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MedWorm: Astrocytoma provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Astrocytoma category.

Last Build Date: Tue, 29 Mar 2016 07:48:39 +0100


Cytopathological features of pilomyxoid astrocytoma: a case report

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 22:00:00 +0100

This is a case report concerning a Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma (PMA) occuring in a 4 month‐old child in the right temporal/suprasellar region of the brain. It was resected twice, the first time when the tumor was discovered and the second time four years later after recurrence as pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). Cytological features of PMA have been only rarely reported. Furthermore the authors have tried to discuss the evolution of a PMA to a PA illustrating the rare circumstances in which a tumor with a bad prognosis may evolve in a tumor with a better one. (Source: Cytopathology)

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Expression of microRNAs miR21, miR146a, and miR155 in tuberous sclerosis complex cortical tubers and their regulation in human astrocytes and SEGA‐derived cell cultures

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 07:23:01 +0100

This study provides supportive evidence that inflammation‐related microRNAs play a role in TSC. In particular, miR146a and miR155 appear to be key players in the regulation of astrocyte‐mediated inflammatory response, with miR146a as most interesting anti‐inflammatory therapeutic candidate. GLIA 2016 Main Points Astrocytes represent a major source and target of inflammation‐related miRNAs up‐regulated in TSC brain miR146a and miR155 are key players in the regulation of astrocyte‐mediated inflammatory response (Source: Glia)

Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts protein-1 regulates epidermal growth factor receptor signaling in astrocytes

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Mutations in the MLC1 gene, which encodes a protein expressed in brain astrocytes, are the leading cause of MLC, a rare leukodystrophy characterized by macrocephaly, brain edema, subcortical cysts, myelin and astrocyte vacuolation. Although recent studies indicate that MLC1 protein is implicated in the regulation of cell volume changes, the exact role of MLC1 in brain physiology and in the pathogenesis of MLC disease remains to be clarified. In preliminary experiments, we observed that MLC1 was poorly expressed in highly proliferating astrocytoma cells when compared with primary astrocytes, and that modulation of MLC1 expression influenced astrocyte growth. Because volume changes are key events in cell proliferation and during brain development MLC1 expression is inversely correlated to as...

A malignant cellular network in gliomas: potential clinical implications

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The recent discovery of distinct, ultra-long, and highly functional membrane protrusions in gliomas, particularly in astrocytomas, extends our understanding of how these tumors progress in the brain and how they resist therapies. In this article, we will focus on ideas on how to target these membrane protrusions, for which we have suggested the term "tumor microtubes" (TMs), and the malignant multicellular network they form. First, we discuss TM-specific features and their differential biological functions known so far. Second, the connection between 1p/19q codeletion and the inability to form functional TMs via certain neurodevelopmental pathways is presented; this could provide an explanation for the distinct clinical features of oligodendrogliomas. Third, the role of TMs for primary and...

Hypothalamic–Optochiasmatic Pilocytic Astrocytoma Associated with Occipital and Sacral Spinal Cavernomas: A Mere Coincidence or a True Association?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The co-occurrence of cerebral gliomas and cavernous angiomas is rarely encountered in clinical practice. All reported cases with such association have occurred within the brain with none involving the spinal cord. (Source: World Neurosurgery)

De Novo Cerebellar Malignant Glioma: A Case Report

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion When MRI detects a new, faint abnormality in the cerebellum, close follow-up of clinical symptoms and MRI on suspicion of glioma is warranted (Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports)

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Kelsey’s transformation: From stroke survivor to motivational speaker

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 10:57:14 +0100

“When I woke up after my stroke, all I wanted was to be normal again,” recalls Kelsey Tainsh. Normal — as in a healthy teen athlete who could brush her teeth and shower on her own, who wasn’t wheelchair-bound, who wasn’t compelled to hide her paralyzed right hand in her pocket everywhere she went, one who hadn’t lost all of her high school friends except for her two triplet sisters. Now, this world-champion athlete not only learned to walk and talk again but also to embrace her differences. “Our hardest obstacles can be our biggest opportunities,” she says. Kelsey’s first taste of being different came at age 5. She was diagnosed with a brain tumor — an optic pathway pilocytic astrocytoma. Her parents brought her from their home in Winter Park, Florida, to Boston Childr...

A retrospective observational study on the treatment outcomes of 26 patients with spinal cord astrocytoma including two cases of malignant transformation

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Two of 12 low-grade cases showed malignant transformations at 4 and 11 months, respectively, based on pathological confirmation. With spinal cord astrocytomas, enhanced MRI results appeared similar to those of a malignant lesion. We suggest close observation and image correlation of low-grade astrocytomas, even when pathologically confirmed as low-grade. In this review, we found that histologic grade is the most important prognostic factor, although it is not always concordant with biologic behaviors. (Source: European Spine Journal)

Nuclear unphosphorylated STAT3 correlates with a worse prognosis in human glioblastoma

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, expressions of STAT3, pSTAT3 (Y705), and pSTAT3 (S727) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry assays of tissue microarrays containing non-neoplastic tissue (NN, n=12), grade II astrocytomas (n=33), grade III astrocytomas (n=12), and GBM (n=85) specimens. In GBM specimens, STAT3 was overexpressed and exhibited greater nuclear localization compared with lower grade astrocytomas and NN. Conversely, nuclear localization of pSTAT3 (Y705) and pSTAT3 (S727) exhibited a similar phenotype in both GBMs and NNs. MET was also detected as a non-canonical pathway marker for STAT3. For tumors with higher levels of STAT3 nuclear localization, and not pSTAT3 (Y705) and pSTAT3 (S727), these specimens exhibited increased levels of MET expression. Thus, a non-canonical pathway may mediate a ...

Minimal change disease onset observed after bevacizumab administration

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This is a report of a patient with minimal change disease (MCD) onset after bevacizumab administration. A 72-year-old man with inoperable Grade 3 astrocytoma was treated with a combination of temozolomide and the vascular endothelial growth factor monoclonal antibody bevacizumab. After two biweekly treatments, he developed nephrotic syndrome. Despite cessation of bevacizumab, his renal function deteriorated and a renal biopsy disclosed MCD. Thereafter, he was started on high-dose oral prednisone and renal function immediately improved. Within weeks, the nephrotic syndrome resolved. Although rare, biologic agents can cause various glomerulopathies that can have important therapeutic implications. MCD should be considered in patients who develop nephrotic syndrome while exposed to antiangiog...

Molecular and clinical prognostic factors for favorable outcome following surgical resection of adult intramedullary spinal cord astrocytomas

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Intramedullary spinal cord tumors (IMSCT) account for 2–4% of central nervous system neoplasms and 20–25% of spinal cord tumors [1–3]. Among these, spinal cord astrocytomas are the second most common IMSCT in adults, comprising 30–35% of such tumors [4,5]. While aggressive tumor resection is believed to be critical to prevent permanent neurological deficits [6–8], numerous studies have observed neurological deterioration following surgery, as well as significant long-term morbidity [9–14]. Since greater extent of resection and gross total resection (GTR) have been associated with superior progression-free survival (PFS) for subtypes like ependymomas and hemangioblastomas, maximal safe tumor resection in conjunction with radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain the mainstays of opti...

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Contrast Leakage Patterns from Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion MRI in the Grading of Primary Pediatric Brain Tumors [PEDIATRICS]

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: There was good interobserver agreement in the classification of DSC perfusion tissue signal-intensity time curves for pediatric brain tumors, particularly for T1-dominant leakage. Among patients with pediatric brain tumors, a T1-dominant leakage pattern is highly specific for a low-grade tumor and demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity for pilocytic or pilomyxoid astrocytomas. (Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology)

Histologically benign, clinically aggressive: Progressive non‐optic pathway pilocytic astrocytomas in adults with NF1

Mon, 14 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, despite grade I histology, all three adult NF1 patients with progressive extra‐optic PAs suffered an aggressive clinical course which was not seen in pediatric patients. Clinicians should be aware of this clinico‐histologic discrepancy when counseling and managing adult NF1 patients with progressive extra‐optic PAs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Source: American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A)

Nuclear unphosphorylated STAT3 correlates with a worse prognosis in human glioblastoma.

Sun, 13 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

In this study, expressions of STAT3, pSTAT3 (Y705), and pSTAT3 (S727) were evaluated using immunohistochemistry assays of tissue microarrays containing non-neoplastic tissue (NN, n=12), grade II astrocytomas (n=33), grade III astrocytomas (n=12), and GBM (n=85) specimens. In GBM specimens, STAT3 was overexpressed and exhibited greater nuclear localization compared with lower grade astrocytomas and NN. Conversely, nuclear localization of pSTAT3 (Y705) and pSTAT3 (S727) exhibited a similar phenotype in both GBMs and NNs. MET was also detected as a non-canonical pathway marker for STAT3. For tumors with higher levels of STAT3 nuclear localization, and not pSTAT3 (Y705) and pSTAT3 (S727), these specimens exhibited increased levels of MET expression. Thus, a non-canonical pathway may mediate a ...

Ultrasound guided mini-invasive tailored approach and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring. A synergistic strategy for the removal of tumours near the motor cortex. A preliminary experience.

Sun, 13 Mar 2016 19:15:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The synergic strategy comprising intraoperative multimodal neurophysiological monitoring and the ultrasound sonography is feasible in all surgeries. Data are promising in terms of both clinical motor scores and extent of resection. This strategy represents an alternative approach to the treatment of supratentorial tumours, although further studies are necessary to confirm the long-term efficacy of this procedure. PMID: 26967717 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences)

Diagnostic and clinical relevance of the autophago-lysosomal network in human gliomas.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 18:18:02 +0100

In conclusion, our findings indicate that autophagy in gliomas is rather driven by micro-environmental changes than by primary glioma-intrinsic features thus challenging the concept of exploitation of the autophago-lysosomal network (ALN) as a treatment approach in gliomas. PMID: 26956048 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)

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Bilateral Thalamic Glioma: Case Report and Review.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 14:05:02 +0100

We present the case of a 72 years old male suffering from the rapid deterioration of cognitive function to moderately severe dementia in a short period of time. Magnetic resonance studies demonstrated a bilateral thalamic glioma with a minimal focal gadolinium uptake in the left thalamus. Biopsy was performed and pathology report was of anaplastic astrocytoma, WHO grade III. Radiotherapy was proposed but was rejected by the patient's relatives. The patient deceased 57 days later. We performed an extensive review of the literature and by updating the previous described series we can state that to the best of our knowledge this is the 60th case described in the literature and the second eldest patient presented. Patients suffering from this disease present a poor prognosis, the longest survi...

Optimal experimental design for filter exchange imaging: Apparent exchange rate measurements in the healthy brain and in intracranial tumors

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsWith the optimized protocol, FEXI has the ability to infer relevant differences in the AXR between two populations for small group sizes. Magn Reson Med, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)

Optimal experimental design for filter exchange imaging: Apparent exchange rate measurements in the healthy brain and in intracranial tumors.

Thu, 10 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: With the optimized protocol, FEXI has the ability to infer relevant differences in the AXR between two populations for small group sizes. Magn Reson Med, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID: 26968557 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine)

Tuberous sclerosis: histological analysis with confocal laser scanning microscope of gingival angiofibromatosis.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 21:43:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: CLSM analysis allows to highlight some unusual histopathological features of TS; diode laser is very effective for the treatment of gingival angiofibromatosis. PMID: 26946876 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Pathologica)

Effects of Insula Resection on Autonomic Nervous System Activity

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 12:07:22 +0100

Conclusions: These findings suggest that the right insula plays a critical role in parasympathetic autonomic modulation and subsequent cardiac arrhythmias. Additional research is needed to establish the long-term effects of right versus left insula resection as related to autonomic dysregulation and adverse brain-heart interactions, particularly in patients at risk of cardiac arrhythmias. (Source: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology)

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Multiple hypertrophic relapsing remitting cranial neuropathies as an initial presentation of primary CNS lymphoma without any brain or spinal cord lesion

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Gaurav V Watane, Saumil P Pandya, Isha D Atre, Foram N KothariIndian Journal of Radiology and Imaging 2016 26(1):135-139Cranial nerve thickening as an initial isolated presentation of CNS lymphoma is rare. Once an extremely rare neoplasm, primary lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS) now ranks  only next to meningiomas and low-grade astrocytomas in prevalence. Multiple cranial nerve thickening can be a feature of primary CNS lymphoma. Here we report a case of a 45-year-old immunocompetent female who presented with relapsing remitting multiple cranial nerve thickening as an initial feature of primary CNS lymphoma without any other brain or spinal cord lesions. (Source: Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging)

A case report on paraneoplastic encephalitis associated with astrocytoma - An unknown entity

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We present and discuss the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of paraneoplastic encephalitis with intracranial space-occupying lesions (SOLs) in a 55-year-old man. He was thoroughly investigated and biopsy revealed presence of astrocytoma with changes of paraneoplastic encephalitis. (Source: Indian Journal of Radiology and Imaging)

Molecular Diagnostic and Prognostic Subtyping of Gliomas in Tunisian Population

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract It has become increasingly evident that morphologically similar gliomas may have distinct clinical phenotypes arising from diverse genetic signatures. To date, glial tumours from the Tunisian population have not been investigated. To address this, we correlated the clinico-pathology with molecular data of 110 gliomas by a combination of HM450K array, MLPA and TMA-IHC. PTEN loss and EGFR amplification were distributed in different glioma histological groups. However, 1p19q co-deletion and KIAA1549:BRAF fusion were, respectively, restricted to Oligodendroglioma and Pilocytic Astrocytoma. CDKN2A loss and EGFR overexpression were more common within high-grade gliomas. Furthermore, survival statistical correlations led us to identify Glioblastoma (GB) prognosis subtypes. In fa...

Targeting the MAP kinase pathway in astrocytoma cells using a recombinant anthrax lethal toxin as a way to inhibit cell motility and invasion.

Wed, 09 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we describe for the first time the effect of the LeTx on cancer cell motility and invasion not cell survival making it a potentially selective brain tumor invasion inhibitor. PMID: 26984023 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: International Journal of Oncology)

Integrated analysis of DNA methylation profiles and gene expression profiles to identify genes associated with pilocytic astrocytomas.

Sun, 06 Mar 2016 05:15:02 +0100

Authors: Zhou R, Man Y Abstract The present study performed an integral analysis of the gene expression and DNA methylation profile of pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was also performed to examine and identify the genes correlated to PAs, to identify candidate therapeutic targets for the treatment of PAs. The DNA methylation profile and gene expression profile were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following screening of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially methylated regions (DMRs), respectively, integrated analysis of the DEGs and DMRs was performed to detect their correlation. Subsequently, the WGCNA algorithm was applied to identify the significant modules and construct the co‑expre...

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Chapter 5 Histologic classification of gliomas

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2016 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 134 Author(s): Arie Perry, Pieter Wesseling Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview ...

Chapter 20 Pilocytic astrocytomas

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2016 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 134 Author(s): Miriam Bornhorst, Didier Frappaz, Roger J. Packer Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is the most common pediatric brain tumor in children. PAs are a distinct histologic and biologic subset of glioma that have a slow growth rate and may even spontaneously regress. These tumors tend to arise in the cerebellum and chiasmatic/hypothalamic region, but can also occur in other regions of the central nervous system. Dissemination is uncommon, but may occur in newly diagnosed PAs. Alterations in the Ras/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway (Ras/ERK) have been discovered in a majority of PAs, with KIAA1549-BRAF fusions being the most commonly identified alterati...

Chapter 21 Astrocytic gliomas WHO grades II and III

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2016 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 134 Author(s): Mitchel S. Berger, Shawn Hervey-Jumper, Wolfgang Wick World Health Organization grades II and III lower-grade astrocytomas are a challenging area in neuro-oncology. One the one hand, for proper diagnosis, the analysis of molecular factors, especially mutation status of isocitrate dehydrogenase and 1p/19q status in the tumor status needs to be done in addition to classical neuropathology. Further, the high clinical and prognostic value of a maximal safe resection requires a profound knowledge of presurgical diagnosis and surgical as well as imaging techniques to ensure optimal outcome for patients. Also medical treatment may be more intensive than previously believed, with randomized trials providing ev...

Chapter 22 Low-grade and anaplastic oligodendroglioma

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2016 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 134 Author(s): Martin J. Van Den Bent, Jacolien E.C. Bromberg, Jan Buckner Anaplastic oligodendrogliomas have long attracted interest because of their sensitivity to chemotherapy, in particular in the subset of 1p/19q co-deleted tumors. Recent molecular studies have shown that all 1p/19q co-deleted tumors have IDH mutations and most of them also have TERT mutations. Because of the presence of similar typical genetic alterations in astrocytoma and glioblastoma, the current trend is to diagnose these tumors on the basis of their molecular profile. Further long-term follow-up analysis of both EORTC and RTOG randomized studies on (neo)adjuvant procarbazine, lomustine, vincristine (PCV) chemotherapy have shown that adjuva...

Chapter 24 Rare glial tumors

Fri, 04 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 2016 Source:Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Volume 134 Author(s): Riccardo Soffietti, Roberta Rudà, David Reardon This chapter describes the epidemiology, pathology, molecular characteristics, clinical and neuroimaging features, treatment, outcome, and prognostic factors of the rare glial tumors. This category includes subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma, astroblastoma, chordoid glioma of the third ventricle, angiocentric glioma, ganglioglioma, desmoplastic infantile astrocytoma and ganglioma, dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor, papillary glioneuronal tumor, and rosette-forming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle. Many of these tumors, in particular glioneuronal tumors, prevail in children and young adults, are characterized...

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Oncology Referral Concerning Paediatric Neurosurgery? Analysis of the Situation between 2008-2013 in the North of Portugal.

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 16:03:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: We showed an improvement when comparing to data previous to 2008 and better results than those from previous studies, namely higher survival at 1-, 3- and 5-years from the diagnosis, with low complication and relapsing rates. Therefore, the referral of primary central nervous system tumours cases to centres with larger experience can be invaluable for the achievement of the best outcomes. PMID: 26926894 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Acta Medica Portuguesa)

Comparison of the values of MRI diffusion kurtosis imaging and diffusion tensor imaging in cerebral astrocytoma grading and their association with aquaporin-4

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Use of DKI improved grading of cerebral astrocytomas when compared with DTI. DKI parameters appeared to reflect the level of AQP4 expression in astrocytomas. (Source: Neurology India)

Diffusion kurtosis imaging for cerebral astrocytomas

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Aditya Vedantam, Vedantam RajshekharNeurology India 2016 64(2):273-274 (Source: Neurology India)

Primary cervical intramedullary synovial sarcoma: a longitudinal observation

Thu, 03 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A 20-year-old man presented with a one-month history of hypoesthesia in his left limbs. A spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated an intramedullary mass with paratumoral edema at the level of C2 (Fig. 1A-C). A diagnosis of astrocytoma was suspected. Considering the potential risks and benefits of the operation, he refused the recommended surgical resection of the tumor and chose a conventional observation. During the following two months, he developed progressive weakness and numbness in all extremities. (Source: The Spine Journal)

Infiltrating spinal cord astrocytomas: Epidemiology, diagnosis, treatments and future directions

Wed, 02 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Author(s): Muhammad M. Abd-El-Barr, Kevin T. Huang, John H. Chi Spinal cord gliomas, consisting mostly of ependymomas and astrocytomas, are rare entities. Of the gliomas, infiltrating astrocytomas are particularly challenging entities to treat due to their invasive nature. Surgical resection is oftentimes not possible without subjecting patients to permanent neurological deficits because of the difficulty in establishing clear tissue planes. As more is learned about the molecular genetics, genomics, and biology of these tumors, it is becoming more apparent that there are important differences between these tumors and their more common intracranial counterparts. There also appears to be important cl...

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Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitor Induced Complete Remission of a Recurrent Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma in a Patient Without Features of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 16:34:48 +0100

The majority of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) have tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). In such patients, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has been shown to induce responses. Isolated SEGA have been reported in patients without clinical or genetic features of TSC. The treatment of these patients with everolimus has not previously been reported. We treated a patient with a recurrent isolated SEGA with an mTOR inhibitor. The patient tolerated therapy well and had a sustained complete remission. MTOR inhibitors may be useful for the treatment of isolated SEGA. Further study is warranted. (Source: Pediatric Blood and Cancer)

Potential Utility of Visually AcceSAble Rembrandt Images Assessment in Brain Astrocytoma Grading

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: Our data illustrate that magnetic resonance features of VASARI especially enhancement quality, edema proportion, and noncontrast enhancing tumor proportion provided precise and detailed information of astrocytoma grading and suggested that prediction of astrocytoma grading is based on VASARI as an adjunct to biopsy. (Source: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography)

A case of multiple radiation‐induced gliomas 24 years after radiation therapy against pituitary adenoma

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Key Clinical Message We treated a case in which multiple astrocytomas of varying grades developed in the irradiation field 24 years after radiation therapy. Differentiation from radiation necrosis based on presurgical diagnostic imaging was difficult; therefore, we feel it is essential to aggressively pursue histological diagnoses to select the optimal treatment method. We treated a case in which multiple astrocytomas of varying grades developed in the irradiation field 24 years after radiation therapy. Differentiation from radiation necrosis based on presurgical diagnostic imaging was difficult; therefore, we feel it is essential to aggressively pursue histological diagnoses to select the optimal treatment method. (Source: Clinical Case Reports)

Versatile utilization of real-time intraoperative contrast-enhanced ultrasound in cranial neurosurgery: technical note and retrospective case series.

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS Intraoperative CEUS has potential for safe, real-time, dynamic contrast-based imaging for routine use in neurooncological surgery and image-guided biopsy. Intraoperative CEUS eliminates the effect of anatomical distortions associated with standard neuronavigation and provides quantitative perfusion data in real time, which may hold major implications for intraoperative diagnosis, tissue differentiation, and quantification of extent of resection. Further prospective studies will help standardize the role of iCEUS in neurosurgery. PMID: 26926064 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Neurosurgical Focus)

Overexpression of vascular adhesion protein‐1 is associated with poor prognosis of astrocytomas

Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study was designed to investigate VAP‐1 expression level in different astrocytoma grades and its correlation with clinicopathological features as well as prognosis of astrocytoma patients. Eighty‐seven patients with different grades of astrocytoma (WHO Grade I–Grade IV) were enrolled in this study. The expression of VAP‐1 was assayed by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between VAP‐1 expression and clinicopathological features was evaluated by Chi‐square test, and overall survival was analyzed by Kaplan–Meier method. Cox regression analysis was applied to analyze the independent influence of each parameter on overall survival. The expression level of VAP‐1 was significantly higher in diffuse astrocytoma than those of pilocytic astrocytoma (p < 0.0001). In the ...

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The Role of mTOR Inhibitors in the Treatment of Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Evidence-based and Expert Opinions

Mon, 29 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This article provides evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of SEGA, TSC-related epilepsy and renal AML, with a focus on where mTOR inhibitor therapy may be considered alongside other treatment options. Safety considerations regarding mTOR inhibitor therapy are also reviewed. With evidence of beneficial effects in neurological and non-neurological TSC manifestations, mTOR inhibitors may represent a systemic treatment for TSC. (Source: Drugs)

Air pollutants associated with astrocytoma and medulloblastoma

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 19:35:03 +0100

Danysh HE, Mitchell LE, Zhang K, Scheurer ME, Lupo PJ. Traffic-related air pollution and the incidence of childhood central nervous system tumors: Texas, 2001-2009. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62:1572-8. (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)

Molecular classification of anaplastic oligodendroglioma using next-generation sequencing: a report of the prospective randomized EORTC Brain Tumor Group 26951 phase III trial

Thu, 25 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Targeted NGS allows a clinically relevant classification of diffuse glioma into groups with very different outcomes. The diagnosis of diffuse glioma should be primarily based on a molecular classification, with the histopathological grade added to it. Future discussion should primarily aim at establishing the minimum requirements for molecular classification of diffuse glioma. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)

Cervical spinal pilocytic astrocytoma

Mon, 22 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

A 54 –year-old man presented to the neurosurgery clinic with neck pain and motor weakness in the his right arm. The symptoms were initially thought to indicate a herniated cervical dics. Magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) revealed an intramedullary mass in the cervical region that was causing cord -expansion (Figure 1–2). The lesions were hyperintense on T2-weighted (T2W) and hypointense on T1- weighted (T1W) images (Figure 1). After injection of a contrast agent, MRI showed a heterogenous enhancement in the masses (Figure 2). (Source: The Spine Journal)

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Primary Leptomeningeal Gliomatosis in Children and Adults: A Morphological and Molecular Comparative Study With Literature Review

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 10:34:15 +0100

CONCLUSION: This study shows the difficulties of PLG diagnosis. The challenge is to achieve an early biopsy to establish a diagnosis and to begin a treatment, but the prognosis remains poor. PLG seems to have a different molecular and immunohistochemical pattern compared with intraparenchymal malignant gliomas. ABBREVIATIONS: OS, overall survival PLG, primary leptomeningeal gliomatosis (Source: Neurosurgery)

Rab23 is overexpressed in human astrocytoma and promotes cell migration and invasion through regulation of Rac1

Sat, 20 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, Rab23 serves as an important oncoprotein in human astrocytoma by regulating cell invasion and migration through Rac1 activity. (Source: Tumor Biology)

A Case Series Characterizing Pilomyxoid Astrocytomas in Childhood

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 10:35:02 +0100

Conclusion: Our data suggest that PMAs are hypermetabolic on PET, have elevated PIs and BRAF V600E mutations, and behave aggressively. (Source: Journal of Pediatric Hematology Oncology)

Extra‐hepatic replication and infection of hepatitis E virus in neuronal‐derived cells

Fri, 19 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In conclusion, these results indicate that HEV tropism is not restricted to the liver and HEV can potentially complete the full viral life cycle in neuronal‐derived tissues explaining neurologic disorders during HEV infection. (Source: Journal of Viral Hepatitis)

Molecular profiling of gliomas: potential therapeutic implications.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 15:36:02 +0100

Authors: Alentorn A, Duran-Peña A, Pingle SC, Piccioni DE, Idbaih A, Kesari S Abstract Gliomas are the most common primary malignant brain tumor. Over the last decade, significant advances have been made in the molecular characterization of this tumor group, identifying predictive biomarkers or molecular actionable targets, and paving the way to molecular-based targeted therapies. This personalized therapeutic approach is effective and illustrated in the present review. Among many molecular abnormalities, BRAF mutation and mTOR activation in pilocytic astrocytomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are actionable targets sensitive to vemurafenib and everolimus, respectively. Chromosome arms 1p/19q co-deletion and IDH mutational status are pivotal in driving delivery of early...

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Therapeutic effects of dasatinib in mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:28:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Dasatinib with its potential therapeutic effects and immunomodulatory properties may be recommended, after additional necessary tests and trials, for the treatment of MS. PMID: 25975582 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology)

Direct immunomodulatory influence of IFN-β on human astrocytoma cells.

Wed, 17 Feb 2016 14:28:02 +0100

Authors: Mohsenzadegan M, Fayazi MR, Abdolmaleki M, Bakhshayesh M, Seif F, Mousavizadeh K Abstract Astrocytes actively play a pivotal role in inflammatory disease intensity of central nervous system especially multiple sclerosis (MS). Although IFN-β is a selective therapy for MS but the role of IFN-β in stimulating the astrocytes to produce cytokines is not clearly revealed. Therefore, it is encouraging to assess the modulatory role of IFN-β on astrocytes of brain tissue. The aim of our study was to analyze the molecular mechanisms of recombinant IFN-β 1a directly affecting IL-10, iNOS, MMP-9 and TIMP-1 expression in central nervous system for the first time. In this way, in vitro procedures conducted by human astrocytoma A172 and 1321N1 cell lines as a model system. The total ...

Up-Regulation of microRNA-183 Promotes Cell Proliferation and Invasion in Glioma By Directly Targeting NEFL.

Mon, 15 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study revealed that miR-183 promotes glioma cell proliferation by targeting NEFL, and also demonstrated that miR-183 could be a potential target for GBM treatment. PMID: 26879754 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology)

BRAF inhibitors in BRAF-V600 mutated primary neuroepithelial brain tumors.

Sun, 14 Feb 2016 14:09:02 +0100

Authors: Preusser M, Bienkowski M, Birner P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Primary neuroepithelial brain tumors encompass a wide variety of glial and glioneuronal neoplasms. Malignant tumors, tumors located in surgically inaccessible locations (e.g., eloquent brain areas, deep structures, brain stem) and recurrent or progressive tumors pose considerable treatment challenges and are candidates for novel therapeutics based on molecular insights. Small kinase inhibitors of v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homologue B1 (BRAF) have shown considerable antineoplastic activity in some tumor types harboring activating BRAF-V600 mutations (e.g., melanoma) and promising data are emerging on BRAF inhibitor therapy of mutation-bearing primary brain tumors. AREAS COVERED: This review summarizes t...

Phytochemical study and evaluation of cytotoxic and genotoxic properties of extracts from Clusia latipes leaves

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 03:23:16 +0100

In this study, we examined the cytotoxic effect of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts from Clusia latipes Planch. & Triana, Clusiaceae, leaves on survival of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3), colon cancer cells (RKO), astrocytoma cells (D-384), and breast cancer cells (MCF-7). The ethyl acetate extract displayed the most substantial cytotoxic effect. However, using a Comet assay, we observed that the hexane extract induced a genotoxic effect (DNA damage) on human lymphocytes in an in vitro model. Chromatographic purification of the C. latipes hexane extract led to the isolation and identification of friedelin, friedolan-3-ol, and hesperidin as active cytotoxic compounds in hexane extract, while β-amyrine was identified as an active cytotoxic compound in the ethyl acetate ex...

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Survivin, caspase-3 and MIB-1 expression in astrocytic tumors of various grades

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions The high incidence of survivin and caspase-3 expression in diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma cases may suggest, that the regulation between pro- and antiapoptotic proteins may play an important role in tumor growth and progression. The overexpression of survivin and MIB-1 expression in glioblastoma cases also may confirm the theory about the important role of anti-apoptotic and proliferation processes in glioblastoma progression and as such may be potential therapeutic targets. (Source: Advances in Medical Sciences)

Anticancer activity of glucomoringin isothiocyanate in human malignant astrocytoma cells.

Sat, 13 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Rajan TS, De Nicola GR, Iori R, Rollin P, Bramanti P, Mazzon E Abstract Isothiocyanates (ITCs) released from their glucosinolate precursors have been shown to inhibit tumorigenesis and they have received significant attention as potential chemotherapeutic agents against cancer. Astrocytoma grade IV is the most frequent and most malignant primary brain tumor in adults without any curative treatment. New therapeutic drugs are therefore urgently required. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro antitumor activity of the glycosylated isothiocyanate moringin [4-(α-l-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate] produced from quantitative myrosinase-induced hydrolysis of glucomoringin (GMG) under neutral pH value. We have evaluated the potency of moringin on apoptosis in...

Transient Prosopagnosia With Right Temporal Astrocytoma.

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 06:25:02 +0100

Authors: Anderson CA, Woodcock JH, Filley CM PMID: 26844963 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences)

Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA): a case report and review of the literature

Tue, 09 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions Subependymal giant cell astrocytoma is a rare tumor of the central nervous system whose diagnosis is based on clinical, radiological, histological and immunohistochemical arguments. For its rarity, we must consider this diagnosis when faced with a mass near the foramen of Monro in the pediatric population even if there are no other features of tuberous sclerosis complex. (Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports)

Low Grade Gliomas in Children

Mon, 08 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Gliomas represent the most common solid tumor of the nervous system, and can occur as both low and high-grade tumors. Current risk stratification and treatment approaches rely heavily on the morphological classification of gliomas whereby low-grade gliomas have an excellent prognosis, particularly pilocytic astrocytomas, while high-grade gliomas have a poor prognosis. The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase in scholars’ knowledge of the biology of pediatric low-grade gliomas particularly through the advent of integrated genomics and next generation sequencing. Indeed, many of these biological advances are changing treatment paradigms, particularly in low-grade gliomas, where rationale targeted therapies are currently being explored in clinical trials. In this review the aut...

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Comparison of cancer survival trends in the United States of adolescents and young adults with those in children and older adults

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONSImprovements in the survival of several cancer types that occur frequently in AYAs are encouraging. However, survival does not appear to be improving to the same extent in AYAs as in children or older adults for several cancers. Further investment in exploring the distinct biology of tumors in this age group, and of their hosts, must be a priority in AYA oncology. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. (Source: Cancer)

Safety of Everolimus in Patients Younger than 3 Years of Age: Results from EXIST-1, a Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

Fri, 05 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

To assess the long-term safety of everolimus in young children with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA). (Source: The Journal of Pediatrics)

Mesenchymal/radioresistant traits in granular astrocytomas: evidence from a combined clinical and molecular approach

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsOur findings show that specific morphological traits, such as a granular cell component, could represent useful features in guiding search for prognostic and predictive biomarkers, eventually amenable to targeted therapies (i.e. Met‐inhibitors aimed at reducing radio‐resistance).This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Histopathology)

The clinicopathological features of pituicytoma and the differential diagnosis of sellar glioma

Mon, 01 Feb 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study explored the clinicopathological features, immunophenotype and differential diagnosis of pituicytoma. We compared 11 cases of pituicytoma and 26 cases of sellar glioma (16 pilocytic astrocytomas, four diffuse astrocytomas, three pilomyxoid astrocytomas, and three third ventricle chordoid gliomas). The 11 pituicytoma cases involved six men and five women (age: 33–65 years). Three of the 11 patients experienced recurrence due to a residual tumor, and one patient underwent three surgeries during a 6‐month period. Imaging findings revealed tumors were in the intrasellar region (four cases), suprasellar region (four cases) and intra‐suprasellar regions (three cases). The tumor diameters were 1.3–3.8 cm, and the preoperative diagnoses were pituitary adenoma, craniopharyngiom...

Molecular Profiling Reveals Biologically Discrete Subsets and Pathways of Progression in Diffuse Glioma

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 28 January 2016 Source:Cell, Volume 164, Issue 3 Author(s): Michele Ceccarelli, Floris P. Barthel, Tathiane M. Malta, Thais S. Sabedot, Sofie R. Salama, Bradley A. Murray, Olena Morozova, Yulia Newton, Amie Radenbaugh, Stefano M. Pagnotta, Samreen Anjum, Jiguang Wang, Ganiraju Manyam, Pietro Zoppoli, Shiyun Ling, Arjun A. Rao, Mia Grifford, Andrew D. Cherniack, Hailei Zhang, Laila Poisson, Carlos Gilberto Carlotti, Daniela Pretti da Cunha Tirapelli, Arvind Rao, Tom Mikkelsen, Ching C. Lau, W.K. Alfred Yung, Raul Rabadan, Jason Huse, Daniel J. Brat, Norman L. Lehman, Jill S. Barnholtz-Sloan, Siyuan Zheng, Kenneth Hess, Ganesh Rao, Matthew Meyerson, Rameen Beroukhim, Lee Cooper, Rehan Akbani, Margaret Wrensch, David ...

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Bevacizumab changes vascular structure and modulates the expression of angiogenic factors in recurrent malignant gliomas

Fri, 29 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Bevacizumab (BV), a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is currently used in the treatment of malignant glioma. To understand mechanisms of resistance to BV, we investigated morphological changes in tumor vessels and expression of angiogenic factors, such as VEGF, Flt-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), in four autopsied tumors after BV treatment. Three patients had glioblastomas; the fourth had a secondary glioblastoma that developed from a diffuse astrocytoma. BV was administered because of recurrence following the use of the Stupp regimen in these four patients. We compared the initial surgical specimen with that obtained after death following BV treatment. Immunohistochemical sta...

In precision medicine, pioneering young patient teaches veteran doctor

Thu, 28 Jan 2016 16:00:13 +0100

Allison Schablein seems an unlikely candidate to teach medicine to Mark Kieran. She’s an 8-year-old New Hampshire second grader who loves basketball, hip hop, acrobatic dancing and jewelry. He’s a pediatric neuro-oncologist with a PhD in molecular biology, not to mention decades of clinical and research experience. But teach Kieran, Allison does. In December 2012, Allison was diagnosed with metastatic anaplastic astrocytoma brain tumors — two on her brain stem, two on her spine, and three at the top of her head. She had surgery and chemotherapy — and for two months her tumors responded to therapy. Then treatment stopped working. Genomic testing revealed Allison’s tumors had a genetic mutation — a so-called BRAF mutation — seen in some cases of the skin cancer melanoma, which ...

miR-15a and miR-24-1 as putative prognostic microRNA signatures for pediatric pilocytic astrocytomas and ependymomas

Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract In the current setting, we attempted to verify and validate miRNA candidates relevant to pediatric primary brain tumor progression and outcome, in order to provide data regarding the identification of novel prognostic biomarkers. Overall, 26 resected brain tumors were studied from children diagnosed with pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) (n = 19) and ependymomas (EPs) (n = 7). As controls, deceased children who underwent autopsy and were not present with any brain malignancy were used. The experimental approach included microarrays covering 1211 miRNAs. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to validate the expression profiles of miR-15a and miR-24-1. The multiparameter analyses were performed with MATLAB. Matching differentially expre...

How I treat glioblastoma in older patients

Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 22 December 2015 Source:Journal of Geriatric Oncology Author(s): Nimish A. Mohile Glioblastoma, a WHO grade IV astrocytoma, is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults. It is characterized by molecular heterogeneity and aggressive behavior. Glioblastoma is almost always incurable and most older patients survive less than 6months. Supportive care with steroids and anti-epileptic drugs is critical to improving and maintain quality of life. Young age, good performance status and methylation of the methyl guanyl methyl transferase promoter are important positive prognostic factors. Several recent clinical trials suggest that there is a subset of the elderly with prolonged survival that is comparable to younger patients. Treatment of glioblas...

miR-21 Is Linked to Glioma Angiogenesis: A Co-Localization Study

Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently over-expressed microRNA (miRNA) in malignant gliomas. We have previously reported that miR-21 is upregulated in glioma vessels and subsets of glioma cells. To better understand the role of miR-21 in glioma angiogenesis and to characterize miR-21-positive tumor cells, we systematically stained consecutive serial sections from ten astrocytomas for miR-21, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), sex-determining region Y box 2 (Sox2) and CD133. We developed an image analysis-based co-localization approach allowing global alignment and quantitation of the individual markers, and measured the miR-21 in situ hybrid...

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Post-operative accidental diagnosis of intra-cerebellar astrocytoma in an emergency appendicectomy case

Tue, 26 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

KS Nagesh, SR Prasad, V Manjunath, PS NagarajaIndian Journal of Anaesthesia 2016 60(1):60-63 (Source: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia)

Tumor cell vascular mimicry: Novel targeting opportunity in melanoma

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 22 January 2016 Source:Pharmacology & Therapeutics Author(s): Mary J.C. Hendrix, Elisabeth A. Seftor, Richard E.B. Seftor, Jun-Tzu Chao, Du-Shieng Chien, Yi-Wen Chu In 1999, the American Journal of Pathology published an article, entitled “Vascular channel formation by human melanoma cells in vivo and in vitro: vasculogenic mimicry” by Maniotis and colleagues, which ignited a spirited debate for several years and earned the journal’s distinction of a “citation classic” (Maniotis et al., 1999). Tumor cell vasculogenic mimicry (VM), also known as vascular mimicry, describes the plasticity of aggressive cancer cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the malignant phe...

Genetic alterations in uncommon low-grade neuroepithelial tumors: BRAF , FGFR1 , and MYB mutations occur at high frequency and align with morphology

Mon, 25 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we have used massively parallel sequencing and various targeted molecular genetic approaches to study alterations in 91 LGNTs, mostly from children but including young adult patients. These tumors comprise dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNETs; n = 22), diffuse oligodendroglial tumors (d-OTs; n = 20), diffuse astrocytomas (DAs; n = 17), angiocentric gliomas (n = 15), and gangliogliomas (n = 17). Most LGNTs (84 %) analyzed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) were characterized by a single driver genetic alteration. Alterations of FGFR1 occurred frequently in LGNTs composed of oligodendrocyte-like cells, being present in 82 % of DNETs and 40 % of d-OTs. In contrast, a MYB-QKI fusion characterized almost all angiocentric gliomas (87 %), and MYB fusion genes ...

Differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A, its receptors VEGFR-1, -2, and -3 and co-receptors neuropilin-1 and -2 does not predict bevacizumab response in human astrocytomas

Sat, 23 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion Since our data indicate that beneficial response to bevacizumab treatment is independent of the expression of VEGF-A and its (co-) receptors, further investigation is needed to decipher the underlying mechanisms of antiangiogenic treatment response. (Source: Neuro-Oncology)

Diffuse leptomeningeal spread of supratentorial recurrent pilocytic astrocytoma in a child

Wed, 20 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Amol Raheja, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Aruna Nambirajan, Mehar Chand Sharma, Bhawani Shankar SharmaJournal of Pediatric Neurosciences 2015 10(4):408-411 (Source: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences)

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Genomic profiling of lower-grade gliomas uncovers cohesive disease groups: implications for diagnosis and treatment.

Sun, 17 Jan 2016 03:34:03 +0100

Authors: Zhang CM, Brat DJ Abstract Lower-grade gliomas (including low- and intermediate-grade gliomas, World Health Organization grades II and III) are diffusely infiltrative neoplasms that arise most often in the cerebral hemispheres of adults and have traditionally been classified based on their presumed histogenesis as astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, or oligoastrocytomas. Although the histopathologic classification of lower-grade glioma has been the accepted standard for nearly a century, it suffers from high intra- and inter-observer variability and does not adequately predict clinical outcomes. Based on integrated analysis of multiplatform genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas, lower-grade gliomas have been found to segregate into three cohesive, clinically relevant mol...

Gliofibroma: Report of Four Cases and Review of the Literature.

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 11:40:02 +0100

We report here four examples of this rare condition which exemplify its histological patterns and biological behavior, and provide a review of the literature. Even though this tumor is commonly regarded as heterogeneous and with variable course, our literature review points to a set of clinical and pathological traits that are constant, such as age, location and gross and histological characteristics, as well as a predictable evolution. Currently, this tumor is not included in the WHO Classification of CNS tumors. PMID: 26720861 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology)

Pilomyxoid astrocytoma in the adult cerebellum

Fri, 15 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 14 January 2016 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Author(s): Annie S. Chen, Iddo Paldor, Alpha E. Tsui, Tanya I. Yuen Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA) is a recently recognised World Health Organization (WHO) Grade II tumour that was previously characterised as a subtype of the WHO Grade I pilocytic astrocytoma (PA). PMA has a histological appearance distinct from PA and a poorer prognosis due to its greater propensity for local recurrence and cerebrospinal dissemination. Although originally considered a paediatric tumour involving mainly the hypothalamic and chiasmatic region, reports of the lesion occurring in the adult population and other areas of the neuroaxis are emerging. We review the literature on PMA within the adult population and presen...

Abstract B12: H3-K27M is a negative prognostic marker in high- and low-grade pediatric thalamic glioma

Thu, 14 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Pediatric gliomas are the most commonly diagnosed brain cancer in children, accounting for approximately 50% of all cases. Work by our group and others has revealed recurrent histone mutations in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), astrocytomas that arise in the brainstem of children and boast a dismal median survival of less than one year. In ~70% of DIPG, a mutation in histone variant H3.3 or H3.1 at position 27 leads to substitution of a lysine by a methionine (K27M). When correlated to clinical data, patients harbouring H3-K27M mutations showed a worse prognosis in comparison to patients wild type for H3 (H3-WT), regardless of their histologic grade. Investigation into H3-K27M prevalence in pediatric gliomas revealed that they were not exclusively observed in the brainstem, but ra...

Combined targeted treatment in early onset epilepsy associated with tuberous sclerosis

Wed, 13 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

We present a case report of a child with tuberous sclerosis who presented infantile spasms at the age of 6 months, immediately treated with vigabatrin. Due to presence of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma he also received everolimus since 18 months of age. We might wonder if an earlier treatment could have produced a better outcome, in fact despite a targeted combined treatment he continues to suffer from sporadic focal motor seizures, and at the age of 40 months he presents severe developmental delay with autism-like behavior. (Source: Epilepsy and Behavior Case Reports)

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Combined “Infiltrating Astrocytoma/Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma” Harboring IDH1 R132H and BRAF V600E Mutations

Tue, 12 Jan 2016 23:17:16 +0100

We report the case of a 56-year-old man presenting with seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large right temporal lobe mass with low T1 and high T2/FLAIR signal and a discrete contrast-enhancing focus. Histologically, the tumor showed 2 distinct components: an infiltrating astrocytoma harboring 5 mitoses/10 high-power fields and a relatively circumscribed focus, resembling PXA with, at most, 2 mitoses/10 high-power fields. No microvascular proliferation or necrosis was present in either component. The infiltrating astrocytoma component contained numerous axons, whereas the PXA-like component had sparse axons, as demonstrated by the neurofilament immunostain. Both components were positive for the mutant IDH1 R132H and showed loss of ATRX expression, whereas BRAF V60...

TERT mutation in glioma: Frequency, prognosis and risk

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 4 January 2016 Source:Journal of Clinical Neuroscience Author(s): Yang Yuan, Chen Qi, Gou Maling, Wang Xiang, Liu Yanhui, Liang Ruofei, Mao Yunhe, Luo Jiewen, Mao Qing Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has received a great deal of attention in recent years for its role as a prognostic and predictive molecular marker of glioma. However, the results of studies examining its mutation frequency and predictive value are inconsistent, and several studies have investigated the association between TERT gene polymorphisms and gliomagenesis. We used a meta-analysis approach to examine these unsolved problems. A bibliography search using EMBASE and MEDLINE was performed to identify potentially relevant articles and conference abstracts that investig...

Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification in high-grade gliomas: Western Indian tertiary cancer center experience

Mon, 11 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: 34% of our adult GBM patients showed EGFR gene amplification. The amplification was uncommonly associated with a strong diffuse p53 protein expression. (Source: Neurology India)

An Intercellular Network Drives Brain Tumor Invasion and Resistance [Brain Tumors]

Thu, 07 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Tumor microtubes (TM) enable astrocytoma invasion, network communication, and radioresistance. (Source: Cancer Discovery)

Gliomatosis cerebri in children shares molecular characteristics with other pediatric gliomas

Thu, 07 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Gliomatosis cerebri (GC), a rare and deadly CNS neoplasm characterized by involvement of at least three cerebral lobes, predominantly affects adults. While a few small series have reported its occurrence in children, little is known about the molecular characteristics of pediatric GC. We reviewed clinical, radiological, and histological features of pediatric patients with primary GC treated at our institution over 15 years. Targeted sequencing of mutational hotspots in H3F3A, IDH1/2, and BRAF, and genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation and copy number abnormalities was performed in available tumors. Thirty-two patients [23 (72 %) with type 1 and 9 (28 %) with type 2 GC] were identified. Median age at diagnosis was 10.2 years (range 1.5–19.1). A median of 4 cerebral...

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Increased occurrence of protein kinase CK2 in astrocytes in Alzheimer’s disease pathology

Wed, 06 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: This data suggests that CK2 in astrocytes is involved in the neuroinflammatory response in AD. The reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion by human astrocytes using the selective CK2 inhibitor CX-4945 indicates that CK2 could be a potential target to modulate neuroinflammation in AD. (Source: Journal of Neuroinflammation)

Utility of ATRX immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of adult diffuse gliomas

Wed, 06 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsDistinct histologic and molecular characteristics of adult diffuse gliomas with and without ATRX immunoreactivity indicate the utility of ATRX immunohistochemistry in diagnostic practice.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Histopathology)

The role of temozolomide in the management of patients with newly diagnosed anaplastic astrocytoma: a comparison of survival in the era prior to and following the availability of temozolomide

Mon, 04 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Adding temozolomide (TMZ) to radiation for patients with newly-diagnosed anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs) is common clinical practice despite the lack of prospective studies demonstrating a survival advantage. Two retrospective studies, each with methodologic limitations, provide conflicting advice regarding treatment. This single-institution retrospective study was conducted to determine survival trends in patients with AA. All patients ≥18 years with newly-diagnosed AA treated at Johns Hopkins from 1995 to 2012 were included. As we incorporated TMZ into high-grade glioma treatment regimens in 2004, patients were divided into pre-2004 and post-2004 groups for analysis. Clinical, radiographic, and pathologic data were collected. Median overall survival (OS) was calculate...

Targeted treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex in Egyptian children

Fri, 01 Jan 2016 06:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: This study showed that treatment of TSC patients with the mTOR inhibitory oral drug, everolimus, resulted in clinically significant benefits not only in reducing the size of subependymal nodules but also in reducing the frequency and severity of seizures in refractory epilepsy. (Source: Middle East Journal of Medical Genetics)

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The effect of pregnancy on survival in a low-grade glioma cohort.

Fri, 01 Jan 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS Pregnancy does not seem to have an impact on the survival of female patients with LGG. PMID: 26722849 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Neurosurgery)

Clinicopathological factors predictive of postoperative seizures in patients with gliomas

Thu, 31 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies gliomas into four grades, and grades III and IV are defined as high-grade gliomas (HGGs).[1] Medical advances have improved the effectiveness of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapeutic drugs. However, HGGs are extremely invasive, and the prognosis of patients with HGGs remains poor with median survival times of 22 months for AA (anaplastic astrocytoma) and 12 months for GBM (glioblastoma).[2] Thus, it is important to enhance the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the neurological symptoms induced by HGGs, such as seizures, which significantly affect quality of life. (Source: Seizure: European Journal of Epilepsy)

Posterior Fossa Intra-axial Tumors in Adults

Tue, 29 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

The posterior fossa is the site of many types of tumors, and brain metastases are the most common malignancies in that location among adults. Other brain tumors, such as ependymomas, medulloblastomas and juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas, mostly occur during childhood and are relatively rare in the adult population. The majority of primary malignant brain tumors, such as gliomas and lymphomas, tend to be located in the supratentorial compartment. (Source: World Neurosurgery)

Pathological crying and emotional vasovagal syncope as symptoms of a dorsally exophytic medullary tumor

Mon, 28 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

A 3-year-old boy with a dorsally exophytic tumor arising from the rostral medulla presented with a chief complaint of a change in his emotional behavior, most notably anxiety and paroxysmal crying often followed by syncope. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the tumor pushed on the dorsal surface of the medulla and displaced the medulla anteriorly, and also displaced the cerebellar vermis upward and slightly posteriorly. Tissue from a partial resection was diagnosed as a pilocytic astrocytoma. (Source: Brain and Development)

miR-101 reverses hypomethylation of the PRDM16 promoter to disrupt mitochondrial function in astrocytoma cells.

Sat, 26 Dec 2015 22:02:03 +0100

Authors: Lei Q, Liu X, Fu H, Sun Y, Wang L, Xu G, Wang W, Yu Z, Liu C, Li P, Feng J, Li G, Wu M Abstract Our previous report identified PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), a member of the PR-domain gene family, as a new methylation associated gene in astrocytoma cells. This previous study also reported that miR-101 is a tumor suppressor in glioma. The present study confirms that PRDM16 is a hypomethylated gene that can be overexpressed in astrocytoma patients and demonstrates that the hypomethylation status of the PRDM16 promoter can predict poor prognoses for astrocytoma patients. The results reported herein show that PRDM16 was inhibited by miR-101 directly and also through epigenetic regulation. PRDM16 was confirmed as a new target of miR-101 and shown to be directly inhibited by ...

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Neuroendoscopic Intraventricular Biopsy in Children with Small Ventricles using Frameless Varioguide® System

Thu, 24 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 December 2015 Source:World Neurosurgery Author(s): Josué M. Avecillas-Chasin, Marcelo Budke, Francisco Villarejo Endoscopic biopsy for intraventricular tumors in pediatric patients with small ventricles is a challenging procedure due to the risk of morbidity during the intraventricular approach. Here, we present the use of the VarioGuide system (Brainlab, Iberica) for intraventricular endoscopic biopsy in children with small ventricles. Nine consecutive pediatric patients with intraventricular lesions and small ventricular size were included. All patients had lesions in the anterior part of the third ventricle with a median frontal and occipital horn ratio (FOR) of 0.33. Four patients presented with growth failure, four patients with visual distu...

Noradrenaline increases intracellular glutathione in human astrocytoma U-251 MG cells by inducing glutamate-cysteine ligase protein via β3-adrenoceptor stimulation.

Thu, 24 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Yoshioka Y, Kadoi H, Yamamuro A, Ishimaru Y, Maeda S Abstract Glutathione (GSH) plays a critical role in protecting cells from oxidative damage. Since neurons rely on the supply of GSH from astrocytes to maintain optimal intracellular GSH concentrations, the GSH concentration of astrocytes is important for the survival of neighboring neurons against oxidative stress. The neurotransmitter noradrenaline is known to modulate the functions of astrocytes and has been suggested to have neuroprotective properties in neurodegenerative diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective properties of noradrenaline, in this study, we investigated the effect of noradrenaline on the concentrations of intracellular GSH in human U-251 malignant glioma (MG; astrocytoma) ...

A prospective study on neurocognitive effects after primary radiotherapy in high-grade glioma patients

Tue, 22 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion We conclude that tumor infiltration of the hippocampus has an impact on neurocognitive function. However, treatment with radiotherapy seems to have less influence on cognitive outcome than expected. (Source: International Journal of Clinical Oncology)

Adult cervicomedullary pilocytic astrocytoma: A case report.

Sat, 19 Dec 2015 06:48:04 +0100

Authors: Zhao Y, Feng L, Wei Q, Gao L Abstract Pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) is a rare glioma, which generally occurs in children and young adults. In adult patients, the majority of PA tumors are supratentorial. Due to the low morbidity rate of the disease in adults, PA is frequently misdiagnosed and mistreated. In the present study, this rare disease was successfully treated. The study reported the case of a 48-year-old patient with a cervicomedullary occupying lesion, who complained of numbness and pain of the right limbs that persisted for >10 years, with aggravation for 1 month. A magnetic resonance imaging scan showed a sharp cervicomedullary mass extending from the lower medulla to the cervical vertebra C3 level. Intraoperatively, the medulla and upper cervical cord were fou...