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Network & Infrastructure Blogs

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Published: 2017-08-21T11:55-07:00


The LAN: A History of Network Operating Systems Part 2

Sat, 19 Aug 2017 00:30:23 GMT

Before proceeding further, a brief comment on the use of the terms "proprietary" and "open system" is probably in order.

Swagger Becomes OAS3

Wed, 16 Aug 2017 21:05:17 GMT

The OpenAPI Specification v3 (OAS3) has now become official. As with many things in the industry though, I am sure that people will continue to refer to it as swagger just because we have called it that for so many years now. But this is a much welcome change and update to the specification. APIs have continued to grow in popularity, and with it, the need to document and specify the operations of

The Storied Trail to Swagger 3.0.0

Tue, 08 Aug 2017 22:42:42 GMT

It is now available and in the wild from the Open API Initiative (OAI) which is operating under the wing of the Linux Foundation as an open standard that will be updated and maintained on GitHub going forward. This is a bright moment for the Swagger standard and includes some major overhauls to the specification. Also instead of Swagger, we should now be calling it the OpenAPI Specification (OAS)

The LAN: A History Network Operating Systems Part 1

Mon, 07 Aug 2017 23:44:12 GMT

Under the best of circumstances, the end-user should not even know that a network exists. If he wishes to do something simple, like copy a file from one place to another, it should be possible to use something like the old MS/DOS copy command and simply type: COPY c:mydata.dat p:yourdata.dat.

How has technology affected your life?

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 16:11:27 GMT

Like me, you have probably seen technology changing throughout your whole life. I can remember when, as children, we would play on the streets. Today I still see children playing on the streets but their toys are much more advanced than the bats and balls we used to have.


Suffice to say, the change in technology has had a huge impact on my life and with the new developments,

Heart and soul

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 15:05:00 GMT

Like it or not technology is here to stay. We are surrounded by it, we use it to make our living and it is essential for our transportation. I could almost say that our modern life would not be able to survive without technology.


Actually, I read a book once which covered just that situation. I believe it was called The Changes. Yes, it was as I found out via quick google

Conquering nature.

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 14:19:33 GMT

It's hot! Very hot right now where I am. It is currently nine o'clock at night and the temperature in my room is a cool twenty-nine degrees Celsius. That is with the windows open as well. So I did what any normal person would do and started up my portable evaporative air cooler.


Now I am currently being caressed by a stream of cool air by a rather noisy fan. I don't care,

Rise of the Terminator!

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 13:31:47 GMT

Hasta la vista baby! Sorry but I just had to say it and I bet you read it in Arnie's voice as well.


Well, you probably know that Musk (really an unfortunate name I think) and Zuckerberg (again an unfortunate name, perhaps I should change my name to something stupid and become rich as well) are going at each other over the subject of Artificial Intelligence.



Lora is not just any broad

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 09:39:01 GMT

If you have not heard of Lora before you may think that it is some sort of females name. While you may put the name Lora into a google image search and you will see quite a few pictures of what I consider to be very attractive women the bulk of the pictures are in fact about the new LoRa internet of things protocol.


When I say new I mean that it has been around for approximately

More things to hack III

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 08:37:05 GMT

As I previously mentioned there are going to be millions if not billions of devices that will be connected the internet and they will be transmitting all sorts data about ourselves.


I have said it before and I will say it again that this scares me. It scares me in several ways.


First of all there is the companies which make these devices. Who knows what

More things to hack II

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 06:08:19 GMT

Previously I rambled on about the arrival of the age of the Internet of Things. It is amazing how much there is and how many more there are going to be.


It was due to the rise of the internet things that the currently being phased out IPv4 range of internet addresses was depleted. There simply weren't enough addresses to be able to handle the number of gadgets, nick naks and

More things to hack

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 05:44:24 GMT

It is coming and I don't think that there is any way to stop it. It is now what I decided to call the age of the Internet Of Things. It started out innocently enough. Through security related products.


As far as I know, first of all there were internet connected security cameras. You could go online from anywhere in the world and log onto your security camera to keep an eye

They are all around us.

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 05:03:06 GMT

We are surrounded by them. We can't see them, they pass right through us yet we also absorb some of them. We can't hear them yet some people say that they can feel them.


There have been many stories and studies which both supposedly prove and disprove then prove and disprove again and again that these are both good and bad for our health.


If you haven't

Cyborgs are among us

Mon, 31 Jul 2017 03:28:25 GMT

I can almost guarantee that you know someone who is a cyborg. They may even have some similarity to the famed StarTrek borg (short for cyborg by the way).


Mostly however you would not know a person who is a cyborg just by looking at them and cyborg technology is pretty much in it's infancy however, it is getting better all the time.


Just to recap the

UDP: Ports and Demultiplexing

Mon, 24 Jul 2017 20:30:05 GMT

Because servers communicate with many clients, they cannot permanently assign a destination IP address or UDP protocol port number. Instead, the interface for many-one communication must allow the server to specify information about the destination each time it sends a datagram. Thus, unlike the ideal interface for pairwise communication, the ideal interface for servers does not separate address specification

UDP: User Datagrams

Sun, 23 Jul 2017 15:14:52 GMT

Although the idea of UDP protocol port numbers seems straightforward, there are two basic approaches to its implementation. Both approaches are consistent with the protocol standard, but they provide slightly different interfaces for application programs. The different cases are not always mutually exclusive ? there may be reasons to leverage both approaches within an application.

A Frame Relay Customer Network

Tue, 18 Jul 2017 19:45:02 GMT

A bunch of my previous posts have laid the foundation for future discussions of the frame relay protocols which had achieved widespread use and acceptance in the early 90s. While some of these technologies have mostly been eclipsed in North America and elsewhere, you can still find pockets of Frame Relay and ATM usage today.

How Banks Can Monetize Their APIs Part 2

Mon, 17 Jul 2017 23:10:30 GMT

Beyond the different maturity levels of offering APIs for monetization, there are different methods or plans for monetization, and in most cases, you will use a variety of these plans based on the type of API and how it is used:

How Banks Can Monetize Their APIs Part 1

Sun, 16 Jul 2017 21:56:03 GMT

Going even further, banks may take another logical step by looking to aggregate APIs across multiple financial institutions through their own single API. This may be a good offering to broker style app makers in the mortgage, loan and insurance space. Or the bank could offer their own brokerage app in these spaces. Service and transaction fees would likely be the right revenue model for this method.

The Network-to-Network Interface

Thu, 13 Jul 2017 22:12:53 GMT

Until now, my recent posts have focused on the relationship between a single user and a single network, or User Network Interface (UNI). To extend the user's communication beyond a single frame relay network, the FRF has developed a Network Node Interface (NNI) specification.

Design Problems with Frame Relay Networks Part 3

Tue, 11 Jul 2017 15:54:16 GMT

The excess burst-rate parameter (Be) lets users exceed the Committed Information Rate for brief periods, as required by such "bursty" applications as Local Area Networks. The access rate, measured at the physical interface to the network, provides an upper limit to the rate at which users may offer data to the network.

Design Problems with Frame Relay Networks Part 2

Tue, 11 Jul 2017 15:37:22 GMT

Frame relay networks have two ways of notifying the network of and/or controlling congestion: explicit congestion notification and implicit congestion notification. ECN uses the FECN and BECN bits included in the T1.618 Address field to notify the network of congestion.

Design Problems with Frame Relay Networks Part 1

Tue, 11 Jul 2017 14:53:37 GMT

Committed Burst Size (Bc), the maximum amount of data in bits that a network agrees to transfer under normal conditions, over a measurement interval T

The Local Management Interface

Tue, 11 Jul 2017 14:44:49 GMT

After several (typically six) link integrity verification polls have been issued, the user requests the status of all PVCs on the interface. The resulting full status message response contains information on every PVC configured on that bearer channel.

Process improvement is imperative

Sat, 08 Jul 2017 09:05:42 GMT

Lets be honest, there are a whole bunch of needless buzzwords and activities out there in today's business world. A lot of them are thought up as a marketing tool or to make a person/group more valuable or even desirable.

Final Thoughts on IGMP

Thu, 29 Jun 2017 21:32:49 GMT

Along with some other topics, this series will start to look into the details of UDP for User Datagram Protocol and discuss how UDP differs from TCP as a transport protocol.

Email Etiquette revisted

Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:28:49 GMT

What is email etiquette? My past experience tells me that these are guidelines on how to compose, respond and basically how to use email as a communication tool. Another question is should this be taught at some point and time to everyone?

Email Etiquette

Wed, 28 Jun 2017 22:21:30 GMT

What is email etiquette? My past experience tells me that these are guidelines on how to compose, respond and basically how to use email as a communication tool. Another question is should this be taught at some point and time to everyone?

IGMP: Leaving a Host Group

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 23:19:54 GMT

As the final step of initialization, hginit calls hgjoin to place the host in the all-hosts group. Once a host has joined the all-hosts group, it will receive IGMP queries.

IGMP: Sending Reports

Tue, 27 Jun 2017 00:11:47 GMT

Once igmp_in accepts a message, it uses macro IG_TYP to extract the message type. If the message is a query, igmp_in calls igmp_settimers to start a timer for each entry in the host group table.