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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This channel provides information about new and revised entries as they are published in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Published: Fri, 02 Dec 2016 17:52:07 -0800

Last Build Date: Fri, 02 Dec 2016 17:52:07 -0800

Copyright: Copyright Notice. Authors contributing an entry or entries to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, except as provided herein, retain the copyright to their entry or entries. By contributing an entry or entries, the author grants to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University an exclusive license to publish their entry or entries on the Internet and the World Wide Web, including any future technologies or media that develop to supplement or replace the Internet or World Wide Web, on the terms of the Licensing Agreement set forth in The rights granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University include the right to enforce such rights in any forum, administrative, judicial, or otherwise. All rights not expressly granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University, including the right to publish an entry or entries in other print media, are retained by the authors. Copyright of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy itself is held by the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University. All rights are reserved. No part of the Encyclopedia (excluding individual contributions and works derived solely from those contributions, for which rights are reserved by the individual authors) may be reprinted, reproduced, stored, or utilized in any form, by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including printing, photocopying, saving (on disk), broadcasting or recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, other than for purposes of fair use, without written permission from the copyright holder. (All communications should be directed to the Principal Editor.)


Fri, 02 Dec 2016 17:45:55 -0800

[Revised entry by Sylvia Berryman on December 2, 2016. Changes to: Bibliography] The Greek tradition regarded Leucippus as the founder of atomism in ancient Greek philosophy. Little is known about him, and his views are hard to distinguish from those of his associate Democritus. He is sometimes said to have been a student of Zeno of Elea, and to have devised the atomist philosophy in order to escape from the problems raised by Parmenides and his followers....


Fri, 02 Dec 2016 17:37:38 -0800

[Revised entry by Sylvia Berryman on December 2, 2016. Changes to: Main text] Democritus, known in antiquity as the 'laughing philosopher' because of his emphasis on the value of 'cheerfulness,' was one of the two founders of ancient atomist theory. He elaborated a system originated by his teacher Leucippus into a materialist account of the natural world. The atomists held that there are smallest indivisible bodies from which everything else is composed, and that these move about in an infinite...

Paraconsistent Logic

Thu, 01 Dec 2016 16:50:09 -0800

[Revised entry by Graham Priest, Koji Tanaka, and Zach Weber on December 1, 2016. Changes to: Main text] The contemporary logical orthodoxy has it that, from contradictory premises, anything can be inferred. Let ⊨ be a relation of logical consequence, defined either semantically or proof-theoretically. Call ⊨ explosive if it validates {A , nA} ⊨ B for every A and B (ex contradictione quodlibet (ECQ)). Classical logic, and most standard 'non-classical' logics too such as intuitionist logic, are explosive. Inconsistency,...

Robert Kilwardby

Tue, 29 Nov 2016 18:08:13 -0800

[Revised entry by José Filipe Silva on November 29, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] Robert Kilwardby (ca. 1215 - 1279) was a Dominican Provincial and later Archbishop of Canterbury, who started his academic career around 1231 at the University of Paris. As a Master of Arts he is one of the first to comment on the newly available Aristotelian logical works, commentaries whose influence is generally recognized. His is also a widely read introduction to the sciences, the De ortu scientiarum. He is however mostly associated with Augustinian thought, especially on the plurality of substantial forms and the...

Marriage and Domestic Partnership

Tue, 29 Nov 2016 17:25:38 -0800

[Revised entry by Elizabeth Brake on November 29, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Marriage, a prominent institution regulating sex, reproduction, and family life, is a route into classical philosophical issues such as the good and the scope of individual choice, as well as itself raising distinctive philosophical questions. Political philosophers have taken the organization of sex and reproduction to be essential to the health of the state, and moral philosophers have debated whether marriage has a special moral status and relation to the human good. Philosophers...

Moral Particularism and Moral Generalism

Tue, 29 Nov 2016 17:16:27 -0800

[Revised entry by Michael Ridge and Sean McKeever on November 29, 2016. Changes to: Main text] Among the many questions that arise in the attempt to come to philosophical grips with morality is what role, if any, moral principles have to play. Moral generalists think morality is best understood in terms of moral principles; moral particularists deny this. To many people, ordinary moral practice seems suffused with principles (keep your promises; do not steal; do unto others as you would have them do unto you). To many moral theorists, the central task of moral theory has been to articulate and defend moral...

Richard the Sophister

Sat, 26 Nov 2016 17:32:58 -0800

[Revised entry by Paul Streveler on November 26, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Richard the Sophister (Richardus Sophista) was an English philosopher/logician who studied at Oxford most likely sometime during the second quarter of the thirteenth century. Richard's identity is uncertain, but he is known to be the author of a collection of logically puzzling sentences, sometimes called "sophisms", entitled Abstractiones. The puzzling aspect of these sophisms is variously caused by semantic or syntactic ambiguities involved in...

The Literal-Nonliteral Distinction in Classical Indian Philosophy

Sat, 26 Nov 2016 17:21:37 -0800

[New Entry by Malcolm Keating on November 26, 2016.] Indian thinkers demarcate the boundaries between literal and non-literal meaning early in their history. They do so within different intellectual genres, each broadly philosophical, but with varying emphases. Within the grammatical genre, Yāska's Semantic Explanation (Nirukta), an early (perhaps 6th century to 3rd century BCE) etymological treatise recognizes the difference between ordinary (laukika) and metaphorical language (upamā). This text, possibly...

William of Auvergne

Fri, 18 Nov 2016 17:39:36 -0800

[Revised entry by Neil Lewis on November 18, 2016. Changes to: Bibliography] William of Auvergne or Paris, (ca.1180/90 - 1249), Bishop of Paris from 1228 until his death in 1249, was one of the first wave of thinkers in the Latin West to engage with the writings on natural philosophy and metaphysics by Greek, Islamic and Jewish thinkers that had recently become available in Latin translation. William took these writings to pose errors dangerous to the Christian faith, and his philosophical works are in large part aimed at combating their errors....

Emotions in the Christian Tradition

Fri, 18 Nov 2016 17:23:58 -0800

[Revised entry by Robert Roberts on November 18, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] This article discusses several interrelated questions that philosophers, theologians, and psychologists address about religious emotions. Do they have some essence? Is there one emotion-type that warrants the title "religious," or are there many religious emotion-types? How do religious emotions differ from "ordinary" emotions? Are they "cognitive" or "non-cognitive," "rational" or "non-rational"? What good are they? What epistemic import,...

Business Ethics

Thu, 17 Nov 2016 21:05:33 -0800

[Revised entry by Jeffrey Moriarty on November 17, 2016. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Jeffrey Moriarty replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.]...

Economics and Economic Justice

Thu, 17 Nov 2016 16:52:32 -0800

[Revised entry by Marc Fleurbaey on November 17, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Distributive justice is often considered not to belong to the scope of economics, but there is actually an important literature in economics that addresses normative issues in social and economic justice. A variety of economic theories and approaches provide many insights in these matters. Presented below are the theory of inequality and poverty measurement, welfare economics, the theory of social choice, the theory of bargaining and of cooperative games, and the theory of fair allocation. There has been a good deal of cross-fertilization...

Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach

Thu, 17 Nov 2016 16:29:06 -0800

[Revised entry by Todd Gooch on November 17, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] For a number of years in the mid-nineteenth century Ludwig Feuerbach (1804 - 1872) played an important role in the history of post-Hegelian German philosophy, and in the transition from idealism to various forms of naturalism, materialism and positivism that is one of the most notable developments of this period. To the extent that he is remembered today by non-specialists in the history of nineteenth-century religious thought, it is mainly as the object of Marx's criticism in his famous Theses on Feuerbach,...

Causal Decision Theory

Tue, 15 Nov 2016 20:12:04 -0800

[Revised entry by Paul Weirich on November 15, 2016. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Causal decision theory adopts principles of rational choice that attend to an act's consequences. It maintains that an account of rational choice must use causality to identify the considerations that make a choice rational. Given a set of options constituting a decision problem, decision theory recommends an option that maximizes utility, that is, an option...

Fuzzy Logic

Tue, 15 Nov 2016 17:47:25 -0800

[Revised entry by Petr Cintula, Christian G. Fermüller, and Carles Noguera on November 15, 2016. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Petr Cintula, Christian G. Fermuller, and Carles Noguera replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.]...