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MedWorm: Addiction



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in the Addiction category.



Last Build Date: Tue, 22 Mar 2016 08:30:38 +0100

 



A mixed‐method systematic review and meta‐analysis of mental health professionals’ attitudes toward smoking and smoking cessation amongst people with mental illnesses

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 05:07:19 +0100

ConclusionsA significant proportion of mental health professionals hold attitudes and misconceptions that may undermine the delivery of smoking cessation interventions; many report a lack of time, training and confidence as main barriers to addressing smoking in their patients. (Source: Addiction)

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Effects of social and technology overload on psychological well-being in young South Korean adults: The mediatory role of social network service addiction

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study examined the effects of social and information technology overload on psychological well-being. It also explored the mediating role of social network service (SNS) addiction in the hypothesized relationships between these variables. A sample of 419 college students and employees in their 20s and 30s, who were SNS users in South Korea, participated in the study. The results showed that social and information technology overload did not exert a direct impact on psychological well-being. SNS addiction served as a mediator in the relationships between these variables. The theoretical contributions and useful managerial implications of the study, with respect to reducing SNS users' addiction and improving their psychological well-being, were described. (Source: Computers in Human Beh...



National Intervention Counseling Group Celebrates 8th Anniversary

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 15:07:01 +0100

Founded by Counselor Mike Loverde, Family First Intervention forges ahead into its eighth year of counseling drug and alcohol addicts and their families. Family First Intervention has helped stage...(PRWeb March 21, 2016)Read the full story at http://www.prweb.com/releases/2016/03/prweb13276862.htm (Source: PRWeb: Medical Pharmaceuticals)



Medical News Today: The smell of alcohol can affect behavior

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 08:00:00 +0100

Just smelling alcohol on a face mask can make it harder for people to control their behavior, says a new study with implications for addiction and substance use. (Source: Health News from Medical News Today)



Maintaining a Pregnant Pause

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

It is a public health success that 55% of women smokers quit during pregnancy. Women understand that smoking can harm their developing fetus, including premature birth, birth defects, and stillbirth, and this provides the necessary motivation for overcoming the tobacco addiction. (Source: JAMA Internal Medicine)



Morphofunctional alterations in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in acute and prolonged opiates withdrawal. A computational perspective

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: 13 May 2016 Source:Neuroscience, Volume 322 Author(s): P. Enrico, M. Migliore, S. Spiga, G. Mulas, F. Caboni, M. Diana Dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) play a key role in the neurobiological basis of goal-directed behaviors and addiction. Morphine (MOR) withdrawal induces acute and long-term changes in the morphology and physiology of VTA DA cells, but the mechanisms underlying these modifications are poorly understood. Because of their predictive value, computational models are a powerful tool in neurobiological research, and are often used to gain further insights and deeper understanding on the molecular and physiological mechanisms underlying the development of various psychiatric disorders. Here we present a biophysical model of a DA ...

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Occipital event-related potentials to addiction-related stimuli in detoxified patients with alcohol dependence, and their association with three-month relapse

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Understanding the biological underpinnings of relapse in alcohol dependency is a major issue in addiction research. Based on recent evidence regarding the relevance of occipital visual evoked response potentia... (Source: BMC Psychiatry)



Implications of gambling problems for family and interpersonal adjustment: Results from the Quinte Longitudinal Study

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONSIn a longitudinal study of Canadian adults, moderate‐risk/problem gambling (MR/PG) did not predict overall trajectories of family or interpersonal adjustment. Rather, the annual measures of MR/PG predicted time‐specific and concurrent decreases in all outcomes, and lower family functioning and social support across adjacent waves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)



The Indirect Effects of Childhood ADHD on Alcohol Problems in Adulthood through Unique Facets of Impulsivity

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsElevated levels of emotional impulsivity (negative/positive urgency) may place children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at increased risk for alcohol problems in adulthood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)



Which measures of cigarette dependence are predictors of smoking cessation during pregnancy? Analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsFour common measures of dependence, including number of cigarettes smoked per day, scores for Fagerstrom test of cigarette dependence and frequency of urges, and level of expired CO, all predicted smoking abstinence in the short term during pregnancy and at end‐of‐pregnancy with very similar predictive validity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)



Drinking group characteristics related to willingness to engage in protective behaviors with the group at nightclubs.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Electronic music dance events (EMDEs) in nightclubs are settings where young adults tend to engage in high-risk behaviors, such as heavy alcohol and drug use. Consequences of these behaviors may be prevented if young adults engage in protective strategies with their drinking group. It is important to identify drinking group characteristics that predict willingness to intervene with peers. Objectives of this study were to (a) examine whether young adults at EMDEs would be willing to intervene with members of their drinking group and (b) identify both individual and group characteristics of drinking groups that predict willingness to intervene. Nightclub patrons (N = 215 individuals; 80 groups) were surveyed anonymously as they entered clubs. Individual- and group-level characteristics were ...

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Within treatment therapeutic alliance ratings profiles predict posttreatment frequency of alcohol use.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we examined the association between alliance characteristics during treatment and 4-month follow-up drinking reports. Sixty-five treatment-seeking alcohol dependent clients who participated in 12 weeks of individual outpatient treatment provided weekly TA ratings during treatment and reported on pretreatment, during treatment, and posttreatment alcohol use. Latent profile analysis was conducted to discern distinct profiles of client and therapist ratings of therapeutic alliance with similar alliance characteristics. TA profiles were based on clients’ and therapists’ mean alliance rating, minimum alliance rating, maximum alliance rating, the range of alliance ratings, and the difference in session number between maximum and minimum alliance ratings. One- through 4-class m...



Interactive effects within the prototype willingness model: Predicting the drinking behavior of indigenous early adolescents.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Drawing on the Prototype/Willingness Model of Adolescent Risk Behavior, we used longitudinal data collected from North American Indigenous early adolescents (ages 10–12 years) to examine the interactive effects of favorable drinker prototypes, perceived drinking norms, and past-year drinking behavior on subsequent drinking behavior (i.e., drinking behavior 1 year later and growth in drinking behavior from 1–5 years later). We found that the positive association between favorable drinker prototypes and drinking 1 year later was strongest for adolescents who were high in past-year drinking and perceived low drinking norms. The interaction pattern for growth in drinking was more complex and suggested an important pattern; specifically, favorable drinker prototypes were positively associat...



Reciprocal relations between internalizing symptoms and frequency of alcohol use: Findings from a longitudinal study of Mexican-origin youth.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions: The findings provide evidence of reciprocal relations between alcohol use and internalizing symptoms, but also highlight the danger of treating all symptoms of anxiety and depression as interchangeable components of a single broad domain. Instead, symptoms common to both anxiety and depressive disorders (e.g., general distress) have the most robust reciprocal relations with alcohol use. Thus, intervention programs aimed at reducing early alcohol use by Mexican-origin youth should target this component of the internalizing domain. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved) (Source: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors)



Immediate effects of plain packaging health warnings on quitting intention and potential mediators: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

The purpose of this study is to examine the immediate, everyday impact of health warnings on cigarette packages on potential smoking cessation mediators and to test for differences in immediate reactions to branded and plain tobacco packaging during the transition phase when plain packs where first introduced in Australia. Two Ecological Momentary Assessment studies tested whether smokers report higher risk appraisals, self-efficacy, and quitting intentions immediately after seeing a warning compared to random times of the day (Study 1), and whether smoking from plain packs results in higher quitting intention, risk appraisal, and self-efficacy than smoking from branded packs (Study 2). There was no immediate increase in self-efficacy, risk appraisal, or intention after encountering health...



The relationship between addictive use of social media and video games and symptoms of psychiatric disorders: A large-scale cross-sectional study.

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Over the last decade, research into “addictive technological behaviors” has substantially increased. Research has also demonstrated strong associations between addictive use of technology and comorbid psychiatric disorders. In the present study, 23,533 adults (mean age 35.8 years, ranging from 16 to 88 years) participated in an online cross-sectional survey examining whether demographic variables, symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, and depression could explain variance in addictive use (i.e., compulsive and excessive use associated with negative outcomes) of two types of modern online technologies: social media and video games. Correlations between symptoms of addictive technology use and mental disorder symptoms w...

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Training Changes Professionals’ Attitudes Towards Dual Diagnosis

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study tested whether providing training in dual diagnosis treatment to mental health professionals will affect their attitudes positively. Twenty-one professionals completed a questionnaire on attitudes towards working with dual diagnosis (Comorbidity Problems Perceptions Questionnaire, CMPPQ) pre-training and post-training. Results showed that there was a significant positive change in total CMPPQ scores and a positive change in all six subscales of the CMPPQ following training, indicating that the training resulted in more positive attitudes. The study suggests that training might be a promising way to improve mental health professionals’ attitudes. Future research is needed to confirm this finding in controlled studies with more participants and a longer follow-up. (Source: Inter...



Emotion Regulation and Sex Addiction among College Students

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

In this study, we sought to examine differences in aspects of emotion regulation between students in the clinical range of sexual addiction and those in the nonclinical range. Among a sample of 337 college students, 57 (16.9 %) scored in the clinical range of sexual addiction and students in the clinical range differed significantly from students in the nonclinical range on three aspects of emotion regulation: (a) nonacceptance of emotional responses, (b) limited engagement in goal-directed behaviors in response to negative affect, and (c) minimal emotion regulation strategies. Implications for interventions on college campuses are provided. (Source: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction)



User Experiences of Development of Dependence on the Synthetic Cannabinoids, 5f-AKB48 and 5F-PB-22, and Subsequent Withdrawal Syndromes

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Abstract Emergence of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) in herbal smoking mixtures is a public health concern. New SCB’s such as 5f-AKB48 and 5F-PB-22 have been detected in French seizures and in sudden death post mortems in the US. The aim was to describe development of dependence on herbal smoking mixtures containing the SCB’s, 5f-AKB48 and 5F-PB-22 and subsequent withdrawal syndromes. Dependent users of herbal smoking mixtures known to contain the SCB’s 5f-AKB48 and 5F-PB-22 with an average Severity of Dependence Score (SDS) of 13 were interviewed using a structured guide (three males/three females). Narratives were analysed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological (EPP) five step method. Six themes with 68 categories emerged from the analysis. Themes are illustrate...



Drug Addiction is a Scourge on the Earth and my Grandchildren are its Victims: the Tough Love and Resilient Growth Exhibited by Grandparents Raising the Children of Drug-Dependent Mothers

Mon, 21 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study aimed to broaden understanding of this burden. In this regard, forty-nine custodial grandparent interviews were subjected to thematic analysis. Grandparents typically revealed their daughter’s marijuana usage began in early-mid adolescence, progressed to heavy drugs, and led to an early exit from the family home. A teen-aged pregnancy commonly followed. Grandparents when becoming aware of their grandchild/ren’s mother’s continued drug use and repeated instances of child neglect issued the the children’s mother with a ‘go-into-rehab-or-lose-your-custodial-care-of-your-child/ren’ ultimatum. Drug-dependent mothers were often unable to meet this ultimatum and grandparents then transferred their energies into caring for their grandchild/ren. The implications of this grand...



Primary Care Physicians’ Knowledge And Attitudes Regarding Prescription Opioid Abuse and Diversion

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 06:07:24 +0100

Discussion: Although physicians are unaware of some facets of prescription opioid-related morbidity, most support a variety of clinical and regulatory interventions to improve the risk-benefit balance of these therapies. (Source: The Clinical Journal of Pain)

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[Frontal symptoms, self-perceived stress, and subjective memory complaints in substance abusers].

Sun, 20 Mar 2016 04:24:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: It is considered necessary to take into account the levels of self-perceived stress, frontal symptoms and subjective memory complaints in substance abusers, because the executive, attentional and mnemonic problems may affect several variables in the process of treatment and rehabilitation. PMID: 26988167 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Revista de Neurologia)



The changing tobacco landscape: What dental professionals need to know.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 18:48:01 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This critical review of conventional, new, and emerging tobacco products presents information that dental professionals can use in providing tobacco-related counseling to patients who use or who are at risk for using tobacco products. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: It is essential that dental professionals are knowledgeable about tobacco products and are able to answer patients' questions and provide them with evidence-based tobacco-related counseling. This information may prevent patients from initiating use or help reduce or cease use to avoid immediate and long-term adverse health effects, including nicotine addiction, oral and systemic disease, and death. PMID: 26988178 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of the American Dental Association)



Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 18:04:02 +0100

Authors: Esbec E, Echeburúa E Abstract There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who consume drugs excessively and commit crimes, both factors are linked. Poverty, personality disorders, social and cultural variables, relationships with other users and previous incarceration or drug use are all factors. These issues play an important role in understanding the risk of crime and drug use. Most addicts should be held liable for most criminal behaviour motivated by addiction, but that addiction can, in some cases, affect one's capacity for self-control over one's actions. This paper...



Video gamers of League of Legends: The role of passion in abusive use and in performance.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 18:04:02 +0100

Authors: Bertran E, Chamarro A Abstract There is growing concern about the addictive potential of Massively Multiplayer Online Role Playing Games (MMORPG). The Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA) is a new genre, poorly studied but very popular, in which performance holds priority over immersion. The aim of the current study was to explore the influence of passion both on abuse and performance, using the dualistic model of passion. A total of 369 participants completed an online questionnaire that included problematic use and the Passion Scale. From players' nicknames, performance statistics were obtained. The results show that harmonious passion is a protector from negative consequences. On the other hand, obsessive passion predicts negative consequences and use of videogames fo...



Psychiatric comorbidity in a sample of cocaine-dependent outpatients seen in the Community of Madrid drug addiction care network.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 18:04:02 +0100

The objective of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of psychiatric disorders in cocaine-dependent patients who attend different treatment centres in the Community of Madrid. A prospective multicentre study was used, and a total of 197 cocaine-dependent subjects were assessed. The assessment instrument used for diagnosis was the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders (PRISM-IV). The main findings of this study were a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidity in cocaine-dependent patients seeking treatment (64.0%). The most common Non Substance Use Disorders found were attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorders (34.5%) and depressive disorders (13.7%). The most common Substance Use Disorder was alcohol dependence (28.4%). Cocaine-dependent patients w...

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Dopamine D2 gene expression interacts with environmental enrichment to impact lifespan and behavior.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 17:51:03 +0100

Authors: Thanos PK, Hamilton J, O'Rourke JR, Napoli A, Febo M, Volkow ND, Blum K, Gold M Abstract Aging produces cellular, molecular, and behavioral changes affecting many areas of the brain. The dopamine (DA) system is known to be vulnerable to the effects of aging, which regulate behavioral functions such as locomotor activity, body weight, and reward and cognition. In particular, age-related DA D2 receptor (D2R) changes have been of particular interest given its relationship with addiction and other rewarding behavioral properties. Male and female wild-type (Drd2 +/+), heterozygous (Drd2 +/-) and knockout (Drd2 -/-) mice were reared post-weaning in either an enriched environment (EE) or a deprived environment (DE). Over the course of their lifespan, body weight and locomotor act...



Predictors of retention in treatment in a tertiary care de-addiction center.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 16:49:03 +0100

CONCLUSION: Identification of patient characteristics predicting drop-outs can help in targeting those individuals at higher risk. This can help in more favorable patient outcomes. PMID: 26985101 [PubMed] (Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry)



Twenty years of Internet addiction … Quo Vadis?

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 16:49:03 +0100

Authors: Dalal PK, Basu D PMID: 26985098 [PubMed] (Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry)



The Effect of Transcutaneous Electrıcal Nerve Stımulatıon on Post-Thoracotomy Paın.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 10:26:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Administering TENS in patients that have undergone posterolateral thoracotomy reduced postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Thus, the use of TENS as an easy and reliable analgesic method in post-thoracotomy pain control can be recommended. PMID: 26986188 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Contemporary Nurse)



The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: development and initial psychometrics - Powell M, Newgent RA.

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 06:34:46 +0100

This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems th... (Source: SafetyLit)

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Understanding unsuccessful attempts to quit smoking: a social phenomenology approach

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:20:49 +0100

CONCLUSION The study points out the need to expand the strategies of approaching smokers, and reinforcing psychological support in order to achieve success in the attempt to quit smoking.Resumen OBJETIVO Comprender la experiencia de personas tabaquistas ante el fracaso del intento de dejar de fumar. MÉTODO Estudio fundado en la fenomenología social. Se llevaron a cabo nueve entrevistas abiertas con fumadores que intentaron cesar el hábito de fumar, en noviembre y diciembre de 2014, cuyo contenido fue analizado y discutido en base a la literatura. RESULTADOS El fracaso del intento de dejar de fumar se relaciona con la dependencia del tabaco, visto como un soporte para el enfrentamiento de situaciones estresantes del cotidiano. Los intentos de dejar el hábito fueron cimentados en la nece...



The effects of pioglitazone, a PPARγ receptor agonist, on the abuse liability of oxycodone among nondependent opioid users

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Discussion These data suggest that PIO may not be useful for reducing the abuse liability of OXY. These data were obtained with a sample of nondependent opioid users and therefore may not be applicable to dependent populations or to other opioids. Although PIO failed to alter the abuse liability of OXY, the interaction between glia and opioid receptors is not well understood so the possibility remains that medications that interact with glia in other ways may show more promise. (Source: Physiology and Behavior)



Are addiction-related memories malleable by working memory competition? Transient effects on memory vividness and nicotine craving in a randomized lab experiment

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions A limited dose of WM-taxation, in the form of EM in a modified EMDR-procedure, resulted in transient effects on memory vividness and nicotine craving. EM provide a valuable way of coping with the acute effects of craving during smoking cessation attempts. Other aspects of the EMDR-procedure may provide additional effects. Component and dose-response studies are needed to establish the potential of EMDR-therapy in smoking cessation. (Source: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry)



A Design Aid for Crystal Growth Engineering

Sat, 19 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 18 March 2016 Source:Progress in Materials Science Author(s): Jinjin Li, Carl J. Tilbury, Seung Ha Kim, Michael F. Doherty With the highly competitive development of chemical and pharmaceutical industries, mastering crystal growth is becoming increasingly necessary. Modern industrial manufacturers place high importance on the ability to grow crystals with a specific habit using tailored operating conditions. A detailed understanding of crystal growth is, therefore, vital for researchers in crystallography and crystallization to respond and realize this objective. Various models to predict crystal shape in the literature are reviewed here. The most commonly adopted are usually non-mechanistic and limited in their predictive power and utility, especia...



When patient satisfaction is bad medicine

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 22:12:00 +0100

Editor’s note: The complexities of the opioid epidemic demand a comprehensive approach response. This practice perspective provides physician insights into one course of action that could contribute to the solution. By Joan Papp, MD, Case Western Reserve University and Metro Health Medical Center in Cleveland, and Jason Jerry, MD, Cleveland Clinic Foundation Pain management and the opioid epidemic The United States is confronting a tragic opioid epidemic—and the situation is getting worse. More American lives were lost in 2014 from drug overdose than during any previous year on record. According to the most recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the drug overdose death rate from opioids increased by 200 percent between the years 2000 and 2014. To put thi...

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Re-Evaluating Psychiatry

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 21:11:54 +0100

These days psychiatry gets a bit of a bad rap -- as psychiatrists we are relegated to the roll of pill pushers. I know a lot of us do work that way, with a quickie conversation and then out comes the prescription pads, this role is often dictated by the insurance industry. I would like to try and put a more human face to psychiatry and change our role from drug pushers to actual health care providers. To me humanizing psychiatry includes recognizing that anything that happens to us since we came into this world leaves a mark. Our responses can be adaptive, maladaptive or just survivalist. Our developing neurobiology is affected by life experiences and marred by trauma. If we experience too much trauma, or sometimes just enough trauma with limited resiliency at a very early age... we are ...



E-Cigarettes: Hooking a New Generation

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 20:09:28 +0100

Recently a father contacted CEH with concerns about his 16-year-old son's health. The teenager had purchased nicotine-laced e-liquids from a website that had no age verification or nicotine warnings. The packaging on the e-liquid also had no warning labels, despite the known health consequences of exposure to nicotine. Angry and frustrated at the lack of rules on e-cigarettes, the dad told us, "If you can help get them to do the right thing, that would be awesome." Parents around the country are now realizing that they need to learn more about e-cigarettes and their children's health. According to recent research by the Centers for Disease Control, the e-cigarette industry aggressively targets teens in their advertising, with nearly 70 percent of middle and high school students exposed to ...



Addiction: etiology and therapeutics

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

No abstract available (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)



A role for sigma receptors in stimulant self-administration and addiction

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

Sigma-1 receptors (σ1Rs) are structurally unique intracellular proteins that function as chaperones. σ1Rs translocate from the mitochondria-associated membrane to other subcellular compartments, and can influence a host of targets, including ion channels, G-protein-coupled receptors, lipids, and other signaling proteins. Drugs binding to σRs can induce or block the actions of σRs. Studies indicate that stimulant self-administration induces the reinforcing effects of σR agonists, because of dopamine transporter actions. Once established, the reinforcing effects of σR agonists are independent of dopaminergic mechanisms traditionally thought to be critical to the reinforcing effects of stimulants. Self-administered doses of σR agonists do not increase dopamine concentrations in the nuc...



Cocaine-induced reward enhancement measured with intracranial self-stimulation in rats bred for low versus high saccharin intake

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

This study examined whether the motivational consequences of cocaine exposure are differentially expressed in HiS and LoS rats by measuring intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) thresholds following acute injections of cocaine (10 mg/kg). Reductions in ICSS thresholds following cocaine injection were greater in HiS rats than in LoS rats, suggesting that the reward-enhancing effects of cocaine are greater in the drug-vulnerable HiS than LoS rats. Higher cocaine-induced reward, indicated by lower ICSS thresholds, may explain the higher rates of drug consumption in sweet-preferring animal models, providing a clue to the etiology of cocaine addiction in vulnerable populations. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)

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Early life stress and chronic variable stress in adulthood interact to influence methamphetamine self-administration in male rats

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

We examined the effects of early life stress in the form of prolonged maternal separation, followed in early adulthood by either 10 days of chronic variable stress or no stress, on methamphetamine self-administration, extinction, and cue-induced reinstatement. We observed that chronic variable stress in adulthood reduced methamphetamine self-administration in rats with a history of early life stress. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting interactions between early life and early adulthood stressors on adult behavioral phenotypes. (Source: Behavioural Pharmacology)



Cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects of phendimetrazine and phenmetrazine in rats

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

Phendimetrazine is a clinically available anorectic and candidate medication for the treatment of cocaine addiction. Phendimetrazine can be metabolized to the amphetamine-like monoamine releaser phenmetrazine, but it is unclear if phendimetrazine functions as an inactive prodrug or might have activity on its own. As one method to address this issue, the present study compared the potency and time course of phendimetrazine and phenmetrazine to produce cocaine-like discriminative stimulus effects in adult, male rats (N=5) trained to discriminate cocaine (5.6 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) from saline in a two-key food-reinforced discrimination procedure. We hypothesized that, if metabolism to phenmetrazine was required for phendimetrazine effects, then phendimetrazine would be less potent and h...



Methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion and its two hydroxy metabolites in male rhesus monkeys

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

The dopamine transporter (DAT) inhibitor and nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor antagonist bupropion is being investigated as a candidate ‘agonist’ medication for methamphetamine addiction. In addition to its complex pharmacology, bupropion also has two distinct pharmacologically active metabolites. However, the mechanism by which bupropion produces methamphetamine-like ‘agonist’ effects remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the role of DAT inhibition, nACh receptor antagonism, and the hydroxybupropion metabolites in the methamphetamine-like discriminative stimulus effects of bupropion in rhesus monkeys. In addition, varenicline, a partial agonist at the nACh receptor, and risperidone, a dopamine antagonist, were tested as controls. Monkeys (n=4) were ...



The ketamine analogue methoxetamine generalizes to ketamine discriminative stimulus in rats

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

Methoxetamine (MXE) is a chemical analogue of ketamine. Originally proposed as a ketamine-like fast-acting antidepressant, owing to similar N-methyl-D-aspartate blocker properties, it is now scheduled for reports of hallucinations and psychosis similar to ketamine and lysergic acid. As little is known about the addictive properties of MXE, the aim of this study was to investigate the similarity between discriminative stimuli of MXE and ketamine, as well as to provide data and protocols that could be used in the future for the characterization of novel ketamine-like drugs. The paradigm used was a two-lever operant conditioning paradigm in which rats were trained to discriminate ketamine (7.5 mg/kg/ml, intraperitoneal) from vehicle. Generalization tests were performed with MXE (0.0625, 0.1...



Chronic treatment with a selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist alters the behavioral and neurochemical effects of ethanol in young adult rats

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

Experimental evidence indicates a potential role of 5-HT6 receptors in the regulation of addictive behavior. We studied the effects of a potent and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist (compound A) on voluntary ethanol intake and behavioral/neurochemical changes induced by ethanol. The pharmacokinetic interaction of compound A and ethanol was assessed. The effect of compound A on schedule-induced ethanol polydipsia was studied to determine its effect on voluntary ethanol intake. Open-field and ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex assays were carried out to determine the effect of compound A on the ataxic and sedative effects of ethanol. The effect on motor learning was evaluated using rotarod and brain microdialysis was carried out to study the effect on monoaminergic neurotransmission. ...

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A neurotensin analog blocks cocaine-conditioned place preference and reinstatement

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

Neurotensin (NT) is a neuropeptide that acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the central nervous system. Several studies suggest a therapeutic role for NT analogs in nicotine and other psychostimulant addictions. We studied the effects of the nonselective NT receptor agonist NT69L, which has equal affinity for the two major NT receptors, NTS1 and NTS2, on the expression of cocaine-conditioned place preference (cocaine-CPP) and reinstatement after extinction. Robust cocaine-CPP was obtained after 5 days of conditioning. Extinction was induced using eight repeated daily injections of saline. Reinstatement was prompted by priming with one injection of cocaine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally). On the test day, NT69L (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min before asses...



Dyadic social interaction of C57BL/6 mice versus interaction with a toy mouse: conditioned place preference/aversion, substrain differences, and no development of a hierarchy

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 19:35:10 +0100

Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a li...



An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 16:07:11 +0100

ConclusionsUsing financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost‐effective use of healthcare resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%. (Source: Addiction)



People who exercise more also tend to drink more (alcohol)

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 13:00:52 +0100

In this study, volunteers used a smartphone to record their daily drinking and exercise habits in 3-week blocks. This smartphone technique made it possible to get good information and to analyze daily variations for each individual. What is clear from the analysis is that people tend to drink more alcohol on days when they exercise more. This is true whether they’re young, old, male, or female. This is not a study of problem drinkers or risky drinkers, nor of people with alcohol use disorders (what we used to call alcohol abuse or alcohol dependence). This is also not a study of the effect of an intervention to change lifestyle behavior. That is to say, this study does not tell me what happens if I advise a patient to exercise more or to drink less. The study also does not suggest that i...



[Moral case deliberation: time for ethical reflection in the daily practice of mental health care].

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 06:03:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Our method for discussing ethical issues works well in clinical practice, particularly when it is embedded in a multidisciplinary context. Of course, to ensure the continuity of the system, deliberation about moral and ethical issues needs to be financially safeguarded and embedded in the organisation. Discussion of moral issues improves the quality of care and increases care-givers' satisfaction with their work. PMID: 26979852 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie)

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A computer-assisted motivational social network intervention to reduce alcohol, drug and HIV risk behaviors among Housing First residents.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 06:00:02 +0100

DISCUSSION: Social network health interventions are an innovative approach for reducing future AOD use and HIV risk problems, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy. The current study develops and pilot-tests a computer-assisted intervention that incorporates social network visualizations and MI techniques to reduce high risk AOD use and HIV behaviors among the formerly homeless. CLINICALTRIALS. GOV IDENTIFIER: NCT02140359. PMID: 26979982 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Addiction Science and Clinical Practice)



The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 05:50:02 +0100

Authors: Zhao Y Abstract Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibit...



Relapse to drug and alcohol use: a matter of sensitization.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 04:28:02 +0100

Authors: Schoffelmeer AN, Vanderschuren LJ, Mulder AH, Jacobs EH, Vries TJ Abstract Repeated exposure of rats to cocaine, amphetamine, opiates, nicotine and alcohol causes a very long-lasting (months) increase in the behavioral effects of these addictive drugs and drug-associated environmental stimuli (sensitization). This hypersensitivity is associated with persistent changes in the reactivity of neurons of the motivational (mesocorticolim-bic) system in the brain. Using an animal model for relapse, recent studies in our laboratory show that relapse to drug-seeking behavior (following extinction of intravenous cocaine or heroin self-administration) depends on the occurrence of sensitization. Accordingly, sensitization and conditioning seem to be more important for the persistence ...



Molecular players in the development and maintenance of mesencephalic dopamine systems.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 04:28:02 +0100

Authors: Burbach JP, Cazorla P, Smidt MP Abstract Several psychiatric diseases are considered to be neuro-developmental disorders. Amongst these are schizophrenia and autism, in which genetic and environmental components have been indicated. In these disorders intrinsic molecular mechanisms of brain development may be deranged due to genetic predispositions, or modified by external influences. Brain development is a delicate process of well-tuned cellular proliferation and differentiation of multipotent neural progenitor cells driven by spatiotemporal cues. One of the fundamental mechanisms is the interaction between external signals, e.g. growth factors, and internal regulators, e.g. transcription factors. An important transmitter system involved in behavioural and affective funct...



The Zebrafish, a Novel Model Organism for Screening Compounds Affecting Acute and Chronic Ethanol-Induced Effects

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): S. Tran, A. Facciol, R. Gerlai Alcohol addiction is a major unmet medical and economic issue for which very few efficacious pharmacological treatment options are currently available. The development and identification of new compounds and drugs to treat alcohol addiction is hampered by the high costs and low amenability of traditional laboratory rodents to high-throughput behavioral screens. The zebrafish represents an excellent compromise between systems complexity and practical simplicity by overcoming many limitations inherent in these rodent models. In this chapter, we review current advances in the behavioral and neurochemical characterization of ethanol-induced changes in zebr...

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Abstinence-Conflict Model: Toward an Optimal Animal Model for Screening Medications Promoting Drug Abstinence

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016 Source:International Review of Neurobiology Author(s): J.A. Peck Drug addiction is a significant health and societal problem for which there is no highly effective long-term behavioral or pharmacological treatment. A rising concern are the use of illegal opiate drugs such as heroin and the misuse of legally available pain relievers that have led to serious deleterious health effects or even death. Therefore, treatment strategies that prolong opiate abstinence should be the primary focus of opiate treatment. Further, because the factors that support abstinence in humans and laboratory animals are similar, several animal models of abstinence and relapse have been developed. Here, we review a few animal models of abstinence and relapse and e...



Gabapentin misuse, abuse and diversion: a systematic review

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsEpidemiological and case report evidence suggests that the anti‐epileptic and analgesic medication gabapentin is being misused internationally, with substance abuse populations at special risk for misuse/abuse. (Source: Addiction)



How to tame your BAS: Reward sensitivity and music involvement

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

This study further supports the argument that high levels of reward sensitivity may be involved in both functional and dysfunctional behaviours. Engagement in musical activities may be a useful approach to assist in the directing of behaviour in highly reward sensitive individuals. (Source: Personality and Individual Differences)



An independent replication of the Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach with justice-involved youth.

Fri, 18 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Results are consistent with studies conducted by A-CRA/ACC model developers supporting the effectiveness of the clinical approach and, because the outcomes resulted from an independent replication, are encouraging for the transportation potential of A-CRA/ACC. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1-8). PMID: 26992083 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal on Addictions)



Prescription painkiller addiction epidemic can be traced back to two key changes

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 21:50:12 +0100

Two experts from Washington University in St Louis reveal how early recognition and proactive treatment of pain, and the introduction of the painkiller OxyContin marked a turning point, leading to the epidemic. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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How your sense of SMELL could increase the risk of addiction: Finding the aroma of alcohol irresistible 'may make you lose control'

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 21:13:57 +0100

Scientists from Edge Hill University revealed the smell of alcohol inhibits some people's abilities to control their own actions, serving as a trigger that can set off their substance abuse problems. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Confessions of an Addiction and Recovery Writer

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 20:01:32 +0100

When you're doing coke for days on end alone, you don't imagine that you'll one day be telling CNN audiences about your addiction, let alone focusing your entire career on the topic. The coke-for-days thing is your secret, a deeply shameful one--not something you'd tell a lot of acquaintances, let alone strangers. And then one day you realize this is exactly what you're doing. So how do you get from coke on the couch to telling Sean Hannity and Alan Colmes about your former habits? It was a few years after I got sober, when I realized that addiction was one of the most misunderstood topics out there, that I started sharing my secret life with the world. I, like most people, had always assumed that what was interesting about addiction was--well, addiction. You like substances a whole hell o...



An Ethical Exploration of Barriers to Research on Controlled Drugs.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 19:03:01 +0100

Authors: Andreae MH, Rhodes E, Bourgoise T, Carter GM, White RS, Indyk D, Sacks H, Rhodes R Abstract We examine the ethical, social, and regulatory barriers that may hinder research on therapeutic potential of certain controversial controlled substances like marijuana, heroin, or ketamine. Hazards for individuals and society and potential adverse effects on communities may be good reasons for limiting access and justify careful monitoring of these substances. Overly strict regulations, fear of legal consequences, stigma associated with abuse and populations using illicit drugs, and lack of funding may, however, limit research on their considerable therapeutic potential. We review the surprisingly sparse literature and address the particular ethical concerns pertinent to research wi...



What You Need to Know About Inhalant Abuse & Addiction

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:45:03 +0100

It usually takes both considerable money and effort for an addict to acquire their drug of choice. After all, with the exception of alcohol, most addictive substances are either controlled or illegal. Unfortunately, there is one category of drugs that is not only legal, it’s widely available and affordable — inhalants. Inhalant abuse is the deliberate sniffing of common household products with the purpose of getting high. More than 22.9 million Americans have experimented with inhalants at some point in their lives, but the percentage of usage is highest among children ages 12-15. Addiction to inhalants is particularly difficult to recover from — and the rate of relapse is extremely high. Inhalants are breathed in by sniffing or snorting fumes from containers, spraying aeroso...



ABMS approves new addiction medicine subspecialty

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:28:13 +0100

Many more physicians seeking to subspecialize in addiction medicine will now have the official blessing of the American Board of Medical Specialties. ABMS announced March 14 its approval of an... (Source: Hospitalist News)

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How American Medicine Created -- And Can Now Solve -- The Opioid Crisis

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 17:00:00 +0100

Opioids, also known as opiates, serve as important prescription medications in medical practice. But within the last decade or so, because of their overuse, misuse and abuse, they’ve also emerged as a leading cause of addiction and death. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)



Is There an Association of Physical Activity with Brain Volume, Behavior, and Day-to-day Functioning? A Cross Sectional Design in Prodromal and Early Huntington Disease

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 16:26:50 +0100

Conclusion Interventions that could delay the onset of an HD motor diagnosis, particularly at a time when people are at their peak earning potential and raising families, may improve functioning and health-related quality of life. Interventions should begin prior to motor diagnosis because there is some evidence that much of the damage the disease causes is done by the time of diagnosis16,74,75. More specific recommendations require prospective, randomized controlled trials of physical activity interventions. There is evidence that metabolic and physiological responses to exercise are altered in HD76 and that intensive exercise might damage muscle tissue77,78, requiring a careful determination of the proper dose of exercise to forestall HD progression. In one study involving aging adults a...



7 Facts About Drugs That Will Make You Question Everything You Know

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 13:50:52 +0100

This article draws on the book, and these ideas have also appeared in other extracts. You can find out what people as varied as Elton John, Glenn Greenwald, Bill Maher, Dan Savage, B.J. Novak, Sam Harris and Naomi Klein have said about the book here. -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Science - The Huffington Post)

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The missing rewards that motivate healthy lifestyle changes

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 13:00:37 +0100

Follow me at @srinipillay It’s hard to maintain the lifestyle changes you want to make. It doesn’t matter whether your goal is weight loss, exercise, normal blood sugar, or decreasing stress — research has shown that simply learning about the value of lifestyle changes is insufficient on its own to help people maintain their goals. Of course, few people are actually ignorant about the number of calories in a chocolate truffle, the benefits of exercise, or the incredible danger, discomfort, and inconvenience of diabetes and stress. Still, despite this awareness, maintaining these changes is an uphill battle. And that’s largely because habits are hard to kick. The rewards of the changes themselves have their limits. On a cold, snowy day in February, going to the gym is far le...



Cannabis addicts DOUBLE in a decade yet only 14% of users receive treatment

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 05:54:39 +0100

Columbia University and National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism experts revealed 2.5 per cent of US adults were addicted to marijuana last year - but few received treatment. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



UNC researchers uncover how kappa opioid receptors drive anxiety

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(University of North Carolina Health Care) University of North Carolina researchers uncovered a cellular mechanism by which kappa opioid receptors (KOR) drive anxiety. These proteins inhibit the release of the neurotransmitter glutamate in a part of the brain that regulates emotion. KORs have been of great interest as a drug target for the treatment of addiction and anxiety disorders. (Source: EurekAlert! - Social and Behavioral Science)



What physicians are saying about the new CDC opioid guidelines

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Tuesday released clinical guidelines for prescribing opioids to help combat the nation’s overdose epidemic, and physicians were swift to respond. Physicians are embracing the concepts for reducing harm but simultaneously are pointing out serious shortcomings that will need to be addressed. What’s in the guidelines The guidelines, which were published in JAMA and on the CDC website, are intended for primary care clinicians who treat adult patients for chronic pain in outpatient settings. Their main goals are to help physicians improve communication with their patients about the benefits and risks of using prescription opioids for chronic pain, provide safer and more effective care for chronic pain, and reduce opioid u...



For lack of wanting: Discourses of desire in Ukrainian opiate substitution therapy programs

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Available treatments for addiction and substance abuse in Ukraine have been shaped by the economic, political, and social shifts that have followed the country’s independence. The introduction of methadone-based opiate substitution therapy (OST) for opiate addicts is especially representative of this. Biomedical paradigms of addiction, its etiology, and its treatment, promoted and paid for by international donors and elite global health entities, are being met by Ukrainian notions of personhood and psychology in both public discourse and clinical settings. Ukrainian physicians who work in OST programs frequently reference desire (eae) as the most significant factor in determining the success or failure of treatment. They refer to a desire to be treated, desire to get better, desire t...

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Current Findings and Mechanisms of Action of Disulfiram in the Treatment of Alcohol Dependence

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

PharmacopsychiatryDOI: 10.1055/s-0042-103592As an alcohol-aversive agent, disulfiram occupies an exceptional position in the pharmacological relapse prevention of alcohol dependence. In contrast to anti-craving drugs, disulfiram does not modulate neurobiological mechanisms of addiction, but rather works by producing an aversive reaction when combined with alcohol. Therapeutic and adverse effects are therefore closely related: On the one hand, the aversiveness of the disulfiram ethanol reaction has the potential to support abstinence in a subgroup of alcohol-dependent patients, while on the other hand it becomes a health threat if the patient fails to maintain complete abstinence. The exceptional position of disulfiram is also related to the role that expectations play in the mediation of t...






Smoke-free homes: what are the barriers, motivators and enablers? A qualitative systematic review and thematic synthesis

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusions This synthesis highlights the complexity faced by many households in having a SFH, the practical, social, cultural and personal issues that need to be addressed and balanced by households, and that while some of these are common across study settings, specific social and cultural factors play a critical role in shaping household smoking behaviours. The findings can inform policy and practice and the development of interventions aimed at increasing SFHs. Trial registration number CRD42014014115. (Source: BMJ Open)



An integrated model of depression, compulsion, and mindfulness among heroin abusers in Taiwan.

Thu, 17 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Through learned emotional regulation strategies, addicted people with higher mindfulness were less likely to compulsively take drugs because of a depressive mood than were those with lower mindfulness. Furthermore, effective emotion-regulation strategies should be developed and examined in future studies. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: These results raise questions about the effect of compulsion on heroin use disorders. Mindfulness-based approaches to emotional regulatory strategies should be developed based on these findings. Further experimentation and prospective studies are needed to more fully examine the moderating role of mindfulness on depression and compulsion. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1-6). PMID: 26991992 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal on...



Patients in Pain, and a Doctor Who Must Limit Drugs

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 22:21:39 +0100

A growing number of states are enacting measures to limit prescription opioids, addictive medicines that have led to an epidemic of overdoses and deaths. (Source: NYT Health)

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How physicians can identify, assist trafficking victims

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 21:01:00 +0100

Physicians may encounter human trafficking victims more often than they realize and are in a unique position to help put these children, women and men’s lives on a path to recovery. Learn the warning signs, ways to help patients you’ve identified as possible victims and resources available. The problem The U.S. Department of State estimates hundreds of thousands of people may be trafficked annually worldwide, the majority being women and children. One U.S. study found that more than 85 percent of survivors had contact with a health care professional while being trafficked.  Among survivors, more than 60 percent reported going to a hospital or emergency department at some point. Survivors also reported visiting family physicians, internists and obstetrician-gynecologists in tradi...



CDC Releases Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 20:26:00 +0100

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has issued a guideline for clinicians who are prescribing opioids for chronic pain that is not associated with cancer, palliative care, or end-of-life care. The guideline is intended to ensure that clinicians and patients consider safer and more effective treatment options for pain management, improve patient outcomes, and reduce the number of people who develop opioid use disorder, overdose, or experience other adverse events related to these drugs.“The new guideline really points out the dangers of the liberal prescribing of opioids,” said Petros Levounis, M.D, M.A., an addiction expert and chair of the Department of Psychiatry at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. “Addiction psychiatry has been at the forefront of the fight agai...



Demi Lovato Is Four Years Sober And That's Something To Celebrate

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 15:03:15 +0100

Demi Lovato's time spent in the "La La Land" machine has not been without its struggles. But the "Confident" singer has made her painful experiences into something beautiful, channeling her hardships into music. Now, Lovato is stopping to reflect on a major accomplishment: her sobriety.  On Tuesday, the former Disney star revealed that it's her four-year sober anniversary. "This last year I experienced so much life and too much death... But I made it through... Sober. #4Years #GodsWill ," she tweeted.  This last year I experienced so much life and too much death... But I made it through... Sober. #4Years #GodsWill — Demi Lovato (@ddlovato) March 15, 2016 Days before, Lovato, referencing her sobriety, wrote that "anything is possible," before quoting the Tall Heights s...



Why the 'Disease Model' Fails to Convince Americans That Addiction Is a Health Issue

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 14:58:33 +0100

By Maia Szalavitz These days, everyone from Obama's "drug czar" Michael Botticelli to former Republican presidential candidate Chris Christie strenuously emphasizes that addiction is a disease, not a sin. Such proclamations have been earnestly made for over two centuries now, starting with physician and Declaration of Independence signer Benjamin Rush in the early 1800s. Indeed, the American Medical Association declared alcoholism a disease in 1956 and did the same for other drug addictions in 1989. But these declarations have a hollow ring to them: They wouldn't need to be remade constantly if the idea were truly accepted. No one goes around issuing statements about how "cancer is a disease" or "AIDS is a disease" or even "schizophrenia is a disease," because it's pretty obvious that they...



CDC Aims to Curb Painkiller Prescriptions

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 14:09:00 +0100

WASHINGTON (AP) — Prescription painkillers should not be a first choice for treating common ailments like back pain and arthritis, according to new federal guidelines designed to reshape how doctors prescribe drugs like OxyContin and Vicodin. Amid an epidemic of addiction and abuse tied to these powerful opioids drugs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is urging primary care doctors to try physical therapy, exercise and over-the-counter pain medications before turning to painkillers for chronic pain. Opioid drugs include medications like morphine and oxycodone as well as illegal narcotics like heroin. The new recommendations — which doctors do not have to follow — represent an effort to reverse nearly two decades of rising painkiller use, which public health officials ...

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Welcome to Herointown, New Jersey's 4th-Largest city

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 07:25:16 +0100

What would happen if you took everyone who is addicted to heroin in New Jersey and sent them to live in one place?   -- This feed and its contents are the property of The Huffington Post, and use is subject to our terms. It may be used for personal consumption, but may not be distributed on a website. (Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post)



Opioids are bad medicine for chronic pain, say new federal guidelines

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 02:17:00 +0100

Federal health officials speaking in unusually blunt terms Tuesday called on the American medical community to turn away from treating common ailments with highly addictive painkillers, saying the nation’s prescription drug epidemic was a “doctor-driven” crisis.The appeal accompanied the release... (Source: Los Angeles Times - Science)



New CDC Guidelines Seek Doctors' Help In Fighting Opioid Epidemic

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 01:37:30 +0100

In an effort to curb America's deadly opioid crisis, federal health officials are urging doctors to largely avoid prescribing highly addictive painkillers like OxyContin and Vicodin when treating patients for chronic pain. The new guidelines, issued Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are directed at primary care providers, who issue about half of all opioid prescriptions.  Since 1999, such prescriptions and sales have quadrupled in the United States, a boom that the CDC said has "helped create and fuel" the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. In 2012 alone, doctors handed out 259 million opioid prescriptions -- one bottle for every adult in the United States.  "More than 40 Americans die each day from prescription opioid over...



43% 'resume smoking after giving birth'

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 01:32:51 +0100

Nearly half of women who stop smoking during pregnancy take it up again as soon as they give birth, research in the journal Addiction shows. (Source: BBC News | Health | UK Edition)

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New CDC Guidelines Seek Doctors' Help In Fighting Opioid Epidemic

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 01:24:50 +0100

In an effort to curb America's deadly opioid crisis, federal health officials are urging doctors to largely avoid prescribing highly addictive painkillers like OxyContin and Vicodin when treating patients for chronic pain. The new guidelines, issued Tuesday by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are directed at primary care providers, who issue about half of all opioid prescriptions.  Since 1999, such prescriptions and sales have quadrupled in the United States, a boom that the CDC said has "helped create and fuel" the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose. In 2012 alone, doctors handed out 259 million opioid prescriptions -- one bottle for every adult in the United States.  "More than 40 Americans die each day from prescription opioid over...



Does cigarette reduction while using nicotine replacement therapy prior to a quit attempt predict abstinence following quit date?

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsSmoking reduction prior to a target quit date while on a smoking cessation medication may only predict subsequent abstinence when smokers are consciously attempting to reduce. (Source: Addiction)



Re‐starting smoking in the postpartum period after receiving a smoking cessation intervention: a systematic review

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsIn clinical trials of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy only 13% are abstinent at term. Of these, 43% re‐start by 6 months postpartum. (Source: Addiction)



Smartphone addiction among university students in the light of some variables

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Publication date: August 2016 Source:Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 61 Author(s): Suliman S. Aljomaa, Mohammad F. Al.Qudah, Ismael S. Albursan, Salaheldin F. Bakhiet, Adel S. Abduljabbar We explored the frequency and indices of smartphone addiction in a group of King Saud University students and investigated whether there were differences in smartphone addiction based on gender, social status, educational level, monthly income and hours of daily use. We developed a questionnaire probing smartphone addiction consisting of five dimensions: 1) overuse of smartphone, 2) the psychological-social dimension, 3) the health dimension, 4) preoccupation with smartphones, and 5) the technological dimension. After being validated, the questionnaire was administered to 416 students, both mal...



The health belief model and number of peers with internet addiction as inter-related factors of Internet addiction among secondary school students in Hong Kong

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Students are vulnerable to Internet addiction (IA). Influences of cognitions based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) and perceived number of peers with IA (PNPIA) affecting students’ IA, and mediating effects i... (Source: BMC Public Health)

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Screaming Behind a Door: The Experiences of Individuals Incarcerated Without Medication-Assisted Treatment

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Conclusion: Losing MAT upon incarceration was described as an extremely stressful experience for many individuals and may create issues for both inmates and facility staff. Further research is needed to discover ways to improve addiction treatment in prison. (Source: Journal of Correctional Health Care)



Trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of unemployment status in the early forties.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the associations between the distinct trajectories of marijuana use and unemployment in early midlife indicate that it is important to develop intervention programs targeting chronic marijuana use as well as unemployment in individuals at this stage of development. Results from this study should encourage clinicians, teachers, and parents to assess and treat chronic marijuana use in adolescents. (Am J Addict 2016;XX:1-7). PMID: 26991779 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: American Journal on Addictions)



The effects and risks associated to Mephedrone and Methylone in humans: A review of the preliminary evidences.

Wed, 16 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0100

Authors: Karila L, Billieux J, Benyamina A, Lançon C, Cottencin O Abstract New psychoactive substances have drastically modified the world drug scene. A increasingly popular class comprises synthetic or substituted cathinones (legal highs, research chemicals, bath salts). Among the most common psychoactive constituents of bath salts are mephedrone and methylone. Recent reports on the abuse of novel synthetic cathinone derivatives call attention to the serious physical and psychological risks resulting from their consumption, thereby emphasizing the growing use of these drugs might constitute an important public health issue. In this paper, we will review the available data regarding the use and effects of mephedrone and methylone in humans in order to highlight their impact on pub...



What patients can do when doctors opt for risky painkillers

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 20:00:39 +0100

NEW YORK (AP) — New federal guidelines are out for doctors who prescribe power prescription painkillers, aimed at curbing their abuse and addiction. Experts say there are things patients can do to guard against problems. (Source: U.S. News - Health)



Despite Effectiveness, Buprenorphine Remains Underprescribed

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 19:01:00 +0100

Experts say buprenorphine is the ideal medication for opioid addiction—the partial agonist satisfies cravings without the same level of euphoria that drives drug-seeking behavior. Yet, the medication is underused and underprescribed, according to experts who spoke with Psychiatric News.According to statistics from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), there are just 31,862 physicians certified to prescribe buprenorphine—and 40 percent of these physicians do not prescribe buprenorphine at all.A recent Psychiatric News article explored several factors that may deter physicians from prescribing the medication and create access challenges for patients. To address this access problem, APA supports incrementally expanding the number of patients that certifie...

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CDC Releases National Standards for Prescription Painkillers

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 18:33:07 +0100

The federal government published the first national standards for prescription painkillers on Tuesday in an attempt to combat the country’s prescription drug abuse crisis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released the nonbinding rules to address use of medications known as opioids, the New York Times reported. The guidelines, which align with previous recommendations from addiction experts, suggest that primary care doctors first use ibuprofen and aspirin to treat pain. They also recommend that opioid treatment for short-term pain should last three days and not longer than seven days, less than current common prescriptions lasting two weeks to a month, the Times reported. “It’s become increasingly clear that opioids carry substantial risk but only uncertain ...



New CDC Guidelines Aim To Reduce Painkiller Prescribing

Tue, 15 Mar 2016 17:21:18 +0100

WASHINGTON (AP) — Prescription painkillers should not be a first-choice for treating common ailments like back pain and arthritis, according to new federal guidelines designed to reshape how doctors prescribe drugs like OxyContin and Vicodin. Amid an epidemic of addiction and abuse tied to these powerful opioids drugs, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is urging general doctors to try physical therapy, exercise and over-the-counter pain medications before turning to painkillers for chronic pain. Opioid drugs include medications like morphine and oxycodone as well as illegal narcotics like heroin. RELATED: Emotional Gov. Baker Signs Law Aimed At Curbing Opioid Addiction The new recommendations — which doctors do not have to follow — represent an effort to reverse nearly t...