhou JP, Liang D, Xue HZ Abstract We evaluated miR-371-5p expression in gastric cancer (GC) tissues and its influence on the expression of downstream genes, especially SOX2. MiR-371-5p expression (measured using qRT-PCR) was upregulated in GC tissues and correlated positively with TNM staging and lymph node (LN) metastasis. MiR-371-5p expression was higher in human GC cell lines (AGS, MKN-28, BGC-823, MGC-803, SGC-7901 and MKN-45) than in human normal gastric epithelial (GES-1) cells (all P < 0.05). MGC-803 tumor cell growth (measured with an MTT assay), migration, and invasion (measured with Transwell chamber assays) were severely inhibited in cells transfected with a miR-371-5p inhibitor, whereas they were stimulated in cells transfected with S...



mTOR inhibition as an adjuvant therapy in a metastatic model of HPV+ HNSCC.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Coppock JD, Vermeer PD, Vermeer DW, Lee KM, Miskimins WK, Spanos WC, Lee JH Abstract Effective treatments for recurrent/metastatic human papillomavirus-positive (HPV+) head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC) are limited. To aid treatment development, we characterized a novel murine model of recurrent/metastatic HPV+ HNSCC. Further analysis of the parental tumor cell line and its four recurrent/metastatic derivatives led to preclinical testing of an effective treatment option for this otherwise fatal disease. Reverse phase protein arrays identified key signaling cascades in the parental and recurrent/metastatic cell lines. While protein expression profiles differed among the recurrent/metastatic cell lines, activated proteins associated with the mTOR signaling cascade we...



PGE2-EP3 signaling pathway contributes to protective effects of misoprostol on cerebral injury in APP/PS1 mice.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Tian X, Ji C, Luo Y, Yang Y, Kuang S, Mai S, Ma J, Yang J Abstract Epidemiological studies indicate chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which inhibit the enzymatic activity of the inflammatory cyclooxygenases (COX), reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) in normal aging populations. Considering multiple adverse side effects of NSAIDs, findings suggest that COX downstream prostaglandin signaling function in the pre-clinical development of AD. Our previous study found that misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) receptor agonist, has neuroprotection against brain injury induced by chronic aluminum overload. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of misoprostol on neurodegeneration in overexpressin...

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Enhancing DPYSL3 gene expression via a promoter-targeted small activating RNA approach suppresses cancer cell motility and metastasis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, DPYSL3v2 promoter-targeted saRNA molecules might be used as an adjunctive therapy to suppress prostate cancer metastasis. PMID: 27014974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Intraoperative imaging of folate receptor alpha positive ovarian and breast cancer using the tumor specific agent EC17.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: FRα is a favorable target for fluorescence-guided surgery as EC17 produced a clear fluorescent signal in ovarian and breast cancer tissue. This resulted in resection of ovarian cancer lesions that were otherwise not detected. Notwithstanding, autofluorescence caused false-positive lesions in ovarian cancer and difficulty in discriminating breast cancer-specific fluorescence from background signal. Optimization of the 500nm fluorophore, will minimize autofluorescence and further improve intraoperative tumor detection. PMID: 27014973 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



In-depth analysis of secretome and N-glycosecretome of human hepatocellular carcinoma metastatic cell lines shed light on metastasis correlated proteins.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Li X, Jiang J, Zhao X, Zhao Y, Cao Q, Zhao Q, Han H, Wang J, Yu Z, Peng B, Ying W, Qian X Abstract Cancer cell metastasis is a major cause of cancer fatality. But the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood, which results in the lack of efficient diagnosis, therapy and prevention approaches. Here, we report a systematic study on the secretory proteins (secretome) and secretory N-glycoproteins (N-glycosecretome) of four human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines with different metastatic potential, to explore the molecular mechanism of metastasis and supply the clues for effective measurement of diagnosis and therapy. Totally, 6242 unique gene products (GPs) and 1637 unique N-glycosites from 635 GPs were confidently identified. About 4000 GPs on ...

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Development and validation of a surgical-pathologic staging and scoring system for cervical cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Surgical-pathologic staging and SPSs improve characterization of tumor severity and disease invasion, which may more accurately predict outcome and guide postoperative therapy. PMID: 27014971 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



NF-κB functions as a molecular link between tumor cells and Th1/Tc1 T cells in the tumor microenvironment to exert radiation-mediated tumor suppression.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

We report here that radiation induces rapid activation of the p65/p50 and p50/p50 NF-κB complexes in human soft tissue sarcoma (STS) cells. Radiation-activated p65/p50 and p50/p50 bind to the TNFα promoter to activate its transcription in STS cells. Radiation-induced TNFα induces tumor cell death in an autocrine manner. A sublethal dose of Smac mimetic BV6 induces cIAP1 and cIAP2 degradation to increase tumor cell sensitivity to radiation-induced cell death in vitro and to enhance radiation-mediated suppression of STS xenografts in vivo. Inhibition of caspases, RIP1, or RIP3 blocks radiation/TNFα-induced cell death, whereas inhibition of RIP1 blocks TNFα-induced caspase activation, suggesting that caspases and RIP1 act sequentially to mediate the non-compensatory cell death pathways. ...



B1a cells play a pathogenic role in the development of autoimmune arthritis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, we found that peritoneal B1a cells underwent proliferation and migrated to the inflamed joint tissue with upregulated RANKL expression during collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) development in mice. Adoptive transfer of B1a cells exacerbated arthritic severity and joint damage while intraperitoneal depletion of B1 cells ameliorated both arthritic symptoms and joint pathology in CIA mice. In culture, RANKL-expressing B1a cells significantly promoted the expansion of osteoclasts derived from bone marrow cells, which were in accord with the in vivo findings of increased osteoclastogenesis in CIA mice transferred with B1a cells. Together, these results have demonstrated a pathogenic role of B1a cells in the development of autoimmune arthritis through RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenes...

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Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation contributes to aldosterone-induced renal tubular cells injury.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Ding W, Guo H, Xu C, Wang B, Zhang M, Ding F Abstract Aldosterone (Aldo) is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and although Aldo directly induces renal tubular cell injury, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. NLRP3 inflammasome and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) have recently been implicated in various kinds of CKD. The present study hypothesized that mitochondrial ROS and NLRP3 inflammasome mediated Aldo-induced tubular cell injury. The NLRP3 inflammasome is induced by Aldo in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as evidenced by increased NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, and downstream cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. The activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was significantly prevented by the selective mineralocorticoid r...



From kinetics and cellular cooperations to cancer immunotherapies.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Trautmann A Abstract In this review will be underlined two simple ideas of potential interest for the design of cancer immunotherapies. One concerns the importance of kinetics, with the key notion that a single cause may trigger two opposite effects with different kinetics. The importance of this phenomenon will be underlined in neurobiology, transcription networks and the immune system. The second idea is that efficient immune responses have been selected against pathogens, throughout evolution. They are never due to a single cell type, but always require multiple, complex cellular cooperations. One cannot recognize this fact and persist in the presently dominant T-cell centered view of cancer immunotherapies. Suggestions will be made to incorporate these simple ideas for...



MiR-206 suppresses epithelial mesenchymal transition by targeting TGF-β signaling in estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that miR-206 inhibits TGF-β transcription and autocrine production, as well as downstream target genes of EMT. Restoring miR-206 expression may provide an effective therapeutic strategy for ER positive BC. PMID: 27014911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



miR-206 regulates cisplatin resistance and EMT in human lung adenocarcinoma cells partly by targeting MET.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chen QY, Jiao DM, Wang J, Hu H, Tang X, Chen J, Mou H, Lu W Abstract MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in drug resistance and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). The aims of this study were to explore the potential role of miR-206 in governing cisplatin resistance and EMT in lung cancer cells. We found that both lung adenocarcinoma A549 cisplatin-resistant cells (A549/DDP) and H1299 cisplatin-resistant cells (H1299/DDP) acquired mesenchymal features and were along with low expression of miR-206 and high migration and invasion abilities. Ectopic expression of miR-206 mimics inhibited cisplatin resistance, reversed the EMT phenotype, decreased the migration and invasion in these DDP-resistant cells. In contrast, miR-206 inhibitors increased cisplatin resistance, E...



Interim analysis of postoperative chemoradiotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin versus capecitabine alone for pathological stage II and III rectal cancer: a randomized multicenter phase III trial.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Feng YR, Zhu Y, Liu LY, Wang WH, Wang SL, Song YW, Wang X, Tang Y, Liu YP, Ren H, Fang H, Zhang SP, Liu XF, Yu ZH, Li YX, Jin J Abstract The aim of this study is to present an interim analysis of a phase III trial (NCT00714077) of postoperative concurrent capecitabine and radiotherapy with or without oxaliplatin for pathological stage II and III rectal cancer. Patients with pathologically confirmed stage II and III rectal cancer were randomized to either radiotherapy with concurrent capecitabine (Cap-RT group) or with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (Capox-RT group). The primary endpoint was 3-year disease-free survival rate (DFS). The 3-year DFS rate was 73.9% in the Capox-RT group and 71.6% in the Cap-RT group (HR 0.92, p = 0.647), respectively. No significant difference wa...



EGFR mediates hyperlipidemia-induced renal injury via regulating inflammation and oxidative stress: the detrimental role and mechanism of EGFR activation.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Fang Q, Zou C, Zhong P, Lin F, Li W, Wang L, Zhang Y, Zheng C, Wang Y, Li X, Liang G Abstract Previous studies have implicated inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis as key factors in the development of obesity-induced kidney diseases. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cancer development. Recently, the EGFR pathway has been increasingly implicated in chronic cardiovascular diseases via regulating inflammation and oxidative stress. However, it is unclear if EGFR is involved in obesity-related kidney injury. Using ApoE-/- and C57BL/6 mice models and two specific EGFR inhibitors, we investigated the potential effects of EGFR inhibition in the treatment of obesity-related nephropathy and found that EGFR inhibition alleviates renal inflamm...

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Genomic and epigenomic analysis of high-risk prostate cancer reveals changes in hydroxymethylation and TET1.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Spans L, Van den Broeck T, Smeets E, Prekovic S, Thienpont B, Lambrechts D, Karnes RJ, Erho N, Alshalalfa M, Davicioni E, Helsen C, Gevaert T, Tosco L, Haustermans K, PEARL Consortium, Evelyne Lerut, Joniau S, Claessens F Abstract The clinical heterogeneity of prostate cancer (PCa) makes it difficult to identify those patients that could benefit from more aggressive treatments. As a contribution to a better understanding of the genomic changes in the primary tumor that are associated with the development of high-risk disease, we performed exome sequencing and copy number determination of a clinically homogeneous cohort of 47 high-risk PCas. We confirmed recurrent mutations in SPOP, PTEN and TP53 among the 850 point mutations we detected. In seven cases, we discovered genom...



Unexpected positive control of NFκB and miR-155 by DGKα and ζ ensures effector and memory CD8+ T Cell differentiation.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

We report here that simultaneous deletion of both diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) α and ζ (DKO) severely impaired expansion of CD8 effector T cells and formation of memory CD8 T-cells after Listeria monocytogenes infection. Moreover, ablation of both DGKα and ζ in preformed memory CD8 T-cells triggered death and impaired homeostatic proliferation of these cells. DKO CD8 T-cells were impaired in priming due to decreased expression of chemokine receptors and migration to the draining lymph nodes. Moreover, DKO CD8 T-cells were unexpectedly defective in NFκB-mediated miR-155 transcript, leading to excessive SOCS1 expression and impaired γ-chain cytokine signaling. Our data identified a DGK-NFκB-miR-155-SOCS1 axis that bridges TCR and γ-chain cytokine signaling for robust CD8 T-cell primar...



Up-regulation of serotonin receptor 2B mRNA and protein in the peri-infarcted area of aged rats and stroke patients.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Buga AM, Ciobanu O, Bădescu GM, Bogdan C, Weston R, Slevin M, DiNapoli M, Popa-Wagner A Abstract Despite the fact that a high proportion of elderly stroke patients develop mood disorders, the mechanisms underlying late-onset neuropsychiatric and neurocognitive symptoms have so far received little attention in the field of neurobiology. In rodents, aged animals display depressive symptoms following stroke, whereas young animals recover fairly well. This finding has prompted us to investigate the expression of serotonin receptors 2A and 2B, which are directly linked to depression, in the brains of aged and young rats following stroke. Although the development of the infarct was more rapid in aged rats in the first 3 days after stroke, by day 14 the cortical infarcts were si...

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Biomarker development in MET-targeted therapy.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Zhang Y, Du Z, Zhang M Abstract Activation of the MET receptor tyrosine kinase by its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, survival, migration, motility and invasion, all of which may be enhanced in human cancers. Aberrantly activated MET/HGF signaling correlates with tumorigenesis and metastasis, and is regarded as a robust target for the development of novel anti-cancer treatments. Various clinical trials were conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of selective HGF/MET inhibitors in cancer patients. There is currently no optimal or standardized method for accurate and reliable assessment of MET levels, or other biomarkers that are predictive of the patient response to MET-targ...



Predictive value of EGFR overexpression and gene amplification on icotinib efficacy in patients with advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, our study suggests that EGFR overexpression might potentially be used in predicting the efficacy in patients treated with Icotinib. These data have implications for both clinical trial design and therapeutic strategies. PMID: 27013591 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



The microRNA-124-iGluR2/3 pathway regulates glucagon release from alpha cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Zhang H, Liu R, Deng T, Wang X, Lang H, Qu Y, Duan J, Ying G, Huang D, Ba Y Abstract Glucagon, secreted from islet alpha cells, plays an important role in regulating glucose homeostasis; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this process is not fully understood. Previous studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are involved in the function of alpha cells. Glutamate promotes glucagon secretion by mediating the opening of Ca2+ channels. In this present, iGluR2 and iGluR3 levels were significantly increased in fasting-treated mouse islets. Additional studies showed that miR-124-3p simultaneously regulates the expression of iGluR2 and iGluR3 through the direct targeting of mRNA 3'UTR of these two genes. The miR-124-iGluRs pathway also contributed to the high level of glucag...

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Dissecting dysfunctional crosstalk pathways regulated by miRNAs during glioma progression.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Zhang Y, Xu Y, Li F, Li X, Feng L, Shi X, Wang L, Li X Abstract Glioma is a malignant nervous system tumor with a high fatality rate and poor prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional modulators of glioma initiation and progression. Tumor progression often results from dysfunctional co-operation between pathways regulated by miRNAs. We therefore constructed a glioma progression-related miRNA-pathway crosstalk network that not only revealed some key miRNA-pathway patterns, but also helped characterize the functional roles of miRNAs during glioma progression. Our data indicate that crosstalk between cell cycle and p53 pathways is associated with grade II to grade III progression, while cell communications-related pathways involving regulation of actin ...



Sciellin mediates mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition in colorectal cancer hepatic metastasis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Chou CK, Fan CC, Lin PS, Liao PY, Tung JC, Hsieh CH, Hung MC, Chen CH, Chang WC Abstract Hepatic metastasis is the major cause of mortality in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Using proteomic analysis, we found sciellin (SCEL) to be specifically expressed in hepatic metastatic CRC cell lines. SCEL knockdown increased CRC cell migration and invasion, while overexpression had the opposite effect. SCEL knockdown also caused cancer cells to form more invasive structures within 3D cultures, increased the mesenchymal marker vimentin, and attenuated the epithelial marker E-cadherin. SCEL increased WNT signaling by activating β-catenin and its downstream target c-myc, and activated mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) through a SCEL-β-catenin-E-cadherin axis. SCEL showed ...



Prevalence characteristics of high-risk human papillomaviruses in women living in Shanghai with cervical precancerous lesions and cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Gu Y, Ma C, Zou J, Zhu Y, Yang R, Xu Y, Zhang Y Abstract A complete understanding of the natural history of infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) in cervical cancer requires data from regional and ethnic studies. The prevalence of high-risk HPVs was evaluated retrospectively in 2040 patients with cervicitis, 239 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 (CIN1), 242 with CIN2/3, and 42 patients with invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) based on data from patients who visited our hospital between May 2013 and May 2015. The rates of high-risk HPV infection in patients with cervicitis, CIN1, CIN2/3, and invasive SCC were 40.8%, 74.9%, 70.2%, and 83.3%, respectively. The three most dominant HPV genotypes were HPV16, 58, and 52. HPV16 and HPV58 positivit...

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KIF23 is an independent prognostic biomarker in glioma, transcriptionally regulated by TCF-4.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Sun L, Zhang C, Yang Z, Wu Y, Wang H, Bao Z, Jiang T Abstract Kinesin family member 23 (KIF23), a nuclear protein and a key regulator of cellular cytokinesis, has been found to be overexpressed as an oncogene in glioma. However, the prognostic and clinicopathological features of glioma with KIF23 expression was not clear yet. Here, we analyzed KIF23 expression pattern by using whole genome mRNA expression microarray data from Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database (http://www.cgga.org.cn), and found that KIF23 overexpression was significantly associated with high grade glioma as well as the higher mortality in survival analysis (log-rank test, p<0.01). The results of the three other validation datasets showed similar findings. Furthermore, KIF23 also served as an i...



Analysis of mutational and clinicopathologic characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Lung adenocarcinoma with clear cell component is a rare, malignant tumor with poor prognosis and displays more frequent EGFR and KRAS mutations. PMID: 27013585 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Metastatic model of HPV+ oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma demonstrates heterogeneity in tumor metastasis.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Vermeer DW, Coppock JD, Zeng E, Lee KM, Spanos WC, Onken MD, Uppaluri R, Lee JH, Vermeer PD Abstract Human papillomavirus induced (HPV+) cancer incidence is rapidly rising, comprising 60-80% of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs); while rare, recurrent/metastatic disease accounts for nearly all related deaths. An in vivo pre-clinical model for these invasive cancers is necessary for testing new therapies. We characterize an immune competent recurrent/metastatic HPV+ murine model of OPSSC which consists of four lung metastatic (MLM) cell lines isolated from an animal with HPV+ OPSCC that failed cisplatin/radiation treatment. These individual metastatic clonal cell lines were tested to verify their origin (parental transgene expression and define their physiologi...



MiR-424 and miR-27a increase TRAIL sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia by targeting PLAG1.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, we detected relatively lower expression levels of miR-424&27a in TRAIL-resistant and semi-resistant AML cell lines as well as newly diagnosed patient samples. Overexpression of miR-424&27a, by targeting the 3'UTR of PLAG1, enhanced TRAIL sensitivity in AML cells. Correspondingly, knockdown of PLAG1 sensitized AML cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and proliferation inhibition. We further found that PLAG1 as a transcription factor could reinforce Bcl2 promoter activity, causing its upregulation at the mRNA level. Both downregulated PLAG1 and elevated expression of miR-424&27a led to Bcl2 downregulation and augmented cleavage of Caspase8, Caspase3 and PARP in the presence of TRAIL. Restoration of Bcl2 could eliminate their effects on AML TRAIL sensitization. Overall,...



Blockage of autophagy pathway enhances Salmonella tumor-targeting.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, we report that tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (A1-R) or VNP20009 induced autophagy in human cancer cells, which serves as a defense response. Functionally, by knockdown of essential autophagy genes Atg5 or Beclin1 in bacteria-infected cancer cells, the autophagy pathway was blocked, which led to a significant increase of intracellular bacteria multiplication in cancer cells. Genetic inactivation of the autophagy pathway enhanced A1-R or VNP20009-mediated cancer cell killing by increasing apoptotic activity. We also demonstrate that the combination of pharmacological autophagy inhibitors chloroquine (CQ) or bafilomycin A1 (Baf A1) with tumor-targeting A1-R or VNP20009 significantly enhanced cancer-cell killing compared with Salmonella infection alone. These findi...



Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition leads to loss of EpCAM and different physical properties in circulating tumor cells from metastatic breast cancer.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Hyun KA, Goo KB, Han H, Sohn J, Choi W, Kim SI, Jung HI, Kim YS Abstract The dissemination of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) requires the Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which cells lose their epithelial characteristics and acquire more mesenchymal-like phenotypes. Current isolation of CTCs relies on affinity-based approaches reliant on the expression of Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM). Here we show EMT-induced breast cancer cells maintained in prolonged mammosphere culture conditions possess increased EMT markers and cancer stem cell markers, as well as reduced cell mass and size by quantitative phase microscopy; however, EpCAM expression is dramatically decreased in these cells. Moreover, CTCs isolated from breast cancer patients using a label-fr...



Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD) regulates autophagy through promoting the expression of Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb) in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In this study, In Silico Analysis using Oncomine and Kaplan Meier plotter revealed that FADD is significantly up-regulated in breast cancer tissues and closely associated with a poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. To better understanding the FADD functions in breast cancer, we performed proteomics analysis by LC-MS/MS detection and found that Rheb-mTORC1 pathway was dysregulated in MCF-7 cells when FADD knockdown. The mTORC1 pathway is a key regulator in many processes, including cell growth, metabolism and autophagy. Here, FADD interference down-regulated Rheb expression and repressed mTORC1 activity in breast cancer cell lines. The autophagy was induced by FADD deficiency in MCF7 or MDA-231 cells but rescued by recovering Rheb expression. Similarly, growth defect in FADD-knock...



Suppressing activity of tributyrin on hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with inhibiting the p53-CRM1 interaction and changing the cellular compartmentalization of p53 protein.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

Authors: Ortega JF, de Conti A, Tryndyak V, Furtado KS, Heidor R, Horst MA, Fernandes LH, Tavares PE, Pogribna M, Shpyleva S, Beland FA, Pogribny IP, Moreno FS Abstract Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an aggressive and the fastest growing life-threatening cancer worldwide, is often diagnosed at intermediate or advanced stages of the disease, which substantially limits therapeutic approaches for its successful treatment. This indicates that the prevention of hepatocarcinogenesis is probably the most promising approach to reduce both the HCC incidence and cancer-related mortality. In previous studies, we demonstrated a potent chemopreventive effect of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug, on experimental hepatocarcinogenesis. The cancer-inhibitory effect of tributyrin was linked to the...

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Effect of heat dissipation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in alternating magnetic field on three human cancer cell lines in magnetic fluid hyperthermia.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 04:49:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the nanoparticle dose of 80 µg/ml with diameter of 8 nm at the resonance frequency of coil for 30 min was sufficient to destroy all the cancerous cells in the flask. PMID: 27015154 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine)



Antiangiogenic mechanisms and factors in breast cancer treatment.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 02:55:02 +0100

Authors: Castañeda-Gill JM, Vishwanatha JK Abstract Breast cancer is known to metastasize in its latter stages of existence. The different angiogenic mechanisms and factors that allow for its progression are reviewed in this article. Understanding these mechanisms and factors will allow researchers to design drugs to inhibit angiogenic behaviors and control the rate of tumor growth. PMID: 27013929 [PubMed] (Source: Journal of Carcinogenesis)



Contextualizing the Genes Altered in Bladder Neoplasms in Pediatric andTeen Patients Allows Identifying Two Main Classes of Biological ProcessesInvolved and New Potential Therapeutic Targets.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:22:02 +0100

Authors: Porrello A, Piergentili RB Abstract Research on bladder neoplasms in pediatric and teen patients (BNPTP) has described 21 genes, which are variously involved in this disease and are mostly responsible for deregulated cell proliferation. However, due to the limited number of publications on this subject, it is still unclear what type of relationships there are among these genes and which are the chances that, while having different molecular functions, they i) act as downstream effector genes of well-known pro- or anti- proliferative stimuli and/or interplay with biochemical pathways having oncological relevance or ii) are specific and, possibly, early biomarkers of these pathologies. A Gene Ontology (GO)-based analysis showed that these 21 genes are involved in biological ...

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Genetics of Bladder Malignant Tumors in Childhood.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 00:22:02 +0100

Authors: Zangari A, Zaini J, Gulìa C Abstract Bladder masses are represented by either benign or malignant entities. Malignant bladder tumors are frequent causes of disease and death in western countries. However, in children they are less common. Additionally, different features are found in childhood, in which non epithelial tumors are more common than epithelial ones. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common pediatric bladder tumor, but many other types of lesions may be found, such as malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor and neuroblastoma. Other rarer tumors described in literature include urothelial carcinoma and other epithelial neoplasms. Rhabdomyosarcoma is associated to a variety of genetic syndromes and many genes are involved in tumor developmen...