A Review of Occupational Injury Research In Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):100-104
Authors: Ganesh CS, Krishnan R
A literature review of 16 papers on occupational injury research in Malaysia published during a 13-year period from 2000-2013 was carried out. The objective of this review and article selection was based on relevance to the research theme and mention of areas for future research. Most of the publications have focused on descriptive epidemiology, management practices, worker's knowledge, attitude, training, and rehabilitation services. The transportation, agriculture and construction sectors were found to be the most hazardous sectors and would benefit the most from Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) research and interventions. There is a strong need to develop a national injury surveillance system and also a mechanism to ensure adherence to the Occupational Safety & Health Act(OSHA) 1994. Detailed description and identification of risk factors for occupational injury in the environment, including machinery and equipment used was generally lacking. Future research on occupational injury should focus on surveillance to determine the magnitude of occupational injuries, determination of risk factors, identifying costeffective interventions (such as enforcement of OSHA regulations), and assessment of rehabilitation services. Relevant government agencies, universities, corporate sector and occupational safety organizations need to play a proactive role in identifying priority areas and research capacity building. Funding for occupational injury should be commensurate with the magnitude of the problem.
PMID: 27801392 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Research on Child Abuse in Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):87-99
Authors: Cheah IG, Choo WY
The aim of this review was to summarise published literature on child abuse and neglect and its consequences in Malaysia, to discuss the implications of the research findings and to identify gaps in the local literature on child abuse and neglect. Medical and social literature in the English language published between the year 2000 to 2015 were searched for, resulting in forty four papers to be reviewed inclusive of a few key papers in the earlier years to provide some background information. The literature shows that child abuse and neglect is an important impact factor on mental health outcomes, involvement in substance abuse and delinquency due to the slant of the research interest from social studies. At least 70% of perpetrators are known to the affected children according to school-based prevalence studies. Safety programs and rehabilitation outcome studies involve small cohort groups. Studies on childhood mortality from child abuse or neglect are very limited. Overall, there are a few comprehensive studies involving school children but overall available studies are too patchy in to advocate for resource allocation, change in statutory procedures or training requirements. More extensive studies looking at the complex interaction of social environment, parenting skills, societal attitudes and responses, resilience factors and child safety nets and statutory response and their impact on different types of abuse or neglect are required.
PMID: 27801391 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Acute Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease Research in Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):79-86
Authors: Hung LC, Nadia R
A total of 39 titles related to rheumatic fever or rheumatic heart disease in Malaysia were found with online literature search dating back to their inceptions and through 2014. Additional publications from conference journals were included. Nine papers were selected based on clinical relevance and future research implications. There were no population-based studies on the incidence or prevalence of ARF or RHD. In the 1980s, the incidence of admission due to ARF ranged from 2 to 21.1 per 100 000 paediatric admission per year. The burden of disease was significant in the adult population; 74.5% of patients with RHD were female, of which 77.1% were in the reproductive age group of 15-45 years old. Rheumatic mitral valve disease constituted almost half (46.7%) of all mitral valve repairs, ranging from 44.8 - 55.8 patients per year from 1997 - 2003. From 2010-2012, mitral valve interventions increased to 184 per year, of which 85.7% were mitral valve repair. In children with ARF, 25.4% - 41.7% had past history of rheumatic fever or RHD. In patients with rheumatic mitral valve disease undergoing surgical or medical interventions, only 6% reported history of ARF, none had history of GABHS pharyngitis or antibiotic prophylaxis. Only 44.7% of patients with RHD on follow-up were on intramuscular benzathine penicillin prophylaxis. Overall, there is scarcity of publications on ARF and RHD in Malaysia. Priority areas for research include determination of the incidence and prevalence of ARF and RHD, identification of high-risk populations, evaluation on the implementation and adherence of secondary preventive measures, identification of subclinical RHD especially amongst the high-risk population, and a surveillance system to monitor and evaluate preventive measures, disease progression and outcomes.
PMID: 27801390 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Lung Cancer Research in Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):70-78
Authors: Kan CS, Chan KM
Lung cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on lung cancer in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 89 papers were identified, of which 64 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance to the review. The epidemiology, risk factors, cell types, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, prevention, and the social impact of lung cancer in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.
PMID: 27801389 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Stroke Research in Malaysia from 2000 - 2014.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):58-69
Authors: Cheah WK, Hor CP, Zariah AA, Looi I
Over 100 articles related to stroke were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all literature with original data involving the Malaysian population between years 2000 and 2014. Stroke is emerging as a major public health problem. The development of the National Stroke Registry in the year 2009 aims to coordinate and improve stroke care, as well as to generate more data on various aspects of stroke in the country. Studies on predictors of survival after strokes have shown potential to improve the overall management of stroke, both during acute event and long term care. Stroke units were shown to be effective locally in stroke outcomes and prevention of stroke-related complications. The limited data looking at direct cost of stroke management suggests that the health economic burden in stroke management may be even higher. Innovative rehabilitation programmes including braincomputer interface technology were studied with encouraging results. Studies in traditional complementary medicine for strokes such as acupuncture, Urut Melayu and herbal medicine were still limited.
PMID: 27801388 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Coronary Artery Disease Research in Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):42-57
Authors: Ang CS, Chan KM
Coronary artery disease is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in Malaysia and worldwide. This paper reviews all research and publications on coronary artery disease in Malaysia published between 2000-2015. 508 papers were identified of which 146 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance. The epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, prevention, assessment, treatment, and outcomes of coronary artery disease in the country are reviewed and summarized. The clinical relevance of the studies done in the country are discussed along with recommendations for future research.
PMID: 27801387 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Smoking Research In Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):29-41
Authors: Wee LH, Chan CM, Yogarabindranath SN
Two hundred and seventy one original published materials related to tobacco use were found in a search through a database dedicated to indexing all original data relevant to Medicine and Health in Malaysia from 1996 - 2015. A total of 147 papers were selected and reviewed on the basis of their relevance and implications for future research. Findings were summarised, categorised and presented according to epidemiology, behaviour, clinical features and management of smoking. Most studies are cross-sectional with small sample sizes. Studies on smoking initiation and prevalence showed mixed findings with many small scale studies within the sub-groups. The majority of the studies were related to factors that contribute to initiation in adolescents. Nonetheless, there are limited studies on intervention strategies to curb smoking among this group. There is a lack of clinical studies to analyse tobacco use and major health problems in Malaysia. In addition, studies on the best treatment modalities on the use of pharmacotherapy and behavioural counselling have also remained unexplored. Reasons why smokers do not seek clinic help to quit smoking need further exploration. A finding on the extent of effort carried out by healthcare providers in assisting smokers to make quit attempts is not known. Studies on economic and government initiatives on policies and tobacco use focus mainly on the effects of cigarette bans, increased cigarettes taxes and the influence of the tobacco industry. Recommendations are given for the government to increase efforts in implementing smoke-free legislation, early and tailored interventions. Clinical studies in this area are lacking, as are opportunities to research on ways to reduce smoking initiation age and the most effective quit smoking strategies.
PMID: 27801386 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Metabolic Syndrome Research in Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):20-28
Authors: Lim KG, Cheah WK
Seventy-three articles related to metabolic syndrome were found in a search through databases dedicated to indexing all literature with original data involving the Malaysian population between years 2000 and 2015. Metabolic syndrome affects 25 to 40% of adult population of Malaysia with the risk increasing with age. Obese children are also at risk. Indian ethnicity has the highest rates, followed by Malay and chinese. It was found that socioeconomics determinants such as living in urban areas, unemployment, lower income, lower education level and shift workers had higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is associated with other medical conditions like cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders, erectile dysfunction, polycystic ovarian syndrome and colorectal cancer. Several biomarkers have been determined to be relevant to our local population but their usage in clinical setting needs further research. Literature into effectiveness of management of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia is lacking and the results were only modest. there are several diagnostic criteria available for metabolic syndrome internationally and their individual significant to our local population is not clear. It also makes it difficult to compare results between studies using different criteria. Finally, we could not identify any local study to look at the health economic burden of metabolic syndrome locally.
PMID: 27801385 [PubMed - in process]
A Review of Adult Obesity Research in Malaysia.
Med J Malaysia. 2016 Jun;71(Suppl 1):1-19
Authors: Lim KG
A literature search of articles as detailed in the paper Bibliography of clinical research in Malaysia: methods and brief results, using the MESH terms Obesity; Obesity, Abdominal; and Overweight; covering the years 2000 till 2015 was undertaken and 265 articles were identified. Serial population studies showed that the prevalence of obesity increased rapidly in Malaysia in the last decade of the twentieth century. This follows the rising availability of food per capita which had been begun two to three decades previously. Almost every birth cohort, even up to those in their seventh decade increased in prevalence of overweight and obesity between 1996 and 2006. However, the rise in prevalence in obesity appears to have plateaued after the first decade of the twentieth century. Women are more obese than men and Malays and Indians are more obese than Chinese. The Orang Asli (Aborigines) are the least obese ethnic group in Malaysia but that may change with socioeconomic development. Neither living in rural areas nor having low income protects against obesity. On the contrary, a tertiary education and an income over RM4,000/month is associated with less obesity. Malaysians are generally not physically active enough, in the modes of transportation they use and how they use their leisure time. Other criteria and measures of obesity have been investigated, such as the relevance of abdominal obesity, and the Asian criteria or Body Mass Index (BMI) cut-offs value of 23.0 kg/m(2) for overweight and 27.0 kg/m(2) for obesity, with the view that the risk of diabetes and other chronic diseases start to increase at lower values in Asians compared to Europeans. Nevertheless the standard World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for obesity are still most widely used and hence is the best common reference. Guidelines for the management of obesity have been published and projects to combat obesity are being run. However, more effort needs to be invested. Studies on intervention programmes showed that weight loss is not easy to achieve nor maintain. Laboratory research worldwide has uncovered several genetic and biochemical markers associated with obesity. Similar studies in Malaysia have found some biomarkers with an association to obesity in the local population but none of great significance.
PMID: 27801384 [PubMed - in process]