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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This channel provides information about new and revised entries as they are published in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Published: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 19:52:20 -0800

Last Build Date: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 19:52:20 -0800

Copyright: Copyright Notice. Authors contributing an entry or entries to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, except as provided herein, retain the copyright to their entry or entries. By contributing an entry or entries, the author grants to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University an exclusive license to publish their entry or entries on the Internet and the World Wide Web, including any future technologies or media that develop to supplement or replace the Internet or World Wide Web, on the terms of the Licensing Agreement set forth in The rights granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University include the right to enforce such rights in any forum, administrative, judicial, or otherwise. All rights not expressly granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University, including the right to publish an entry or entries in other print media, are retained by the authors. Copyright of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy itself is held by the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University. All rights are reserved. No part of the Encyclopedia (excluding individual contributions and works derived solely from those contributions, for which rights are reserved by the individual authors) may be reprinted, reproduced, stored, or utilized in any form, by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including printing, photocopying, saving (on disk), broadcasting or recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, other than for purposes of fair use, without written permission from the copyright holder. (All communications should be directed to the Principal Editor.)

Hybrid Logic

Fri, 24 Mar 2017 19:48:12 -0800

[Revised entry by Torben Braüner on March 24, 2017. Changes to: Main text] Hybrid logics are logics that result by adding further expressive power to ordinary modal logic. The most basic hybrid logic is obtained by adding so-called nominals which are propositional symbols of a new sort, each being true at exactly one possible world. The history of hybrid logic goes back to Arthur N. Prior's work in the 1960s....

Friedrich Nietzsche

Fri, 17 Mar 2017 18:22:54 -0800

[Revised entry by R. Lanier Anderson on March 17, 2017. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by R. Lanier Anderson replaces the former entry on this topic. The former entry is now published as Nietzsche's Life and Works.]...

Nietzsche's Life and Works

Fri, 17 Mar 2017 18:21:41 -0800

[Revised entry by Robert Wicks on March 17, 2017. Changes to: Main text] [Editor's Note: The following entry was previously published under the title "Friedrich Nietzsche".] Friedrich Nietzsche (1844 - 1900) was a German philosopher of the late 19th century who challenged the foundations of Christianity and...


Wed, 15 Mar 2017 17:50:06 -0800

[Revised entry by Ann Cudd and Seena Eftekhari on March 15, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] "Contractarianism" names both a political theory of the legitimacy of political authority and a moral theory about the origin or legitimate content of moral norms. The political theory of authority claims that legitimate authority of government must derive from the consent of the governed, where the form and content of this consent derives from the idea of contract or mutual agreement. The moral theory of contractarianism claims that moral norms derive their normative force from the idea of contract or mutual agreement....


Wed, 15 Mar 2017 16:40:51 -0800

[Revised entry by Kenneth Seeskin on March 15, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Moses ben Maimon [known to English speaking audiences as Maimonides and Hebrew speaking as Rambam] (1138 - 1204) is the greatest Jewish philosopher of the medieval period and is still widely read today. The Mishneh Torah, his 14-volume compendium of Jewish law, established him as the leading rabbinic authority of his time and quite possibly of all time. His philosophic masterpiece, the Guide of the Perplexed, is a sustained treatment of Jewish thought and practice...

Juan Luis Vives [Joannes Ludovicus Vives]

Tue, 14 Mar 2017 18:02:12 -0800

[Revised entry by Lorenzo Casini on March 14, 2017. Changes to: Bibliography] Juan Luis Vives (1493 - 1540) was a Spanish humanist and educational theorist who strongly opposed scholasticism and made his mark as one of the most influential advocates of humanistic learning in the early sixteenth century. His works are not limited to education but deal with a wide range of subjects including philosophy, psychology, politics, social reform and religion. Vives was not a systematic writer, which makes it difficult to classify him as a philosopher. His thought is eclectic and pragmatic, as well as...


Mon, 13 Mar 2017 15:45:29 -0800

[Revised entry by Edward Wierenga on March 13, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Omniscience is the property of having complete or maximal knowledge. Along with omnipotence and perfect goodness, it is usually taken to be one of the central divine attributes. Once source of the attribution of omniscience to God derives from the numerous biblical passages that ascribe vast knowledge to him. St. Thomas Aquinas (Summa Theologiae I, q. 14), in his discussion of the knowledge of God, cites such texts as Job 12:13: "With God are wisdom and strength; he has counsel and understanding" and Rom. 11:13:...


Thu, 09 Mar 2017 19:49:32 -0800

[Revised entry by Carl Huffman on March 9, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Alcmaeon of Croton was an early Greek medical writer and philosopher-scientist. His exact date, his relationship to other early Greek philosopher-scientists, and whether he was primarily a medical writer/physician or a typical Presocratic cosmologist, are all matters of controversy. He is likely to have written his book sometime between 500 and 450 BCE. The surviving fragments and testimonia focus primarily on issues of physiology, psychology, and epistemology and reveal Alcmaeon to be a thinker of considerable originality. He was...


Wed, 08 Mar 2017 19:42:39 -0800

[New Entry by Claudia Bloeser and Titus Stahl on March 8, 2017.] Discussions of hope can be found throughout the history of philosophy and across all Western philosophical traditions, even though philosophy has traditionally not paid the same attention to hope as it has to attitudes like belief and desire. However, even though hope has historically only rarely been discussed systematically - with important exceptions, such as Aquinas, Bloch and Marcel - almost all major philosophers acknowledge that hope plays an important role in regard to human motivation, religious belief or politics....

The Analysis of Knowledge

Tue, 07 Mar 2017 22:08:02 -0800

[Revised entry by Jonathan Jenkins Ichikawa and Matthias Steup on March 7, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] For any person, there are some things they know, and some things they don't. What exactly is the difference? What does it take to know something? It's not enough just to believe it - we don't know the things we're wrong about. Knowledge seems to be more like a way of getting at the truth. The analysis of knowledge concerns the attempt to articulate in what exactly this kind of "getting at the truth" consists....

John Langshaw Austin

Tue, 07 Mar 2017 18:25:53 -0800

[Revised entry by Guy Longworth on March 7, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] John Langshaw Austin (1911 - 1960) was White's Professor of Moral Philosophy at the University of Oxford. He made a number of contributions in various areas of philosophy, including important work on knowledge, perception, action, freedom, truth, language, and the use of language in speech acts. Distinctions that Austin draws in his work on speech acts - in particular his distinction between locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary acts - have assumed something like canonical status in more recent work. His work on...

Modal Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

Mon, 06 Mar 2017 18:02:51 -0800

[Revised entry by Olimpia Lombardi and Dennis Dieks on March 6, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] The original "modal interpretation" of non-relativistic quantum theory was born in the early 1970s, and at that time the phrase referred to a single interpretation. The phrase now encompasses a class of interpretations, and is better taken to refer to a general approach to the interpretation of quantum theory. We shall describe the history of modal interpretations, how the phrase has come to be used in this way, and the general program of (at least some of) those who advocate this approach....

Henry David Thoreau

Fri, 03 Mar 2017 17:32:49 -0800

[Revised entry by Rick Anthony Furtak on March 3, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Henry David Thoreau (1817 - 1862) was an American philosopher, poet, and environmental scientist whose major work, Walden, draws upon each of these identities in meditating on the concrete problems of living in the world as a human being. He sought to revive a conception of philosophy as a way of life, not only a mode of reflective thought and discourse. Thoreau's work was informed by an eclectic variety of sources. He was well-versed in classical Greek and Roman philosophy, ranging from the pre-Socratics through the...

Marsilius of Inghen

Thu, 02 Mar 2017 15:38:26 -0800

[Revised entry by Maarten Hoenen on March 2, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] Marsilius of Inghen, master at the Universities of Paris (1362 - 1378) and Heidelberg (1386 - 1396), wrote a number of treatises on logic, natural philosophy and theology popular at many late medieval and early modern universities. He adopted the logico-semantic approach of William of Ockham and John Buridan while at the same time defending the traditional views of Thomas Aquinas and Bonaventure. His thinking sheds light on the discussion between nominalists and realists and...


Wed, 01 Mar 2017 17:50:21 -0800

[Revised entry by Alex Barber and Eduardo Garcia Ramirez on March 1, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] For the purposes of this entry an idiolect is a language the linguistic (i. e. syntactic, phonological, referential, etc.) properties of which can be exhaustively specified in terms of the intrinsic properties of some single individual, the person whose idiolect it is. The force of "intrinsic" is to exclude essential reference to features of the person's wider environment, and in particular to their linguistic community....