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MedWorm: Addiction



MedWorm.com provides a medical RSS filtering service. Over 7000 RSS medical sources are combined and output via different filters. This feed contains the latest news and research in Addiction



Last Build Date: Mon, 28 Mar 2016 13:43:37 +0100

 



Risk of heavy drinking among sexual minority adolescents: Indirect pathways through sexual orientation‐related victimization and affiliation with substance‐using peers

Mon, 28 Mar 2016 11:43:14 +0100

ConclusionsSexual minority adolescents in the US appear to exhibit increased heavy episodic drinking via an indirect socialization pathway including affiliations with substance‐using peers and a concurrent indirect pathway involving sexual minority‐related victimization. The pathways appear to operate similarly for boys and girls. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)

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Hedgehog pathway maintains cell survival under stress conditions, and drives drug resistance in lung adenocarcinoma.

Sun, 27 Mar 2016 05:28:02 +0100

In conclusion, this study showed that HH pathway is a survival signaling that drives LAC cell growth under stress conditions, and HHIP is a key regulator to block the induction of HH pathway. Targeting the HH pathway through inhibitors or HHIP thus holds promise to address EGFR-TKI resistance in LAC in clinic. PMID: 27015549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Oncotarget)



Off-Target Drug Effects Resulting in Altered Gene Expression Events with Epigenetic and “Quasi-Epigenetic” Origins

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016 Source:Pharmacological Research Author(s): Stephen J. Anderson, Kristina M. Feye, Garrett R. Schmidt-McCormack, Emir Malovic, Gregory S.A. Mlynarczyk, Patricia Izbicki, Larissa F. Arnold, Matthew A. Jefferson, Bierlein M. de la Rosa, Rita F. Wehrman, KC Luna, Hilary Z. Hu, Naveen C. Kondru, Michael D. Kleinhenz, Joe S. Smith, Sireesha Manne, Marson R. Putra, Shivani Choudhary, Nyzil Massey, Diou Luo, Carrie A. Berg, Sreemoyee Acharya, Shaunik Sharma, Sri Harsha Kanuri, Jennifer K. Lange, Steve A. Carlson This review synthesizes examples of pharmacological agents that have off-target effects of an epigenetic nature. We expand upon the paradigm of epigenetics to include “quasi-epigenetic” mechanisms. Quasi-epige...



The mesolimbic system and eating addiction: what sugar does and does not do

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: June 2016 Source:Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Volume 9 Author(s): Johannes W De Jong, Louk JMJ Vanderschuren, Roger AH Adan Obesity and obesity-related disorders are a major threat to public health. It has been suggested that food addiction is a valid clinical concept and that food addiction is a contributing factor to the obesity epidemic. Research involving restricted access ‘binge’ diets has shown that rodents will display sucrose-related behavior that is reminiscent of substance addiction, under certain conditions. A question that remains, however, is if food or certain components of food possess addictive qualities akin to drugs of abuse. The alternative is that ‘food addiction’ (or rather ‘eating addiction’) is not a substance use disorde...



To Help Newborns Dependent On Opioids, Hospitals Rethink Mom's Role

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 18:00:21 +0100

When a woman addicted to opioids gives birth, she is too often dismissed as an obstacle to her infant's health. A Connecticut hospital is challenging that attitude — and the culture of care. (Source: NPR Health and Science)

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An Effective Web Presence for Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:53:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The low mean scores on these dimensions indicate that that substance abuse centers have significant room for improvement of their website's. Efficiently spending marketing funds to increase the effectiveness of a treatment center's website can be a low cost way for even small facilities to increase market competitiveness. PMID: 27010991 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Separating the Association Between Inhibitory Control and Substance Use Prevalence Versus Quantity During Adolescence: A Hurdle Mixed-Effects Model Approach.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 17:53:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Results from a HMM approach contribute to a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of which characteristics of cigarette and marijuana use are associated with inhibitory control during early adolescence. PMID: 27010911 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Preference for brand-name buprenorphine is related to severity of addiction among outpatients in opioid maintenance treatment - Binder P, Messaadi N, Perault-Pochat MC, Gagey S, Brabant Y, Ingrand P.

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 11:13:34 +0100

As a form of opioid maintenance treatment, high-dose buprenorphine is increasingly being used in the United States. On the French market since 1996, it is the most commonly prescribed and frequently employed opioid maintenance treatment. For unknown reason... (Source: SafetyLit)



Alcohol or tobacco: NIDA looks at marijuana policy in an era of legalization

Sat, 26 Mar 2016 03:22:33 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



The Social Media Disorder Scale: Validity and psychometric properties

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: August 2016 Source:Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 61 Author(s): Regina J.J.M. van den Eijnden, Jeroen S. Lemmens, Patti M. Valkenburg There is growing evidence that social media addiction is an evolving problem, particularly among adolescents. However, the absence of an instrument measuring social media addiction hinders further development of the research field. The present study, therefore, aimed to test the reliability and validity of a short and easy to administer Social Media Disorder (SMD) Scale that contains a clear diagnostic cut-off point to distinguish between disordered (i.e. addicted) and high-engaging non-disordered social media users. Three online surveys were conducted among a total of 2198 Dutch adolescents aged 10 to 17. The 9-item scale showed ...

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An Empirical Study of Personality Disorders Among Treatment-Seeking Problem Gamblers

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract The primary aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of personality disorders in problem gamblers, to explore the relationship between personality disorders and problem gambling severity, and to explore the degree to which the psychological symptoms highlighted in the biosocial developmental model of borderline personality disorder (impulsivity, distress tolerance, substance use, PTSD symptoms, psychological distress and work/social adjustment) are associated with problem gambling. A secondary aim was to explore the strength of the relationships between these symptoms and problem gambling severity in problem gamblers with and without personality disorder pathology. Participants were 168 consecutively admitted problem gamblers seeking treatment from a specialist o...



Nearly All U.S. Doctors 'Overprescribe' Addictive Narcotic Painkillers: Survey

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 20:18:37 +0100

While 99 percent exceed the recommended 3-day dosage limit, a quarter write prescriptions for a full month (Source: WebMD Health)



Well: Seeking Painkillers in the Emergency Room

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:29:15 +0100

“Why wouldn’t I give patients a Percocet prescription? It makes their life easier and my life easier,” a colleague said to me recently. But that’s not the answer to the opioid epidemic. (Source: NYT)

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Your sweet tooth is the brain 'craving CALORIES not an addiction to sugar'

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 19:16:46 +0100

Experts from Yale University, as well as University of São Paulo and Federal University in Brazil, found our brain's pleasure and reward system is actually satisfied by calories not sweet food. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Nearly All U.S. Doctors 'Overprescribe' Addictive Narcotic Painkillers: Survey

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 18:00:00 +0100

While 99 percent exceed the recommended 3-day dosage limit, a quarter write prescriptions for a full month (Source: U.S. News - Health)



Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers 2015.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 17:37:02 +0100

Authors: Samet JH PMID: 27000090 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Addiction Science and Clinical Practice)

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Recurrent paraparesis and death of a patient with 'whippet' abuse - Hirvioja J, Joutsa J, Wahlsten P, Korpela J.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

Nitrous oxide is increasingly used as a recreational drug that is easily and legally available worldwide. Occasional nitrous oxide use has been considered relatively safe without the development of addiction or major adverse effects. However, heavy long-te... (Source: SafetyLit)



Substance abuse and crime: considerations for a comprehensive forensic assessment - Esbec E, Echeburúa E.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:13:53 +0100

There is a strong link between drug use and crime, but this relationship is complex. Drug use does not necessarily lead to an increase in crimes, such as theft, rape or assault, even among regular users or addicts. However, in cases of individuals who cons... (Source: SafetyLit)



An Innovative Use of Case Conference to Teach Future Educators in Addiction Psychiatry.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 16:04:02 +0100

Conclusions Implementing a course designed to improve teaching and feedback skills is feasible in a 1-year Addiction Psychiatry fellowship. PMID: 27001311 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The Journal of American Association of Directors of Psychiatric Residency Training)



Nearly All U.S. Doctors 'Overprescribe' Addictive Narcotic Painkillers: Survey

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 14:00:47 +0100

FRIDAY, March 25, 2016 -- When American doctors give their patients narcotic painkillers, 99 percent of them hand out prescriptions that exceed the federally recommended three-day dosage limit, new research suggests. And some doctors exceeded that... (Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews)

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‘Snack Crack:’ Our Children’s Addiction to Sugar

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 13:53:16 +0100

Why we need to go further to reduce the sweet stuff students consume at school. (Source: U.S. News - Health)



Heroin Epidemic Is Yielding to a Deadlier Cousin: Fentanyl

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 11:43:39 +0100

Cheaper and far more potent, the synthetic painkiller is becoming the drug of choice for some addicts — and is killing them more quickly. (Source: NYT Health)



FDA now wants their own FDA-approved gateway drugs to require warning labels stating the obvious: Opiod painkillers 'may' cause addiction, death

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 06:00:00 +0100

(NaturalNews) In case you were wondering, dangerous opioid drugs cause addiction and can kill you. But the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is just now catching on to that."It is just staggering and heartbreaking to see the toll that abuse is taking," said Dr. Tom Frieden, director... (Source: NaturalNews.com)



Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking Beginning in Adolescence Predict Insomnia in the Mid Thirties.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Prevention and treatment programs for individuals who suffer from insomnia should be implemented in parallel with programs for smoking cessation. From a public health perspective, our longitudinal study that examined the association between earlier smoking trajectories and later insomnia suggests that treatments designed to reduce or cease smoking may lessen the occurrence of symptoms of insomnia. PMID: 27008539 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Tracking and Locating Itinerant Subjects With a Rechargeable Incentive Card: Results of a Randomized Trial.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

This study contrasted two incentivizing methods-money orders (MOs) or rechargeable incentive cards (RICs)-with regard to rates of participants' study engagement and follow-up contact over a 6-month period. METHODS: Substance abusers (N = 303) in Los Angeles, California were recruited and randomized to either an MO (control) or RIC (experimental) condition. All participants were asked to call the researchers at the beginning of each calendar month for the ensuing 5 months to update their locator information, even if nothing had changed. Each call resulted in a $10 payment, issued immediately via the RIC system or by MO by mail. Research staff located and interviewed all participants at Month 6. Contact logs assessed level of effort required to locate participants and conduct follow-up i...

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Adolescent Sexual Minority Girls Are at Elevated Risk for Use of Multiple Substances.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusions/Importance: Clinicians and researchers should be aware of potential three-substance use among SMGs. Substance use interventions for SMG may benefit from targeting risk factors that cut-across several substances, particularly externalizing symptoms. PMID: 27008283 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Social Support Indirectly Predicts Problem Drinking Through Reduced Psychological Distress.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

CONCLUSION: Social support from friends, emotional support, and informational support combine to form a protective factor that mitigates the risk of problem drinking in young adults through reduced psychological distress. PMID: 27008107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Comparative Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Medications to Attenuate Weight Gain Following Cessation.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: While patients using bupropion gained slightly less weight compared to those using varenicline, type of smoking cessation medication was not a significant predictor of weight change in the multivariate linear regression model. PMID: 27007975 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Alcohol Expectancies Mediate the Relationship Between Age of First Intoxication and Drinking Outcomes in College Binge Drinkers.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusions/Importance: These findings are consistent with expectancy theory and previous research suggesting that more experienced drinkers hold stronger drinking-related beliefs, be it positive or negative, and these expectancies ultimately explain variability in alcohol use and problems. Our findings further support that expectancies play an important role in the initiation of drinking behavior. PMID: 27007814 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



The Impact of Hazardous Alcohol Use on Behavioral Healthcare Utilization Among National Guard Service Members.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusion/Importance: Although these findings require replication, they appear to demonstrate that when combat-exposed service members engaged in hazardous alcohol use at postdeployment, they were much less likely to utilize behavioral healthcare to manage their posttraumatic stress symptoms during this period. PMID: 27007170 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)

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Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status of Lifetime Abstainers, Ex-Drinkers, Bingers, and Nonbingers Among Baby Boomers and Older Adults.

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusions/Importance: Diabetes screening/monitoring and stroke prevention/care are recommended for both age groups of abstainers and exdrinkers. PMID: 27007029 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



Comparisons of Cocaine-Only, Opioid-Only, and Users of Both Substances in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:58:02 +0100

Conclusions/importance: This sample of past-12-month cocaine and/or opioid users had greater involvement with other substances, more psychiatric and medical conditions compared to the general population. Co-users had greater involvement with other substances than opioid-only users in particular. PMID: 27002858 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Substance Use and Misuse)



This is what sugar addiction REALLY does to your body, and how you can break it

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 05:43:00 +0100

HEALTH experts estimate the average Brit adult consumes more than double the recommended sugar intake each day. (Source: Daily Express - Health)



Debate Arises Over HHS Plans for Privacy Rules on Addiction Treatment

Fri, 25 Mar 2016 02:35:04 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Some feel proposed rules don't go far enough (Source: MedPage Today Psychiatry)



Alcohol‐Induced Blackouts as Predictors of Other Drinking Related Harms Among Emerging Young Adults

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsBecause blackouts indicate drinking at levels that result in significant cognitive and behavioral impairment, questions about blackouts could serve as important, simple screeners for the risk of experiencing other alcohol related harms. Additional work on this subject is warranted. In 2012 to 2013, 68% (1,463/2,140) of respondents nationwide 1 year past high school reported consuming alcohol. They were asked whether in the past 6 months because of drinking they forgot what they did. After controlling for levels of drinking, this blackout measure was the strongest independent predictor of the total number of other alcohol problems reported, including, in the past 6 months because of drinking, hangovers, doing something respondents regretted, having arguments, damaging propert...

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G Protein‐Gated Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Subunit 3 Knock‐Out Mice Show Enhanced Ethanol Reward

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThese findings suggest that GIRK3 plays a role in EtOH reward. Furthermore, the selectivity of this effect suggests that GIRK channels could be an effective therapeutic target for the prevention and/or treatment of alcoholism. GIRK channels are emerging as an important neural target of alcohol. Here, we investigate the role of the GIRK3 subunit in ethanol reward using conditioned place preference. Our results demonstrate that the loss of GIRK3 significantly enhances preference for the ethanol‐paired chamber after only four pairings. Further, we show that this effect is not due to the differences in ethanol metabolism, tolerance/sensitivity, or ethanol effects on associative learning. These data highlight the potential utility of GIRK‐targeted therapeutics in the treatment o...



Epidemiology, Evolution, and Long‐Term Survival of Alcoholic Cirrhosis Patients Submitted to Liver Transplantation in Southeastern Spain

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsAC without viral infections is the main indication for LT in southeastern Spain although its frequency has decreased in last decade. AC is a good indication for LT for its high survival rate and few posttransplant complications. Despite having a high percentage of pretransplant complications (ascites and encephalopathy) but does not appear to influence survivals being observed posttransplant survival rates above those expected. Conversely, viral infections in the patient with AC decrease patient survivals. The main future goals are design new strategies to detect, treat, and reduce AC frequency in our population and know alcoholic recidivism rate posttransplant in our population. This figure shows Kaplan–Meier patient's survival curves according to the main indications for li...



Alcohol Hits You When It Is Hard: Intoxication, Task Difficulty, and Theta Brain Oscillations

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe spatiotemporal theta profile across the 2 tasks supports the concept of a rostrocaudal activity gradient in the medial prefrontal cortex that is modulated by task difficulty, with the dAC as the key node in the network subserving cognitive control. Conflict‐related theta power was selectively reduced by alcohol only under the more difficult task which is indicative of the alcohol‐induced impairment of conflict monitoring and top‐down regulation. Compromised executive control under alcohol may underlie a range of adverse effects including reduced competency in conflict‐inducing or complex situations. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is engaged by conflict in tasks that probe the ability to override automatic responses. A cumulative contrast map and associated ...



The Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire: Evidence for Construct Validity

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe ASQ compared favorably with the better‐known SRE in predicting increased stimulation and reduced sedation following an acute alcohol challenge. The ASQ appears to be a valid self‐report measure of alcohol sensitivity and therefore holds promise for identifying individuals at‐risk for AUD and related problems. The Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire (ASQ), a new retrospective, self‐report measure of sensitivity to alcohol's effects, outperformed the better‐known Self‐Rating of the Effects of Alcohol (SRE) form in predicting changes in stimulation and sedation following acute alcohol challenge. Given its assessment of a larger number and greater diversity of effects, the ASQ represents a valid alternative to the SRE for characterizing individual differences in risk ...



Craving Mediates Stress in Predicting Lapse During Alcohol Dependence Treatment

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsAmong treatment seeking, alcohol‐dependent patients, craving mediated the relationship between stress and lapse. The effect was not moderated by depressed mood or anticraving medication. Stress, craving and depressed mood are implicated in alcohol‐use treatment lapses. This prospective study examined a stress–treatment response model that incorporated mediation by craving and moderation by depressed mood and pharmacotherapy using the newly developed Alcohol Craving Experience Questionnaire (ACE). In a sample of 539 alcohol‐dependent patients, craving mediated stress to predict lapse. This effect was not moderated by depressed mood or anticraving medication. Treatment focusing on craving reduction could prevent lapse in selected patients. (Source: Alcoholism: Clinical an...

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Dietary Nutrient Intake in School‐Aged Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThe present findings are consistent with prior studies investigating nutritional intake in preschoolers with FASD, indicating that these children are vulnerable to nutritional inadequacies. Moreover, data suggest a specific profile of dietary intake in this population. As several nutrients are important for cognitive development, targeted interventions in clinical populations might be effective in boosting outcomes. Thus, further clinical investigation into the role of nutrition in improving cognitive outcomes is warranted. School‐aged children with FASD had poorer nutritional intake compared to typically developing children in the United States, and they did not meet dietary standards outlined by the Institute of Medicine. Results suggest a specific profile of dietary intake...



Synthetic cannabinoid outbreaks continue; health effects a concern

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



Incarcerated children more likely to have experienced trauma

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



Obama again calls for $1.1 billion; will attend opioid confab

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



FDA calls for warning labels on immediate‐release opioids

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)

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Briefly Noted

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



Coming Up

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



In Case You Haven't Heard

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Weekly)



Alcohol Toxicity in Diabetes and Its Complications: A Double Trouble?

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: This review summarizes the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, metabolic, and cell signaling alterations and finally brushes upon issues and strategies to manage the "double trouble." PMID: 27013182 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)



Dietary Nutrient Intake in School-Aged Children With Heavy Prenatal Alcohol Exposure.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The present findings are consistent with prior studies investigating nutritional intake in preschoolers with FASD, indicating that these children are vulnerable to nutritional inadequacies. Moreover, data suggest a specific profile of dietary intake in this population. As several nutrients are important for cognitive development, targeted interventions in clinical populations might be effective in boosting outcomes. Thus, further clinical investigation into the role of nutrition in improving cognitive outcomes is warranted. PMID: 27012806 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

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Craving Mediates Stress in Predicting Lapse During Alcohol Dependence Treatment.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Among treatment seeking, alcohol-dependent patients, craving mediated the relationship between stress and lapse. The effect was not moderated by depressed mood or anticraving medication. PMID: 27012658 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)



The Alcohol Sensitivity Questionnaire: Evidence for Construct Validity.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The ASQ compared favorably with the better-known SRE in predicting increased stimulation and reduced sedation following an acute alcohol challenge. The ASQ appears to be a valid self-report measure of alcohol sensitivity and therefore holds promise for identifying individuals at-risk for AUD and related problems. PMID: 27012527 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)



Alcohol Hits You When It Is Hard: Intoxication, Task Difficulty, and Theta Brain Oscillations.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: The spatiotemporal theta profile across the 2 tasks supports the concept of a rostrocaudal activity gradient in the medial prefrontal cortex that is modulated by task difficulty, with the dAC as the key node in the network subserving cognitive control. Conflict-related theta power was selectively reduced by alcohol only under the more difficult task which is indicative of the alcohol-induced impairment of conflict monitoring and top-down regulation. Compromised executive control under alcohol may underlie a range of adverse effects including reduced competency in conflict-inducing or complex situations. PMID: 27012442 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)



Epidemiology, Evolution, and Long-Term Survival of Alcoholic Cirrhosis Patients Submitted to Liver Transplantation in Southeastern Spain.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: AC without viral infections is the main indication for LT in southeastern Spain although its frequency has decreased in last decade. AC is a good indication for LT for its high survival rate and few posttransplant complications. Despite having a high percentage of pretransplant complications (ascites and encephalopathy) but does not appear to influence survivals being observed posttransplant survival rates above those expected. Conversely, viral infections in the patient with AC decrease patient survivals. The main future goals are design new strategies to detect, treat, and reduce AC frequency in our population and know alcoholic recidivism rate posttransplant in our population. PMID: 27012317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimen...



G Protein-Gated Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Subunit 3 Knock-Out Mice Show Enhanced Ethanol Reward.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that GIRK3 plays a role in EtOH reward. Furthermore, the selectivity of this effect suggests that GIRK channels could be an effective therapeutic target for the prevention and/or treatment of alcoholism. PMID: 27012303 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)

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Alcohol-Induced Blackouts as Predictors of Other Drinking Related Harms Among Emerging Young Adults.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Because blackouts indicate drinking at levels that result in significant cognitive and behavioral impairment, questions about blackouts could serve as important, simple screeners for the risk of experiencing other alcohol related harms. Additional work on this subject is warranted. PMID: 27012148 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research)



An initial fMRI study on neural correlates of prayer in members of Alcoholics Anonymous.

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSION: AA members' prayer was associated with a relative reduction in self-reported craving and with concomitant engagement of neural mechanisms that reflect control of attention and emotion. These findings suggest neural processes underlying the apparent effectiveness of AA prayer. PMID: 27015258 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse)



From CARA To Prescribing Guidelines: Recent Advancements To Fight The Opioid Crisis

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 20:49:00 +0100

From the CARA bill, to opioid prescribing guidelines and Naloxone, the advancements to alleviate the growing opioid epidemic continue with the aim of helping those struggling with opioid addiction. (Source: Forbes.com Healthcare News)



FDA outlines standards for anti-abuse generic painkillers

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 15:24:41 +0100

WASHINGTON (AP) — Federal officials are encouraging generic drugmakers to reformulate their painkillers to make them harder to abuse, the latest in a string of steps designed to combat abuse of highly-addictive prescription pain drugs. (Source: U.S. News - Health)



Gender‐specific effects of comorbid depression and anxiety on the propensity to drink in negative emotional states

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 13:25:18 +0100

ConclusionsThere appears to be a higher prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety disorders as well as propensity to drink in negative emotional situations in female compared with male alcoholics. Substance‐induced depression appears to have a sex‐specific effect on the increased risk for drinking in negative emotional situations in males. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Addiction)

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Potential for misuse & diversion of opioids to addicts should not overshadow their therapeutic value

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Mary Ann Liebert, Inc./Genetic Engineering News) Opioids are very effective for treating some types of pain, such as cancer pain and postoperative pain, but not for other kinds of pain like chronic low back pain. An increase in the number of opioid-related deaths among addicts has led to the current movement to restrict opioid prescribing by state and federal authorities. While a laudable goal, these restrictions threaten to block their use for safe and effective pain relief when medically indicated. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)



Leading global health commission calls for reform of drug policies worldwide

Thu, 24 Mar 2016 04:00:00 +0100

(Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health) A leading global public health commission is calling for new policies that would transform our approach to drug use, addiction and control worldwide, including the decriminalization of minor and non-violent drug offenses. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)






The Future of Opioid Agonist Therapies in Ukraine: a Qualitative Assessment of Multilevel Barriers and Ways Forward to Promote Retention in Treatment

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Opioid agonist therapies (OAT) to treat opioid addiction in people who inject drugs (PWID) began in Ukraine in 2004. Scale-up of OAT, however, has been hampered by both low enrollment and high attrition. To better understand the factors influencing OAT retention among PWID in Ukraine, qualitative data from 199 PWIDs were collected during 25 focus groups conducted in five Ukrainian cities from February-April 2013. The experiences of PWID who were currently or previously on OAT or currently trying to access OAT were analyzed to identify entry and retention barriers encountered. (Source: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment)

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mTORC1-Dependent Metabolic Reprogramming Underlies Escape from Glycolysis Addiction in Cancer Cells

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 24 March 2016 Source:Cancer Cell Author(s): Raju V. Pusapati, Anneleen Daemen, Catherine Wilson, Wendy Sandoval, Min Gao, Benjamin Haley, Andreas R. Baudy, Georgia Hatzivassiliou, Marie Evangelista, Jeff Settleman Although glycolysis is substantially elevated in many tumors, therapeutic targeting of glycolysis in cancer patients has not yet been successful, potentially reflecting the metabolic plasticity of tumor cells. In various cancer cells exposed to a continuous glycolytic block, we identified a recurrent reprogramming mechanism involving sustained mTORC1 signaling that underlies escape from glycolytic addiction. Active mTORC1 directs increased glucose flux via the pentose phosphate pathway back into glycolysis, thereby circumventing a ...



Combined pharmacotherapy and behavioural interventions for smoking cessation.

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that combine pharmacotherapy and behavioural support increase smoking cessation success compared to a minimal intervention or usual care. Updating this review with an additional 12 studies (5,000 participants) did not materially change the effect estimate. Although trials differed in the details of their populations and interventions, we did not detect any factors that modified treatment effects apart from the recruitment setting. We did not find evidence from indirect comparisons that offering more intensive behavioural support was associated with larger treatment effects. PMID: 27009521 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews)



Using Computational Classifiers to Detect Chronic Alcoholism

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 22:13:07 +0100

Addiction to alcohol is one of the commonest problems in human society. The tribes of the Jharkhand state of India are also generally addicted to a homemade alcohol Mahuwa, fermented from the flower of Madura longifolia. In the present work, the effects of Mahuwa on the cerebral cortex of the brain are evaluated. The digital brain signals or electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from frontal, central, and parietal cortices of the brain, and the features for classification were extracted with both time and frequency domain tools: the third-order nonautoregressive method and power spectral density, respectively. The dimensions of these features were further reduced by using linear discriminant analysis before the identification of alcoholic EEG data with the help of support vector machine ...



Could cannabis help prevent prescription painkiller abuse? Medical marijuana 'reduces use of addictive opioid meds' 

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 21:48:43 +0100

University of Michigan experts revealed chronic pain patients using medical marijuana reported a 64 per cent decrease in opioid use - and a 45 per cent increase in their quality of life. (Source: the Mail online | Health)

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Drug Abuse Experts Stump for Opioid Addiction Tx Bill

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 21:08:55 +0100

(MedPage Today) -- Ninety percent of patients needing treatment don't get it (Source: MedPage Today Primary Care)



Risky Rats Give Clues on Brain Circuitry Behind Taking a Chance

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 20:57:52 +0100

A new study found that a specific type of neuron in a certain brain region helps galvanize whether or not a risky choice is made. (Source: NYT Health)



Fenethylline (Captagon) Abuse. Local Problems from an Old Drug become Universal

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 20:26:25 +0100

This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. (Source: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology)



FDA Announces Safety Labeling Changes for Immediate-Release Opioid Medications

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 18:27:00 +0100

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced yesterday that it has issued class-wide safety labeling changes for immediate-release (IR) opioid pain medications in an ongoing effort to educate prescribers and patients about the potential risks associated with opioid use. Among the changes, the FDA is requiring a new boxed warning about the serious risks of misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose, and death from IR opioids, which are intended for use every four to six hours.“IRs [opioids] are the most frequently prescribed type of opioid medication,” said Douglas Throckmorton, M.D., deputy director of regulatory programs at the FDA’s Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, during a conference call. Until now, very few IR opioids have received labeled warnings, he explained. (In 2013, t...



RSA Honors CPN Chief Lorenzo Leggio

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 18:21:17 +0100

The Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) has announced that Lorenzo Leggio, M.D., Ph.D., M.Sc., will receive the 2016 Early Career Investigator Award. Dr. Leggio is Chief of the Section on Clinical Psychoneuroendocrinology and Neuropsychopharmacology (CPN), a joint laboratory of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA).  (Source: NIAAA News)

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‘Black box’ addiction warnings added to common prescription painkillers

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 14:52:51 +0100

The US Food and Drug Administration will add its strongest warning labels to prescription opioids, such as Vicodin and Percocet, highlighting the risks of addiction, abuse, overdose and death. (Source: the Mail online | Health)



Smoking control at the School of Public Health, Universidade de São Paulo

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 03:16:17 +0100

Conclusion: knowledge by health professionals of the harms caused by tobacco smoking contributed to their participation in anti-smoking programs, and led to a decline in the number of smokers at FSP-USP. The creation of 100% tobacco-free environments and programs to treat smokers who want to cease their addiction should be encouraged.RESUMO Introdução: as escolas de saúde pública, por sua própria natureza, têm responsabilidade muito grande na elaboração de programas de promoção da saúde, com destaque o controle do tabagismo. A participação de diversos grupos de profissionais ligados à saúde em ações educativas favorece a transmissão de inúmeras informações sobre tabagismo à população. Objetivo: avaliar prevalência do tabagismo e efetividade de programa de controle,...



Why painkiller addicts turn to heroin

Wed, 23 Mar 2016 02:36:14 +0100

The face of heroin abuse in America is changing. (Source: CNN.com - Health)



Problem gambling and the five‐factor model of personality: A large population‐based study.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:25:14 +0100

ConclusionsA higher level of problem gambling severity appears to be associated with higher scores on Neuroticism, and with lower scores on Conscientiousness and Agreeableness in the Mini‐International Personality Item Pool. (Source: Addiction)



Immediate-Release Opioids Get Label Changes, Boxed Warning (FREE)

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

By Kristin J. Kelley Edited by David G. Fairchild, MD, MPH All immediate-release prescription opioids must now carry a boxed warning about the risks for abuse, addiction, and misuse associated with the painkillers, the FDA announced … (Source: Physician's First Watch current issue)



Serotonergic Modulation of the Activity of Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Systems: Therapeutic Implications

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016 Source:Progress in Neurobiology Author(s): Philippe De Deurwaerdère, Giuseppe Di Giovanni Since their discovery in the mammalian brain, it has been apparent that serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) interactions play a key role in normal and abnormal behavior. Therefore, disclosure of this interaction could reveal important insights into the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, depression and drug addiction or neurological conditions such as Parkinson’s disease and Tourette’s syndrome. Unfortunately, this interaction remains difficult to study for many reasons, including the rich and widespread innervations of 5-HT and DA in the brain, the plethora of 5-HT receptors and the release of co-transmitt...



How Pokemon May Be an Example of a Technologica...

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Are Pokémon games addictive? Some parents have described their children's behavior in terms that fit the definition of addiction, but is it possible? (Source: About.com Mental Health)



Does gender moderate the relationship between polydrug use and sexual risk‐taking among Australian secondary school students under 16 years of age?

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsFor girls, polydrug use was significantly associated with unprotected sex after adjusting for a range of risk factors, and this relationship was non‐significant for boys. Future prevention programs for adolescent risky sexual behaviour and polydrug use might benefit from a tailored approach to gender differences.[Chan G, Kelly A, Hides L, Quinn C, Williams J. Does gender moderate the relationship between polydrug use and sexual risk‐taking among Australian secondary school students under 16 years of age? Adolescent drug use and sexual risk‐taking. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;00:000‐000] (Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)



Addressing HIV risk behaviour in South Africa: Yes, HIV testing in treatment centres in important, but far more is needed

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)

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The policy and practices of New South Wales drug treatment providers in responding to the possession of illicit substances on premises

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Conclusions.The policy and practice in these settings vary greatly, with many services reporting no documented policy to guide staff. The findings suggest the need to develop organisational policy to support service providers in responding to possession of illicit substances on premises. [Stirling R, Day C. The policy and practices of New South Wales drug treatment providers in responding to the possession of illicit substances on premises. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;00:000‐000] (Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)



A randomised trial of a computer‐delivered screening and brief intervention for postpartum alcohol use

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

ConclusionsThis pilot trial failed to support a single‐session e‐SBI for alcohol use among postpartum women, although findings at the 3‐month time point suggested that greater power might confirm transient effects of the e‐SBI. As efficacy is likely to vary with e‐SBI content and approach, future research should leverage technology's reproducibility and modularity to isolate key components. [Authors. Title. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;xx:xxx‐xxx] (Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)



Issue information ‐ toc

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)






Issue information ‐ ifa

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

No abstract is available for this article. (Source: Drug and Alcohol Review)

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A Perspective on Opioid Pharmacotherapy: Where We Are and How We Got Here

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Abstract Four decades of concerted pharmacotherapy research has netted us three medications approved for the treatment of opioid addiction. The clinical pharmacology, safety, efficacy, and clinical use of these medications are familiar to most clinical researchers and clinicians in addiction medicine. Less common is an understanding of the social and political forces behind the choice of these particular agents for their development and how these forces continue to influence how clinicians interact with patients who have opioid use disorder. This review brings into focus those forces and puts into context how we came to have these particular medications. What we know determines our views of the world we live in, including our patients and ourselves, as well as those to whom we giv...



Melanoma addiction to the long non-coding RNA SAMMSON

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Authors: Eleonora Leucci, Roberto Vendramin, Marco Spinazzi, Patrick Laurette, Mark Fiers, Jasper Wouters, Enrico Radaelli, Sven Eyckerman, Carina Leonelli, Katrien Vanderheyden, Aljosja Rogiers, Els Hermans, Pieter Baatsen, Stein Aerts, Frederic Amant, Stefan Van Aelst, Joost van den Oord, Bart de Strooper, Irwin Davidson, Denis L. J. Lafontaine, Kris Gevaert, Jo Vandesompele, Pieter Mestdagh & Jean-Christophe Marine Focal amplifications of chromosome 3p13–3p14 occur in about 10% of melanomas and are associated with a poor prognosis. The melanoma-specific oncogene MITF resides at the epicentre of this amplicon. However, whether other loci present in this amplicon also contribute to melanomagenesis is unknown. Here we show that the recently annotated long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)...



Increased Steroid Hormone Dehydroepiandrosterone and Pregnenolone Levels in Post-Mortem Brain Samples of Alcoholics

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Intra-tissue levels of steroid hormones (e.g., dehydroepiandrosterone [DHEA], pregnenolone [PREGN], and testosterone [T]) may influence the pathological changes seen in neurotransmitter systems of alcoholic brains. Our aim was to compare levels of these steroid hormones between the post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics and non-alcoholic controls. We studied steroid levels with quantitative liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in post-mortem brain samples of alcoholics (N = 14) and non-alcoholic controls (N = 10). (Source: Alcohol)



Television viewing and alcohol advertising with alcohol expectancies among school-aged children in Taiwan

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

(Source: Drug and Alcohol Dependence)



Blacks face higher risk of drug arrests in White neighborhoods

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 23:00:00 +0100

Although Blacks and Whites in the United States (US) use and sell drugs at approximately the same rates, Blacks are more than twice as likely to be arrested for drug related reasons than are Whites (Trifiletti, Gielen, Sleet, & Hopkins, 2005; Mitchell, 2015; National Survey, 2013). The mass incarceration of Black men resulting from this bias in drug related arrests has contributed to the social and economic destabilization of Black communities, increased STI risks for incarcerated men and their partners, and perpetuated racial health disparities (Massoglia, 2008; Cooper et al., 2015; Alexander, 2012). (Source: International Journal of Drug Policy)

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Depression, Addiction Common Among Young Transgender WomenDepression, Addiction Common Among Young Transgender Women

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 22:50:30 +0100

Mental health issues like depression and addiction are more common among young transgender women than the general U.S. population, according to a new study. Reuters Health Information (Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines)



A Longitudinal Study of Truant Youths' Involvement in Sexual Risk Behavior.

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 22:35:02 +0100

Authors: Dembo R, Robinson RB, Ungaro R, Winters KC, Karas L PMID: 26997857 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Journal of Child and Adolescent Substance Abuse)



FDA announces enhanced warnings for immediate-release opioid pain medications related to risks of misuse, abuse, addiction, overdose and death

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 22:03:52 +0100

March 22, 2016 -- In a continuing effort to educate prescribers and patients about the potential risks related to opioid use, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration today announced required class-wide safety labeling changes for immediate-release... (Source: Drugs.com - Pharma News)



FDA requires boxed warnings for short-acting opioids

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 21:40:17 +0100

The Food and Drug Administration will require boxed warnings on the risks of abuse, misuse, addiction, overdose, and death for all immediate-release opioids. The decision is part of the latest wave... (Source: Ob.Gyn. News)



[Affective mentalizing in Addictive Borderline Personality: A literature review].

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 21:29:03 +0100

We describe mentalization failure, its etiology and consequences in the BPD. Several forms of mentalization psychopathology are identified. Its etiology is largely environmental. Fonagy and Bateman developed the optimum developmental model of mentalization and referred to it to explain etiology of mentalization failure in BPD. Consequences of mentalization failure explicate its functioning. Mentalization may be considered as essential in their comprehension and their care. Research about mentalization of PDs does not integrate addiction as one comorbidity factor. However, Allen, Fonagy and Bateman describe a bidirectional interaction between mentalization failure and addiction. We propose to examine the mentalization of Borderline Addictive Personality. This concept groups addictions and b...

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FDA now requires 'black box' warning on painkillers

Tue, 22 Mar 2016 21:05:41 +0100

In an attempt to help slow the prescription drug epidemic, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced Tuesday that immediate-release opioid painkillers such as oxycodone and fentanyl will now have to carry a "black box" warning about the risk of abuse, addiction, overdose and death. (Source: CNN.com - Health)