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What Can We Learn about Energy Access and Demand from Mobile-Phone Surveys? Nine Findings from Twelve African Countries

Tue, 20 Feb 2018 10:00:00 +0000


We conducted phone-based surveys on energy access and demand in twelve African countries. From these findings, we draw several potential policy implications. First, both grid electricity and off-grid solutions currently are inadequate to meet many African consumers’ modern energy demands. Second, grid and off-grid electricity are viewed by consumers as complementary, rather than competing, solutions to meet energy demand. Third, a market exists for off-grid solutions even among connected, urban Africans.

Fixing AML: Can New Technology Help Address the De-risking Dilemma?

Mon, 19 Feb 2018 05:01:00 +0000


Even while policy solutions to address de-risking are being implemented, new technologies have emerged to address de-risking by increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of AML/CFT compliance by financial institutions.

Can Regular Migration Channels Reduce Irregular Migration? Lessons for Europe from the United States

Wed, 14 Feb 2018 18:35:14 +0000


Lawful migration channels are often suggested as a tool to reduce unlawful migration, but often without much evidence that they work. There is evidence that lawful channels for migration between Mexico and the United States have suppressed unlawful migration, but only when combined with robust enforcement efforts.

Can Development Assistance Deter Emigration?

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 12:31:00 +0000


As waves of migrants have crossed the Mediterranean and the US Southwest border, development agencies have received a de facto mandate: to deter migration from poor countries. Will it work? Here we review the evidence on whether foreign aid has been directed toward these “root causes” in the past, whether it has deterred migration from poor countries, and whether it can do so.

Deterring Emigration with Foreign Aid: An Overview of Evidence from Low-Income Countries

Mon, 12 Feb 2018 12:30:00 +0000


In response to the recent migrant and refugee crisis, rich countries have redoubled policy efforts to deter future immigration from poor countries by addressing the “root causes” of migration. We review existing evidence on the extent and effectiveness of such efforts.

Tax and Development: New Frontiers of Research and Action

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 19:37:09 +0000


This paper looks at estimates of the potential gains from taxing across borders, alongside largely domestic measures such as property tax, personal income tax, VAT, and tobacco taxes. It finds that while action on cross-border taxation could yield additional tax take in the region of one percent of GDP, in many countries measures targeting the domestic tax base might deliver something in the region of nine percent. The main enabler is political commitment.

Tax and Development: New Frontiers of Research and Action (Brief)

Thu, 08 Feb 2018 19:37:01 +0000


Domestic measures have greater potential for raising tax yields over time. Rough estimates indicate that there may be $9 of additional tax capacity from domestic policy measures for every $1 from international action. The main enabler is political commitment.

Why Bangladesh Needs a Refugee Compact and Three Big Ideas to Make it Happen

Wed, 07 Feb 2018 21:02:37 +0000


While it is far too soon to discuss returns, it is the right time to plan for the longer-term wellbeing of refugees and their host communities in Bangladesh.

FDI and Supply Chains in Horticulture (Vegetables, Fruits, and Flowers, Raw, Packaged, Cut, and Processed): Diversifying Exports and Reducing Poverty in Africa, Latin America, and Other Developing Economies - Working Paper 475

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 22:34:07 +0000


Prior research on foreign investment and supply chains in emerging markets has focused almost exclusively on the creation of international networks in manufacturing and assembly. This paper extends that research, looking beyond manufacturing into supply chain creation in horticulture in developing countries.

Healthcare Systems as Intelligent Payers: What Can the Global Health Community Learn from the English National Health Service?

Mon, 05 Feb 2018 16:19:35 +0000


Today, politicians are under growing pressure to squeeze more out of every dollar and guarantee greater access to better, more affordable healthcare for their citizens. In such a resource-constrained environment, wasting trillions of dollars on health every year is not viable. This note provides an overview of some of the approaches and policy options that the National Health Service in England has been using to maximise value for money.