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Daniel Pocock: Which movie most accurately forecasts the Trump presidency?

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 19:31:22 +0000

Many people have been scratching their heads wondering what the new US president will really do and what he really stands for. His alternating positions on abortion, for example, suggest he may simply be telling people what he thinks is most likely to win public support from one day to the next. Will he really waste billions of dollars building a wall? Will Muslims really be banned from the US?

As it turns out, several movies provide a thought-provoking insight into what could eventuate. What's more, these two have a creepy resemblance to the Trump phenomenon and many of the problems in the world today.

Countdown to Looking Glass

On the classic cold war theme of nuclear annihilation, Countdown to Looking Glass is probably far more scary to watch on Trump eve than in the era when it was made. Released in 1984, the movie follows a series of international crises that have all come to pass: the assassination of a US ambassador in the middle east, a banking crisis and two superpowers in an escalating conflict over territory. The movie even picked a young Republican congressman for a cameo role: he subsequently went on to become speaker of the house. To relate it to modern times, you may need to imagine it is China, not Russia, who is the adversary but then you probably won't be able to sleep after watching it.

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The Omen

Another classic is The Omen. The star of this series of four horror movies, Damien Thorn, appears to have a history that is eerily reminiscent of Trump: born into a wealthy family, a series of disasters befall every honest person he comes into contact with, he comes to control a vast business empire acquired by inheritance and as he enters the world of politics in the third movie of the series, there is a scene in the Oval Office where he is flippantly advised that he shouldn't lose any sleep over any conflict of interest arising from his business holdings. Did you notice Damien Thorn and Donald Trump even share the same initials, DT?

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Ubuntu Insights: Winners of #UbuntuAtMWC

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 16:19:50 +0000

A couple weeks ago we held a competition to invite you to join us at MWC by telling us what you wanted to see from #UbuntuAtMWC across Cloud, Devices or IoT! We had some awesome entries which were very hard to limit down to 10! A big thank you to all who entered including our winners selected below and we can’t wait to see you at MWC in Hall P3 – 3K31! @Emaspeaks I want to hear MORE real-world IoT use cases of Ubuntu Core like the above. Every telecom company is eagerly awaiting this! #UbuntuAtMWC pic.twitter.com/MmAGTDXZ2g — Ema Hussain (@EmaSpeaks) January 10, 2017 @Giakonda #ubuntuatMWC We would like to see an education focus on @Raspberry_Pi which we use in #solar schools #zambia pic.twitter.com/VXuD0JxIBh — Giakonda IT Ltd (@Giakonda) January 11, 2017 @Raymondspeaks i want to hear about creative ways people are using ubuntu snaps to build their own devices like a DIY amazon echo. #UbuntuAtMWC pic.twitter.com/wSZb0gq9JC — Raymond Rouf (@raymondspeaks) January 12, 2017 @crodoreda I want to see a Smart Home demo based on Ubuntu #UbuntuAtMWC pic.twitter.com/kEtGLD5N76 — Carles Rodoreda (@crodoreda) January 10, 2017 @jamieallan86 I also want to see drones!! #UbuntuAtMWC pic.twitter.com/PKGVuyW8AK — Jamie Allan (@jamieallan86) January 12, 2017 @andybleaden I want to see more true #snap based convergence from #UbuntuAtMWC across Cloud, Devices and #IoT @Canonical @ubuntu #MWC pic.twitter.com/wp0rOTshWc — Andy Bleaden (@andybleaden) January 10, 2017 @101Lite #UbuntuAtMWCA new form factor consumer hub device demonstrating the @ubuntu phone/ PC/ cloud/ IoT/ robot/ TV unified experience — 101LITE (@101lite) January 9, 2017 @a_bellu Would love to meet the @Ubuntu team in Barcelona at #MWC17 and check out the #Ubuntu vending machines and #IoT home devices! #UbuntuAtMWC pic.twitter.com/oDP4c40MvZ — Alessandro Bellu (@a_bellu) January 12, 2017 @JaklMartin At #MWC17 I'd like to see #Ubuntu running IoT use cases using #Ethereum or blockchain tech in general. #UbuntuAtMWC — Martin Jakl (@JaklMartin) January 12, 2017 @DarrenBall4 As a telco marketer, I want to hear about Ubuntu's plans with major brands & startups to make IoT a reality #UbuntuAtMWC pic.twitter.com/n74sqrefvW — Darren Ball (@DarrenBall4) January 11, 2017 More info on Ubuntu at MWC here! [...]



Nathan Haines: UbuCon Summit at SCALE 15x Call for Papers

Thu, 19 Jan 2017 10:12:27 +0000

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UbuCons are a remarkable achievement from the Ubuntu community: a network of conferences across the globe, organized by volunteers passionate about Open Source and about collaborating, contributing, and socializing around Ubuntu. UbuCon Summit at SCALE 15x is the next in the impressive series of conferences.

UbuCon Summit at SCALE 15x takes place in Pasadena, California on March 2nd and 3rd during the first two days of SCALE 15x. Ubuntu will also have a booth at SCALE's expo floor from March 3rd through 5th.

We are putting together the conference schedule and are announcing a call for papers. While we have some amazing speakers and an always-vibrant unconference schedule planned, it is the community, as always, who make UbuCon what it is—just as the community sets Ubuntu apart.

Interested speakers who have Ubuntu-related topics can submit their talk to the SCALE call for papers site. UbuCon Summit has a wide range of both developers and enthusiasts, so any interesting topic is welcome, no matter how casual or technical. The SCALE CFP form is available here:

http://www.socallinuxexpo.org/scale/15x/cfp

Over the next few weeks we’ll be sharing more details about the Summit, revamping the global UbuCon site and updating the SCALE schedule with all relevant information.

http://www.ubucon.org/

About SCaLE:

SCALE 15x, the 15th Annual Southern California Linux Expo, is the largest community-run Linux/FOSS showcase event in North America. It will be held from March 2-5 at the Pasadena Convention Center in Pasadena, California. For more information on the expo, visit https://www.socallinuxexpo.org




Stéphane Graber: LXD on Debian (using snapd)

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 22:19:42 +0000

Introduction So far all my blog posts about LXD have been assuming an Ubuntu host with LXD installed from packages, as a snap or from source. But LXD is perfectly happy to run on any Linux distribution which has the LXC library available (version 2.0.0 or higher), a recent kernel (3.13 or higher) and some standard system utilities available (rsync, dnsmasq, netcat, various filesystem tools, …). In fact, you can find packages in the following Linux distributions (let me know if I missed one): Alpine Linux Arch Linux Gentoo Ubuntu We have also had several reports of LXD being used on Centos and Fedora, where users built it from source using the distribution’s liblxc (or in the case of Centos, from an external repository). One distribution we’ve seen a lot of requests for is Debian. A native Debian package has been in the works for a while now and the list of missing dependencies has been shrinking quite a lot lately. But there is an easy alternative that will get you a working LXD on Debian today! Use the same LXD snap package as I mentioned in a previous post, but on Debian! Requirements A Debian “testing” (stretch) system The stock Debian kernel without apparmor support If you want to use ZFS with LXD, then the “contrib” repository must be enabled and the “zfsutils-linux” package installed on the system Installing snapd and LXD Getting the latest stable LXD onto an up to date Debian testing system is just a matter of running: apt install snapd snap install lxd If you never used snapd before, you’ll have to either logout and log back in to update your PATH, or just update your existing one with: . /etc/profile.d/apps-bin-path.sh And now it’s time to configure LXD with: root@debian:~# lxd init Name of the storage backend to use (dir or zfs) [default=dir]: Create a new ZFS pool (yes/no) [default=yes]? Name of the new ZFS pool [default=lxd]: Would you like to use an existing block device (yes/no) [default=no]? Size in GB of the new loop device (1GB minimum) [default=15]: Would you like LXD to be available over the network (yes/no) [default=no]? Would you like stale cached images to be updated automatically (yes/no) [default=yes]? Would you like to create a new network bridge (yes/no) [default=yes]? What should the new bridge be called [default=lxdbr0]? What IPv4 subnet should be used (CIDR notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]? What IPv6 subnet should be used (CIDR notation, “auto” or “none”) [default=auto]? LXD has been successfully configured. And finally, you can start using LXD: root@debian:~# lxc launch images:debian/stretch debian Creating debian Starting debian root@debian:~# lxc launch ubuntu:16.04 ubuntu Creating ubuntu Starting ubuntu root@debian:~# lxc launch images:centos/7 centos Creating centos Starting centos root@debian:~# lxc launch images:archlinux archlinux Creating archlinux Starting archlinux root@debian:~# lxc launch images:gentoo gentoo Creating gentoo Starting gentoo And enjoy your fresh collection of Linux distributions: root@debian:~# lxc list +-----------+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+ | NAME | STATE | IPV4 | IPV6 | TYPE | SNAPSHOTS | +-----------+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+ | archlinux | RUNNING | 10.250.240.103 (eth0) | fd42:46d0:3c40:cca7:216:3eff:fe40:7b1b (eth0) | PERSISTENT | 0 | +-----------+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+ | centos | RUNNING | 10.250.240.109 (eth0) | fd42:46d0:3c40:cca7:216:3eff:fe87:64ff (eth0) | PERSISTENT | 0 | +-----------+---------+-----------------------+-----------------------------------------------+------------+-----------+ | debian | RUNNING | 10.250.240.111 (eth0) | fd42:46d0:3c40:cca7:216:3eff:feb4:e984 (eth0) [...]



Ubuntu Insights: 5 Cool things Canonical does with Go

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 11:42:41 +0000

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We had the recent news that Google’s Go was awarded programming language of 2016 by TIOBE! One of the main reasons for winning is the ease of learning and pragmatic nature. It’s less about theoretical nature and more about hands-on-experience, which is why more and more customers are adopting go in Industrial settings. At Canonical we’re doing the same! As supporters of Go, here are 5 cool things we’ve done with Go:

1. Juju. Juju is devops distilled. Juju enables you to use Charms to deploy your application architectures to EC2, OpenStack, Azure, HP your data center and even your own Ubuntu based laptop. Moving between models is simple giving you the flexibility to switch hosts whenever you want — for free. Code is at https://github.com/juju/juju.

2. The snapd and snap tools enable systems to work with .snap files. Package any app for every Linux desktop, server, cloud or device, and deliver updates directly. See snapcraft.io for a high level overview about snap files and the snapd application. Some great go code is at https://github.com/snapcore/snapd.

3. The LXD container hypervisor enables you to move your Linux VMs straight to containers, easily and without modifying the apps or your operations. Canonical’s LXD is a pure-container hypervisor that runs unmodified Linux operating systems and applications with VM-style operations at incredible speed and density. It’s open source, you can see how it’s done at https://github.com/lxc/lxd.

4. snapweb is a beautiful and functional interface for snap management. It’s a cross html/css/javascript and golang excellent web application whose code can be looked at on https://github.com/snapcore/snapweb.

5. We also do some advanced demo code to demonstrate our technology. We love Go so much that we did write face-detection-demo, which enables to detect and count faces based on time. Using the go-opencv binding, we even did some fixes for it to compile on arm architecture! Have a look at https://github.com/ubuntu/face-detection-demo.

Learn more here at the TIOBE index.




Jonathan Riddell: Get Yourself on www.kde.org

Wed, 18 Jan 2017 09:50:05 +0000

Google Code-in has just finished where school pupils do tasks to introduce themselves to open development.  I had one to update the screenshots on www.kde.org.  The KDE website is out of date in many ways but here’s a wee way to fix one part of it.  Despite me having about half a dozen students work on it there’s still some old screenshots there so if anyone wants the satisfaction of contributing to www.kde.org’s front page here’s an easy way. www.kde.org has screenshots of all our apps but many still use the old KDE 4 Oxygen widget theme and icons. For 10 screenshots which is using the old theme take a new screenshot using the new theme. They can be checked out from Subversion here https://websvn.kde.org/trunk/www/sites/www/images/screenshots/ also provide one the resized screenshot which is 400 pixels wide exactly. Keep the filenames the same and in lower case. Upload as a single .zip or .tar.gz containing the screenshots with the right file name and a folder resized/ with the 400px screenshots For bonus points you could go through the index file to make sure it’s current with KDE applications https://www.kde.org/applications/index.json by [...]



Simos Xenitellis: How to completely remove a third-party repository from Ubuntu

Tue, 17 Jan 2017 22:20:09 +0000

Suppose you added a third-party repository of DEB packages in your Ubuntu and you now want to completely remove it, by either downgrading the packages to the official version in Ubuntu or removing them altogether. How do you do that? Well, if it was a Personal Package Archive (PPA), you would simply use ppa-purge. ppa-purge is not pre-installed in Ubuntu, so we install it with sudo apt update sudo apt install ppa-purge Here is the help for ppa-purge: $ ppa-purge Warning:  Required ppa-name argument was not specified Usage: sudo ppa-purge [options] [/ppaname] ppa-purge will reset all packages from a PPA to the standard versions released for your distribution. Options:     -p [ppaname]        PPA name to be disabled (default: ppa)     -o [ppaowner]        PPA owner     -s [host]        Repository server (default: ppa.launchpad.net)     -d [distribution]    Override the default distribution choice.     -y             Pass -y --force-yes to apt-get or -y to aptitude     -i            Reverse preference of apt-get upon aptitude.     -h            Display this help text Example usage commands:     sudo ppa-purge -o xorg-edgers     will remove https://launchpad.net/~xorg-edgers/+archive/ppa     sudo ppa-purge -o sarvatt -p xorg-testing     will remove https://launchpad.net/~sarvatt/+archive/xorg-testing     sudo ppa-purge [ppa:]ubuntu-x-swat/x-updates     will remove https://launchpad.net/~ubuntu-x-swat/+archive/x-updates Notice: If ppa-purge fails for some reason and you wish to try again, (For example: you left synaptic open while attempting to run it) simply uncomment the PPA from your sources, run apt-get update and try again. Here is an example of ppa-purge that removes a PPA: Suppose we want to completely uninstall the Official Wine Builds PPA. The URI of the PPA is shown on that page in bold, and it is ppa:wine/wine-builds. To uninstall this PPA, we run $ sudo ppa-purge ppa:wine/wine-builds Updating packages lists PPA to be removed: wine wine-builds Package revert list generated: wine-devel- wine-devel-amd64- wine-devel-i386:i386- winehq-devel- Disabling wine PPA from /etc/apt/sources.list.d/wine-ubuntu-wine-builds-xenial.list Updating packages lists ... PPA purged successfully $ _ But how do we completely uninstall the packages of a third-party repository? Those do not have a URI that is similar to the format that ppa-purge needs! Let’s see an example. If you have an Intel graphics card, you may choose to install their packaged drivers from 01.org. For Ubuntu 16.04, the download page is https://01.org/linuxgraphics/downloads/intel-graphics-update-tool-linux-os-v2.0.2  Yes, they provide a tool that you run on your system and performs a set of checks. Once those checks pass, it adds the Intel repository for Intel Graphics card drivers. You do not see a similar URI from this page, you need to dig deeper after you installed them to find out. The details of the repository are in /etc/apt/sources.list.d/intellinuxgraphics.list and it is this single line deb https://download.01.org/gfx/ubuntu/16.04/main xenial main #Intel Graphics drivers How did we figure out the parameters for ppa-purge? These parameters are just used to identify the correct file in /var/lib/apt/lists/ For the case of the Intel drivers, the relevant files in /var/lib/apt/lists are /var/lib/apt/lists/download.01.org_gfx_ubuntu_16.04_main_dists_xenial_InRelease /var/lib/apt/lists/download.01.org_gfx_ubuntu_16.04_main_dists_xenial_main_binary-amd64_Packages /var/lib/apt/lists/download.01.org_gfx_ubuntu_16.04_main_dists_xenial_main_binary-i386_Packages The important ones are the *_Packages files. The important source code line in ppa-purge that will help us, is PPA_LIST=/var/lib/apt/lists/${PPAHOST}_${PPAOWNER}_${PPANAME}_*_Packages therefore, we select the parameters for ppa-purge acc[...]



Raphaël Hertzog: Freexian’s report about Debian Long Term Support, December 2016

Mon, 16 Jan 2017 14:39:05 +0000

Like each month, here comes a report about the work of paid contributors to Debian LTS. Individual reports In December, about 175 work hours have been dispatched among 14 paid contributors. Their reports are available: Antoine Beaupré did 20.5 hours (out of 13.5 hours allocated + 7 remaining hours). Balint Reczey did 10 hours (out of 13.5 hours allocated, thus keeping 2.5 hours for January). Ben Hutchings did 10 hours (out of 13.5 hours allocated + 2 hours remaining, thus keeping 5.5 extra hours for January). Brian May did 10 hours. Chris Lamb did 13.5 hours. Emilio Pozuelo Monfort did 11 hours (out of 13.5 hours allocated, thus keeping 2.5 extra hours for January). Guido Günther did 8 hours. Hugo Lefeuvre did 11 hours (out of 13.5 hours allocated, thus keeping 2.5 extra hours for January). Jonas Meurer did 5.25 hours (out of 12 hours allocated, thus keeping 6.75 extra hours for January). Markus Koschany did 13.5 hours. Ola Lundqvist did 13.5 hours. Raphaël Hertzog did 10 hours. Roberto C. Sanchez did 13.5 hours. Thorsten Alteholz did 13.5 hours. Evolution of the situation The number of sponsored hours did not increase but a new silver sponsor is in the process of joining. We are only missing another silver sponsor (or two to four bronze sponsors) to reach our objective of funding the equivalent of a full time position. The security tracker currently lists 31 packages with a known CVE and the dla-needed.txt file 27. The situation improved a little bit compared to last month. Thanks to our sponsors New sponsors are in bold. Platinum sponsors: TOSHIBA (for 14 months) GitHub (for 5 months) Gold sponsors: The Positive Internet (for 30 months) Blablacar (for 29 months) Linode LLC (for 19 months) Babiel GmbH (for 8 months) Plat’Home (for 8 months) Silver sponsors: Domeneshop AS (for 29 months) Université Lille 3 (for 29 months) Trollweb Solutions (for 27 months) Nantes Métropole (for 23 months) University of Luxembourg (for 21 months) Dalenys (for 20 months) Univention GmbH (for 15 months) Université Jean Monnet de St Etienne (for 15 months) Sonus Networks (for 9 months) UR Communications BV (for 3 months) maxcluster GmbH (for 3 months) Bronze sponsors: David Ayers – IntarS Austria (for 30 months) Evolix (for 30 months) Offensive Security (for 30 months) Seznam.cz, a.s. (for 30 months) Freeside Internet Service (for 29 months) MyTux (for 29 months) Linuxhotel GmbH (for 27 months) Intevation GmbH (for 26 months) Daevel SARL (for 25 months) Bitfolk LTD (for 24 months) Megaspace Internet Services GmbH (for 24 months) Greenbone Networks GmbH (for 23 months) NUMLOG (for 23 months) WinGo AG (for 22 months) Ecole Centrale de Nantes – LHEEA (for 19 months) Sig-I/O (for 16 months) Entr’ouvert (for 14 months) Adfinis SyGroup AG (for 11 months) Laboratoire LEGI – UMR 5519 / CNRS (for 6 months) Quarantainenet BV (for 6 months) GNI MEDIA (for 5 months) RHX Srl (for 3 months) No comment | Liked this article? Click here. | My blog is Flattr-enabled.[...]



Ted Gould: Presentations Updated

Mon, 16 Jan 2017 06:00:00 +0000

This post is mostly a mea cupla to all the folks that asked me after a presentation: “And those slides will be online?” The answer is generally “yes” but they were in a tweet or something equally as hard to find. But now I finally got to making an updated presentations page that is actually useful. Hopefully you can find the slides you are looking for there. And more importantly you can use them as a basis for your talk to a local group in your town.

As I was redoing this I thought it was a bit interesting how my title pages seem to alternate every couple of years between complex and simple. And I think I have a candidate for worst theme (though there was a close second). Also a favorite theme along with a reminder of all the fun it is to make a presentation with JessyInk.

I think that there are a couple missing that I can’t find, and also video links out on the Internet somewhere. Please drop me a line if you have any ideas, suggestions or I sent you files that I’ve now lost. Hopefully this is easier to maintain now so there won’t be the same delay.




Valorie Zimmerman: Google Code-in draws to a close -- students finish your final task by January 16, 2017 at 09:00 (PST)

Sun, 15 Jan 2017 05:04:14 +0000

KDE's Google Code-in party is ending once again. Student work submitted deadline is January 16, 2017 at 09:00 (PST). 

Mentors, you have until January 18, 2017 at 09:00 (PST) to evaluate your student's work. Please get that done before the deadline, so that admins don't have to judge the student work.

Then it will be time to choose winners. We need to have our choices in by January 23, 2017 at 09:00 (PST). Winners and Finalists will be announced January 30, 2017 at 09:00 (PST).

To me, this contest has been lovely. Because there are more organizations participating now, there are more tasks for students, and less pressure on each org. It seems that the students have enjoyed themselves as well.

Spencerb said, in #kde-soc, This was my first (and final) gci, so I don't have much of a point of comparison, but it's been awesome. I've been an opportunity to meet new people and just get involved with KDE, which I've wanted to do for a long time. I've also learned a lot about serious software development that I wouldn't have otherwise.

"I'll turn 18 this Monday, which is why this is my last year :(  I'm so glad to have had the chance to participate at least once.

As a task, Harpreet filed a GCi review: http://aboutgci2016.blogspot.in/

So far, we've had 121 students. The top ten have 103 completed tasks so far! And 160 tasks completed so far. Most exciting for me is that Beginner tasks completed: 45. Getting kids acquainted with Free and Open Source Software communities, which is why every organization must have beginner tasks. I'm glad 45 kids got to know KDE a bit.





Mattia Migliorini: Install Balsamiq Mockups in Debian/Ubuntu

Sat, 14 Jan 2017 09:16:41 +0000

Balsamiq is one of the best tools for quick wireframes creation. It allows you to efficiently and quickly create mockups that give you an idea of how design elements fit in the page.

Some years ago there was a package available for the most popular Linux distributions, but since Adobe dropped support for Linux and Balsamiq is built on top of Adobe Air, nowadays they don’t support Linux neither.

As you can see from the downloads page of Balsamiq, though, it luckily works well with wine.

Install Balsamiq with WINE

First things first: install wine.

sudo apt-get install wine

Now, let’s proceed with an easy step-by-step guide.

  1. Download the Balsamiq Bundle that includes Adobe Air (if the link does not work, head on to Balsamic Downloads and download the version With Adobe Air bundled)
  2. Open a terminal, unzip the bundle and move it to /opt (change the Downloads directory name according to your setup)
    cd Downloads
    unzip Balsamiq*
    sudo mv Balsamiq* /opt
  3. To make life easier, rename the .exe to simply balsamiq.exe
    cd /opt/Balsamiq_Mockups_3/
    mv Balsamiq\\ Mockups\\ 3.exe balsamiq.exe
  4. Now you can run Balsamiq Mockups by running it with wine
    wine /opt/Balsamiq_Mockups_3/balsamiq.exe

Add Balsamiq as an application

The last optional step can save you a lot of time in launching Balsamiq, because it saves you the hassle of writing the command in point 4 above every time you want to launch it (and remembering the Balsamiq executable location). This simply consists in creating a new desktop entry for Balsamiq, which will add it to the applications list of your operating system.

Create the file ~/.local/share/applications/Balsamiq.desktop with the following content:

[Desktop Entry]
Encoding=UTF-8
Name=Balsamiq Mockups
Icon=/opt/Balsamiq_Mockups_3/icons/mockups_ico_48.png
Exec=wine /opt/Balsamiq_Mockups_3/balsamiq.exe
Type=Application
Categories=Graphics;
MimeType=application/x-xdg-protocol-tg;x-scheme-handler/tg;

If you are on Ubuntu with Unity, you can add the following lines too:

StartupNotify=false
StartupWMClass=balsamiq.exe
X-UnityGenerated=true

Now, just save and have a look at your Dash or Activity Panel to see if it works.

Install Balsamiq Mockups with Play on Linux

Eric suggests the use of Play on Linux for an easier installation process and reports that for him Balsamiq Mockups 3 works like a charm in that environment. Worth a try!

The post Install Balsamiq Mockups in Debian/Ubuntu appeared first on deshack.


Media Files:
https://builds.balsamiq.com/mockups-desktop/Balsamiq_Mockups_3.5.6_bundled.zip




Ted Gould: The Case for Ubuntu Phone

Sat, 14 Jan 2017 06:00:00 +0000

There are times in standard social interactions where people ask what you do professionally, which means I end up talking about Ubuntu and specifically Ubuntu Phone. Many times that comes down to the seemingly simple question: “Why would I want an Ubuntu phone?” I’ve tried the answer “becasue I’m a thought leader and you should want to be like me,” but sadly that gets little traction outside of Silicon Valley. Another good answer is all the benefits of Free Software, but many of those are benefits the general public doesn’t yet realize they need.

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The biggest strength and weakness of Ubuntu Phone is that it’s a device without an intrinsic set of services. If you buy an Android device you get Google Services. If you buy an iPhone you get Apple services. While these can be strengths (at least in Google’s case) they are effectively a lock in to services that may or may not meet your requirements. You certainly can get Telegram or Signal for either of those, but they’re never going to be as integrated as Hangouts or iMessage. This goes throughout the device including things like music and storage as well. Ubuntu and Canonical don’t provide those services, but instead provide integration points for any of them (including Apple and Google if they wanted) to work inside an Ubuntu Phone. This means as a user you can use the services you want on your device, if you love Hangouts and Apple Maps, Ubuntu Phone is happy to be a freak with you.

Carriers are also interested in this flexibility. They’re trying to put together packages of data and services that will sell, and fetch a premium price (effectively bundling). Some they may provide themselves and some by well known providers; but by not being able to select options for those base services they have less flexibility on what they can do. Sure, Google and Apple could give them a great price or bundle, but they both realize that they don’t have to. So that effectively makes it difficult for the carriers as well as alternate service providers (e.g. Dropbox, Spotify, etc) to compete.

What I find most interesting thing about this discussion is that it is the original reason that Google bought Android. They were concerned that with Apple controlling the smartphone market they’d be in a position to damage Google’s ability to compete in services. They were right. But instead of opening it up to competition (a competition that certainly at the time and even today they’re likely to win) they decided to lock down Android with their own services. So now we see in places like China where Google services are limited there is no way for Android to win, only forks that use a different set of integrations. One has to wonder if Ubuntu Phone existed earlier whether Google would have bought Android, while Ubuntu Phone competes with Android it doesn’t pose any threat to Google’s core businesses.

It is always a failure to try and convince people to change their patterns and devices just for the sake of change. Early adopters are people who enjoy that, but not the majority of people. This means that we need to be an order of magnitude better, which is a pretty high bar to set, but one I enjoy working towards. I think that Ubuntu Phone has the fundamental DNA to win in this race.




Stéphane Graber: Running Kubernetes inside LXD

Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:35:04 +0000

Introduction For those who haven’t heard of Kubernetes before, it’s defined by the upstream project as: Kubernetes is an open-source system for automating deployment, scaling, and management of containerized applications. It groups containers that make up an application into logical units for easy management and discovery. Kubernetes builds upon 15 years of experience of running production workloads at Google, combined with best-of-breed ideas and practices from the community. It is important to note the “applications” part in there. Kubernetes deploys a set of single application containers and connects them together. Those containers will typically run a single process and so are very different from the full system containers that LXD itself provides. This blog post will be very similar to one I published last year on running OpenStack inside a LXD container. Similarly to the OpenStack deployment, we’ll be using conjure-up to setup a number of LXD containers and eventually run the Docker containers that are used by Kubernetes. Requirements This post assumes you’ve got a working LXD setup, providing containers with network access and that you have at least 10GB of space for the containers to use and at least 4GB of RAM. Outside of configuring LXD itself, you will also need to bump some kernel limits with the following commands: sudo sysctl fs.inotify.max_user_instances=1048576   sudo sysctl fs.inotify.max_queued_events=1048576   sudo sysctl fs.inotify.max_user_watches=1048576   sudo sysctl vm.max_map_count=262144 Setting up the container Similarly to OpenStack, the conjure-up deployed version of Kubernetes expects a lot more privileges and resource access than LXD would typically provide. As a result, we have to create a privileged container, with nesting enabled and with AppArmor disabled. This means that not very much of LXD’s security features will still be in effect on this container. Depending on how you feel about this, you may choose to run this on a different machine. Note that all of this however remains better than instructions that would have you install everything directly on your host machine. If only by making it very easy to remove it all in the end. lxc launch ubuntu:16.04 kubernetes -c security.privileged=true -c security.nesting=true -c linux.kernel_modules=ip_tables,ip6_tables,netlink_diag,nf_nat,overlay -c raw.lxc=lxc.aa_profile=unconfined lxc config device add kubernetes mem unix-char path=/dev/mem Then we need to add a couple of PPAs and install conjure-up, the deployment tool we’ll use to get Kubernetes going. lxc exec kubernetes -- apt-add-repository ppa:conjure-up/next -y lxc exec kubernetes -- apt-add-repository ppa:juju/stable -y lxc exec kubernetes -- apt update lxc exec kubernetes -- apt dist-upgrade -y lxc exec kubernetes -- apt install conjure-up -y And the last setup step is to configure LXD networking inside the container. Answer with the default for all questions, except for: Use the “dir” storage backend (“zfs” doesn’t work in a nested container) Do NOT configure IPv6 networking (conjure-up/juju don’t play well with it) lxc exec kubernetes -- lxd init And that’s it for the container configuration itself, now we can deploy Kubernetes! Deploying Kubernetes with conjure-up As mentioned earlier, we’ll be using conjure-up to deploy Kubernetes. This is a nice, user friendly, tool that interfaces with Juju to deploy complex services. Start it with: lxc exec kubernetes -- sudo -u ubuntu -i conjure-up Select “Kubernetes Core” Then select “localhost” as the deployment target (uses LXD) And hit “Deploy all remaining applications” This will now deploy Kubernetes. The whole process can take well over an hour depending on [...]



Jorge Castro: Fresh Kubernetes documentation available now

Tue, 10 Jan 2017 19:34:12 +0000

Over the past few months our team has been working real hard on the Canonical Distribution of Kubernetes. This is a pure-upstream distribution of k8s with our community’s operational expertise bundled in.

It means that we can use one set of operational code to get the same deployment on GCE, AWS, Azure, Joyent, OpenStack, and Bare Metal.

Like most young distributed systems, Kubernetes isn’t exactly famous for it’s ease of use, though there has been tremendous progress over the past 12 months. Our documentation on Kubernetes was nearly non-existent and it became obvious that we had to dive in there and bust it out. I’ve spent some time fixing it up and it’s been recently merged. 

You can find the Official Ubuntu Guides in the “Create a cluster” section. We’re taking what I call a “sig-cluster-lifecycle” approach to this documentation – the pages are organized into lifecycle topics based on what an operator would do. So “Backups”, or “Upgrades” instead one big page with sections. This will allow us to grow each section based on the expertise we learn on k8s for that given task. 

Over the past few months (and hopefully for Kubernetes 1.6) we will slowly be phasing out the documentation on our individual charm and layer pages to reduce duplication and move to a pure upstream workflow. 

On behalf of our team we hope you enjoy Kubernetes, and if you’re running into issues please let us know or you can find us in the Kubernetes slack channels.




The Fridge: Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter Issue 494

Tue, 10 Jan 2017 16:06:48 +0000

(image)

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter. This is issue #494 for the week January 2 – 8, 2017, and the full version is available here.

In this issue we cover:

The issue of The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by:

  • Elizabeth K. Joseph
  • Chris Guiver
  • Paul White
  • And many others

If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki!

(image) Except where otherwise noted, content in this issue is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License BY SA Creative Commons License




Kubuntu General News: Plasma 5.8.4 and KDE Frameworks 5.8.0 now available in Backports for Kubuntu 16.04 and 16.10

Mon, 09 Jan 2017 20:01:50 +0000

The Kubuntu Team announces the availability of Plasma 5.8.4 and KDE Frameworks 5.8.0 on Kubuntu 16.04 (Xenial) and 16.10 (Yakkety) though our Backports PPA.

Plasma 5.8.4 Announcement:
https://www.kde.org/announcements/plasma-5.8.4.php
How to get the update (in the commandline):

  1. sudo apt-add-repository ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports
  2. sudo apt update
  3. sudo apt full-upgrade -y

If you have been testing this upgrade by using the backports-landing PPA, please remove it first before doing the upgrade to backports. Do this in the commandline:

sudo apt-add-repository --remove ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports-landing

Please report any bugs you find on Launchpad (for packaging problems) and http://bugs.kde.org for bugs in KDE software.




Jonathan Riddell: Plasma Wayland ISO

Mon, 09 Jan 2017 18:00:02 +0000

Plasma is nearing a new release and with 5.9 coming shortly we have the question of should we switch Neon to use Wayland by default for the Developer Unstable edition. To evaluate it I updated the Plasma Wayland ISO and found it pleasingly functional on VirtualBox.  Time to install this setup on my real hardware and see what breaks. by [...]



Leo Arias: Call for testing: IPFS

Fri, 06 Jan 2017 15:58:13 +0000

Happy new year Ubunteros and Ubunteras!

If you have been following our testing days, you will know by now that our intention is to get more people contributing to Ubuntu and free software projects, and to help them getting started through testing and related tasks. So, we will be making frequent calls for testing where you can contribute and learn. Educational AND fun ^_^

To start the year, I would like to invite you to test the IPFS candidate snap. IPFS is a really interesting free project for distributed storage. You can read more about it and watch a demo in the IPFS website.

We have pushed a nice snap with their latest stable version to the candidate channel in the store. But before we publish it to the stable channel we would like to get more people testing it.

You can get a clean and safe environment to test following some of the guides you'll find on the summaries of the past testing days.

Or, if you want to use your current system, you can just do:

$ sudo snap install ipfs --candidate

I have written a gist with a simple guide to get started testing it

If you finish that successfully and still have more time, or are curious about ipfs, please continue with an exploratory testing session. The idea here is just to execute random commands, try unusual inputs and just play around.

You can get ideas from the IPFS docs.

When you are done, please send me an email with your results and any comments. And if you get stuck or have any kind of question, please don't hesitate to ask. Remember that we welcome everybody.




Colin King: BCC: a powerful front end to extended Berkeley Packet Filters

Thu, 05 Jan 2017 15:21:30 +0000

The BPF Compiler Collection (BCC) is a toolkit for building kernel tracing tools that leverage the functionality provided by the Linux extended Berkeley Packet Filters (BPF).BCC allows one to write BPF programs with front-ends in Python or Lua with kernel instrumentation written in C.  The instrumentation code is built into sandboxed eBPF byte code and is executed in the kernel.The BCC github project README file provides an excellent overview and description of BCC and the various available BCC tools.  Building BCC from scratch can be a bit time consuming, however,  the good news is that the BCC tools are now available as a snap and so BCC can be quickly and easily installed just using: sudo snap install --devmode bcc There are currently over 50 BCC tools in the snap, so let's have a quick look at a few:cachetop allows one to view the top page cache hit/miss statistics. To run this use: sudo bcc.cachetop The funccount tool allows one to count the number of times specific functions get called.  For example, to see how many kernel functions with the name starting with "do_" get called per second one can use: sudo bcc.funccount "do_*" -i 1 To see how to use all the options in this tool, use the -h option: sudo bcc.funccount -h I've found the funccount tool to be especially useful to check on kernel activity by checking on hits on specific function names. The slabratetop tool is useful to see the active kernel SLAB/SLUB memory allocation rates: sudo bcc.slabratetop If you want to see which process is opening specific files, one can snoop on open system calls use the opensnoop tool: sudo bcc.opensnoop -THopefully this will give you a taste of the useful tools that are available in BCC (I have barely scratched the surface in this article).  I recommend installing the snap and giving it a try.As it stands,BCC provides a useful mechanism to develop BPF tracing tools and I look forward to regularly updating the BCC snap as more tools are added to BCC. Kudos to Brendan Gregg for BCC! [...]



Kubuntu Podcast News: Kubuntu-Podcast #15 – Yakkety and Kubuntu Ninjas

Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:21:49 +0000

Show Audio Feeds MP3: http://feeds.feedburner.com/KubuntuPodcast-mp3 OGG: http://feeds.feedburner.com/KubuntuPodcast-ogg Pocket Casts links   OGG   MP3 Show Hosts Ovidiu-Florin Bogdan blog: http://ovidiu.geekaliens.com Rick Timmis G+: https://plus.google.com/u/0/+RickTimmis Blog: http://sickrimmit.blogspot.co.uk/ Aaron Honeycutt (Video/Audio Podcast Production) G+: https://plus.google.com/+AaronHoneycutt blog: http://usefoss.com/ Intro What have we (the hosts) been doing ? Aaron Kicking Rick’s merges to the curb Kubuntu Manual / Documentation Rick Kubuntu Party Kubuntu Dojo Kubuntu Manual / Documentation Ovidiu Projects Dockerising Open Source Applications (ReviewBoard, AgileFant, FixMyStreet) Adding Images to Feedburner Sponsor: Big Blue Button Those of you that have attended the Kubuntu parties, will have seen our Big Blue Button conference and online education service. Video, Audio, Presentation, Screenshare and whiteboard tools. We are very grateful to Fred Dixon and the team at BigBlueButton.org go check out their project. Kubuntu News Kubuntu 16.04.1 LTS Update Out Qt 5.6.1 Plasma 5.7 and Apps 16.04 for Yakkety Elevator Picks Identify, install and review one app each from the Discover software center and do a short screen demo and review. Ovidiu … KPatience https://www.kde.org/applications/games/kpatience/ Aaron … snapcraft : snapcraft.io Rick… – Krita https://krita.org In Focus Documentation Kubuntu. https://github.com/ahoneybun/kubuntu-manual Simon Quigley became a Kubuntu Ninja Sponsor: Linode Linode, an awesome VPS with super fast SSD’s, Data connections, and top notch support. We have worked out a sponsorship for a server to build packages quicker and get to our users faster. Instantly deploy and get a Linode Cloud Server up and running in seconds with your choice of Linux distro, resources, and node location. SSD Storage 40Gbit Network Intel E5 Processors BIG SHOUT OUT to Linode for working with us! Kubuntu Developer Feedback Linode Server – 1 x LXD Containers for other to use 1 Container being used by one of the packagers 2 A KCI Slave node With this resource we can build one tree level dependency at once, which is around 100 packages, which takes around 1 hr on average. There is also enough capacity left that we can provide additional containers for Ninja’s to use packaging. For Yakkety, we now have QT 5.6.1, and we got Frameworks and Plasma 5.7.2 and for applications 16.04.3 almost done for Yakkety, and were looking for testers. The team are looking forward to applications 16.08, just hoping for an upstream release to get the PIM packages. For Xenial Plasma 5.7.2 has move a little further forward, but there is much to be done in backports to achieve this. Kubuntu CI System – Yofel has been working hard on improving the CI system, in addition to adding Slave Nodes, thanks to Linode too. The next stage was to get the Build jobs in order, this has meant we have dropped 32bit builds from the CI, but we’ll continue to provide x86 32bit builds of Kubuntu.Focusing on only 64bit builds has resolved many of errors and fails. They did run into an interesting error, where the Linode slave was so powerful it tried to open 20 concurrent connections to the KDE Git repo, and was promptly closed off by the 5 connection limit. A nice problem to have. Yofel will continue to work on the Stable CI builds, by getting a set of working configurations. The move back to Launchpad brings many benefits but right now its created a lot of challenges, that the [...]



Kubuntu Podcast News: Kubuntu Podcast 17

Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:02:10 +0000

Show Audio Feeds MP3: http://feeds.feedburner.com/KubuntuPodcast-mp3 OGG: http://feeds.feedburner.com/KubuntuPodcast-ogg Pocket Casts links OGG MP3 Show Hosts Ovidiu-Florin Bogdan blog: http://ovidiu.geekaliens.com Rick Timmis G+: https://plus.google.com/u/0/+RickTimmis Blog: http://sickrimmit.blogspot.co.uk/ Aaron Honeycutt (Video/Audio Podcast Production) G+: https://plus.google.com/+AaronHoneycutt blog: http://usefoss.com/ Intro What have we (the hosts) been doing ? Aaron Getting ready for Hurricane Matt in Florida Rick ??? Ovidiu ??? Sponsor: Big Blue Button Those of you that have attended the Kubuntu parties, will have seen our Big Blue Button conference and online education service. Video, Audio, Presentation, Screenshare and whiteboard tools. We are very grateful to Fred Dixon and the team at BigBlueButton.org go check out their project. Kubuntu News Elevator Picks Identify, install and review one app each from the Discover software center and do a short screen demo and review. Ovidiu – KSysGuard Aaron – Snapcraft-GUI Polychromatic Rick – In Focus Sponsor: Linode Linode, an awesome VPS with super fast SSD’s, Data connections, and top notch support. We have worked out a sponsorship for a server to build packages quicker and get to our users faster. Instantly deploy and get a Linode Cloud Server up and running in seconds with your choice of Linux distro, resources, and node location. SSD Storage 40Gbit Network Intel E5 Processors BIG SHOUT OUT to Linode for working with us! Kubuntu Developer Feedback Clive became a Kubuntu Developer!!! Game On  The Linux Gamer interview Questions about Gaming on Linux: Who are you and what do you do? What makes a Game developer want to bring their AAA game to Linux? Has stores like Humble Bundle, Indie Gala helped Linux gaming? Are Linux graphics drivers getting better? What are your thoughts on Vulkan? TLG YouTube: https://www.youtube.com/user/tuxreviews TLG Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/thelinuxgamer Listener Feedback From: Snowhog @ https://www.kubuntuforums.net/ I just want to express my thanks for all the hard work developers and testers put into the Kubuntu/KDE/Plasma projects. So few of you; so many of us, and the “us’s” always seem to want ‘more’, and tend to, more often than not, complain about what isn’t included and what isn’t working instead of praising that which is and does. For me, and with very few exceptions since I first started using Kubuntu in 2007, Kubuntu has simply just worked. I am constantly amazed that such a robust and feature filled operating system is available to everyone for free (free to me). The developers and testers simply don’t receive the credit and gratitude you all have earned. So, again, from one of the “us’s”, THANK YOU! Please feel free to pass this along. Contact Us How to contact the Kubuntu Team: Website: https://kubuntu.org IRC: irc.freenode.net #kubuntu #kubuntu-devel Telegram Groups: Support: https://telegram.me/kubuntu_support Cafe: https://telegram.me/joinchat/Bpq8FwCyZ1kDx_bXTJGwqw Telegram Channel: News: https://telegram.me/kubuntu Social Media Google+ Facebook Twitter Reddit Linkedin How to contact the Kubuntu Podcast Team: Google+ Youtube [...]



David Tomaschik: SANS Holiday Hack Challenge 2016

Thu, 05 Jan 2017 08:00:00 +0000

Introduction Part 1: A Most Curious Business Card Part 2: Awesome Package Konveyance Part 3: A Fresh-Baked Holiday Pi Terminal: Elf House #2 Terminal: Workshop Terminal: Santa’s Office Terminal: Workshop (Reindeer) Terminal: Workshop - Train Station 1978: Finding Santa Part 4: My Gosh… It’s Full of Holes analytics.northpolewonderland.com Addendum: An Unintentional Vulnerability ads.northpolewonderland.com dev.northpolewonderland.com dungeon.northpolewonderland.com ex.northpolewonderland.com Part 5: Discombobulated Audio Fixing the Audio Santa’s Kidnapper Introduction This is my second time playing the SANS holiday hack challenge. It was a lot of fun, and probably took me about 8-10 hours over a period of 2-3 days, not including this writeup. Ironically, this writeup took me longer than actually completing the challenge – which brings me to a note about some of the examples in the writeup. Please ignore any dates or timelines you might see in screengrabs and other notes – I was so engrossed in playing that I did a terrible job of documenting as I went along, so a lot of these I went back and did a 2nd time (of course, knowing the solution made it a bit easier) so I could provide the quality of writeup I was hoping to. Most importantly, a huge shout out to all the SANS Counter Hack guys – I can only imagine how much work goes into building an educational game like this and making the challenges realistic and engrossing. I’ve built wargames & similar apps for work, but never had to build them into a story – let across a story that spans multiple years. I tip my hat to their dedication and success! Part 1: A Most Curious Business Card We start with the Dosis children again (I can’t read that name without thinking about DOCSIS, but I see no cable modems here…) who have found Santa’s bag and business card, signs of a struggle, but no Santa! Looking at the business card, we see that Santa seems to be into extensive social media use. On his twitter account, we see a large number of posts (350), mostly composed of Christmas-themed words (JOY, PEACEONEARTH, etc.), but occasionally with a number of symbols in the center. At first I thought it might be some kind of encoding, so I decided to download the tweets to a file and examine them as plaintext. I did this with a bit of javascript to pull the right elements into a single file. I was about to start trying various decoding techniques when I happened to notice a pattern: Well, perhaps the hidden message is “BUG BOUNTY”. (Question #1) (Image wrapped for readability.) I’m not sure what to do with it at this point, but perhaps it will become clear later. Let’s switch to instagram and take a look there. The first two photos appear unremarkable, but the third one is cluttered with potential clues. One of Santa’s elves (Hermey) is apparently as good at keeping a clean desk as I am – just ask my coworkers! Fortunately they don’t Instagram shame me. :) Using our “enhance” button from the local crime-solving TV show, we find a couple of clues. We have a domain (or at least part of one) from an nmap report, and a filename. I wonder if they go together: https://www.northpolewonderland.com/SantaGram_4.2.zip. Indeed they do, and we have a zip file. Unzipping it, we discover it’s encrypted[...]


Media Files:
https://www.northpolewonderland.com/SantaGram_4.2.zip




Kubuntu General News: Plasma 5.8.5 bugfix release in Xenial and Yakkety Backports now

Thu, 05 Jan 2017 07:57:47 +0000

Plasma 5.8.5 brings bug-fixes and translations from the month of December, thanks to the hard work of the Plasma team and the KDE Translation team.

(image)

To update, use the Software Repository Guide to add the following repository to your software sources list:

ppa:kubuntu-ppa/backports

Instructions on how to manage PPAs and more info about the Kubuntu PPAs can be found in the Repositories Documentation




Seif Lotfy: Hot Functions for IronFunctions

Wed, 04 Jan 2017 20:50:00 +0000

For every request, IronFunctions would spin up a new container to handle the job, which depending on container and task could add a couple of 100ms of overhead.

So why not reuse the containers if possible? Well that is exactly what Hot Functions do.

Hot Functions improve IronFunctions throughput by 8x (depending on duration of task).

Hot Functions reside in long-lived containers addressing the same type of task, which take incoming workload and feed into their standard input and read from their standard output. In addition, permanent network connections are reused.

Here is how a hot function looks like. Currently, IronFunctions implements a HTTP-like protocol to operate hot containers, but instead of communication through a TCP/IP port, it uses standard input/output.

So to test this baby we deployed on 1 GB Digital Ocean instances (which is not much), and used Honeycomb to track and plot the performance.


Simple function printing "Hello World" called for 10s (MAX CONCURRENCY = 1).
(image)

Hot Functions have 162x higher throughput.


Complex function pulling image and md5 checksumming called for 10s (MAX CONCURRENCY = 1).
(image)
Hot Functions have 1,39x higher throughput.


By combining Hot Functions with concurrency we saw even better results:

Complex function pulling image and md5 checksumming called for 10s (MAX CONCURRENCY = 7)
(image)
Hot Functions have 7,84x higher throughput.


So there you have it, pure awesomeness by the Iron.io team in the making.

Also a big thank you to the good people from Honeycomb for their awesome product that allowed us to benchmark and plot (All the screenshots in this article are from Honeycomb). Its a great and fast new tool for debugging complex systems by combining the speed and simplicity of time series metrics with the raw accuracy and context of log aggregators.

Since it supports answering arbitrary, ad-hoc questions about those systems in real time, it was an awesome, flexible, powerful way for us to test IronFunctions!




Raphaël Hertzog: My Free Software Activities in December 2016

Wed, 04 Jan 2017 09:48:31 +0000

My monthly report covers a large part of what I have been doing in the free software world. I write it for my donors (thanks to them!) but also for the wider Debian community because it can give ideas to newcomers and it’s one of the best ways to find volunteers to work with me on projects that matter to me. Debian LTS I was allocated 10 hours to work on security updates for Debian 7 Wheezy. During this time I did the following: I released DLA-741-1 on unzip. This was an easy update. I reviewed Roberto Sanchez’s patch for CVE-2014-9911 in ICU. I released DLA-759-1 on nss in collaboration with Antoine Beaupré. I merged and updated Guido’s work to enable the testsuite during build and to add DEP-8 tests. I created a git repository for php5 maintenance in Debian LTS and started to work on an update. I added patches for two CVE (CVE-2016-3141, CVE-2016-2554) and added some binary files required by (currently failing) tests. Misc packaging With the strong freeze approaching, I had some customer requests to push packages into Debian and/or to fix packages that were in danger of being removed from stretch. While trying to bring back uwsgi into testing I filed #847095 (libmongoclient-dev: Should not conflict with transitional mongodb-dev) and #847207 (uwsgi: FTBFS on multiple architectures with undefined references to uwsgi_* symbols) and interacted on some of the RC bugs that were keeping the package out of testing. I also worked on a few new packages (lua-trink-cjson, lua-inotify, lua-sandbox-extensions) that enhance hindsight in some use cases and sponsored a rozofs update in experimental to fix a file conflict with inn2 (#846571). Misc Debian work Debian Live. I released two live-build updates. The second update added more options to customize the grub configuration (we use it in Kali to override the theme and add more menu entries) both for EFI boot and normal boot. Misc bugreports. #846569 on libsnmp-dev to accomodate the libssl transition (I noticed the package was not maintained, I asked for new maintainers on debian-devel). #847168 on devscripts for debuild that started failing when lintian was failing (unexpected regression). #847318 on lintian to not emit spurious errors for kali packages (which was annoying with the debuild regression above). #847436 for an upgrade problem I got with tryton-server. #847223 on firefoxdriver as it was still depending on iceweasel instead of firefox. Sponsorship. I sponsored a new version of asciidoc (#831965) and of ssldump 0.9b3-6 (for libssl transition). I also uploaded a new version of mutter to fix #846898 (it was ready in SVN already). Distro Tracker Not much happening, I fixed #814315 by switching a few remaining URLs to https. I merged patches from efkin to fix the functional test suite (#814315), that was a really useful contribution! The same contributer started to tackle another ticket (#824912) about adding an API to retrieve action items. This is a larger project and needs some thoughts. I still have to respond to him on his latest patches (after two rounds already). Misc stuff I updated the letsencrypt-sh salt formula for version 0.3.0 and added the possibility to customize the hook script to reload the webserver. The @planetdebian twitter account is no longer working since twitterfeed.com closed doors and the replacement (dlvr.it) is unhappy about the RSS feed of planet.debian.org. I filed bug #848123 against planet-ven[...]



David Tomaschik: New Tool: sshdog

Wed, 04 Jan 2017 08:00:00 +0000

I recently needed an encrypted, authenticated remote bind shell due to a situation where, believe it or not, the egress policies were stricter than ingress! Ideally I could forward traffic and copy files over the link.
I was looking for a good tool and casually asked my coworkers if they had any ideas when one said “sounds like SSH.”

Well, shit. That does sound like SSH and I didn’t even realize it. (Tunnel vision, and the value of bouncing ideas off of others.) But I had a few more requirements in total:

  • Encrypted
  • Authenticated
  • Bind (not reverse)
  • Windows & Linux
  • No Admin/Installation required
  • Can be shipped preconfigured
  • No special runtime requirements

At this point, I began hunting for SSH servers that fit the bill, but found none. So I began to think about Paramiko, the SSH library for Python, but then I’d still need the Python runtime (though there are ways to build a binary out of a python script). I then recalled once seeing that Go has an ssh package. I looked at it, hoping it would be as straightforward as Paramiko (which can become a full SSH server or client in about 10 lines), but it’s not quite so. With the Go package, all of the crypto is handled for you, but you need to handle the incoming channels and requests yourself. Fortunately, the package provides code for marshaling and unmarshaling messages from the SSH wire format.

I decided that I would get a better performance and more predictable behavior without needing to package the Python runtime, plus I appreciated the stability Go would provide (fewer runtime errors), so I began developing. What I ended up with is sshdog, and I’m releasing it today.

sshdog supports:

  • Windows & Linux
  • Configure port, host key, authorized keys
  • Pubkey authentication (no passwords)
  • Port forwarding
  • SCP (but no SFTP support)

Additionally, it’s capable of being installed as a service on Windows, and daemonizing on Linux. It uses go.rice to embed configuration within the resulting binary and give you a single executable that runs the server.

Example Usage

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% go build .
% ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048 -N '' -f config/ssh_host_rsa_key
% echo 2222 > config/port
% cp ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub config/authorized_keys
% rice append --exec sshdog
% ./sshdog
[DEBUG] Adding hostkey file: ssh_host_rsa_key
[DEBUG] Adding authorized_keys.
[DEBUG] Listening on :2222
[DEBUG] Waiting for shutdown.
[DEBUG] select...

Why sshdog?

The name is supposed to be a riff off netcat and similar tools, as well as an anagram for “Go SSHD”.

Please, give it a try and feel free to file bugs/pull requests on the Github project. https://github.com/Matir/sshdog.




Dustin Kirkland: My 2017 New Years Resolution...

Tue, 03 Jan 2017 22:36:31 +0000


What's yours?

Happy 2017!
:-Dustin



Costales: How to print a document created with uWriter

Tue, 03 Jan 2017 19:14:44 +0000

Now you can print your documents created in uWriter from your PC.0.18 Print documents!Setup: Enable access to your documents from a PC in an easy way:In you phone's Terminal run this command:ln -s /home/phablet/.local/share/uwp.costales/ /home/phablet/Documents/uWriterCommand just to be ran in the TerminalThis will create a link between ~/Documents/uWriter and /home/phablet/.local/share/uwp.costalesYou'll do this step just one time. Now is easy to navigate to the uWriter folder in your PC.Print a documentConnect your phone or tablet to the PC via USB and navigate to the uWriter folder (~/Documents/uWriter):Your documents are saved as *.htmlOpen one document with  your favourite web browserYou document opened (in this case Firefox)Print it!That's all :) Enjoy it![...]



The Fridge: Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter Issue 493

Tue, 03 Jan 2017 16:20:05 +0000

Welcome to the Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter. This is issue #493 for the weeks of December 19, 2016 – January 1, 2017, and the full version is available here. In this issue we cover: Ubuntu Stats LoCo Events Xubuntu: Integrating releases to the website Dimitri John Ledkov: Ubuntu Archive and CD/USB images complete migration to 4096 RSA signing keys Lucas Nussbaum: The Linux 2.5, Ruby 1.9 and Python 3 release management anti-pattern Removing 32-bit powerpc architecture from future Ubuntu releases Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter Approaching Issue 500 The 4th China Mobile Global Partner Conference Forum Canonical News Serious Ubuntu Linux desktop bugs found and fixed In The Blogosphere Full Circle Magazine #116 Featured Audio and Video Weekly Ubuntu Development Team Meetings Upcoming Meetings and Events Updates and Security for 12.04, 14.04, 16.04 and 16.10 And much more! The issue of The Ubuntu Weekly Newsletter is brought to you by: Elizabeth K. Joseph Chris Guiver Paul White And many others If you have a story idea for the Weekly Newsletter, join the Ubuntu News Team mailing list and submit it. Ideas can also be added to the wiki! Except where otherwise noted, content in this issue is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License BY SA Creative Commons License[...]



Bryan Quigley: Do you have any old file format images?

Tue, 03 Jan 2017 14:47:49 +0000

I’m specifically looking for:
OS/2 Metafile (.met)
PICT (Mac’s precursor to PDF) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PICT

Also useful might be:
PCD – Kodak Photo CD
RAS – Sun Raster Image

I’m trying to evaluate if LibreOffice should keep support for them (specifically if the support is good). Unfortunately I can only generate the images using LibreOffice (or sister projects) which doesn’t really provide a great test.

Please either:
* Provide a link in a comment below
* Email me B @ (If emailed, please mention if I can share the image publicly)

If I find the support works great I’d try to integrate a few of them into LO tests so we make sure they don’t regress.

Thank you!  [Update, files are now part of LibreOffice’s test server]

 




Ross Gammon: Happy New Year – My Free Software activities in December 2016

Mon, 02 Jan 2017 22:58:57 +0000

So that was 2016! Here’s a summary of what I got up to on my computer(s) in December, a check of how I went against my plan, and the TODO list for the next month or so. With a short holiday to Oslo, Christmas holidays, Christmas parties (at work and with Alexander at school, football etc.), travelling to Brussels with work, birthdays (Alexander & Antje), I missed a lot of deadlines, and failed to reach most of my Free Software goals (including my goals for new & updated packages in Debian Stretch – the soft freeze is in a couple of days). To top it all off, I lost my grandmother at the ripe old age of 93. Rest in peace Nana. I wish I could have made it to the funeral, but it is sometimes tough living on the other side of the world to your family. Debian Worked on bootstrapping bluebird. Almost have it ready for sponsoring. Worked on converting Cree.py to Qt5. Packaged node-file-sync-cmp. The upload was sponsored by Pirate Praveen. Ubuntu Added the Ubuntu Studio testsuites to the package tracker, and blogged about running the Manual Tests. Other Finished converting my Family History Website to Jekyll. Had play with JMRI. Thinking of using it in the basement, and maybe packaging it for Debian. Plan status & update for next month Debian Before the 5th January 2017 Debian Stretch soft freeze I hope to: Ensure node-tape makes it through into Stretch. – failed Work on all the dependencies needed to get kosmtik into Stretch. – failed Convert Cree.py from QT4 to QT5 to allow it to re-enter Stretch. – In progress For the Debian Stretch release: Keep an eye on the Release Critical bugs list, and see if I can help fix any. Ubuntu Add the Ubuntu Studio Manual Testsuite to the package tracker, and try to encourage some testing of the newest versions of our priority packages. – Done Finish the ubuntustudio-lightdm-theme, ubuntustudio-default-settings transition including an update to the ubuntustudio-meta packages. – Still to do Reapply to become a Contributing Developer. – Still to do Start working on an Ubuntu Studio package tracker website so that we can keep an eye on the status of the packages we are interested in. – Still to do Start testing & bug triaging Ubuntu Studio packages. Test Len’s work on ubuntustudio-controls Other Continue working to convert my Family History website to Jekyll – Done Try and resurrect my old Gammon one-name study Drupal website from a backup and push it to the new GoONS Website project. Give JMRI a good try out and look at what it would take to package it. [...]



Dimitri John Ledkov: Ubuntu Archive and CD/USB images complete migration to 4096 RSA signing keys

Mon, 02 Jan 2017 13:54:48 +0000

Enigma machine photo by Alessandro Nassiri [CC BY-SA 4.0], via Wikimedia CommonsUbuntu Archive and CD/USB image use OpenPGP cryptography for verification and integrity protection. In 2012, a new archive signing key was created and we have started to dual-sign everything with both old and new keys.In April 2017, Ubuntu 12.04 LTS (Precise Pangolin) will go end of life. Precise was the last release that was signed with just the old signing key. Thus when Zesty Zapus is released as Ubuntu 17.04, there will no longer be any supported Ubuntu release that require the 2004 signing keys for validation.The Zesty Zapus release is now signed with just the 2012 signing key, which is 4096 RSA based key. The old 2004 signing keys, where were 1024 DSA based, have been removed from the default keyring and are no longer trusted by default in Zesty and up. The old keys are available in the removed keys keyring in the ubuntu-keyring package, for example in case one wants to verify things from old-releases.ubuntu.com.Thus the signing key transition is coming to an end. Looking forward, I hope that by 18.04 LTS time-frame the SHA-3 algorithm will make its way into the OpenPGP spec and that we will possibly start a transition to 8096 RSA keys. But this is just wishful thinking as the current key strength, algorithm, and hashsums are deemed to be sufficient. [...]



Xubuntu: Introducing the Xubuntu Council

Sun, 01 Jan 2017 16:43:02 +0000

At the beginning of 2016 the Xubuntu team started a process to transition the project to become council-run rather than having a single project leader. After careful planning, writing and approving the general direction, the team was ready to vote on for the first three members of the council for the project. In this article we explain what the new Xubuntu Council is and who the council members are. What is the Xubuntu Council about? The purpose of the council is very similar to the purpose of the former Xubuntu Project Leader (XPL): to make sure the direction of the project stays stable, in adherence to the Strategy Document and be responsible for making long-term plans and decisions where needed. The two main differences between a council and the XPL, both favoring the council approach, are: The administrative and bureaucratic work of managing the project is split between several people. This means more reliability and faster response times. A council, with a diversity of views, can more fairly evaluate and arbitrate disputes. Additionally, the council will stay more in the background in terms of daily decisions, the council does not have a casting or veto vote in the same way that the XPL had. We believe this lets us embrace the expertise in the team even more than we did before. The council also acts as a fallback to avoid deadlocks that a single point of failure like “an XPL gone missing” could produce. If you wish to learn more about the council, you can read about it in the Xubuntu Council section of our contributor documentation. Who is in the Council? On August 31st, Simon Steinbeiß announced the results of vote by Xubuntu project members. The first Xubuntu Council contains the following members: Sean Davis (bluesabre), the council chair and the Xubuntu Technical Lead Simon Steinbeiß (ochosi), the Xubuntu Artwork Lead and a former XPL Pasi Lallinaho (knome), the Xubuntu Website Lead and a former XPL and former Xubuntu Marketing Lead As the titles alone can tell you, the three council members all have a strong history with Xubuntu project. Today we want to go a bit deeper than just these titles, which is why we asked the council members a few quick questions so you can start to get to know them. Interviewing the Council What inspired you to get involved with the Xubuntu project? Sean: I started using Xubuntu in 2006 (when it was first released) and used it all throughout college and into my career. I started reporting bugs to the project in 2012 and contributing to the Ubuntu community later that year. My (selfish) inspiration was that I wanted to make my preferred operating system even better! Simon: When Dapper Drake saw the light of day 10 years ago (I know, it’s incredible – it’s been a decade!) and I started using LInux my first choice was – and this has never changed – Xfce and Ubuntu. At first I never thought I would be fit to contribute, but the warm welcome from the amazing community around these projects pulled me in. Pasi: When I converted to Linux from Windows for good in 2006, I started contributing to the Amarok project, my media player of choice back then. A few years later my contributions there slowed down at it fe[...]






Stephen Michael Kellat: Staring Ahead At 2017

Sun, 01 Jan 2017 04:21:00 +0000

2016 was not the best of years. While my parents have told me that it wasn't a bad year, my "log line" for year was that this was the year I was under investigation, threat assessment, and who knows what other official review. These things kinda happen when you work in the civil service of a president who sometimes thinks he is a Stuart monarch and even worse acts like one from time to time. Tonight I spent some time playing with a software-defined radio. A project in 2017 is to set up an automated recorder out in the garage to monitor the CBC Radio One outlet that is audible from the other side of Lake Erie in southwest Ontario. Right now there is a bit of a noise problem to overcome with some antenna construction as the waterfall display below shows I can barely even hear the local outlet of NOAA Weather Radio (KEC58) out in Erie, Pennsylvania amidst some broad-spectrum noise shown in yellow: Even though it isn't funded, I'm still looking at the Outernet research project. By way of Joey Hess over in the pump.io spaces, I see I'm not the only one thinking about them either as there was a presentation at 33c3. Eventually I'll need to watch that. I will note contra David Tomaschik that disclosure of employee information that is available under the Freedom of Information Act isn't really a hack. In general you can request that directory information from any federal agency including DHS and FBI. The FOIA micro-site created by the US Department of Justice can help in drafting your own inquiries. The folks at the Ubuntu Podcast had an opportunity to prognosticate about the future. With the storm and stress of my civil service post, frankly I forgot to chip in. This happens increasingly. Since I used to be an Ubuntu-related podcaster I can offer some prognostication. My guesses for 2017 include: I may not be a federal civil servant by the end of 2017. It probably won't be by my choice based upon the views of the incoming administration. 2017 will be the Year of Xubuntu. Laura Cowen will finish her PhD. Lubuntu will be subsumed into the Kubuntu project as a light version of Kubuntu. There will be a steep contraction in the number of Ubuntu derivatives. James Cameron will retcon the Terminator franchise once again and now call Skynet instead Mirai. The United States will lose a significant portion of its consumer broadband access. The rest of the world won't notice. I may celebrate New Year's Eve 2017 well outside the Continental United States and quite possibly outside US jurisdiction. To all a happy new year. We have work to do. [...]



Jorge Castro: Useful tool alert, explainshell.com

Sun, 01 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0000

Ran into this while using the Stack Overflow; explainshell.com. Basically they take all of Ubuntu’s manpages and then parse them so you can paste in any Linux command and then see right away what each option does. Example:

rsync -chavzP –stats user@remote.host:/path/to/copy /path/to/local/storage

It then takes the command you put in there and breaks down each of the flags. I like this for a few reasons. First of all, I hate reading manpages because I’m a human being. This shows me exactly what each option does without having to parse the entire manpage, it only tells me what I care about. Secondly, I prefer to learn by example instead of just reading manpages in their entirety. I can see this tool being very useful for people who are just starting to learn. Command on the internet confusing you? You can at least paste it in here and figure out what it’s doing before you end up being that guy.

Another example is bropages, which lets people submit example commands for each tool, and then users vote on the usefulness of the examples for a nice stackoverflow-like list of example commands. It seems as though they haven’t had a commit for almost a year, so not sure if people are still contributing to that, but it seems like a decent enough idea.




Colin King: Kernel printk statements

Sat, 31 Dec 2016 18:20:20 +0000

The kernel contains tens of thousands of statements that may print various errors, warnings and debug/information messages to the kernel log.  Unsurprisingly, as the kernel grows in size, so does the quantity of these messages.  I've been scraping the kernel source for various kernel printk style statements and macros and scanning these for various typos and spelling mistakes and to make this easier I hacked up kernelscan (a quick and dirty parser) that helps me find literal strings from the kernel for spell checking.Using kernelscan, I've gathered some statistics for the number of kernel print statements for various kernel releases:As one can see, we have over 200,000 messages in the 4.9 kernel(!).  Given the kernel growth, we can see this seems to roughly correlate with the kernel source size:So how many lines of code in the kernel do we have per kernel printk messages over time?..showing that the trend is to have more lines of code per frequent printk statements over time.  I didn't differentiate between different types of printk message, so it is hard to see any deeper trends on what kinds of messages are being logged more or less frequently over each release, for example,  perhaps there are less debug messages landing in the kernel nowadays.I find it quite amazing that the kernel contains quite so many printk messages; it would be useful to see just how many of these are actually in a production kernel. I suspect quite large number are for driver debugging and may be conditionally omitted at build time. [...]



Sebastian Kügler: 33C3: Works for me

Fri, 30 Dec 2016 12:26:52 +0000

Rocket ScienceThe calm days between christmas and new year are best celebrated with your family (of choice), so I went to Hamburg where the 33rd edition of the Chaos Computer Congress opened the door to 12.000 hackers, civil rights activists, makers and people interested in privacy and computer security. The motto of this congress is “works for me” which is meant as a critical nudge towards developers who stop after technology works for them, while it should work for everyone. A demand for a change in attitude. 33C3’s ballroom The congress is a huge gathering of people to share information, hack, talk and party, and the past days have been a blast. This congress strikes an excellent balance between high quality talks, interesting hacks and electronics and a laid back atmosphere, all almost around the clock. (Well, the official track stops around 2 a.m., but continues around half past eleven in the morning.) The schedule is really relaxed, which makes it possibly to party at night, and interrupt dancing for a quick presentation about colonizing intergalactic space — done by domain experts. The conference also has a large unconference part, hacking spaces, and lounge areas, meaning that the setup is somewhere in between a technology conference, a large hack-fest and a techno party. Everything is filled to the brim with electronics and decorated nicely, and after a few days, the outside world simply starts to fade and “congress” becomes the new reality. No Love for the U.S. Gov I’ve attended a bunch of sessions on civil rights and cyber warfare, as well as more technical things. One presentation that touched me in particular was the story of Lauri Love, who is accused of stealing data from agencies including Federal Reserve, Nasa and FBI. This talk was presented by a civil rights activist from the Courage foundation, and two hackers from Anonymous and Lulzsec. While Love is a UK citizen, the US is demanding extradition from the UK so they can prosecute him under US law (which is much stricter than the UK’s). This would create a precedent making it much easier for the US to essentially be able to prosecute citizens anywhere under US law. What kind of technoparty^W congres is this?This, combined with the US jail system poses a serious threat to Love. He wouldn’t be the first person to commit suicide under the pressure put on him by the US government agencies, who really seem to be playing hardball here. (Chelsea Manning, the whistleblower behind the videos of the baghdad airstrikes, in which US airforce killed innocent citizens carelessly, among others) who suffered from mental health issues, was put into solitary confinement, instead of receiving health care. Against that background, the UK would send one of their own citizens into a jail that doesn’t even respect basic human rights. On particularly touching moment was when the brother of Aaron Swartz took the microphone and appealed to the people who asked how they could prevent another Aaron, that helping Lauri (and Chelsea) is the way to help out, and that’s [...]



Ubuntu Podcast from the UK LoCo: S09E44 – L’aura - Ubuntu Podcast

Thu, 29 Dec 2016 15:00:51 +0000

It’s Season Nine Episode Forty-Four of the Ubuntu Podcast! Alan Pope, Mark Johnson, Martin Wimpress and Laura Cowen are connected and speaking to your brain. The same line up as last week are here again for another episode, but this is the last Ubuntu Podcast for Laura ever! :-( In this week’s show: We discuss what we’ve been upto recently: Playing with a Thinkpad 755c and two Raspberry Pi 3 projects. Nextcloud using Ubuntu Core and Raspbbery Pi 3 Retropie with two 8Bitdo NES30 Pro wireless controllers all tucked in a SNES 3D Printed case and CRT scannline sharders to complete the retro look. We discuss our 2016 predictions and create new ones for the coming year. Presenter predictions for 2017 Alan Multiple devices from various tier-1 vendors will ship with Ubuntu Snappy by default. github will significantly downsize their ~600 workforce to a much smaller number, and may also do something controversial to raise funds. Microsoft will provide a Linux build of another significant application, possibly Exchange or SharePoint Donald Trump won’t last a year as president Mark There will be no new Ubuntu phone on sale in 2017 The UK government will lose a court case related to the Investigatory Powers Act This time next year, one of the top 5 distros on Distrowatch will be a distro that isn’t currently in the top 20. Current top 20: Mint, Debian, Ubuntu, openSUSE, elementary, Manjaro, Fedora, Zorin, CentOS, deepin, Arch, Antergos, PCLinuxOS, Mageia, Ubuntu MATE, Solus, LXLE, Lite, ReactOS, Slackware Martin Ubuntu 17.10 will be able to run Mir using the proprietary nvidia drivers and Steam will work reliably via XMir. It will also be possible to run Mir in Virtualbox. A high profile individual (or individuals) will fall victim to one of the many privacy threats introduced as a result of the Investigatory Powers Bill. Intimate details of their online life will be exposed to the world, compiled from one of more databases storing Internet Connection Records. The disclosure will possibly have serious consequences for the individuals concerned, such as losing their job or being professionally discredited. The hype surrounding VR will build during 2017 but Virtual Reality will continue to lack adoption. Sales figures will be well below market projections. Laura Someone, probably RedHat, will buy Docker. People will whinge some more about the term ‘serverless computing’ instead of embracing it as great computing experience because IT’S WHAT CLOUD COMPUTING PRETENDED IT WOULD BE (and there’s a daft term). I will finish my PhD. I will finish my PhD. I will finish my PhD…. Listener predictions for 2017 Jon Spriggs says: Kubuntu moves into the top 5 of distrowatch or is disbanded. An independent review of systemd identifies an NSA backdoor Podcasts who use Telegram as their community conversation system move to using Matrix/Riot SuperEngineer says: I predict there will be Ubuntu podcasts in 2017 but there will be a frightening change in cataloguing them from S09 to S10 Amicable WereZ[...]


Media Files:
http://static.ubuntupodcast.org/ubuntupodcast/s09/e44/ubuntupodcast_s09e44.mp3




Lucas Nussbaum: The Linux 2.5, Ruby 1.9 and Python 3 release management anti-pattern

Mon, 26 Dec 2016 13:32:56 +0000

There’s a pattern that comes up from time to time in the release management of free software projects. To allow for big, disruptive changes, a new development branch is created. Most of the developers’ focus moves to the development branch. However at the same time, the users’ focus stays on the stable branch. As a result: The development branch lacks user testing, and tends to make slower progress towards stabilization.  Since users continue to use the stable branch, it is tempting for developers to spend time backporting new features to the stable branch instead of improving the development branch to get it stable. This situation can grow up to a quasi-deadlock, with people questioning whether it was a good idea to do such a massive fork in the first place, and if it is a good idea to even spend time switching to the new branch. To make things more unclear, the development branch is often declared “stable” by its developers, before most of the libraries or applications have been ported to it. This has happened at least three times. First, in the Linux 2.4 / 2.5 era. Wikipedia describes the situation like this: Before the 2.6 series, there was a stable branch (2.4) where only relatively minor and safe changes were merged, and an unstable branch (2.5), where bigger changes and cleanups were allowed. Both of these branches had been maintained by the same set of people, led by Torvalds. This meant that users would always have a well-tested 2.4 version with the latest security and bug fixes to use, though they would have to wait for the features which went into the 2.5 branch. The downside of this was that the “stable” kernel ended up so far behind that it no longer supported recent hardware and lacked needed features. In the late 2.5 kernel series, some maintainers elected to try backporting of their changes to the stable kernel series, which resulted in bugs being introduced into the 2.4 kernel series. The 2.5 branch was then eventually declared stable and renamed to 2.6. But instead of opening an unstable 2.7 branch, the kernel developers decided to continue putting major changes into the 2.6 branch, which would then be released at a pace faster than 2.4.x but slower than 2.5.x. This had the desirable effect of making new features more quickly available and getting more testing of the new code, which was added in smaller batches and easier to test. Then, in the Ruby community. In 2007, Ruby 1.8.6 was the stable version of Ruby. Ruby 1.9.0 was released on 2007-12-26, without being declared stable, as a snapshot from Ruby’s trunk branch, and most of the development’s attention moved to 1.9.x. On 2009-01-31, Ruby 1.9.1 was the first release of the 1.9 branch to be declared stable. But at the same time, the disruptive changes introduced in Ruby 1.9 made users stay with Ruby 1.8, as many libraries (gems) remained incompatible with Ruby 1.9.x. Debian provided packages for both branches of Ruby in Squeeze (2011) but only changed the default to 1.9 in 2012 (in a s[...]