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Everything for Everybody





Updated: 2015-08-19T16:56:35.170-07:00

 



Bextra

2007-06-05T03:26:57.092-07:00

Generic Name: valdecoxib (val deh COCK sib)What is the most important information I should know about Bextra?Bextra was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2005.The manufacturer of Bextra has announced the voluntary withdrawal of the drug from the U.S. market. This withdrawal is due to safety concerns of an increased risk of cardiovascular events (including heart attack and stroke) in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Bextra is a "COX-2" selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and safety concerns of an increased risk of rare but serious skin reactions in patients taking Bextra.Do not take Bextra without first talking to your doctor if you have experienced asthma, hives, or an allergic reaction after taking a sulfa-based medication such as sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, Gantanol, and others) or sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin); aspirin; or another NSAID such as celecoxib (Celebrex), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, and others), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, Anaprox), ketoprofen (Orudis KT, Orudis, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), diflunisal (Dolobid), etodolac (Lodine, Lodine XL), fenoprofen (Nalfon), flurbiprofen (Ansaid), indomethacin (Indocin), ketorolac (Toradol), meloxicam (Mobic), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), piroxicam (Feldene), sulindac (Clinoril), or tolmetin (Tolectin). You may experience a similar reaction to Bextra. Notify your doctor immediately if you develop abdominal pain, tenderness, or discomfort; nausea; bloody vomit; bloody, black, or tarry stools; unexplained weight gain; swelling or water retention; fatigue or lethargy; a skin rash; itching; yellowing of the skin or eyes;"flu-like" symptoms; or unusual bruising or bleeding. These symptoms could be early signs of dangerous side effects. Serious skin reactions have occurred in patients taking Bextra. These reactions tend to occur within the first two weeks of treatment, but may occur at any time during treatment. Stop taking Bextra and contact your doctor immediately if you develop a skin rash; hives; itching; difficulty breathing; swelling of the lips, tongue or face; or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.What is Bextra?Bextra was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 2005.Bextra is in a class of drugs called nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Bextra works by reducing substances in the body that cause inflammation, pain, and fever.Bextra is used to reduce pain, inflammation, and stiffness caused by osteoarthritis and adult rheumatoid arthritis. Bextra is also used to treat painful menstruation.Bextra may also be used for purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking Bextra?The manufacturer of Bextra has announced the voluntary withdrawal of the drug from the U.S. market. This withdrawal is due to safety concerns of an increased risk of cardiovascular events (including heart attack and stroke) in patients taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Bextra is a "COX-2" selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) and safety concerns of an increased risk of rare but serious skin reactions in patients taking Bextra.Do not take Bextra without first talking to your doctor if you have experienced asthma, hives, or an allergic reaction after taking a sulfa-based medication such as sulfamethoxazole (Bactrim, Septra, Gantanol, and others) or sulfisoxazole (Gantrisin); aspirin; or another NSAID such as celecoxib (Celebrex), ibuprofen (Motrin, Advil, Nuprin, and others), naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn, Anaprox), ketoprofen (Orudis KT, Orudis, Oruvail), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam), diflunisal (Dolobid), etodolac (Lodine, Lodine XL), fenoprofen (Nalfon), flurbiprofen (Ansaid), indomethacin (Indocin), ketorolac (Toradol), meloxicam (Mobic), nabumetone (Relafen), oxaprozin (Daypro), piroxicam (Feldene), sulindac (Clinoril), or tolmetin (Tolectin). You may experience a similar reaction to Bextra.Bextra should not be used for the treatment of pain after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The use of Bextra in such patients has led [...]



Bacteriophage

2007-06-05T03:27:36.834-07:00

Bacteriophages are bacteria viruses.
When they infect their host they use host machinery to replicate their DNA.

In bacteriophage vectors part of the phage DNA is replaced by the gene of interest (max. size is 15-25 kbp)

When this new recombinant phage DNA infects a host the gene of interest will be replicated.

commonly used phage vectors include M13 and λ.
Infection of bacterial cell:

Tail sticks to the cell wall

DNA from head is squired into bacteria

Phage genes are transcribed by bacterial RNA polymerase

Corresponding mRNA is translated using bacterial machinery

Newly replicated phage DNA and head and tail protein ensemble spontaneously

Lyses of host bacteria results in formation of plagues.

• l phage – most common vector for construct of genomic DNA
• Cosmid vector – can accumulate up to 45 kb
– a cross between a plasmid and l vector
– contains antibiotic resistance genes and Ori for replication in bacteria
– Contains cos sites to be packed in phage particles
– Inside of bacteria, the cosmid DNA circularizes and replicates as a large plasmid

• YAG yeast artificial chromosome , up to 200 to 500 kb
– Large DNA fragments are inserted into yeast DNA sequence and introduced into yeast cell by transformation



Clonning

2007-06-05T03:28:03.197-07:00

– Dolly has been clone taken from her mother’s udder.
– Unfertilized egg cell with nucleus removed were fused with the cell from the udder
– Fused cell was stimulated to divide and implanted into a surrogate mother.
– Polly
• Single diploid cell originating from adult sheep was altered (human gene coding for blood cloting factor was introduced) and the cell was fused with denucleated egg cell. The fused cell was stimulated to divide and implated into surrogate mother.
• Lamb contains the human gene in every cell of her body.

• Gene Therapy for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)

• Gene therapy succeeded for 15 French baby boys who suffered from SCID, called X-linked SCID, because it is caused by a mutated gene encoding a subunit — called γc (gamma-c) — of the receptor for several interleukins, including interleukin-7 (IL-7).

• IL-7 is essential for converting blood stem cells into the precursors of T cells. Boys with X-linked SCID do not develop ********al immune response system.

• Doctors isolated blood stem cells from the bone marrow of each boy;
treated the cells with a vector containing the normal gene for the γc interleukin receptor subunit; returned the treated cells to each donor.

• The results: Now after as long as three and one-half years, these boys are able to live normal lives at home instead of inside a sterile "bubble"; have normal (with two exceptions*) numbers of T cells .



AdSense

2007-06-05T03:28:32.789-07:00

(image)
AdSense is an ad serving program run by Google. Website owners can enroll in this program to enable text, image and, more recently, video advertisements on their sites. These ads are administered by Google and generate revenue on either a per-click or per-thousand-impressions basis. Google is also currently beta-testing a cost-per-action based service.
Google utilizes its search technology to serve ads based on website content, the user's geographical location, and other factors. Those wanting to advertise with Google's targeted ad system may sign up through AdWords. AdSense has become a popular method of placing advertising on a website because the ads are less intrusive than most banners, and the content of the ads is often relevant to the website.
It currently uses JavaScript code to incorporate the advertisements into a participating site. If it is included on a site which has not yet been crawled by the Mediabot, it will temporarily display advertisements for charitable causes known as public service announcements (PSAs). (Note that the Mediabot is a separate crawler from the Googlebot that maintains Google's search index.)
Many sites use AdSense to monetize their content and some webmasters work hard to maximize their own AdSense income. They do this in three ways:
They use a wide range of traffic generating techniques including but not limited to online advertising.
They build valuable content on their sites which attracts AdSense ads which pay out the most when they get clicked.
They use copy on their websites that encourage clicks on ads. Note that Google prohibits people from using phrases like "Click on my AdSense ads" to increase click rates. Phrases accepted are "Sponsored Links" and "Advertisements".
The source of all AdSense income is the AdWords program which in turn has a complex pricing model based on a Vickrey second price auction, in that it commands an advertiser to submit a sealed bid (not observable by competitors). Additionally, for any given click received, advertisers only pay one bid increment above the second-highest bid.



Mesothelioma

2007-05-31T14:14:41.938-07:00

Mesothelioma is a form of cancer that is almost always caused by previous exposure to asbestos.United States Department of Health and Human Services. In this disease, malignant cells develop in the mesothelium, a protective lining that covers most of the body's internal organs. Its most common site is the pleura (outer lining of the lungs and chest cavity), but it may also occur in the peritoneum (the lining of the abdominal cavity) or the pericardium (a sac that surrounds the heart).

Most people who develop mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or have been exposed to asbestos dust and fibre in other ways, such as by washing the clothes of a family member who worked with asbestos, or by home renovation using asbestos cement products. Unlike lung cancer, there is no association between mesothelioma and smoking.



Structured Settlement

2007-05-31T14:01:59.897-07:00

What Is a Structured Settlement?Sometimes when a plaintiff settles a case for a large sum of money, the defendant, the plaintiff's attorney, or a financial planner consulted in association with the settlement, will propose paying the settlement in installments over time rather than in a single lump sum. When a settlement is paid in this manner it is called a "structured settlement". Often the structured settlement will be created through the purchase of one or more annuities, which guarantee the future payments.A structured settlement can provide for payment in pretty much any schedule the parties choose. For example, the settlement may be paid in annual installments over a number of years, or it may be paid in periodic lump sums every few years.Benefits of a Structured SettlementOne significant advantage of a structured settlement is tax avoidance. With appropriate set-up, a structured settlement may significantly reduce the plaintiff's tax obligations as a result of the settlement, and may in some cases be tax-free.A structured settlement can protect a plaintiff from having settlement funds dissipated, when they are necessary to pay for future care or needs. Sometimes a structured settlement can help protect a plaintiff from himself - some people simply aren't good with money, or can't say no to relatives who want to "share the wealth", and even a large settlement can be rapidly exhausted. Minors may benefit from a structured settlement as well, such as a settlement which provides for certain costs during their youth, an additional disbursement to pay for college or other educational expenses, and then one or more disbursements in adulthood. An injured person who has long-term special needs may benefit from having periodic lump sums with which to purchase medical equipment or modified vehicles.In some situations, it will be better for a severely disabled plaintiff to set up a special needs trust, rather than entering into a lump sum or structured settlement. Any plaintiff who is receiving, or expects to receive, Medicaid or other public assistance, or the guardian or conservator entering into a settlement on behalf of a disabled ward, should consult with a disabilities financial planner about their situation before choosing any particular settlement option or structure.Potential Disadvantages of Structured SettlementsSome people who enter into structured settlements feel trapped by the periodic payments. They may wish to purchase a new home, or other expensive item, yet be unable to muster the resources because they can't borrow against future payments under their settlement.Some people will do better by accepting a lump sum settlement, and investing it themselves. Many standard investments will give a greater long-term return than the annuities used in structured settlements. Selling a Structured SettlementIf you have a structured settlement, you may have been approached by a company interested in purchasing your settlement, or may be curious about selling your settlement in return for a lump sum buyout. About two thirds of states have enacted laws which restict the sale of structured settlements, and tax-free structured settlements are also subject to federal restrictions on their sale to a third party. Also, some insurance companies will not assign or transfer annuities to third parties, to discourage the sale of structured settlements. As a consequence, depending upon where you live and the terms of your annuities, it may not be possible for you to sell your settlement.Keep in mind that companies which buy structured settlements intend to profit from their purchase, and sometimes their offers may seem quite low. You may benefit from approaching more than one company in relation to the sale of your settlement, to make sure that you obtain the highest payoff. You also want to be sure that the company which wants to buy your settlement is established, well-funded, and reputable - you[...]