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Network & Infrastructure Blogs



Hardware, Linux, Networking, Security, Storage, UNIX, Windows, and Wireless Blogs



Published: 2017-02-26T00:55-07:00

 



When does security hamper productivity

Sat, 25 Feb 2017 09:45:45 GMT

We all should consider IT security in our daily activities. ... However like everything else there is a line where too much of a good thing becomes bad.



The Impacts of IBM's SNA Networking on LANs Part 2

Thu, 16 Feb 2017 21:52:40 GMT

IBM did not, for the most part, sell SNA as a generalized networking solution independent of its own product line. It was designed to be a networking solution primarily revolving around an information environment that has IBM-designed large or mid-range computers at the center.



The Impacts of IBM's SNA Networking on LANs Part 1

Thu, 16 Feb 2017 21:38:40 GMT

IBM also supported a wide variety of other software interfaces, as well, including IEEE's Logical Link Control (LLC). In addition, IBM sold a number of Ethernet (802.3) related products during this time as a hedge.



The Domination of TCP/IP on the LAN Part 3

Wed, 15 Feb 2017 22:10:21 GMT

TCP segments user data into manageable units, then appends a TCP header that includes the destination port, segment sequence number, and checksum to test for errors in transmission.



The Domination of TCP/IP on the LAN Part 2

Wed, 15 Feb 2017 22:00:59 GMT

Each of the services implied by these protocols should generally be present in any implementation of TCP/IP, although SMTP was not always supported by microcomputer-based systems.



The Domination of TCP/IP on the LAN Part 1

Wed, 15 Feb 2017 21:54:13 GMT

TCP provides the packet sequencing, error control, and other services required to provide reliable end-to-end communications while IP takes the packet from TCP and passes it through whatever gateways are needed, for delivery to the remote TCP layer through the remote IP layer. Some networks, in fact, could use IP but not TCP, preferring instead to use some alternative protocol at the transport layer.



Some final notes on MANs vs LANs

Tue, 14 Feb 2017 22:42:29 GMT

With the development of higher-speed (14,400 b/s and higher), reasonably priced telephone modems, the situation was changing. Because analog telephone service is electronically noisy, however, the extensive error-correction techniques necessary for high-speed dial access service resulted in unpredictable service, which may limit throughput.



How Networks Enabled Distributed Computing

Mon, 13 Feb 2017 13:24:03 GMT

At that some point it will be important to understand how LANs fit into the overall OSI scheme of things, and that will be illustrated by reference to MAP, the Manufacturing Automation Protocol in some future post.



Local Area Networks Built Cooperative Computing

Mon, 13 Feb 2017 01:41:50 GMT

A large, powerful database-management system may need additional computing power in order to meet response time objectives, or it may be desirable to maintain large amounts of data subject to extensive scientific analysis to be available to multiple researchers.



Frame Relay Physical Layer Options and Frame Formats

Sat, 11 Feb 2017 13:08:32 GMT

In addition to these guidelines, the UNI IA acknowledges that other interfaces, such as ISDN, may be used as appropriate. For example, MCI currently offers frame relay as a switched digital service at 56/64 Kpbs, and also as a fractional T1 service, Nx56 or Nx64 Kpbs.



Frame Relay Service Architecture

Sat, 11 Feb 2017 02:04:49 GMT

The access connection hooks the FRAD to the network's frame handler (FRND). T1.617, Case A and Case B are two methods defined for access connection.



There are Dead Standards Too

Fri, 10 Feb 2017 22:01:13 GMT

However, as speeds of Ethernet and broadband technologies gathered steam, MANs were really just small WANs and the differentiation in the technologies and protocols were all but phased out.



Chat bots need AI + ML!

Fri, 10 Feb 2017 00:11:06 GMT

Taking an AI-only off-the-shelf white label banking bot as they are offered today will hundreds require hundreds of hours to code out the asks and intents for adding enhancements on these tools.



Media Access Control (MAC) Standards for CSMA/CD

Thu, 09 Feb 2017 22:15:44 GMT

With a CSMA/CD system, collisions are assumed to be a normal operational occurrence. The most frequently used analogy is the comparison of a CSMA/CD-based LAN with a group discussion. In such a discussion, each member of the group listens for an opportunity to be heard. On some occasions, however, two or more members will attempt to speak at the same time. In such a situation, other members will hear



Media Access Control (MAC) Standards Overview

Wed, 08 Feb 2017 21:05:58 GMT

There are still odd firmware conflict anomalies that can cause issues within a network segment. This isn?t always the case of mixing vendors ? we have also seen issues arise from mixing firmware versions of NICs on the same segment. Usually isolating specific versions of the firmware to their own segment will solve the problem, but it is usually recommended to standardize on a firmware version and



Standards for Logical Link Control (LLC)

Tue, 07 Feb 2017 21:02:18 GMT

LLC is that part of a data station that supports the logical link functions of one or more logical links. The Logical Link Control generates command packets or frames (called protocol data units or PDUs) or interprets such PDUs. In particular, the responsibilities assigned to a LLC include:



LAN Standards From IEEE

Tue, 07 Feb 2017 20:36:04 GMT

So, the next grouping of posts will focus on some specific layer standards that we use in LANs every day.



Data Transmission Standards

Tue, 07 Feb 2017 00:04:07 GMT

As words are spoken into the microphone, the carbon granules move and change the resistance of the circuit through the microphone, thereby changing (modulating) the actual level of the DC current. On the listening end, the strength of the electromagnet changes in time with the changes in the strength of the DC current, thus making the membrane move back and forth, producing or reproducing sound.



Tech Standards for Transmission Media

Mon, 06 Feb 2017 00:10:32 GMT

Many different media are used to provide LAN services. The most common today are twisted pair copper cables for baseband and fiber optic cable for broadband.



IT Standards Development Can Be Complicated!

Sat, 04 Feb 2017 17:28:43 GMT

The complexity issue can be illustrated by comparing a local network reference model to the OSI model. Two sub-layers within the Data Link Layer and the Physical Layer comprise the local network model:



The Functionality of OSI Layers

Thu, 02 Feb 2017 16:39:39 GMT

Each layer in the OSI reference model defines a layer or level of function. Compatibility of equipment can be defined within a layer, or lower-level implementations can be hidden to achieve compatibility at some higher level in the stack. The dual purposes of the model are to ensure information flow among systems, and at the same time permit variation in basic communications technology. Moreover, in



Exploring the Seven Layers of OSI

Thu, 02 Feb 2017 00:17:06 GMT

While true, I believe it was finding #2 that essentially killed the native OSI stack as it could not find clear differentiation against TCP/IP except for some high-quality protocols and perhaps better security postures. Over time, the cost of OSI products should have been lower than corresponding TCP/IP products. This never came to fruition despite some other tangible benefits that were expected of



IP: Generating ICMP Redirect Messages

Tue, 31 Jan 2017 11:39:31 GMT

Conceptually, ICMP can be divided into two parts: one that handles incoming ICMP messages and another that generates outgoing ICMP messages. While both hosts and gateways must handle incoming messages, most outgoing messages are restricted to gateways. Thus, ICMP code is usually more complex for gateways than for hosts.



IP: Avoiding Errors About Errors

Tue, 31 Jan 2017 11:30:32 GMT

Procedure icsetdata creates the data portion of an ICMP message. The action taken depends on the message type, which icsetdata receives as an argument.



Concepts of a 'Layered Architecture'

Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:43:10 GMT

The highest layer does not have an (N+1)-layer above it, and the lowest layer does not have an (N-1)-layer below it. The physical medium is not a part of the layered architecture.



Open Systems Interconnection Environments

Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:28:14 GMT

Since some of these activities may imply exchange of information among the interconnected open systems, they may be of concern to OSI.



AI Could Undermine Customer Confidence

Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:19:08 GMT

Popularity of Artificial Intelligence and machine learning tools has grown by leaps and bounds in the last 18 months. With the promise of providing better customer services with reduced head counts, what?s not to like?



Frame Relay vs X.25

Sun, 29 Jan 2017 22:05:07 GMT

Protocols above the Network layer do not interact with the X.25 protocols; rather, higher layer information passes transparently between end-user equipment via the network.



Frame Relay Standards

Sun, 29 Jan 2017 21:57:05 GMT

The FRF works to develop frame relay technologies, improve existing standards, and facilitate multivendor interoperability.



IP: Choosing a Source Address for an ICMP Packet

Sun, 29 Jan 2017 21:48:56 GMT

formal documents are called Implementation Agreements (IAs). The FRF IAs heavily reference ITU-T standards. Currently available IAs are as follows: Standard Description FREI The User-Network Interface (UNI) FRE2 The Network-to-Network Interface (NNI) FRF.3 Multiprotocol encapsulation FRF.4 Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) FRF:5 Frame Relay/ATM Network Interworking FRF:6 Frame Relay Service Customer