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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This channel provides information about new and revised entries as they are published in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Published: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:54:50 -0800

Last Build Date: Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:54:50 -0800

Copyright: Copyright Notice. Authors contributing an entry or entries to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, except as provided herein, retain the copyright to their entry or entries. By contributing an entry or entries, the author grants to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University an exclusive license to publish their entry or entries on the Internet and the World Wide Web, including any future technologies or media that develop to supplement or replace the Internet or World Wide Web, on the terms of the Licensing Agreement set forth in The rights granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University include the right to enforce such rights in any forum, administrative, judicial, or otherwise. All rights not expressly granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University, including the right to publish an entry or entries in other print media, are retained by the authors. Copyright of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy itself is held by the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University. All rights are reserved. No part of the Encyclopedia (excluding individual contributions and works derived solely from those contributions, for which rights are reserved by the individual authors) may be reprinted, reproduced, stored, or utilized in any form, by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including printing, photocopying, saving (on disk), broadcasting or recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, other than for purposes of fair use, without written permission from the copyright holder. (All communications should be directed to the Principal Editor.)


Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:51:49 -0800

[Revised entry by Robin S. Dillon on February 18, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Respect has great importance in everyday life. As children we are taught (one hopes) to respect our parents, teachers, and elders, school rules and traffic laws, family and cultural traditions, other people's feelings and rights, our country's flag and leaders, the truth and people's differing opinions. And we come to value respect for such things; when we're older, we may shake our heads (or fists) at people who seem not to have learned to respect them. We develop...

Joseph Butler's Moral Philosophy

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:28:35 -0800

[Revised entry by Aaron Garrett on February 18, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Joseph Butler is best known for his criticisms of the hedonic and egoistic "selfish" theories associated with Hobbes and Bernard Mandeville and for his positive arguments that self-love and conscience are not at odds if properly understood (and indeed promote and sanction the same actions). In addition to his importance as a moral philosopher Butler was also an influential Anglican theologian. Unsurprisingly his theology and philosophy were connected - his...

Gelukpa [dge lugs pa]

Sun, 18 Feb 2018 21:16:21 -0800

[Revised entry by Douglas Duckworth on February 18, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] The Gelukpa (or Geluk) tradition of Tibetan Buddhist philosophy is inspired by the works of Tsongkhapa (1357 - 1419), who set out a distinctly nominalist Buddhist tradition that differs sharply from other forms of Buddhist thought not only in Tibet, but elsewhere in the Buddhist world. The negative dialectics of the Middle Way (madhyamaka) is the centerpiece of the Geluk intellectual tradition and is the philosophy that is commonly held in Tibet to...

Computing and Moral Responsibility

Fri, 16 Feb 2018 21:16:59 -0800

[Revised entry by Merel Noorman on February 16, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Traditionally philosophical discussions on moral responsibility have focused on the human components in moral action. Accounts of how to ascribe moral responsibility usually describe human agents performing actions that have well-defined, direct consequences. In today's increasingly technological society, however, human activity cannot be properly understood without making reference to technological artifacts, which complicates the ascription of moral responsibility...

Personal Autonomy

Thu, 15 Feb 2018 19:09:30 -0800

[Revised entry by Sarah Buss and Andrea Westlund on February 15, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Autonomous agents are self-governing agents. But what is a self-governing agent? Governing oneself is no guarantee that one will have a greater range of options in the future, or the sort of opportunities one most wants to have. Since, moreover, a person can govern herself without being able to appreciate the difference between right and wrong, it seems that an autonomous agent can do something wrong without being to blame for her action. What, then, are the necessary and sufficient features of this self-relation? Philosophers...

Gilles Deleuze

Wed, 14 Feb 2018 18:13:21 -0800

[Revised entry by Daniel Smith and John Protevi on February 14, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Gilles Deleuze (January 18, 1925 - November 4, 1995) was one of the most influential and prolific French philosophers of the second half of the twentieth century. Deleuze conceived of philosophy as the production of concepts, and he characterized himself as a "pure metaphysician." In his magnum opus Difference and Repetition, he tries to develop a metaphysics adequate to contemporary mathematics and science - a metaphysics in which the...

Giacomo Zabarella

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 20:58:54 -0800

[Revised entry by Heikki Mikkeli on February 13, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Giacomo (Jacopo) Zabarella (b. 1533 in Padua, d. 1589 in Padua) is considered the prime representative of Renaissance Italian Aristotelianism. Known most of all for his writings on logic and methodology, Zabarella was an alumnus of the University of Padua, where he received his Ph.D. in philosophy. Throughout his teaching career at his native university, he also taught philosophy of nature and science of the soul (De anima). Among his main works are...

Japanese Confucian Philosophy

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 20:31:40 -0800

[Revised entry by John Tucker on February 13, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] In Japan, Confucianism stands, along with Buddhism, as a major religio-philosophical teaching introduced from the larger Asian cultural arena at the dawn of civilization in Japanese history, roughly the mid-sixth century. Unlike Buddhism which ultimately hailed from India, Confucianism was first and foremost a distinctly Chinese teaching. It spread, however, from Han dynasty China, into Korea, and then later entered Japan via, for the most part, the Korean peninsula. In significant respects, then, Confucianism is the intellectual force defining much of the East Asian identity of Japan, especially in relation to philosophical thought and practice. While there is a religious dimension to Confucianism, its teachings - ethical, epistemological, metaphysical, political, and aesthetic - are typically understood in relation to the socio-political world of humanity, beginning with the individual and his/her pursuit of moral and intellectual perfection, the family and its pursuit of harmony and order, and the polity and its pursuit of peace and prosperity throughout all below heaven, i.e., the world at large. In this respect, Confucianism was the secular philosophy operative in the ordinary world of everyday existence, at one level or another, throughout Japanese history, well into modern times. As often as not, however, its teachings became so integrated into Japanese culture without appeal to their overall identity as "Confucian" teachings, leading many, over time, to assume naively that they were integral to the Japanese mind and its myriad expressions in history and culture....

Louis Althusser

Tue, 13 Feb 2018 19:00:06 -0800

[Revised entry by William Lewis on February 13, 2018. Changes to: Bibliography] Louis Pierre Althusser (1918 - 1990) was one of the most influential Marxist philosophers of the 20th Century. As they seemed to offer a renewal of Marxist thought as well as to render Marxism philosophically respectable, the claims he advanced in the 1960s about Marxist philosophy were discussed and debated worldwide. Due to apparent reversals in his theoretical positions, to the ill-fated facts of his life, and to the historical fortunes of...

Karl Leonhard Reinhold

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 19:30:03 -0800

[Revised entry by Dan Breazeale on February 12, 2018. Changes to: Bibliography] Karl Leonhard Reinhold (1757 - 1823), Austrian philosopher and first occupant of the chair on Critical Philosophy established at the University of Jena in 1787, first achieved fame as a proponent of popular Enlightenment and as an early and effective popularizer of the Kantian philosophy. During his period at the University of Jena (1787 - 94), Reinhold proclaimed the need for a more "scientific" and systematic presentation of the Critical...

Francis Herbert Bradley's Moral and Political Philosophy

Fri, 09 Feb 2018 17:08:11 -0800

[Revised entry by David Crossley on February 9, 2018. Changes to: Bibliography] The ethical writings of the Oxford Idealists, T. H. Green and F. H. Bradley, reflect the influence of Kant and Hegel on English moral philosophy in the latter part of the Nineteenth Century. To the extent that either draws on other sources it is to Aristotle that they turn rather than to British moral philosophers such as Butler, Hume or Reid; a point which is evident both from the fact that Green and Bradley offer a type of perfectionist account of morality that is articulated in terms of the concept of self-realization and from the appearance of Aristotle's man of practical wisdom (the...

Chance versus Randomness

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 21:56:43 -0800

[Revised entry by Antony Eagle on February 8, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, basic-chance.html, notes.html] Randomness, as we ordinarily think of it, exists when some outcomes occur haphazardly, unpredictably, or by chance. These latter three notions are all distinct, but all have some kind of close connection to probability. Notoriously, there are many kinds of probability: subjective probabilities ('degrees of belief'), evidential probabilities, and objective chances, to name a few (Hajek 2012), and we might enquire into the connections between randomness and any of these species of probability. In this entry, we focus on the potential connections between randomness and chance, or physical probability. The ordinary way that the word 'random' gets used is more or less interchangeable with 'chancy', which suggests this Commonplace Thesis - a useful claim to target in our discussion: (CT)...

Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 19:15:03 -0800

[Revised entry by Julia Driver on February 8, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Gertrude Elizabeth Margaret Anscombe was one of the most gifted philosophers of the twentieth century. Her work continues to strongly influence philosophers working in action theory and moral philosophy. Like the work of her friend Ludwig Wittgenstein, Anscombe's work is marked by a keen analytic sensibility....

Simon of Faversham

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 18:10:59 -0800

[Revised entry by Ana María Mora-Márquez on February 8, 2018. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Ana Maria Mora-Marquez replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.] Simon of Faversham (d 1306) was a thirteenth-century scholar, mainly known as a commentator on Aristotle's logic and natural...

John Austin

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 17:53:42 -0800

[Revised entry by Brian Bix on February 8, 2018. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] John Austin is considered by many to be the creator of the school of analytical jurisprudence, as well as, more specifically, the approach to law known as "legal positivism." Austin's particular command theory of law has been subject to pervasive criticism, but its simplicity gives it an evocative power that continues to attract adherents....