13 Jan 2017 12:14:09 GMT
06 Jan 2017 03:05:49 GMT
Illicit financial flows (IFFs) are garnered through the proceeds of illicit trade, trade mispricing, transfer pricing and other forms of organised profit-motivated crime. This paper focuses on the commercial tax evasion component of illicit financial flows (IFFs), clarifying concepts often used interchangeably, namely transfer pricing, abusive transfer pricing, trade mispricing (or trade mis-invoicing), trade-based money laundering (TBML), tax evasion and tax avoidance. It also shows how they link to IFFs. It estimates the extent of trade mispricing by enhancing the model currently used by Global Financial Integrity, and by developing a TBML model as a means of quantifying IFFs between two developing countries. There are data challenges with this methodology, as it is an estimation of illegal or hidden activities, using the International Monetary Funds Direction of Trade methodology.
The research points to declining trade mispricing in South Africa and Zambia for the period 2013-2015, and Nigeria for the period 2013-2014. Morocco and Egypt exhibit increasing trade mispricing from 2013 to 2014. The TBML model, which addresses the criticism regarding flows between two developing countries, points to increasing financial outflows for all five countries. These flows mean less revenue is available to the fiscus to invest in socio-economic infrastructure and pro-poor growth strategies, which would benefit women and the poor. Policy recommendations address commercial tax evasion as well as proposals to remedy the data anomalies.
15 Dec 2016 04:35:24 GMT
09 Dec 2016 11:04:55 GMT
Established in 2011, BLA was a 4-year project funded by the Feed the Future (FTF) initiative and implemented by Community Markets for Conservation Ltd. (COMACO) in the Luangwa valley in the Eastern Province of Zambia (Figure 1). BLA aimed to achieve poverty reduction, sustainable land management, and improved conservation by linking smallholder farmers to market incentives. This area encompasses communal lands for 63 chiefdoms that surround five national parks and protected forests. BLA focused on improvements to agricultural value chains and market links. BLA provided direct training and capacity building for small-scale farmers to adopt conservation practices. BLA also introduced natural resource management plans that targeted conservation of wildlife habitats to prevent conversion to agriculture.
06 Sep 2016 01:55:31 GMT
As a Least Developed Country, Zambia produced a National Adaptation Plan of Action (NAPA) in 2007. The NAPA documents national circumstances, vulnerabilities, and expected impacts from climate change in Zambia, as well as identifying and prioritising responsive actions. The NAPA also outlines the consultation, resources and information that were used to prioritise adaptation interventions. The primary concern for the Government of Zambia is to “protect its people, infrastructure, and other national assets against disasters a nd climatic hazards such as drought and floods”. This document provides an overview of climate change issues and adaptation strategies in Zambia.
24 Aug 2016 12:48:28 GMT
The Safety and Security Project within Hivos’s (Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries) LGBTI Programme aims to ensure that LGBTI persons are able to live and work within safe communities without the fear of persecution, physical or property harm or intimidation, and with the full enjoyment of their human rights. Hivos has for several years been supporting the work of LGBTI organisations and more recently has responded on an ad hoc basis to security issues faced by organisations and individuals. Given the nature, extent and on-going occurrence of safety and security threats to LGBTI individuals and organisations, Hivos saw the need to review its strategy in regard to LGBTI hate crimes in the region in order to develop a more coherent and sustainable strategy.
This review sets out to assess and address the follwing issues in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe:
15 Aug 2016 04:08:17 GMT
Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead.
This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, the authors used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks. They estimated the costs of providing safe abortion and PAC services at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka and then projected these costs to generate indicative cost estimates for Zambia. Due to unavailability of data on the actual number of safe abortions and PAC cases in Zambia, the authors used estimates from previous studies and from other similar countries, and checked the robustness of our estimates with sensitivity analyses.
The study found that PAC following an unsafe abortion can cost 2.5 times more than safe abortion care. The Zambian health system could save as much as US$0.4 million annually if those women currently treated for an unsafe abortion instead had a safe abortion.
15 Aug 2016 03:45:29 GMT
Unsafe abortion is a significant, but preventable cause of maternal mortality in Zambia. The authors compared the trajectories of women seeking safe abortion with those receiving care following unsafe abortion. They interviewed women accessing care in a large government hospital about their experiences. The study captured a third termination trajectory in which women received medical abortion outside the study hospital from qualified (legal) and unqualified providers. The advice of others, perceptions of risk, economic cost and delays in care seeking and receipt all influenced which trajectory a woman followed, as well as the complexity and timing of her trajectory.
08 Aug 2016 12:03:23 GMT
An e-voucher uses a mobile delivery and tracking system to distribute subsidized agricultural inputs through agro-dealers/input suppliers to targeted farmers. Each beneficiary farmer’s e-card is linked to their specific name and National Registration Card (NRC) number. On confirmation of the transaction, an e-voucher allows instant electronic payment to agro-dealers/input suppliers’ online accounts for the inputs redeemed by the farmer.
This Brief looks at the example of Zambia which is in the process of reforming the Farmer Input Support Programme (FISP) to implement the subsidy program through a flexible electronic voucher.
Despite these successes, the e-voucher pilot was faced with challenges that threatened the successful implementation of the program. These included the following:
21 Jul 2016 12:10:27 GMT
For the past 10 years or so, Zambia has been experimenting with a universal old age pension in the district of Katete, in the east of the country. It has provided a regular pension to 4,500 older people aged over 60 years, 63% of whom were women. The recipients of the pension belong to the Chewa tribe. In 2010, the author undertook a study of the pension and, at the time, it provided people with a regular transfer of 120,0001 Kwacha (around US$23.50) per month. The pension was funded by the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (DFID) and managed by the Ministry of Community Development and Social Welfare.
The Katete pension has had a transformative impact on the lives of older people, as well as on their wider communities. It has also helped address discrepancies between the ideal and reality with regard to how older people view themselves and how they are viewed by society. It enables older people to delay the inevitable decline into dependency on others and enables them to retain their humanity – as expressed in Chewa ideals – for as long as they can. By maintaining active mutual sharing and caring relations, they keep kinship and love alive. The pension has particularly positive benefits for those that have been marginalised in old age to re-incorporate themselves within intimate communities, which offer them care, respect and support, which they, because of their possession of cash, can reciprocate.Moving towards a much simpler universal pension, as in Katete, would make a lot of sense. The vast majority of older people in Zambia live in poverty and attempting to exclude the richest appears to add little – if any – value, in particular when they cannot be accurately identified. Furthermore, it would be preferable to provide the benefit as an individual entitlement so that households with more than one older person can receive multiple benefits. If not, households may be encouraged to split while particularly vulnerable households – with more than one older person (or person with a severe disability) – could receive a higher income, which they surely need.
24 Jun 2016 11:08:36 GMT
Communication for Change (C-Change) set out to develop support tools that would foster interactive communication among low-literacy adults and prompt engagement on HIV prevention issues, including encouraging individual and group-oriented problem solving. The Community Conversation Toolkit (CCT) was developed using participatory approaches with lower literacy audiences and was extensively pre-tested in southern and eastern Africa. The CCT is a social and behavior change communication (SBCC) resource that comprises a set of interactive communication components including role play cards, throw cubes, playing cards, dialogue buttons, finger puppets, and guides for facilitation and community mobilization. The CCT has been adapted for use in seven countries and is available in ten languages.
This evaluation report looked at whether this toolkit elicited changes in behaviour and practices by participants around HIV prevention, and whether the processes of reflection and problem solving led to community-level action for HIV-prevention-related change.
The evaluation study found that "participants were able to recognise their own risks and felt empowered to change their behaviour, for example, insisting on using a condom or increasing dialogue with their partners and within their families and communities. The group dialogues encouraged critical reflection about contextual risks, enabling both community members and leaders to analyse risk factors in their communities."
24 Jun 2016 10:39:49 GMT
09 Jun 2016 11:48:12 GMT
This report provides the 24-month follow-up results for the Multiple Category Targeting Grant (MCTG) impact evaluation. In 2011, the government of the Republic of Zambia—through the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health (MCDMCH)—began implementing the MCTG in two districts: Luwingu and Serenje. American Institutes for Research (AIR) was contracted by UNICEF Zambia to design and implement a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for a three-year impact evaluation of the program, and to conduct the necessary data collection, analysis, and reporting. This report presents findings from the 24-month follow-up study, including impacts on expenditures, poverty, food security, resilience, children, adolescents, and women’s empowerment.
Overall, the MCTG has had an impact across an impressive range of indicators covering consumption and food security as well as livelihoods and schooling. In other words, the MCTG has achieved the twin objectives of mitigating food insecurity and consumption deficits in the present, and laying the base for breaking the inter-generational transmission of poverty by strengthening livelihoods and increasing human capital investment.
09 Jun 2016 11:35:17 GMT
In 2011, the government of the Republic of Zambia—through the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health (MCDMCH)—began implementing the MCTG in two districts: Luwingu and Serenje. American Institutes for Research (AIR) was contracted by UNICEF Zambia to design and implement a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for a three-year impact evaluation of the program, and to conduct the necessary data collection, analysis, and reporting.
This report presents findings from the 36-month follow-up study, including impacts on expenditures, poverty, food security, resilience, children, adolescents, and women’s empowerment.
The overall impacts at 36 months are similar in pattern and magnitude to those found in earlier rounds. Moreover, the overall impacts of the program sum to a value that is greater than the transfer size. The program was originally designed with the transfer size equal to roughly one additional meal a day for the average family for 1 month. However, this report finds that in addition to eating more meals and being more food secure, families are also improving their housing conditions, buying more livestock, buying necessities for children, reducing their debt, and investing in productive activities. Monetizing and aggregating these consumption and nonconsumption spending impacts of the MCTG gives an estimated multiplier of 1.68. In other words, each Kwacha transferred is now providing an additional 0.68, or almost 70 percent more, in terms of net benefit to the household. These multiplier effects are derived in part through increased productive activity, including diversification of income sources into off-farm wage labour, investment in livestock, and nonfarm enterprise, with the latter being managed primarily by women. The 1.68 multiplier estimate is based on program impacts and accounts for changes in the control group, thus can be entirely attributed to the MCTG.
The results from the collection of evaluation reports over the 3-year period of 2011–2014 demonstrate unequivocally that common perceptions about cash transfers—that they are a hand-out and cause dependency, or lead to alcohol and tobacco consumption,—are not true in Zambia.
09 Jun 2016 11:15:27 GMT
In 2010, the government of the Republic of Zambia, through the Ministry of Community Development, Mother and Child Health (MCD MCH), began implementing the Child Grant cash transfer program (CGP) in three districts: Kaputa, Kalabo, and Shangombo. The American Institutes for Research (AIR) was contracted by UNICEF Zambia in 2010 to design and implement a randomized controlled trial (RCT) for a 4-year impact evaluation of the program and to conduct the necessary data collection, analysis, and reporting.
This report presents findings from the 48-month follow-up study, updating results from the 24-month and 36-month impact reports, including impacts on expenditures, poverty, food security, living conditions, children, women, and productivity.
The overall results from the collection of evaluation reports over the 4-year period of 2010–2014 demonstrate unequivocally that common perceptions a bout cash transfers—that they are a hand-out and cause dependency, or lead to alcohol and tobacco consumption, or induce fertility—are not true in Zambia. The 1.49 multiplier effect, which is driven by productive activity, speaks directly to the response by poor, rural households in Zambia to use and manage the cash productively to improve their overall standard of living. Labour supply to off-farm work has
increased among CGP households, as has work in family enterprise. At no point during the 4-year evaluation have there been any positive impact s on alcohol and tobacco consumption, nor has there been any impact on fertility during the lengthy evaluation period. In short, this unconditional cash transfer has proven to be an effective approach to alleviating extreme poverty and empowering households to improve their standard
of living in a way that is most appropriate for them, based on their own choices.
09 Jun 2016 02:35:21 GMT
The empowerment of women, broadly defined, is an often-cited objective and benefit of social cash transfer programmes in developing countries. Despite the promise and potential of cash transfers to empower women, the evidence supporting this outcome is mixed. In addition, there is little evidence from programmes that have gone to scale in sub-Saharan Africa.
This paper reports findings from a mixed-methods evaluation of the Government of Zambia’s Child Grant Programme, a poverty-targeted, unconditional transfer given to mothers or primary caregivers of young children aged 0 to 5. The quantitative component was a four-year longitudinal clustered randomized control trial in three rural districts, and the qualitative component was a one-time data collection involving in-depth interviews with women and their partners, stratified on marital status and programme participation.
The study found that women in beneficiary households were making more sole and joint decisions (across five domains); however, impacts translated into relatively modest increases of an additional 0.34
of a decision made across nine domains on average. Qualitatively, it was found that changes in intrahousehold relationships were limited by entrenched gender norms, which indicate men as heads of household
and primary decision-makers. However, women’s narratives showed the transfer did increase overall household well-being because they felt increased financial empowerment and were able to retain control over transfers for household investment and savings for emergencies.
The paper highlights methodological challenges in using intrahousehold decision-making as the primaryindicator to measure empowerment. Despite this, the results show potential for national, poverty-targeted, unconditional, government-run programmes in Africa, to improve the well-being of female beneficiaries.
12 May 2016 12:38:03 GMT
05 May 2016 01:56:22 GMT
Policymakers and advocates agree that using evidence to inform decisions is essential for good policymaking and program design, given that limited resources require decisionmakers to allocate budgets effectively. Recognizing these issues, funders have invested resources in communicating research findings to inform and empower decisionmakers. But despite these investments, many researchers continue to encounter challenges in sharing their research findings with policymakers.
This brief highlights the experiences of four research teams who communicated findings from studies supported under the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation's Population and Poverty Research Initiative (PopPov). Each research endeavor was unique in its strategic approach, subject matter, policy environment, and outcome. In addition, different PopPov partners funded the grants for each research study. The United Kingdom's Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) funded a study of emergency obstetric care in Burkina Faso; and a study of unintended fertility in Karonga, Malawi. The Population Reference Bureau (PRB) awarded research grants for a study of teenage pregnancy and education outcomes in Cape Town, South Africa; and a study of household family planning decisionmaking in Lusaka, Zambia. ESRC required that research teams develop and implement a communication plan, and report on its results, while PRB made no specific research dissemination requirement.
18 Mar 2016 10:08:46 GMT
Social cash transfer programmes in developing countries are often claimed to benefit the empowerment of women, despite a lack of clear evidence supporting this outcome. This report seeks to examine the validity of the claim through a mixed-methods evaluation of the Government of Zambia’s Child Grant Programme; a poverty-targeted, unconditional transfer given to mothers or primary caregivers of young children aged 0 to 5.
The quantitative component found some improvements for instance in the increase of women’s decision-making power within the household. However, the qualitative component also found that such changes were limited by traditional gender norms.
The results of the study are discussed and the paper argues that there is potential for national, poverty-targeted, unconditional, government-run programmes in Africa, to improve the well-being of female beneficiaries. Finally, the paper highlights methodological challenges in using intra-household decision-making as the primary indicator to measure empowerment.
Adapted from authors’ summary.
11 Mar 2016 07:29:37 GMT
The need to enhance environmental sustainability, sustainable development and growth that takes into account the well-being of the people and nature because of the increased production and consumption of goods and services is the major driver to the introduction of green economy in Zambia and countries in southern Africa.
This article examines the extent to which local government in Zambia has embraced green growth and green economy and critically analyses the concept of green economy and green growth. This study is based on a review of planning and policy documents, a household questionnaire survey and interviews with various institutions, planners and rural development organisations. A number of policies implemented at the local government level were analysed and reflected upon irrespective of whether they contain the components of green growth and green economy and the extent to which they contribute to attaining green economy. The article argues that the need for economic diversification is important as far as green economy is concerned.
The article recommends the need to invest in research and development in order to find more carbon-free economic activities. The conclusion is that local government is key to achieving green growth and green economy, because it is involved at all levels, from policy formulation to implementation.
11 Feb 2016 02:59:06 GMT
The UN’s Creative Economy Report 2010 notes the increasing acceptance of the role of the creative economy as a leading sector in generating economic growth, employment and trade, and that creative industries are among the most dynamic sectors of the world economy–offering new, high growth opportunities for developing countries. Yet we hardly hear discussions of art, culture and creativity in terms of economic development in Zambia.
Presently, there is a dearth of information in relation to the contribution creative industries are actually making to our economy overall. This is partly because the creative sector is largely informal, often dynamic and fluid in nature and there is very little statistical information available.
Using exploratory data mining techniques, this study is an attempt to glean data from official data sources to examine the economic importance of the creative industries in Zambia. This is in order to help both policymakers and industry professionals to communicate key concepts, share reliable data and make the case for greater investment in the sector.
11 Feb 2016 02:46:56 GMT
With some of the worst poverty statistics in Africa, Zambia appears to have little to show for a century of mining. But given good policies, the country’s considerable mineral wealth clearly represents a real opportunity to grow the economy and tackle poverty. Following the recovery of the mining industry since privatisation, and with booming world copper prices, there has been considerable public debate over how to ensure that an appropriate share of mineral resource revenues accrues to the government.
Debate is healthy and should lead to better policy, but only if it is well informed. While technical terms such as “windfall tax” are frequently used by participants in the debate, there is no common understanding of the term.
11 Feb 2016 02:31:00 GMT
This paper deals with the dynamics of Zambia’s export performance, analyzing the birth, death and persistence of exporting in various products and destinations. The authors use a framework that has recently proliferated in international trade to decompose the growth of Zambia’s exports into an “intensive” and “extensive” margin. Results show that the extensive margin is the dominant driver of export growth in Zambia. The paper attributes the poor performance of the intensive margin to the low survival among exporters that hardly lasts for more than a year.
Findings imply that interventions to support new-exporting should be encouraged. But it also raises key questions on the sustainability of export growth in the long-run. Therefore, the authors propose that interventions should target improving the duration of survival among exporters and deepen their intensity of exporting once they are able to survive longer. In conclusion, there is urgent need to carefully understand the factors that are responsible for the high mortality among exporters within the first year of birth.
08 Feb 2016 04:47:24 GMT
Zambia reproductive health commodity security (RHCS) is evidently poor with a series of problems in ensuring safe supply from forecasting, procurement, financing distribution and the capacity of health professionals to administer drugs or deliver appropriate services.
This report aims to provide evidence for specific proposals for action at country and/or international level, and for dialogue with bilateral and multilateral donors on the resolution of reproductive health commodity supply crises in Zambia, within the reproductive health supplies coalition.
05 Feb 2016 10:50:53 GMT
Zambia is one of many developing countries struggling to create adequate employment opportunities for its people, especially in the formal economy. Unemployment is highest among youths (15–24 years old) and particularly affects those without skills. Unless the challenge of youth unemployment is met, Zambia could face rising poverty levels in the future. Based on a survey of firms in the mining and quarrying, manufacturing, and construction industries, this study analyses constraints on the demand for youth labour and identifies five broad policy areas in which the government could help make it easier for firms to absorb more young people.
05 Feb 2016 03:50:51 GMT
Zambia is participating actively in regional integration programmes, but little is know about the impacts of tariff reforms associated with such initiatives. This paper assesses the potential effects for Zambia of the trade reforms implied in both the COMESA Customs Union and the Tripartite Free Trade Area, specifically by comparing data for 2010 with
simulations reflecting what would have happened if Zambia had implemented the required reforms in that year.
The results show small increases in imports and decreases in trade tax
revenues, with the largest changes being associated with the Tripartite FTA because of the underlying importance of South Africa as Zambia’s main trade partner. The total revenue losses would actually be less than
the revenue lost from duty exemptions in 2010. Tariff reforms ultimately have limited impact, however: the overall expansion of trade associated with regional integration programmes will be small unless non-trade barriers are removed.
policymakers must define a country policy position and a set of strategies to be negotiated as part of regional trade policy
policy‐makers should engage the COMESA Secretariat with a view to establishing if Zambia can benefit from partial or full revenue loss compensation to mitigate any adverse effects of reform
further work should be undertaken to quantify the costs of non‐trade barriers (NTBs) for Zambia
27 Jan 2016 04:45:12 GMT
The dramatic potential impacts of climate change on hydropower potential in the Zambezi River Basin point to the need to explicitly consider climate change in both project planning and overall system expansion planning.
This is even truer for future plants, where financial viability and loan repayments will depend on the stability of generation and sales revenue. A key next step in this analysis should be to look at not just how climate and development affect individual plants, but how they affect entire national and regional energy systems.
This analysis should also use the most recent climate scenario data available, as this field is evolving rapidly. Although there is increasing cooperation in the basin, major decisions on investment and operation are not necessarily coordinated as effectively as possible, and this will be more complex with four or five major new plant in the basin in the coming 10-15 years.
Linking the water modelling to an energy system model for the region would allow for more explicit modelling of the energy, water and economic trade-offs, and a deeper understanding of the real costs of a changing climate.
27 Jan 2016 02:53:22 GMT
This policy brief is among the output from a research initiative designed to address the major uncertainties facing hydropower development in the Zambezi region, and to deepen understanding among stakeholders of the risks to hydropower from changes in climate and increased upstream water demand.
For 18 months, researchers developed and applied a water supply and demand modelling tool for the Zambezi River Basin.
The model was applied to two future climate scenarios, reflecting possible “wetting” or “drying” climates, and two scenarios for irrigation expansion in the region.
The results of the analysis according to the researchers, point to dramatic potential negative impacts on major existing and planned hydropower investments.
This policy brief is suipplemented by the full research report, also available to access here on Eldis.
07 Jan 2016 11:57:28 GMT
The Child Grant Programme is one of the Government of Zambia’s largest social protection programmes. The programme provides a monthly cash payment of 60 kwacha (US$12) to very poor households with children under five years old.
A randomised controlled trial of 2,515 households was implemented to investigate the impact of the programme. The researchers found that cash transfers improve household consumption, food consumption, diet diversity and food security. These outcomes lie along the causal pathway linking the cash transfer to children’s nutrition. For children under five, there were positive but not statistically significant impacts of the programme on weight. There were also strong and significant heterogeneous impacts on reducing stunting among children who have access to clean water or more educated mothers. The results demonstrate that nutrition can be improved through an integrated and holistic strategy instead of only pursuing targeted programmes in one sector such as health or agriculture.
16 Dec 2015 11:56:53 GMT
Zambia faces severe sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV-related health challenges with variable access to healthcare.
The Zambia country factsheet provides a summarised overview on the sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) challenges within the country. The overview includes country context; health statistics; challenges in SRHR, with specific focus on young people, abortion, and gender-based violence; and instruments of response.
11 Dec 2015 11:51:26 GMT
DFID commissioned a scoping study to assess the Extractive Industry (EI) sector’s environmental and climate change impacts, status and prospects of GHG emissions, and how both impacts and GHG emissions could be mitigated in the sector. The analysis included a review of national and global policy, legal and institutional landscape that could inform a voluntary compliance mechanism that the EI sector could adopt. The study was conducted in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique.
The effects of climate change have become significant challenges to sustainable development in developing countries. In Southern Africa where this study focused, the impacts are likely to be substantial due to the reliance on climate-sensitive resources such as rain-fed agriculture for economic growth, trade and food security. East and Southern Africa are expected to experience compounded effects of climate change because of their high poverty levels, weak infrastructure, poor management of natural resources and dependence on agriculture.
Emerging pillars for a DFID climate change and environmental Programme in Southern Africa:
16 Oct 2015 03:17:00 GMT
HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited.
This study examines stigma and discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Stigma, as reported here, can result in: bullying, victimisation, and poorer mental health outcomes among HIV-affected and infected children; disclosure-of-status decisions and school attendance; and possible delays in treatment and care for children living with HIV due to caregivers' hesitation to disclose a child's status. Intervention designs that reduce stigma at an early age, minimise negative impacts on child health, and reduce discrimination that distances and excludes children may, as researchers indicate, improve health outcomes for children living with HIV.
The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would “avoid or shun” an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination.
The study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions should focus on correcting misconceptions that HIV can be transmitted via casual contact.
14 Oct 2015 06:32:06 GMT
The global arena for foreign direct investment (FDI) has become much more fluid and complex in the five years from 2010 to 2015. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) as a region has shown exceptional growth but relatively lacklustre FDI inflows.
Although the International Monetary Fund (IMF) predicts sustained high short-term growth in all of sub-Saharan Africa, the dependence of SADC countries on resource-orientated exports has exposed them to the biggest slump in commodity prices in the period from 2010 to 2015. Furthermore, the decline in resource prices is estimated to be a long-term structural shift.
Therefore, SADC policymakers should to take a new look at current investment policies and attitudes. In particular, a clear policy shift will be needed to diversify investment portfolios and grow domestic markets.
09 Oct 2015 09:44:11 GMT
Studies of major hydropower projects such as that at the Grand Inga Dam in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) stress generation capacity and call for regional integration. Concentrating on the Inga site’s existing and future dams, this paper identifies several challenges to an emerging energy dialogue between Inga’s regional stakeholders.
The paper points that the infrastructure for energy generation, transmission and distribution in DRC is in poor condition. In this respect, the existing dams and power stations of the Inga scheme (Inga 1 and 2) taken with the envisaged Inga 3 would reach a combined output of only about 10 000MWe.
Nevertheless, the the Inga project could be of significant regional benefit. Indeed, Grand Inga could serve as a hinge for all African power pools, and regional market mechanisms provide a growing market for Inga’s production beyond the DRC’s borders.
Yet, Inga 3 completion would require a level of investment beyond the structural capacity of South Africa and the DRC, to include continental and international investors. Consequently, there is an immediate need to address the financial, technical and political issues that stand in the way of further progress on the project.
In particular, the project has to be balanced against investments in other infrastructure projects across the continent. Furthermore, hydropower infrastructure packages should be more comprehensive and include network extensions and grid connections.
02 Oct 2015 10:07:05 GMT
As Blue Economy initiatives increase there is a risk that efforts will be duplicated and inefficiencies will creep into co-operation efforts. This paper argues that the AU’s “2050 Africa’s Integrated Maritime Strategy” and the Indian Ocean Rim Association’s (IORA) Blue Economy initiative could support each other and strengthen both environmental governance and the growth of maritime industries.
The paper clarifies that IORA has a number of African members, but also includes members as distant as Australia and Indonesia. On the other hand, it indicates that South Africa has received funding from the IORA Special Fund to co-ordinate the development of the IORA Blue Economy Core Group; a framework for academic co-operation and research exchanges in the areas of blue growth.
However, the document underlines that steps should be taken to facilitate more exchanges between the 2050 AIM Strategy Task Force and IORA. In addition, institutional capacity should be bolstered.
Consequently, the author concludes that:
02 Oct 2015 09:07:06 GMT
Over the past decade, African economies have enjoyed a sustained period of growth, and this has made the continent an attractive destination for international investors. This paper reviews the contours of Chinese investment and aid programmes on the African continent, focusing on the issues of capacity building and social responsibility of investments.
The paper clarifies that the Chinese have made foreign direct investments in Africa-based industries from oil and mining to shoe manufacturing and food processing. Furthermore, Chinese firms have made major investments in African infrastructure, targeting key sectors such as telecommunications, transport, construction, power plants, waste disposal and port equipment.
The document notices that China’s need for natural resources and agricultural products complements Africa’s needs in the areas of infrastructure and human development. However, it is important for African countries to establish a regulatory framework that allows for the responsible utilisation of the continent’s resources.
Equally important, the author recommends that:
10 Sep 2015 04:01:26 GMT
The purpose of this study is to discuss different ways of implementing the "Food Security in a Climate Perspective strategy 2013-15" in relation to support to private sector development and public-private partnership (PPP) as regards agriculture, climate change and food security in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia. We assess eleven different cases of private sector development and their relevance to smallholder investments in agriculture. An important basis for this study is the voluntary Principles for Responsible Agricultural Investments (RAI) developed by the Committee on World Food Security (CFS). These guidelines define both business enterprises and smallholders as possible private sector actors, and thereby included in private sector development. The implications of the CFS-RAI guidelines is that investment in, by and with smallholders, and support to such investments, are seen as private sector development. We assess three different approaches to supporting private sector developments: i) promote an enabling environment for private sector development; ii) provision of public goods and services; and iii) direct investment support. In all three approaches, the interests and needs of both business enterprises, such as companies, and smallholders should be recognized. The enabling environment should balance the needs and demands of both smallholders and business enterprises; the public goods and services should address factors affecting both smallholders and business enterprises, and direct support could be provided to both business enterprises and smallholders.
24 Aug 2015 01:40:40 GMT
This Zambia case study has been developed for the project ‘Research on climate finance and water security’.
The project aims to identify the type and scale of national and sub-national programmes and projects that have been funded by climate finance and how they relate to local water security.
The case study report reviews the evidence base on water security and climate change for Zambia, and explores the nexus between the two thematic areas; reviews the policy and institutional frameworks for climate finance in Zambia, and sets out an analysis of the reported climate finance funds flowing from international donors. It then goes on to set out an analysis of the identified climate finance flows categorised in terms of their relevance to a hierarchy of water security issues and presents the study’s conclusions and recommendations.
[Adapted from source]
22 Aug 2015 12:35:55 GMT
Policymakers and academics agree that an effective state is the foundation for inclusive development, whilst also recognising the critical role of non-state actors in the delivery of goods and services to poor people. This compilation demonstrates that recent research has offered important insights into the role of state-society relations and bargaining amongst elites in shaping development, and of the progressive role that informal forms of politics can sometimes play.
However, the author points that most governance research has tended to focus on either elitist or popular forms of politics (rarely both), to ignore the importance of global influences, and to deal with one-off case-studies. Yet, the paper underlines that full understanding the political process of globalisation and the retrenchment of the welfare state cannot be achieved without examining how these policies are experienced differentially on the ground.
The document argues that existing donor programmes fail to recognise the full potential of citizen engagement, resulting in lack of understanding of the complex relationship between citizens and the state that shapes governance outcomes. On the other hand, the inability of post-colonial states to move away from the colonial legacy and “depoliticise” cultural difference hinders processes of nation-building and gives rise to political and ethnic violence, particularly in Africa.
20 Aug 2015 11:15:05 GMT
In this report, the challenges and opportunities arising from the growing ties between two key “Rising Powers,” China and India, and Africa are more fully explored. This trend has given rise to speculative, exaggerated and ideological responses and a mixture of anxiety and hope. What is needed is an interdisciplinary political economy study to investigate the ways in which global, regional and national linkages in the relationship impact on the prospects of sustainable development in Africa. The necessity for this is underscored by the growing influence of the BRICS group (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) in reshaping the world.
In this frame, the focus is on the nature of the shift in China’s and India’s strategic vision of Africa in terms of politics, ideology and economic development. This shift impinges on trade and investment and, in turn, the scope for inducing structural economic change in the context of colonial and postcolonial tensions. Comparative observation of countries in Eastern and Southern Africa, particularly Ethiopia in the former, illustrates their capacity to cope with the new powers. This is a critical aspect of the continent’s complex interplay with states and institutions within and beyond its borders. Ultimately, African nations have to individually and collectively confront the challenges and opportunities stemming from their evolving relationships with these Rising Powers.
14 Aug 2015 10:15:31 GMT
This paper examines the questions of which fiscal (public expenditure and taxation) options work in terms of poverty reduction, and how they can be made implementable in practice. The point of departure of the analysis is that although the poor are politically weak, there are ways in which they can make themselves essential to the elite, and this in combination with relevant policies and institutions has enabled poverty in some countries to fall dramatically.
The document identifies three major territories needing to be researched: effective targeting of public expenditure, the creation of coalitions which include the poor, and ways of exiting from the “low-tax, weak-state” trap. Subsequently, within these territories, the author identifies several pieces of work needing to be explored:
09 Aug 2015 10:24:08 GMT
The literature relating to the relationship between governance and inclusive growth does not appear to have reached convergence towards a preferred methodological approach. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different social science research method approaches in the analysis of governance in developing countries.
The paper provides an overview of the strengths and weaknesses of four types of interpretative research method approaches: econometric and statistical methods, qualitative case-studies, historical institutionalism and randomised controlled trials. Consequently, the document argues that a more sophisticated use of governance as a tool of analysis in development economics will enhance the depth and explanatory power of economic models of development, particularly as it relates to what is understood as inclusive growth.
In this respect, the author suggests that political economy approaches that analyse the effectiveness of good governance in fostering inclusive growth could benefit from adopting a range of methodological approaches. Furthermore, he suggests that one of the approaches that appear to offer the most optimal ‘bridging’ link between variable-based and qualitative approaches are randomised controlled trials (RCTs).
All things considered, the paper concludes that funding on research on good governance and inclusive growth should explicitly encourage the usage of RCTs to derive more substantive and robust insights.
02 Aug 2015 10:02:29 GMT
A capable state is essential for inclusive development, and developing countries are seeking to build it through a multifaceted agenda of public sector reform (PSR). This paper provides an analytically-driven review of PSR as a policy agenda.
The paper firstly sets a conceptual framework that directly links some of the most frequently invoked challenges to state-building with the chief aims and guiding assumptions of different areas of PSR. In addition, the document emphasises that the required agenda will have to be intensely comparative, both across and within countries.
Furthermore, the author highlights the following points:
However, the paper argues that the success or failure of PSR does not depend merely on technical know-how or resource availability: the strengthening and reform of the state is a fundamentally political task shaped by the dynamics of national settlement.
29 Jul 2015 09:33:00 GMT
This paper offers a political explanation to the problem of spatial inequality in developing countries, paying particular attention to the implications of patronage politics and inter-elite power relations for the spatial distribution of public goods.
The paper states that given the problem of resource scarcity in developing societies, various ethno-regional groups seek access to influential positions in government as means of presenting group interests in the decision-making process. Thus, developing countries are typically under the control of a coalition of competing elite factions.
Subsequently, the document suggests that comprehensive policies that skew benefits towards the poorest are more likely to be implemented on a sustained basis when elites who represent the interest of those segments have substantial influence over resource allocation decisions.
Consequently, the author concludes that:
17 Jul 2015 02:16:03 GMTPeople with psychosocial and intellectual disabilities who engage in, or who are alleged to have engaged in, offending behaviour are likely to come to the attention of the police in much the same way as anyone else. However, powers vested in the police extend the scope for arrest and detention to non-criminal behaviour that is commonly associated with people with psychosocial and intellectual disabilities, consequently heightening their risk of becoming caught up in the criminal justice system. This report looks at the findings of a project that investigated how individuals with psychosocial and intellectual disabilities are dealt with by the criminal justice system in Zambia, and provides recommendations for improving policy and practice. Key recommendations for change: collaborative working and investment in early support: Change can only be achieved through a collective response across the whole system – involving health, justice, disability rights and wider civic society, and by the prioritisation of community services and social support, which can help prevent or reduce the likelihood of contact with criminal justice services tackling stigma and discrimination: Zambian ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2010, and the Persons with Disabilities Act of 2012 have set the scene for change, while further forthcoming legislation should support provision of community services and support for people with psychosocial and intellectual disabilities. Strong political leadership and commitment from Government departments, allied with continuing advocacy and support from a range of other expert organisations will be required to ensure these changes achieve their intended impact. Public education for all citizens is vital and could be delivered through schools, colleges, other public services and the national media addressing harsh prison conditions: This study supports the findings of other reports concerning the harsh physical conditions experienced by people in prison and police detention which are likely to have particularly negative impact on people with disabilities. Specific concerns raised by respondents which need to be addressed urgently include overcrowding, beatings and other forms of brutality awareness, training and guidance: Almost all practitioner respondents highlighted a lack of guidance on how to deal with people with psychosocial or intellectual disabilities in contact with criminal justice services. Practical and operational support, awareness training, information and workforce development should be developed and made routinely available for health and criminal justice personnel. It is good practice for people with disabilities to be involved in designing and delivering training. Routine and independent monitoring could be undertaken to support effective impl[...]
16 Jul 2015 11:46:13 GMT
Recent years have seen increasing interest in social protection as a means of reducing poverty and promoting development within the development industry and among growing numbers of developing countries. This paper outlines a conceptual and methodological framework for investigating the politics of social protection, with a particular focus on explaining the variation in progress made by African countries in adopting and implementing social protection programmes.
The document explains that there is huge variation in the experiences of African countries in terms of social protection. Nevertheless, the author proposes that an adapted “political settlements” framework that incorporates insights from the literatures on the politics of welfare state development and discursive institutionalism can help frame elite commitment to social protection.
The paper argues that this approach has the advantage of situating social protection within a broader policy context, as well as highlighting the influence of underlying power relations in society. Still, the paper also suggests a research methodology that can be employed to operationalise the proposed approach, with a particular focus on process tracing and comparative case study research. This author illustrates that process tracing offers the potential to link negotiations within the policy formulation process to aspects of the domestic political settlement and the activities of external actors seeking to promote ideational change.
27 May 2015 09:07:18 GMTThis brief from the Zambia Civil Society Scaling Up Nutrition Alliance (CSO-SUN) outlines recommendations made to the government for the first 100 days for a Successful First 1000 Most Critical Days Programme.
26 May 2015 11:03:04 GMT
26 May 2015 03:57:40 GMTThe Government of Zambia in coming up with the draft National Agriculture Policy (NAP) and its implementation plan is prepared to ensure that agriculture is positioned to drive growth and development in Zambia.
26 May 2015 03:51:50 GMTThe Government in Zambia has a new programme on malnutrition, the 1000 most critical days programme and