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Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

This channel provides information about new and revised entries as they are published in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Published: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 19:46:56 -0800

Last Build Date: Mon, 20 Nov 2017 19:46:56 -0800

Copyright: Copyright Notice. Authors contributing an entry or entries to the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, except as provided herein, retain the copyright to their entry or entries. By contributing an entry or entries, the author grants to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University an exclusive license to publish their entry or entries on the Internet and the World Wide Web, including any future technologies or media that develop to supplement or replace the Internet or World Wide Web, on the terms of the Licensing Agreement set forth in The rights granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University include the right to enforce such rights in any forum, administrative, judicial, or otherwise. All rights not expressly granted to the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University, including the right to publish an entry or entries in other print media, are retained by the authors. Copyright of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy itself is held by the Metaphysics Research Lab at Stanford University. All rights are reserved. No part of the Encyclopedia (excluding individual contributions and works derived solely from those contributions, for which rights are reserved by the individual authors) may be reprinted, reproduced, stored, or utilized in any form, by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including printing, photocopying, saving (on disk), broadcasting or recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, other than for purposes of fair use, without written permission from the copyright holder. (All communications should be directed to the Principal Editor.)

José Ortega y Gasset

Mon, 20 Nov 2017 19:39:26 -0800

[Revised entry by Oliver Holmes on November 20, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Jose Ortega y Gasset (1883 - 1955) was a prolific and distinguished Spanish philosopher in the twentieth century. In the course of his career as philosopher, social theorist, essayist, cultural and aesthetic critic, educator, politician and editor of the influential journal, Revista de Occidente, he has written on a broad range of themes and issues. Among his many books are: Meditations on Quixote (1914), Invertebrate Spain (1921), The Theme of Our Time (1923), Ideas on the...

Moral Psychology: Empirical Approaches

Fri, 17 Nov 2017 17:37:01 -0800

[Revised entry by John Doris, Stephen Stich, Jonathan Phillips, and Lachlan Walmsley on November 17, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] Moral psychology investigates human functioning in moral contexts, and asks how these results may impact debate in ethical theory. This work is necessarily interdisciplinary, drawing on both the empirical resources of the human sciences and the conceptual resources of philosophical ethics. The present article discusses several topics that illustrate this type of inquiry: thought experiments, responsibility, character, egoism v. altruism, and moral disagreement....

Karl Jaspers

Wed, 15 Nov 2017 18:01:36 -0800

[Revised entry by Chris Thornhill and Ronny Miron on November 15, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Karl Jaspers (1883 - 1969) began his academic career working as a psychiatrist and, after a period of transition, he converted to philosophy in the early 1920s. Throughout the middle decades of the twentieth century he exercised considerable influence on a number of areas of philosophical inquiry: especially on epistemology, the philosophy of religion, and political theory....


Tue, 14 Nov 2017 19:49:20 -0800

[Revised entry by Sven Ove Hansson and Till Grüne-Yanoff on November 14, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html, revealed-preference.html] The notion of preference has a central role in many disciplines, including moral philosophy and decision theory. Preferences and their logical properties also have a central role in rational choice theory, a subject that in its turn permeates modern economics, as well as other branches of formalized social science. The notion of preference and the way it is analysed vary between these disciplines. A treatment is still lacking that takes into account the needs of all usages and tries to combine them in a unified approach. This entry surveys the...

Mary Shepherd

Mon, 13 Nov 2017 20:59:25 -0800

[Revised entry by Martha Bolton on November 13, 2017. Changes to: Main text] Mary Shepherd (1777 - 1847) is the author of several works advocating a systematic metaphysics and theory of knowledge which were highly regarded by her contemporaries. Born and raised a short distance from Edinburgh and well versed in the intellectual life of the city, she urges a philosophy adamantly opposed to main tenets of the Scottish school. She finds them unable to sustain scientific inquiry, everyday practical reasoning, and belief in an almighty deity. Her aim is to replace them with a metaphysics consisting of...

The Church-Turing Thesis

Fri, 10 Nov 2017 20:23:15 -0800

[Revised entry by B. Jack Copeland on November 10, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] There are various equivalent formulations of the Church-Turing thesis. A common one is that every effective computation can be carried out by a Turing machine. The Church-Turing thesis is often misunderstood, particularly in recent writing in the philosophy of mind....

Bruno Bauer

Fri, 10 Nov 2017 20:08:40 -0800

[Revised entry by Douglas Moggach on November 10, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Bruno Bauer (6 September 1809 - 13 April 1882), philosopher, historian, and theologian. His career falls into two main phases, divided by the Revolutions of 1848. In the 1840s, the period known as the Vormarz or the prelude to the German revolutions of March 1848, Bauer was a leader of the Left-Hegelian movement, developing a republican interpretation of Hegel, which combined ethical and aesthetic motifs. His theory of infinite self-consciousness, derived from Hegel's account of subjective spirit, stressed rational autonomy and historical progress. Investigating the textual sources of...


Fri, 10 Nov 2017 18:31:00 -0800

[Revised entry by David Blank on November 10, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] Ammonius (ca. 435/445 - 517/526) taught philosophy at Alexandria, where his father Hermeias had taught earlier. Known primarily for his commentaries on Aristotle, which were said to be of greater benefit than anyone else's, he was also distinguished in geometry and astronomy. Himself a pupil of Proclus at Athens, at Alexandria Ammonius taught most of the important Platonists of the late 5th and early 6th centuries: Asclepius, Damascius and Simplicius, Eutocius, and Olympiodorus; Elias and David...

Søren Kierkegaard

Fri, 10 Nov 2017 18:24:43 -0800

[Revised entry by William McDonald on November 10, 2017. Changes to: Main text] Soren Aabye Kierkegaard (b. 1813, d. 1855) was a profound and prolific writer in the Danish "golden age" of intellectual and artistic activity. His work crosses the boundaries of philosophy, theology, psychology, literary criticism, devotional literature and fiction. Kierkegaard brought this potent mixture of discourses to bear as social critique and for the purpose of renewing Christian faith within Christendom. At the same time he made many original conceptual contributions to each of the disciplines he employed. He is known as...

Creation and Conservation

Thu, 09 Nov 2017 19:12:57 -0800

[Revised entry by David Vander Laan on November 9, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by David Vander Laan replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous authors.] In the philosophy of religion, creation is the action by which God brings an object into existence, while conservation is the action by which God maintains the existence of an object over...

The Development of Intuitionistic Logic

Wed, 08 Nov 2017 18:45:01 -0800

[Revised entry by Mark van Atten on November 8, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, notes.html] Intuitionistic logic is an offshoot of L.E.J. Brouwer's intuitionistic mathematics. A widespread misconception has it that intuitionistic logic is the logic underlying Brouwer's intuitionism; instead, the intuitionism underlies the logic, which is construed as an application of intuitionistic mathematics to language. Intuitionistic mathematics consists in the act of effecting mental constructions of a certain kind. These are themselves not linguistic in nature, but when acts of construction and their results are...


Wed, 08 Nov 2017 17:30:57 -0800

[Revised entry by Kevin Mulligan and Fabrice Correia on November 8, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Internet resources, history-facts.html] Facts, philosophers like to say, are opposed to theories and to values (cf. Rundle 1993) and are to be distinguished from things, in particular from complex objects, complexes and wholes, and from relations. They are the objects of certain mental states and acts, they make truth-bearers true and correspond to truths, they are part of the furniture of the world. We present and discuss some philosophical and formal accounts of facts....

Transworld Identity

Tue, 07 Nov 2017 22:15:43 -0800

[Revised entry by Penelope Mackie and Mark Jago on November 7, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography] The notion of transworld identity - 'identity across possible worlds' - is the notion that the same object exists in more than one possible world (with the actual world treated as one of the possible worlds). It therefore has its home in a 'possible-worlds' framework for analysing, or at least paraphrasing, statements about what is possible or necessary....

Pietro Pomponazzi

Tue, 07 Nov 2017 18:46:10 -0800

[Revised entry by Craig Martin on November 7, 2017. Changes to: 0] [Editor's Note: The following new entry by Craig Martin replaces the former entry on this topic by the previous author.] Pietro Pomponazzi (1462 - 1525) was a leading philosopher of Renaissance Italy. Teaching primarily at the universities at Padua and...

Aristotle's Political Theory

Tue, 07 Nov 2017 17:57:47 -0800

[Revised entry by Fred Miller on November 7, 2017. Changes to: Main text, Bibliography, supplement1.html, supplement2.html, supplement3.html] Aristotle (b. 384 - d. 322 BCE), was a Greek philosopher, logician, and scientist. Along with his teacher Plato, Aristotle is generally regarded as one of the most influential ancient thinkers in a number of philosophical fields, including political theory. Aristotle was born in Stagira in northern Greece, and his father was a court physician to the king of Macedon. As a young man he studied in Plato's Academy in Athens. After Plato's death he left Athens to conduct philosophical and biological research in Asia Minor and...