13 Oct 2016 04:15:34 GMT
This paper presents a case study from Mount Elgon National Park, Uganda, examining and deepening an understanding of direct incomes and costs of conservation for local people close to protected areas. In the early 1990s, collaborative arrangements were introduced to Mount Elgon National Park to improve people-park relations and enhance rural livelihoods after a period of violent evictions and severe resource access restrictions. In areas with such arrangements – including resource access agreements, Taungya farming, and beekeeping schemes – we observe a marginal increase in annual incomes for involved households. Other incomes accrue from tourism revenue sharing schemes, a community revolving fund, and payments for carbon sequestration. However, these incomes are economically marginal (1.2% of household income), unevenly distributed and instrumentally used to reward compliance with park regulations. They do not necessarily accrue to those incurring costs due to eviction and exclusion, crop raiding, resource access restrictions and conflicts. By contrast, costs constitute at least 20.5 % of total household incomes, making it difficult to see how conservation, poverty alleviation and development can be locally reconciled if local populations continue to bear the economic brunt of conservation. We recommend a shift in policy towards donor and state responsibility for compensating costs on a relevant scale. Such a shift would be an important step towards a more substantive rights-based model of conservation, and would enhance the legitimacy of protected area management in the context of both extreme poverty and natural resource dependence.
04 Oct 2016 05:18:11 GMTThe Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), Cape Town, South Africa, hosted a two-day policy research seminar in Cape Town, from 19 to 20 March 2016, on the theme “War and Peace in the Great Lakes Region”. The meeting brought together about 30 prominent African and Western policymakers, scholars, and civil society activists to assess the major obstacles to peace and security in the Great Lakes, and considered seven broad themes: Security and Governance in the Great Lakes Region; the cases of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC); Burundi; Rwanda; and Uganda; as well as the role of the United Nations; and that of the European Union, in the Great Lakes. The following 10 key policy recommendations emerged from the policy research seminar:since post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding efforts in the Great Lakes have become stalled due to the unresolved issues in the region’s political economy, it is imperative that governments urgently address the major issue of youth unemployment – more than 30 percent of the region’s population are aged between 10 and 24the international community must adopt a less selective approach to responding to the governance deficiencies of the countries in the region, acting swiftly to criticise the government in Burundi but being reluctant to condemn governments in Uganda and Rwanda due to strategic interests in both countriesaddressing sexual violence in the DRC must become a key priority. Making progress in security sector reform which has been largely uncoordinated by external actors amid a lack of political will on the part of the government of Joseph Kabila, would also be critical to efforts to tackling gender-based violenceBurundi needs effective leadership and a government that is accountable to its own people. A mass movement must therefore be fostered to promote an inclusive negotiation process. Beyond Burundi, mass advocacy movements should also be built among the 127 million citizens of the Great Lakescarefully targeted international sanctions against the Rwandan government for its actions in the DRC have had some effect in changing its behaviour. Such sanctions should also be applied to Rwanda’s domestic human rights situationthere is an urgent need for governments in the Great Lakes region to recommit to peace accords and tackling regional insecurity related to issues of identity and citizenshipthere is also an urgent need for political parties and conflict actors in the Great Lakes to revisit peace accords that were signed more than a decade and a half ago with a view to adapting as well as implementing principles of constitutionalism and multi-party democracy which were enshrined in these accordsthough some have suggested that UN peacekeepers should withdraw from the DRC to create room for endogenous solutions to the country’s long-running conflict, other voices have cautioned against a premature withdrawal of the UN, citing the example of Burundi in 2006 where such a withdrawal removed the international community’s capacity for tackling instabilityit is time to rethink the role of the UN in the DRC in the areas of peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Its bureaucracy has become dysfunctional which has negatively affected the efficiency of UN peacekeeping missions. The UN Security Council must therefore do more to align mandates, roles, and resources closer to the realities onthe groundthe EU and other international actors need to undertake more outreach to Tanzania, South Africa, the EAC and other regional actors in their peacebuilding efforts in the Great Lakes[...]
09 Sep 2016 01:49:48 GMT
31 Aug 2016 10:25:31 GMT
An Economic Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change has been completed at the national level in Uganda. As part of this nation-wide study, this case study seeks to assess the impacts of climate change and their costs in the health sector in the districts of Tororo and Kabale, drawing on national projections of climate change.
Malaria is endemic in 95% of Uganda, and poses significant economic and soci al costs. In both districts looked at in this study, the costs associated with malaria could more than double by 2050 as a result of both population increase and predicted changes in climate. In Tororo, the economic cost of malaria due to climate change may rise from $9-$ 22 1 million in 2010 to $ 20 -$561 million in 2050. In Kabale, these costs may increase from between $0.7-$1 5.8 million in 2010 to between $1.55-$41.7 million in 2050. Efforts need to be increased to reduce this burden - and there are a number of low cost actions that may be taken.
Adaptation options such as Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs), Indoor Residential Spra ying (IRS), clearing of breeding sites and proper treatment have been shown to have benefits that far outweigh the costs when they are properly targeted, even without climate change. Additional cost-effective adaptation actions in the immediate term may include information dissemination, particularly to high risk areas, revised planning regimes to help control malaria prevalence, and measures for early warning and action for malaria risk. The spatial differentiation in malaria risk suggests there is no "one size fits allâ policy for malaria, and hence there is a need for comprehensive di sease vulnerability assessments and action planning across districts.
23 Aug 2016 12:22:26 GMT
19 Aug 2016 02:00:10 GMT
Uganda is already experiencing the impacts of climate variability and associated economic losses. Uganda’s First National Development Plan (2010–2015) recognises that climate change will affect most of its key economic sectors and that action on climate change is crucial if the country is to meet its goal to become a competitive, upper middle-income country by 2040 (Vision 2040). The Plan also recognises that, for development to be economically and socially sustainable, climate resilience must be at the heart of policies for growth and development, energy access and security, increased agricultural production, education and health.
12 Aug 2016 12:54:02 GMT
The Mount Elgon region is very vulnerable to climate change and variability, with a heavy dependence on coffee production. Yields and quality of coffee crops have been declining over the last 30 years, in part owing to poor management practices and in part because of an increase in the frequency of droughts, landslides and floods. This study has reviewed the evolving situation for Arabica coffee cultivation in the Bududa district and looked at how climate variability is affecting coffee yields and livelihoods, based on the data collected in the field through interviews with key stakeholders and a literature review.
It identified seven potential adaptation approaches, and focused on the two that stakeholders considered to be most important: Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) and institutional support measures (or extension services). According to literature and the stakeholders interviewed, CSA practices are not currently adopted, in part because farmers lack the resources and technical capacities to make the necessary investments.
The study found that although quite costly, investments in CSA are likely to be justified, as probable benefits outweigh the costs, both under current conditions, and even more so when expected climate impacts are considered. The study indicates that likely investment costs are in the range of US$2.4 million in 2016, rising to US$4.9 million by 2019, over and above the current institutional support programme of Bududa’s District Local Government, which has a budget of only around US$ 214,329. The analysis shows that investment in these two complementary programmes – CSA and institutional support - would have an internal rate of return of around 36%. If combined with other adaptation approaches, such as complementary policies or providing better climate information, there is, in the view of the study team, potential to sustain coffee cultivation in Bududa, both now and under future predicted climatic conditions.
The study recommends that further research and analysis is conducted in order to identify:
The above actions would help to inform the design of a CSA programme for coffee, including practical measures as well as institutional support, and help to identify what additional complementary strategies might be needed. Critically, the development of such a programme should also involve the private sector, and an analysis of the market and value chain for coffee, to enable improved commercialisation. Further, given the high level of investment that is potentially required, it is recommended that any CSA programme is first piloted in order to establish whether expectations around costs, benefits, and yields, etc, are borne out in reality in Uganda.
12 Aug 2016 11:07:29 GMT
11 Aug 2016 10:45:55 GMT
27 Jun 2016 03:48:34 GMT
Public spending on climate change in Africa describes the extent to which public expenditure responds to national climate change policy and the institutional demands required to implement such policy. The four countries of the study: Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda provide insights into the early mobilisation of climate change finance, as each country attempts to address the new challenges that climate change is bringing about. The report is divided into three parts. The first part introduces the concept of climate change finance and outlines the effectiveness framework used in each of the country studies. The methodological challenges associated with public expenditure reviews as applied to national climate change actions are also described. The second part provides in-depth country accounts for Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda, on the level and nature of climate change-relevant public spending, set in the context of each countryâs macroeconomic and public finance management systems. The final section concludes by drawing lessons for climate change policy development, institutional strengthening, local delivery of climate change finance and the monitoring of public finance, based on the insights gained from the country studies.
24 Jun 2016 12:30:51 GMT
Studies indicate that harmful gender norms and practices, cultural perceptions and beliefs surrounding pregnancy and childbirth, and a distrust of health-care services all can pose barriers to HIV prevention and treatment. In particular, women face difficulties related to unequal gender power relations and stigma.
This Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) document presents evidence that timely and continued access to antiretroviral medicines would reduce new infections in children and give HIV-infected women access to HIV treatment and care for their own health and well-being. Because 1) women's lack of autonomy, 2) mistrust of health services, particularly due to a lack of cultural sensitivity and confidentiality among health-service providers, and 3) fear of stigma and related abuse can affect women's access to treatment, key gender-related barriers stand in the way of preventing new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive.
The following recommendations, based upon discussions in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Uganda, are proposed to overcome gender-related and cultural barriers to services.
23 Jun 2016 11:53:46 GMT
The Essential Packages Manual was produced as part of the "Access, Services and Knowledge" (ASK) programme of the Youth Empowerment Alliance, which seeks to improve the sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR) of young people (15-24 years) by increasing their uptake of SRH services in Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Ghana, Senegal, Pakistan, and Indonesia.
The manual is designed to help partners understand the main concepts, principles, and values of the ASK programme, and provides information and practical tools designed to assist partners to reach programme objectives. This includes information about SRHR and related services for young people, as well as guidance in creating an enabling environment and integrating SRHR, HIV/AIDS, and meaningful youth participation into programming.
The publication includes tools for self-assessment to help identify partnersâ€™ own progress and areas requiring support. It also includes roadmaps with practical steps to move towards desired project results, and outlines available tools, guidelines, protocols, and standards.
The manual includes the following contents, organised around key result areas:
23 Jun 2016 11:18:54 GMT
"Link Up’s experience in Uganda demonstrates the success empowered young people living with HIV can have in achieving greater access to SRHR and HIV services for their peers. Building a strong team of peer educators who were visible and proud of their work proved the foundation for service provision in the project.”
This is a key outcome outlined in this 16-page case study discussing the experience of the Link Up Project in Uganda, which was designed to increase access to integrated and quality sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV information, as well as commodities and services, for young people living with and most affected by HIV. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the Link Up Project used peer educators, along with improving youth-friendly health services, to address barriers facing young people in accessing reproductive health services, such as lack of knowledge, skills, and youth-friendly services.
The case study first explains the context of the programme and then goes on to describe the main component of the programme - the use of peer educators.
According to the case study, through the project young people who are normally hard-to-reach were brought closer to SRHR and HIV services, and many were referred for antiretroviral therapy enrolment. Between 2013 and 2015 the project:
23 Jun 2016 04:03:39 GMT
The need for HIV prevention efforts to more explicitly incorporate program elements to address gender inequality and violence has been repeatedly articulated, and the elimination of sexual and gender-based violence has been identified by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) as being one of the core pillars of HIV prevention.
Recognising that intimate partner violence (IPV) is an independent risk factor for HIV infection, researchers in this SASA! study sought to assess the community-level impact of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence and reduce HIV-risk behaviors.
14 Jun 2016 11:54:13 GMT
10 Jun 2016 06:11:49 GMT
This is a desk appraisal of the Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) done for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) by the Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU).
10 Jun 2016 04:51:14 GMT
At Mount Elgon National Park in Uganda, local conservation authorities assert that a variety of benefit sharing schemes mitigate the negative consequences of exclusionary forest conservation and carbon sequestration for nearby communities. Among other initiatives, these include the redistribution of ecotourism revenue, the signing of collaborative resource management agreements, and the provision of ecotourism-related employment opportunities. Conservationists argue that these schemes result in ‘triple-win’ outcomes for both the national park and local communities, wherein biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and development goals mutually complement each other. Taking an environmental justice approach, this report synthesizes findings concerning local notions of (in)justice, actual geographical and temporal distributions of benefits from conservation at Mount Elgon, and the effects of such distributions on perceptions and mobilizations related to environmental justice. In doing so, it identifies widespread expressions of resentment and hostility among local communities, as well as large inequalities in access to ecotourism revenue and other benefits both between and within them. To highlight a salient example, worst-off park neighbours received assistance equivalent to only 0.0085 USD per district resident over a nine-year period. The perceived injustices that arise from these inequalities exacerbate conflicts between conservationists and local people, and, consequently, result in ecological damage to protected forests. To alleviate both the environmental injustice and degradation entailed by these inequalities, the report concludes with a number of recommendations for universalizing sustainable access to collaboratively managed resources on Mount Elgon.
27 May 2016 04:13:33 GMT
Uganda has a rich tradition of care and respect for the elderly. But, as in all societies, this informal system of support – while still functioning for some – is, for many others, beginning to weaken as a result of poverty, migration, urbanisation and the impact of HIV and AIDs. In response, the government of Uganda – with support from the United Kingdom, Ireland and UNICEF – has taken the first steps in building a pension system for every citizen, with the aim of ensuring that no older person has to live in abject poverty. A pilot scheme – known as the Senior Citizens’ Grant (SCG) – is currently being established in 14 Districts to assess the feasibility of providing every older person with a regular and secure cash income. If successful, the government is considering expanding the scheme across Uganda.
This paper will discuss the value of establishing a universal pension in Uganda. It will begin by considering the challenges currently facing the nation’s older citizens, before moving on to an overview of universal pensions in other developing countries. The paper will examine the evidence on the impacts of these pensions, before briefly describing the SCG and assessing its potential benefits and costs if it were to be expanded to all older citizens. Finally, the paper will argue that it is important to ensure that the pension is accessible to all older people and that its implementation would be a popular and welcome initiative.
27 May 2016 04:04:44 GMT
According to existing survey analysis, Uganda has made steady progress in poverty reduction over the past decade. However, these gains have not been experienced evenly, with large disparities in poverty levels across geographic areas and household characteristics. These disparities persist when poverty is examined across multiple deprivations– such as health, education, sanitation, and housing – rather than only consumption.
31 Mar 2016 10:02:50 GMT
This paper documents the results of the process of developing and selecting national standard climate change indicators for integration into two national monitoring and evaluation frameworks in Uganda: the Output Budgeting Tool (OBT) and the Local Government Assessment tool (LGAT). The OBT is used by the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED) to determine national development standard indicators that are monitored and reported across all sectors in the country.
The LGAT determines and annually assesses the minimum performance measures for all local governments in Uganda. Before the intervention of the Africa Climate Change Resilience Allicance (ACCRA) and the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) as part of the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD), both frameworks lacked standard performance indicators on climate change. This meant that local governments were not required to plan, budget or report on climate change.
The briefing draws out lessons learned from using a highly participatory and bottom-up process, as well as policy implications at national, sub-national and sectoral levels. It also highlights key prerequisites for successful development and integration of climate change indicators in existing monitoring and reporting frameworks of national states.
23 Mar 2016 05:31:35 GMT
This report presents the findings of a learning study which arose from the growing sense that not enough attention was being paid to the people expected to take up and use T4TAIs. Conducted in partnership by IDS (Dr Rosie McGee and Ruth Carlitz), Hivos’s Knowledge Progra and Amis Boersma) and ATTI (Africa Technology for T July 2012 and December 2012, the study addressed the core question: ‘Are the realities of these assumed users, and constraints that may stop them taking the action expected of them in response to T4TAIs, investigated and taken into account systematically enough, in respect of technology-based initiatives, or in the TAI field as a whole?’
Two case studies are used, one of which one focuses on water resource management, specifically drinking water.
22 Mar 2016 12:18:28 GMT
The large number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Great Lakes region poses immense challenges to peacebuilding processes within the countries affected, as well as in that entire conflict system. An influx of refugees impacts peace and security, citizenship considerations, as well as cross-border and ethnic confl icts, among others. A case in point, conflict is often triggered by competition for land and economic resources, and is exacerbated by the growing number of refugees in Africa’s Great Lakes region. The presence of refugees contributes to signifi cant security issue for several countries in the region. There have been reports of some refugees joining armed groups or terrorist organisations, occupying large territories to exploit mineral resources, attacking local communities to expropriate land, and acting as cheap labour, to the detriment of locals. These factors advance the perception among original inhabitants that crime, impunity and weapons traffi cking, among other scourges, increase with the settlement of foreigners in their communities and countries. On the other side of the debate are considerations that refugees bring important skills and knowledge into host countries, participate in entrepreneurship and development projects that contribute to local economies, and boost local markets due to increased demand for products and services.
There are questions that are central to understanding the dilemma that is the ongoing refugee crisis in the Great Lakes region. How can the challenge of huge refugee numbers in the region be addressed? How best can long-term, sustainable and holistic political and humanitarian solutions be implemented to deal with the negative impacts of the refugee crisis? Why has the fl ood of refugees been such a long-term recurrent issue in the Great Lakes region, compared to other parts of the continent? This Policy & Practice Brief (PPB) analyses why refugees have been hesitant to return to their domiciles, even when there have been indications that relative peace had returned to their countries of origin. It also examines the impacts of refugee fl ows on peace and security, as well as on land and socio-economic control and access. It concludes by proffering recommendations on what can be done, from a regional perspective, to decrease the number of refugees, while simultaneously resolving the root causes of the various confl icts that the refugees have fl ed in the fi rst place.
21 Mar 2016 02:05:29 GMT
This background paper examines the role of social protection programmes in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. It looks at the impact, design and implementation issues of social protection programme experience in conflict, protracted crisis and post-conflict contexts, including in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sierra Leone, Somalia, Nepal, Northern Uganda and Pakistan.
The paper finds that the costs of education are significant in conflict-affected countries – not only are the direct costs of schooling high, but also parents often have to contribute a significant amount to the school to keep it functioning. In a context of high rates of poverty and disrupted livelihoods and potentially high opportunity costs of sending children to school, the direct and indirect costs of sending children to school are often the most substantial barrier to children’s schooling.
Experience suggests that education subsidies and fee waivers offer important potential to offset costs and increase enrolment and attendance, but they have not been widely implemented. Education has remained mainly a secondary objective in social protection programming, for example in cash grant transfers, public works programmes and school feeding programmes. Longterm funding, institutional coordination and support for capacity building are needed to deliver sustainable social protection at scale which supports households to meet both the direct and indirect costs of education in conflict-affected contexts.
21 Mar 2016 01:26:13 GMT
Care responsibilities is being increasingly identified as a factor restricting women’s empowerment outcomes, yet there is limited evidence on determinants of long hours or gender inequality in care work. To gain a clearer understanding of care work and pathways of change to promote more equitable care provision, Oxfam conducted a Household Care Survey in communities of rural Colombia, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
Results highlight that gender inequality exists in all measures of care work, with women and girls doing significantly more primary and secondary care activities, and supervision of dependants, than men and boys. Key findings are presented in time use and work hours, and determinants of patterns of care work. In all countries, the research found that women have longer total hours of work than men, men spend more time on paid work than women, and women have longer hours of care work. The determinants of care are context-specific. Education and relative household wealth are less relevant as determinants of length, intensity or inequality in care hours than might be expected. Women’s paid/productive activities and access to labour-saving stoves and improved water systems are sometimes associated with decreases in women’s hours of care work.
Adapted from authors’ summary.
15 Mar 2016 11:54:04 GMT
We investigated the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, namely mobile phones) in support of citizen agency and its potential in calling for authorities’ accountability. We focused on Eastern Africa and we used a mixed methodology, which allowed us to explore the current uses of ICT to strengthen accountability and to forecast the growth of mobile phones’ adaption in that region. Evidence from both analyses suggests that there are two main areas where citizen agency and ICT can reinforce each other in bottom-up and horizontal processes: participation and engagement of citizens, and the diffusion of information.
15 Mar 2016 04:17:15 GMT
To successfully use mobile phones to aid development efforts, understanding the impact of the social structure on mobile phone adoption, uses, perceived impacts, and reinvention of uses is invaluable. Interviews were conducted with 90 mobile phone-owning holders of small- to medium-sized farms— 50 women and 40 men—actively involved in agricultural development-based farm groups in Kamuli District, Uganda. Respondents indicated use of the mobile phone for coordinating access to agricultural inputs, market information, to monitor financial transactions, and to consult with agricultural experts. Over time, the number and variety of agricultural uses increased among all users, indicating that adoption occurs for a few key purposes, but that uses will be added or reinvented to fit changing needs. This study identified a number of unique uses, including storing local market trends in the calendar, using the speakerphone function for group consultation with agricultural experts, and taking photos of agricultural demonstrations.
09 Mar 2016 04:55:02 GMT
As governments and donors focused on increasing access to education in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the issue of learning received comparatively little concerted attention. Some organisations working in countries where access was rapidly increasing took notice of the fact that, while rising enrollment rates were being celebrated, there was little evidence of whether or not learning was taking place.
One of the results of this realisation was the emergence of the citizen-led assessment movement, initiated by Pratham in India in 2005. The movement is an attempt by civil-society organisations to gather evidence on learning and use it for two main purposes: first, to increase awareness of low learning outcomes and second, to stimulate actions that are intended to address the learning gap.
In an effort to more deeply understand the citizen-led assessment model and to evaluate its ability to measure learning, disseminate findings, and stimulate awareness and action, Results for Development Institute (R4D) evaluated four citizen-led assessments between May 2013 and November 2014: the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) in India, Beekunko in Mali, Jàngandoo in Senegal, and Uwezo in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. This summary includes a subset of recommendations that draw on the key evaluation findings.
04 Mar 2016 11:29:09 GMT
In order to advance sustainable development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is necessary to address cross-cutting issues on gender, environment, and climate change simultaneously. Despite this, a key challenge remains in ensuring that such integrated approaches are prioritised and implemented in national, sector, and local budgets. That is the problem discussed in this gender brief by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which draws on the experiences of an ongoing partnership between UN Women and the United Nations Development Programme. The brief includes examples of gender, environment, and climate change integration in policy and programming in Mozambique, research in Malawi and Uganda, and programming in Tanzania, as well as in areas concerning the strengthening of institutional capacities and knowledge sharing.
The key messages highlighted by the gender brief emphasise that addressing gender, environment, and climate change as cross-cutting issues can advance sustainable development and empower women, and that this will necessitate the strengthening of institutional and stakeholder capacities. Furthermore, data are needed to demonstrate the added value of integrating gender into climate and natural resource frameworks to convince decision-makers to take action. Additionally, proven climate- and gender-smart technologies must be quickly up-scaled.
The brief closes by presenting three key pieces of advice:
04 Mar 2016 05:08:44 GMTThe Women for Water Partnership (WfWP) currently includes 26 women’s networks covering around 100 countries, predominantly in the developing world. This publication pays tribute to some of the work of women’s organisations involved in the WfWP, by qualitatively documenting some of the best practices displayed, and highlighting the specific contributions of women around the world toward the UN General Assembly mandated International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life 2005 - 2015. The introduction explains the context the report in terms of the importance of studying the gender-water-sustainability nexus, Water for Life, and the status of water and sanitation as a human right. The majority of the report then examines examples of good practice from a number of case studies involving WfWP members. Each of the case studies provide background information on the contexts and organisations involved, and describes the role played by the primary women’s organisations in driving change. Also disucssed are their contributions to Water for Life, which together with the Dublin/Rio Principles for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), underline the central role of women in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water. The case studies examined include women’s organisations cooperating in: efforts toward a transformative gender-water-sustainable development agenda in Tanzania; contributions toward the Protocol on Water and Health for the UNECE Water Convention in Armenia and Ukraine; the implementation of the human right to water and sanitation in Nepal; provision of social accountability for water access in Kenya; sustainable water governance at Lake Victoria in Uganda; and empowering women in Nigeria through water and sanitation interventions. The role of women’s civil society organisations, and the value they add to sustainable development, is discussed next, before the report identifies a number of lessons learned through examination of the projects. In terms of barriers to the meaningful participation of women in the water sector, most stem from either the direct and indirect difficulties of working in large, remote areas with limited access to water, or where customary law is actively involved in water rights and the role of women in society. Cultural resistance to empowering women consumes time and effort to overcome, though drivers for change exist, including: the introduction of gender equality legislation; strong political leadership committed to gender equality, as evidence by the catalytic effect of a gender-sensitive water minister in Nigeria; support by local communities themselves, which can be highly effective in changing mind-sets; and the use of peer networks that can provide support, training, coaching, and backstopping. Small scale projects that account for cultural differences are often more successful than large scale projects, but scaling-up these projects is an intensive and difficult task due to geographical scale, and a perpetual challenge of under-funding for women’s organisations. The report finishes with a section on conclusions and recommendations for women-inclusive water cooperation, including that: A human rights based approach is required to ensure effect[...]
01 Mar 2016 04:30:26 GMT
The evaluation has assessed FK Norway’s approach and strategy when it comes to strengthening civil society in developing countries. This is one of FK Norway’s overarching objectives and core activities, as stated in the instructions for the agency.
The evaluation has answered four main questions, in accordance with the terms of reference:
The evaluation covers the period 2006-2015. It is based on data collected in Norway and two main case countries, Tanzania and Thailand, in addition to limited data collection in Uganda, South Africa and Cambodia.
The evaluation was conducted by Chr. Michelsen’s Institute in collaboration with Nordic Consulting Group, commissioned by the Evaluation Department in Norad.
15 Feb 2016 10:28:13 GMT
This case study examines whether health system reconstruction in northern Uganda has promoted equality and created a health system that is gender equitable. Measuring the health system against the World Health Organization’s six health system building blocks, the case study highlights that northern Uganda needs a post-conflict recovery plan which is sensitive to gender concerns. What little has been done for the survivors of gender-based violence has not been linked to overall health systems strengthening: this constitutes a missed opportunity. Gender equitable finding mechanisms and action to consider the health workforce from a gender perspective are identified as key.
10 Feb 2016 05:50:35 GMT
SASA! is a community mobilisation intervention developed in Uganda to prevent VAW and HIV/AIDS. SASA! is an evidenced-based methodology that takes a gender relational approach by working at multiple social levels with a range of stakeholders. The approach moves beyond having a focus only on individual relationships, which has shown to impact the wider community rather than being limited to individual participants. The SASA! website provides various strategy, learning and advocacy resources. There is also a video called “Condom Commandos” that presents soldiers in the Angolan army and women living beside the barracks using the SASA! approach, which can be seen here: https://vimeo.com/13184545.
10 Feb 2016 03:00:04 GMT
This research, based on a survey of poor urban men and women across nine developing countries, found that while the majority of men and women own a mobile phone, women are still nearly 50% less likely to access the Internet than men in the same communities. Internet use is reported by just 37% of women surveyed and, once online, women are 30-50% less likely than men to use the Internet to increase their income or participate in public life.
Among the reports key findings are:
The full report, summary, infographics and data sets for each country are available to download.
24 Jan 2016 06:19:30 GMTThis report is one of the outputs of theproject “Man and forests – an evaluation of management strategies for reduced deforestation” which aimed at evaluating the different management strategies undertaken to obtain reduced deforestation in tropical forests and hence maintain the various ecosystem services delivered. One component of this project focused on characterizing the management regimes established in the REDD+ pilot area and how well the REDD+ regime is adapted to the local institutional and ecological conditions. The site under investigation is a communally owned forest known as Ongo community forest, where the Environmental Conservation Trust of Uganda (ECOTRUST), is piloting REDD+ activities. The investigations entailed discussions with the implementing agent the ECOTRUST, local council leaders, forest management committee members, Masindi district technical staff and the local community members. The key findings indicated that Ongo is a low-stocked Tropical High Forest under the governance of community members, from the four villages surrounding the forest. The forest has continued to face deforestation and degradation with the main drivers including agricultural encroachment and harvesting of poles. With regard to governance and governance structures, there were several organizations and institutions established prior the REDD+ regime including the District and several NGOs. The REDD+ project activities were initiated in 2010 and some of the key achievements to date include the formal registration of Ongo Communal Land Association, initiating the process of acquiring a land title, forest boundary survey and mapping, more community sensitization and awareness about carbon trading and the need for forest conservation; review of the constitution and the forest management plan to fit the current conditions, and community training about benefit sharing. Some of the challenges encountered included the bureaucratic process of acquiring the land ownership document; allegations of land grabbing by some of the community members, which disrupted several awareness and sensitization sessions; resistance during the boundary survey process and demands for compensation by those individuals who had cultivated along the forest boundary; and the continued illegal activities especially harvesting of poles and cultivating along the forest frontier. With regard to adaptability to the ecological conditions, the forest characteristics including topography, species composition, soil characteristics and accessibility make it very vulnerable to access and resource use pressures which are likely to continue posing challenges from the governan[...]
14 Jan 2016 04:20:52 GMT
SASA! is a community mobilisation intervention that seeks to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV-risk behaviours. The SASA! study was conducted between 2008 and 2012 in two administrative divisions of Kampala (Makindye and Rubaga). It incorporates four elements: a cluster randomised controlled trial; a nested qualitative evaluation; operations research; and an economic costing of the intervention.
The findings are extremely positive. SASA! reduced the reported social acceptance of physical violence in relationships among both women and men, and also increased the social acceptance of the belief that there are circumstances when a woman can refuse sex from her partner.
A number of stakeholder-specific policy recommendations have arisen out of this study.
14 Jan 2016 03:56:59 GMT
There is now substantial evidence that periodic cash transfers to poor households as a form of social protection, particularly when conditional on complementary investments in child schooling and health, can lead to substantial and sustained improvements in household welfare, household food security and child schooling. Similarly, food transfers can lead to substantial improvements in household food security and may have persistent effects on household expenditure and food consumption. However, there is very limited evidence directly comparing impacts of the two modalities in the same setting.
This study draws from a unique set of integrated social protection experiments conducted in two countries to compare the relative impacts of cash and food transfers on household behavior in side by side comparisons in starkly different contexts: Ecuador and Uganda.
The study addresses the following research questions:
04 Jan 2016 12:50:38 GMT
This report highlights the experience of three pioneering countries - Nepal, Peru and Uganda - where governments and civil society have joined hands, supported by the German Government’s International Climate Initiative, and worked with implementing partners UNDP, UNEP and IUCN, in piloting new approaches through the Mountain EbA Programme.
It suggests that the Mountain EbA programme has also facilitated a number of key interventions at the global scale, and has generated new evidence on the cost-effectiveness of ecosystem-based adaptation options.
This has involved testing new EbA interventions, such as stabilizing mountain slopes, that are vulnerable to erosion from more intense rains, with indigenous plants, which can be harvested and sold.
As the UN’s development network, UNDP promotes adaptation efforts like these that have multiple benefits, and create opportunities for poverty eradication and social inclusion.
The researchers show that demonstrating these benefits is a vital element of making the case for EbA, especially with communities.
The Global Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EbA) in Mountain Ecosystems Programme was jointly implemented from 2011 to 2016 as a flagship programme of UNEP, UNDP and IUCN, funded by the Government of Germany through the International Climate Initiative (IKI), in partnership with the Governments of Nepal, Peru and Uganda. The programme was implemented at global level and at national level with pilot project work in mountain ecosystems in countries that are particularly vulnerable to climate change.
22 Dec 2015 03:13:14 GMT
This thesis examines the impact of the recent introduction of public opinion polling on the quality of elections in sub-Saharan Africa to understand why it has contributed to greater transparency and representativeness in some context and not in others. It contributes to the literature in documenting the emergence of the public opinion polling industry on the continent and in developing a theoretical framework for understanding the influence of polling on elite perceptions and behaviour during electoral periods. The thesis situates the proliferation of polling in sub-Saharan Africa within the historical and contemporary debates on the relative merits and drawbacks of public opinion research in democratic politics and elections, while exploring the theoretical link between public opinion polling and the expansion of transparency and representation by elites.
The thesis employs a mixed method approach, using content analysis of print media and key informant interviews to inform detailed case studies of electoral campaigns in Kenya, Ghana, Nigeria, and Uganda. Consistent with the model, the case study chapters present historical narratives that capture significant examples drawn over multiple elections from each of the four countries in which public opinion polling and elite perceptions of political competition have instigated changes in political behaviour, ultimately contributing to improvement or deterioration in the quality of elections.
18 Dec 2015 05:31:54 GMTAgainst a backdrop of increasing awareness about the impacts and potential economic costs of climate change, the government of Uganda commissioned this report published by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network. This report presents the key findings of the study, which assessed the economic impacts of climate change in Uganda. It is hoped that the report can provide the government with economic evidence on the current and future costs associated with climate change, and the necessary adaptation measure required at both national and local levels. The 18-month long study analysed the impact of climate change on four sectors at the national level: water, infrastructure, agriculture (including livestock), and energy, as well as according to medium-to-low- and high-level warming scenarios. The study team engaged with around 200 stakeholders from the government of Uganda and around 300 people from districts and civil society through face-to-face meetings, workshops, interviews, and field missions. Each of the four national sectors analysed have their own section in the report, with overviews provided on how climate change, changing demand, and other variable factors are likely to impact them. Risks include significant impacts on coffee production, a potential decrease in hydro-power production due to decreased rainfall, and a lack of resilience in infrastructure. Each section also comes with sector-specific evaluations on adaptation priorities . Four case studies are then presented which help to show how many ‘no regrets’ measures are available, and how these may help Uganda to adapt to climate change while advancing its development. The case studies discuss ongoing work concerning: optimising the balance of livestock and crop agriculture in the Karamoja and Mount Elgon regions; water and hydropower in the Mpanga river basin; urban infrastructure in Kampala; and malaria prevalence in Kabale and Tororo districts.The key messages presented by the report are that: Development prospects will only be reached if the impacts of climate change on Uganda are mitigated. * The impacts of climate change are expected to be felt to varying degrees across all the sectors and local areas studied. The cost of adaptation is high: estimated at around $406m over the next five years (2015–2020). On an annual basis, this amounts to about 5% of net official development assistance received, and 3.2% of total government revenues (excluding grants). The cost of inaction is 20 times greater than the cost of adaptation: inaction is estimated at between $3.1bn and $5.9bn per year by 2025, which is more than 20 times the proposed adaptation budget. * The economic case for adaptation is clear: many of the adaptation measures proposed in the study are ‘no regrets’ investments, in that they are valid even in the absence of climate change. Considering the co-benefits strengthens the case for adaptation further, for example improved livelihoods, health and access to energy [...]
04 Dec 2015 02:46:08 GMT
This book presents the findings of a nine-month action research process in Karamoja. Over the months, the broad topics of the research – land, peace and customary law – were refined to three precise areas of focus on how decisions are made: herder-cultivator disputes and Karimojong governance; peace and the links between customary and state law; and land alienation and associated state laws and policies. The research team, 23 young men and women from Karamoja, developed the initial text for this book in September 2013. They presented their evidence and analysis to elders in four communities for review, amended the narrative and then translated it into English.
13 Nov 2015 10:59:23 GMT
The challenges facing developing countries with new-found natural resource wealth are generally understood in terms of whether they have the institutions of ‘good governance’ required to avoid the resource curse. New insights from a political settlements perspective show how deeper forms of politics and power relations play a more significant role than such institutions, and help explain some counter-intuitive findings regarding how ‘semi-authoritarian’ Uganda seems to be governing oil somewhat more in line with its national interest as compared to ‘democratic’ Ghana.
The report finds that bureaucratic ‘pockets of effectiveness’ play a critical role, with outcomes shaped by the nature of their embedded autonomy vis-à-vis different kinds of ruling coalition. Efforts to promote ‘best-practice’ governance reforms in such contexts might be misplaced, and could be replaced with a stronger focus on building specific forms of state capacity and a greater acceptance that ‘developmental collusion’ between political and bureaucratic actors may offer more appropriate or ‘best-fit’ solutions.
30 Oct 2015 11:03:28 GMT
In many African states, even in those states not afflicted by conflicts from the beginning, in reality, the state never managed to impose a monopoly on security. Moreover, in many cases the African states never developed ‘public’ security systems to protect all citizens without discrimination. The public police remained largely in the service of the elite in power. Consequently, the private-public demarcation remains largely superficial as even the ‘public’ security systems were largely in the service of those in power.
This study focuses on community-led mechanisms in the East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Rwanda and seeks to address two critical gaps with regard to the governance of security in low income urban neighborhoods in East Africa. The first gap has to do with the continued treatment of security as the preserve of the state. This reality is problematic in that it overlooks how the state’s monopoly over security is being challenged. The waning dominance of the state in the use of force calls for a better understanding of the emerging community-led mechanisms in enhancing public security.
The second gap that this study seeks to plug is a policy one. At the policy level the limited understanding of the effectiveness of community-led security mechanisms has contributed to the preoccupation with the need to increase the presence and numbers of the public police in low income urban neighborhoods as the only measure of securing the residents. This is in spite of the fact that in many instances, the public police are themselves the source of insecurity for the residents of low income urban neighborhoods, given their poor relations with the community as well as the policing models that see the residents of low income urban neighborhoods as predisposed to crime and therefore a category that should be the subject of surveillance, restriction and punishment.
30 Oct 2015 02:19:14 GMT
There is mixed evidence on the empowering or disempowering potential of ICTs for women. New technologies clearly seem to have the potential of removing women-specific barriers to participation and organisation and leveling centuries-old gender inequality. The gender gap in access and usage, however, reveals that women are not able to tap the empowering potential of new technologies at par with men.
The gendered socio-cultural and economic environment in which ICTs are embedded as well as the gendered design and regulatory framework of the new technologies obstruct ICTs from unfolding their empowering potential for women.
This document looks at case studies that highlight the challenges of implementing gender-sensitive ICT initiatives in Africa and India. It argues that not only are ICTs not addressing the gendered mindsets of men and women, they even risk entrenching gender inequalities. Recent initiatives of the private sector in India and Africa equally fail to address the underlying reasons for the ICT gender gap. Female digital literacy is not enough for transformative empowerment that would challenge traditional gender roles and shift the balance of power within our societies. If ICTs are to empower women, they have to be designed in a manner that suits female skills and interests, and must be embedded in a regulatory framework that favours female access and usage. Only if ICTs fulfill this ambitious agenda will their potential
for women empowerment unfold.
22 Oct 2015 10:25:22 GMT
The discourse on African fisheries governance is dominated by themes of unrealised potential and crisis. In this respect, illegal fishing and overfishing by foreign industrial vessels, as well as intense fishing pressure in the small-scale sector, have decreased stocks substantially in many coastal and inland waters.
To improve the efficiency of the sector, the author suggests to assign and enforce fishing quotas to individual fishers, thereby preventing the scenario where too many fishers chasing too few fish make too little income. Furthermore, he underlines the importance of developing appropriate and effective governance frameworks for African small-scale fisheries.
On the other hand, the document highlights that global co-operation is central to curbing illegal fishing off Africa’s coast. Consequently, it presents the following recommendations:
16 Oct 2015 09:08:46 GMTThis report discusses findings from a survey to evaluate health behaviour change communication interventions supported by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) in Uganda, under the AFFORD/Uganda Health Marketing Group together with other implementing partners in Uganda. The survey particularly focused on assessing the effectiveness of HIV, family planning, malaria, and maternal and child health communication at both national and district levels. Overall, the findings indicate a high level of exposure to all of the communication campaigns, and significant associations of exposure to improved knowledge and positive behaviour changes. The evaluation comprised a household survey of 7,542 men and women between 15 and 54 years of age residing in 27 districts of Uganda between November 2010 and November 2012. Each implementing partner supported data collection in districts where they are active. The report discusses levels of exposure and associated behavioural variables for specific health communication interventions conducted during the 12 months prior to the survey. It also reports on combined effects of HIV communication, family planning communication, malaria communication, and maternal and child health communication efforts. In terms of exposure, the findings indicate that health communication programmes under review had widespread reach. For example, during the 12 months preceding the survey 78.8% of respondents reported seeing or hearing about family planning from at least one of the interventions, and 84.8% of respondents had been exposed to any of the HIV communication campaigns. Exposure to malaria communication was slightly lower at 67% of respondents. Across the four major focus areas of the project (HIV, family planning, malaria, and maternal and child health communication), the evaluation found positive associations between exposure and knowledge, discussions, and behaviour change. For example, while controlling for age, sex, rural or urban residence, marital status, educational level or wealth, those who had been exposed to any of the family planning communication interventions "were significantly more likely to currently use a modern family planning (FP) method, discuss FP with their partner, and want an ideal family size of four or less." Similarly, "exposure to any HIV communication was associated with a higher likelihood of condom use at last sex and intentions to circumcise among uncircumcised male respondents. Exposed respondents were also three times more likely than those who were not exposed to know that male circumcision reduces HIV risk, two times more likely to state that male circumcision is beneficial, and two times more likely to discuss male circumcision with others." In terms of malaria, exposure was associated with increase in testing before treatment of 4% among women an[...]
15 Oct 2015 04:16:36 GMTAt the individual level, youth lack access to appropriate SRH [sexual and reproductive health] information and confidential, low-cost, and stigma-free SRH services. Institutional responses are hampered by sociocultural sensitivities to youth premarital sexual activity, inadequate provision of sexuality education, and limited geographic and target population reach of current youth-focused programming. There continue to be few youth-specific policy provisions, which are hindered by weak political commitments and inadequate resourcing for implementation. These are some of the key insights outlined in this report discussing the findings of a study conducted in Egypt, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, and Uganda regarding HIV risk-taking and health-seeking behaviours among young people. By providing an examination of the HIV prevention and impact mitigation issues facing young people in these countries, the report seeks to uncover gaps in ongoing HIV prevention programmes for young people on the continent. Based on these findings, it recommends a number of key strategic actions for making the HIV response more relevant and effective for young people, including the types of communication, advocacy, and economic empowerment interventions and operations research that are needed. The study is intended to inform the Population Council's development of more effective policies for reaching youth and meeting their needs, including insights and evidence for better planning, designing, allocating resources to, and evaluating policies and programmes that address the HIV vulnerabilities of youth across Africa. Recommendations: improving sexual-health-seeking behaviours, especially uptake of HCT [HIV Counseling and Testing] by male youth and condom use by female youth, through a combination of youth-empowering communication and poverty-reduction interventions is imperative evidence-based advocacy needs to be targeted at policymakers and donors to drive greater attention to the youth dimensions of the HIV epidemic, especially in relation to neglected vulnerable youth innovative operations research is called for to better understand how to increase the meaningful involvement of young people in the conception, planning, and implementation of SRH and HIV/AIDS policies and programs efforts to promote the mainstreaming of youth-friendly SRH and HIV services are required given the challenges of scaling up and sustaining the few model standalone services provided largely by NGOs systematic domestication of key international regional protocols to align to individual country contexts needs to be advocated for aggressively alignment of civil, religious, and customary laws to ensure laws and policies are not contradictory needs to be fully explored. The effective implementation of youth-specific laws and policies re[...]
15 Oct 2015 04:09:52 GMT
Produced by a network of citizen journalists around the world who report the HIV, health, and human rights stories affecting them and their communities, this collection of stories highlights the current challenges that young people are facing in the context of the HIV epidemic. The focus is on helping marginalised communities influence HIV and broader health policy, programming, and financing at national and international levels.
15 Oct 2015 04:02:42 GMT
Truckers and female sex workers who effectively use condoms and regularly check their HIV status were motivated by a responsibility to their families, as well as their personal safety. This is one of the key findings resulting from a rapid qualitative study conducted among 40 female sex workers (FSW) and 25 truck drivers in Busia, Uganda.
Using focus group discussions and follow-up in-depth interviews with some participants, the survey sought to "more closely understand the characteristics, decision-making factors, coping strategies and processes of those who adopt desirable HIV counseling and testing (HCT) behaviors and use condoms and to document any specific barriers to adoption of these desirable behaviors." These findings are informing behaviour change communication interventions being implemented by the CHC project.
The report offers the following recommendations based on the findings:
15 Oct 2015 03:54:00 GMT
This report shares perspectives and insights from young people from around the world living with and affected by HIV, who share their visions for realising and claiming their sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and for setting priorities for HIV and SRHR integration.
The publication was produced by the Link Up project, as part of discussions held to help advocate for young people to be a priority when setting development agendas, particularly within the emerging post-2015 framework. The Link Up project is being implemented by a consortium of global and national partners, working with young people aged 10 to 24 years old, with a specific focus on young men who have sex with men, young people who do sex work, young people who use drugs, young transgender people, and young women and men living with HIV. Two consortium partners, the Global Youth Coalition on HIV/AIDS (GYCA) and the ATHENA Network led consultations with young people, which involved nearly 800 people from around the world who responded to a global online survey, and over 400 young people who participated in a series of community dialogues and focus groups with national partners in Ethiopia, Uganda, Burundi, Bangladesh, and Myanmar.
The report discusses five "vision areas for positive change" that emerged from the consultations, and outlines the related recommendations that emerged, which speak to young peoples’ shared perspectives on what is needed to achieve real progress.
Recommendations emerging from the consultations:
02 Oct 2015 11:53:35 GMT
Diseases such as Ebola highlight the importance of a holistic focus on health systems, as opposed to assuming that health is the preserve and concern of health professionals alone. This was the lesson Uganda learnt very quickly in managing the Ebola outbreak in 2001.
This briefing paper outlines the essential elements of the Ugandan Ebola response in 2001, including: