31 Mar 2017 12:10:22 GMT
This issue of the Open Access IDS Bulletin examines the impact of decentralisation at the local level through detailed case studies of five countries – Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia. The issue deals with all three of the main aims for decentralisation reforms in Africa: improved service delivery, democracy and participation, and a reduction in central government expenditure. It analyses micro, comparative stories by accumulating evidence on how decentralisation works differently within each featured country, and the factors that are responsible for differential outcomes.
Contributors are mostly African scholars who live under the region’s decentralised systems and study them with a proximate lens often denied to visiting scholars. Their research questions, on their countries’ respective policy agendas, are joined by the common belief that more innovative methods should be applied to these questions in order to get at better explanations.
While decentralisation is an important issue, systematic analyses of its outcomes are limited. This IDS Bulletin represents first efforts to use more innovative and incisive methods to understand decentralisation and its impact.
23 Mar 2017 03:25:40 GMT
21 Feb 2017 12:15:12 GMT
17 Feb 2017 04:52:20 GMT
10 Jan 2017 12:18:51 GMT
Smallholder farmers in Uganda face a wide range of agricultural production risks, with climate change and variability presenting new risks and vulnerabilities. Climate related risks such as prolonged dry seasons have become more frequent and intense with negative impacts on agricultural livelihoods and food security.
This paper assesses farmers’ perceptions of climate change and variability and analyses historical trends in temperature and rainfall in two rural districts of Uganda in order to determine the major climate-related risks affecting crop and livestock production and to identify existing innovative strategies for coping with and adapting to climate-related risks, with potential for up-scaling in rural districts. The traditional coping strategies that have been developed by these communities overtime provide a foundation for designing effective adaptation strategies.
Drought, disease and pest epidemics, decreasing water sources, lack of pasture, bush fires, hailstorms, changes in crop flowering and fruiting times were the major climate-related risks reported across the two districts. Farmers use a wide range of agricultural technologies and strategies to cope with climate change and climate variability. Mulching, intercropping and planting of food security crops were among the most common practices used. Other strategies included water harvesting for domestic consumption, other soil and water conservation technologies and on-farm diversification. Farmers often use a combination of these technologies and practices to enhance agricultural productivity. The average maximum temperatures increased across the two districts. Trends in average annual rainfall showed mixed results with a general decline in one district and a relatively stable trend in the other district. Perceived changes in climate included erratic rainfall onset and cessation, which were either early or late, poor seasonal distribution of rainfall and little rainfall. Farmers also reported variations in temperatures. Farmers’ perception of changing rainfall characteristics and increasing temperatures were consistent with the observed historical climatic trends from meteorological data.
23 Dec 2016 12:15:37 GMT
Background: Undernutrition is highly prevalent among infants in Uganda. Optimal infant feeding practices may improve nutritional status, health, and survival among children.
Objective: Our study evaluates the socioeconomic distribution of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and growth outcomes among infants included in a trial, which promoted EBF by peer counselors in Uganda.
Design: Twenty-four clusters comprising one to two communities in Uganda were randomized into intervention and control arms, including 765 mother-infant pairs. Intervention clusters received the promotion of EBF by peer counselors in addition to standard care. Breastfeeding and growth outcomes were compared according to wealth quintiles and intervention/control arms. Socioeconomic inequality in breastfeeding and growth outcomes were measured using the concentration index 12 and 24 weeks postpartum. We used the decomposition of the concentration index to identify factors contributing to growth inequality at 24 weeks.
Results: EBF was significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group at 24 weeks postpartum, concentration index - 0.060. The control group showed a concentration of breastfeeding among the richest part of the population, although not statistically significant. Stunting, wasting, and underweight were similarly significantly concentrated among the poorest in the intervention group and the total population at 24 weeks, but showing non-significant concentrations for the control group.
Conclusion: This study shows that EBF can be successfully promoted among the poor. In addition, socioeconomic inequality in growth outcomes starts early in infancy, but the breastfeeding intervention was not strong enough to counteract this influence.
20 Dec 2016 10:27:20 GMT
Conceptualising smallholder farming households as collective action institutions, that make interrelated decisions about investment, resource use and allocation in a common household farm, may contribute to understanding widely observed uncooperative outcomes, such as yield gaps, gender gaps in productivity, suboptimal or Pareto inefficient sustainable intensification and climate change adaptation.
This paper examines the relation between participatory intra-household decision making – as a set of ‘rules of the game’ that reduces information and bargaining power asymmetries – and cooperative, i.e. more efficient, sustainable and equitable, outcomes in smallholder coffee farming households in Uganda. We find experimental evidence that participatory decision making is positively related to investments in the common household farm. Consumption behaviour however is not fairer nor more sustainable. Participatory decision making is associated with more cooperative actual outcomes such as greater investment in sustainable intensification, consideration of women’s interests, fairer reproductive intra-household labour division, more balanced control over cash crop income and improved livelihoods.
16 Dec 2016 11:31:23 GMT
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is being widely promoted as a solution for food insecurity and climate change adaptation in food systems of sub-Saharan Africa, while simultaneously reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. Governments throughout Africa are writing
policies and programs to promote CSA practices despite uncertainty about the ability for practices to meet the triple CSA objectives of CSA.
I this paper, the auuthors conducted a systematic review of 175 peer-reviewed and grey literature studies, to gauge the impact of over seventy potential CSA practices on CSA outcomes in Tanzania and Uganda. Using a total of 6,342 observations, it was found that practice impacts were highly context (i.e. farming system and location) specific. Nevertheless, practice effect across CSA outcomes generally agreed in direction.
While results suggest that CSA is indeed possible, lack of mitigation data precludes a more conclusive statement. Furthermore, the inclusion of potential adoption rates changes the potential of CSA practices to achieve benefits at scale. Given the uncertainty and variable impacts of practices across regions and outcomes, it is critical for decision makers to prioritize practices based on their desired outcomes and local context.
15 Dec 2016 03:34:18 GMT
21 Nov 2016 12:56:38 GMT
Reforestation, environmental development, growth in the developing world: when does a green economy come at too high a price?
The Ugandan Government wants to encourage development and boost it’s forest reserves. They’ve leased over 8000 hectares of land to Norwegian based company, Green Resources, Africa’s largest forestation company. This sounds like a good news story in Africa, except that Bukaleba Forest Reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria, has been home to thousands of rural people for decades.
These villagers are indicative of 90 % of rural Africans who have no land title. This film explores one simple truth: land acquisitions for growth and development can compromise the livelihoods of some of the world’s most vulnerable people.
We hear from the villagers, the Land Ministry, the company at the core. ‘Green: at what price?’ not only highlights the plight of Ugandan villagers, but reveals a vital scenario playing out across Africa and around the globe.
15 Nov 2016 02:55:59 GMT
A two year qualitative investigation of the nature and consequences of shame associated with poverty was conducted in seven settings located in rural Uganda and India; urban China, Pakistan, Korea and United Kingdom; and small town and urban Norway. The research presented results consistent with the thesis that the shame is always associated with poverty and that this may reduce personal efficacy and contribute to the duration and prevalence of poverty, a process that may be aggravated by policies that stigmatise recipients of social protection.
The research explores the contention that shame is a universal attribute of poverty which is common to people experiencing poverty in all societies. It investigates whether shame has internal and external components such that people are shamed because they are poor and feel shame due to being poor - and that both reduce individual agency and increase social exclusion.
The research initially seeks within different cultural settings to:
Because personal experiences and public understanding of poverty are shaped by cultural expectations and resource constraints, the research will:
07 Nov 2016 05:27:59 GMTThe Bujagali hydropower dam on The River Nile in Uganda was fi nally commissioned in August 2012 after eighteen years of controversy that delayed the dam construction. The dam faced numerous economic, environmental, social and spiritual challenges that stalled the dam construction while the project underwent investigations over bribery claims and project reviews on the dam design and capacity. The dam cost kept on growing from $580 million at inception to $860 million and finally $902 million ($3.6million per MW) at completion. Independent investigations by the Ugandan Parliamentary adhoc committee on energy put the dam’s actual cost at $1.3 billion ($5.2million per MW or more).The dam project was marketed by The Government of Uganda and the World Bank as the least-cost project. Two different hydropower companies - AES Nile Power and Bujagali Energy Limited – feature in the development of the Bujagali hydropower dam in Uganda. The project was undertaken as a Public Private Partnership between the Government of Uganda and International Financial Corporation (IFCs), the World Bank Group, European Investment Bank, African Development Bank in collaboration with dam construction companies- Industrial Promotions Services (IPS), a holding company of the Aga Khan and Sithe Global Power. The project partners, IPS, Sithe Global Power and the government set up a new company- Bujagali Energy Ltd (BEL) to operate and run the project.The Bujagali hydropower dam development was marred with controversies that saw the dam take over 18 years to complete. The dam project was investigated four times, twice by the Inspection Panel of The World Bank, by The African Development Bank’s Independent Review Mechanism (IRM), and by The European Investment Bank’s Compliance Review. A long range of cases have also been opened by the IFCs Compliance Advisor Ombudsman. Citizens groups in Uganda like the National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE), Save Bujagali Crusade, and other international groups like International Rivers Network (IR), and Counter Balance played an important role in raising the potential social, economic and environmental impacts of the project in the public domain and prompted the lenders to investigate and consider policy adherence.The project financiers – the World Bank (WB), African Development Bank (AfDB), and the European Development Bank (EDB) – investigated the project and found the project to have violated several of their bank policies. The banks wrote reports on their findings and made recommendations, whose implementation would be the basis for the project to receive fi nancial support. The banks, however, went ahead and funded the project ignoring the concerns raised about the project. The Government of Uganda signed an agreement with IPS and BEL to construct the project in 2007 before Parliament approved the government’s obligation as required by law. BEL started the project construction in 2007 and expected to fi nish in three years, but the dam project was completed and commissioned by Government of Uganda in August 2012, fi ve years later. Despite several lender reports recommendations and reiterated effort from the project constructors some of the concerns raised by civil citizen groups are not resolved, and new ones have been raised during the process. These issues include; hydrological and climate change risks, cumulative impact assessment of the cascade of dams, economic and environmental analysis of alternative energy options, cultural and spiritual values, compensations for persons affected by the electricity transmission line as well as persons injured during the dam construction.Complaints about these unresolved issues have been raised by the concerned citi[...]
03 Nov 2016 03:20:45 GMT
For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global water management problems. IWRM has been incorporated into water laws, reforms and policies of southern African nations. This article introduces the special issue 'Flows and Practices: The Politics of IWRM in southern Africa'. It provides a conceptual framework to study: the flow of IWRM as an idea; its translation and articulation into new policies, institutions andallocation mechanisms, and the resulting practices and effects across multiple scales – global, regional, national and local. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda form the core of this special issue. We demonstrate how Africa has been a laboratory for IWRM experiments, while donors as well as a new cadre of water professionals and students have made IWRM their mission. The case studies reveal that IWRM may have resulted in an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women’s and men’s access to water. The newly created institutional arrangements tended to centralise the power and control of the State and powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.
01 Nov 2016 05:14:41 GMT
For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global water management problems. IWRM has been incorporated into water laws, reforms and policies of southern African nations. This is a special issue 'Flows and Practices: The Politics of IWRM in southern Africa' of the journal Water Alternatives. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda form the core of this special issue. We demonstrate how Africa has been a laboratory for IWRM experiments, while donors as well as a new cadre of water professionals and students have made IWRM their mission. The case studies reveal that IWRM may have resulted in an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women’s and men’s access to water. The newly created institutional arrangements tended to centralise the power and control of the State and powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.
13 Oct 2016 04:15:34 GMT
This paper presents a case study from Mount Elgon National Park, Uganda, examining and deepening an understanding of direct incomes and costs of conservation for local people close to protected areas. In the early 1990s, collaborative arrangements were introduced to Mount Elgon National Park to improve people-park relations and enhance rural livelihoods after a period of violent evictions and severe resource access restrictions. In areas with such arrangements – including resource access agreements, Taungya farming, and beekeeping schemes – we observe a marginal increase in annual incomes for involved households. Other incomes accrue from tourism revenue sharing schemes, a community revolving fund, and payments for carbon sequestration. However, these incomes are economically marginal (1.2% of household income), unevenly distributed and instrumentally used to reward compliance with park regulations. They do not necessarily accrue to those incurring costs due to eviction and exclusion, crop raiding, resource access restrictions and conflicts. By contrast, costs constitute at least 20.5 % of total household incomes, making it difficult to see how conservation, poverty alleviation and development can be locally reconciled if local populations continue to bear the economic brunt of conservation. We recommend a shift in policy towards donor and state responsibility for compensating costs on a relevant scale. Such a shift would be an important step towards a more substantive rights-based model of conservation, and would enhance the legitimacy of protected area management in the context of both extreme poverty and natural resource dependence.
04 Oct 2016 05:18:11 GMTThe Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), Cape Town, South Africa, hosted a two-day policy research seminar in Cape Town, from 19 to 20 March 2016, on the theme “War and Peace in the Great Lakes Region”. The meeting brought together about 30 prominent African and Western policymakers, scholars, and civil society activists to assess the major obstacles to peace and security in the Great Lakes, and considered seven broad themes: Security and Governance in the Great Lakes Region; the cases of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC); Burundi; Rwanda; and Uganda; as well as the role of the United Nations; and that of the European Union, in the Great Lakes. The following 10 key policy recommendations emerged from the policy research seminar:since post-conflict reconstruction and peacebuilding efforts in the Great Lakes have become stalled due to the unresolved issues in the region’s political economy, it is imperative that governments urgently address the major issue of youth unemployment – more than 30 percent of the region’s population are aged between 10 and 24the international community must adopt a less selective approach to responding to the governance deficiencies of the countries in the region, acting swiftly to criticise the government in Burundi but being reluctant to condemn governments in Uganda and Rwanda due to strategic interests in both countriesaddressing sexual violence in the DRC must become a key priority. Making progress in security sector reform which has been largely uncoordinated by external actors amid a lack of political will on the part of the government of Joseph Kabila, would also be critical to efforts to tackling gender-based violenceBurundi needs effective leadership and a government that is accountable to its own people. A mass movement must therefore be fostered to promote an inclusive negotiation process. Beyond Burundi, mass advocacy movements should also be built among the 127 million citizens of the Great Lakescarefully targeted international sanctions against the Rwandan government for its actions in the DRC have had some effect in changing its behaviour. Such sanctions should also be applied to Rwanda’s domestic human rights situationthere is an urgent need for governments in the Great Lakes region to recommit to peace accords and tackling regional insecurity related to issues of identity and citizenshipthere is also an urgent need for political parties and conflict actors in the Great Lakes to revisit peace accords that were signed more than a decade and a half ago with a view to adapting as well as implementing principles of constitutionalism and multi-party democracy which were enshrined in these accordsthough some have suggested that UN peacekeepers should withdraw from the DRC to create room for endogenous solutions to the country’s long-running conflict, other voices have cautioned against a premature withdrawal of the UN, citing the example of Burundi in 2006 where such a withdrawal removed the international community’s capacity for tackling instabilityit is time to rethink the role of the UN in the DRC in the areas of peacekeeping and peacebuilding. Its bureaucracy has become dysfunctional which has negatively affected the efficiency of UN peacekeeping missions. The UN Security Council must therefore do more to align mandates, roles, and resources closer to the realities onthe groundthe EU and other international actors need to undertake more outreach to Tanzania, South Africa, the EAC and other regional actors in their peacebuilding efforts in the Great Lakes[...]
09 Sep 2016 01:49:48 GMT
31 Aug 2016 10:25:31 GMT
An Economic Assessment of the Impacts of Climate Change has been completed at the national level in Uganda. As part of this nation-wide study, this case study seeks to assess the impacts of climate change and their costs in the health sector in the districts of Tororo and Kabale, drawing on national projections of climate change.
Malaria is endemic in 95% of Uganda, and poses significant economic and soci al costs. In both districts looked at in this study, the costs associated with malaria could more than double by 2050 as a result of both population increase and predicted changes in climate. In Tororo, the economic cost of malaria due to climate change may rise from $9-$ 22 1 million in 2010 to $ 20 -$561 million in 2050. In Kabale, these costs may increase from between $0.7-$1 5.8 million in 2010 to between $1.55-$41.7 million in 2050. Efforts need to be increased to reduce this burden - and there are a number of low cost actions that may be taken.
Adaptation options such as Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs), Indoor Residential Spra ying (IRS), clearing of breeding sites and proper treatment have been shown to have benefits that far outweigh the costs when they are properly targeted, even without climate change. Additional cost-effective adaptation actions in the immediate term may include information dissemination, particularly to high risk areas, revised planning regimes to help control malaria prevalence, and measures for early warning and action for malaria risk. The spatial differentiation in malaria risk suggests there is no "one size fits allâ policy for malaria, and hence there is a need for comprehensive di sease vulnerability assessments and action planning across districts.
23 Aug 2016 12:22:26 GMT
19 Aug 2016 02:00:10 GMT
Uganda is already experiencing the impacts of climate variability and associated economic losses. Uganda’s First National Development Plan (2010–2015) recognises that climate change will affect most of its key economic sectors and that action on climate change is crucial if the country is to meet its goal to become a competitive, upper middle-income country by 2040 (Vision 2040). The Plan also recognises that, for development to be economically and socially sustainable, climate resilience must be at the heart of policies for growth and development, energy access and security, increased agricultural production, education and health.
12 Aug 2016 12:54:02 GMTThe Mount Elgon region is very vulnerable to climate change and variability, with a heavy dependence on coffee production. Yields and quality of coffee crops have been declining over the last 30 years, in part owing to poor management practices and in part because of an increase in the frequency of droughts, landslides and floods. This study has reviewed the evolving situation for Arabica coffee cultivation in the Bududa district and looked at how climate variability is affecting coffee yields and livelihoods, based on the data collected in the field through interviews with key stakeholders and a literature review.It identified seven potential adaptation approaches, and focused on the two that stakeholders considered to be most important: Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) and institutional support measures (or extension services). According to literature and the stakeholders interviewed, CSA practices are not currently adopted, in part because farmers lack the resources and technical capacities to make the necessary investments.The study found that although quite costly, investments in CSA are likely to be justified, as probable benefits outweigh the costs, both under current conditions, and even more so when expected climate impacts are considered. The study indicates that likely investment costs are in the range of US$2.4 million in 2016, rising to US$4.9 million by 2019, over and above the current institutional support programme of Bududa’s District Local Government, which has a budget of only around US$ 214,329. The analysis shows that investment in these two complementary programmes – CSA and institutional support - would have an internal rate of return of around 36%. If combined with other adaptation approaches, such as complementary policies or providing better climate information, there is, in the view of the study team, potential to sustain coffee cultivation in Bududa, both now and under future predicted climatic conditions.The study recommends that further research and analysis is conducted in order to identify:the impact of climate variability on coffee yields in the Mt Elgon region, and other coffee growing regions in Ugandathe cost and benefits of different approaches to CSA in the coffee sector, in particular to identify ‘low regret’ options and options where there are co-benefitsthe economic viability of coffee growing under BAU and CSA in different regions in Uganda, in order to focus investment on regions where there is a stronger economic case for coffee cultivation in the long termbarriers and enablers that effect the adoption of CSA practices by farmers, in order to identify what wrap-around support might be needed, and subsequent to this an analysis of how support may be best deliveredthe costs and benefits of alternative livelihoods in Bududa, including cultivation of other crops and non-farming activities, versus coffee cultivationThe above actions would help to inform the design of a CSA programme for coffee, including practical measures as well as institutional support, and help to identify what additional complementary strategies might be needed. Critically, the development of such a programme should also involve the private sector, and an analysis of the market and value chain for coffee, to enable improved commercialisation. Further, given the high level of investment that is potentially required, it is recommended that any CSA programme is first piloted in order to establish whether expectations around costs, benefits, and yields, etc, are borne out[...]
12 Aug 2016 11:07:29 GMT
11 Aug 2016 10:45:55 GMT
27 Jun 2016 03:48:34 GMT
Public spending on climate change in Africa describes the extent to which public expenditure responds to national climate change policy and the institutional demands required to implement such policy. The four countries of the study: Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda provide insights into the early mobilisation of climate change finance, as each country attempts to address the new challenges that climate change is bringing about. The report is divided into three parts. The first part introduces the concept of climate change finance and outlines the effectiveness framework used in each of the country studies. The methodological challenges associated with public expenditure reviews as applied to national climate change actions are also described. The second part provides in-depth country accounts for Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda, on the level and nature of climate change-relevant public spending, set in the context of each countryâs macroeconomic and public finance management systems. The final section concludes by drawing lessons for climate change policy development, institutional strengthening, local delivery of climate change finance and the monitoring of public finance, based on the insights gained from the country studies.
24 Jun 2016 12:30:51 GMT
Studies indicate that harmful gender norms and practices, cultural perceptions and beliefs surrounding pregnancy and childbirth, and a distrust of health-care services all can pose barriers to HIV prevention and treatment. In particular, women face difficulties related to unequal gender power relations and stigma.
This Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) document presents evidence that timely and continued access to antiretroviral medicines would reduce new infections in children and give HIV-infected women access to HIV treatment and care for their own health and well-being. Because 1) women's lack of autonomy, 2) mistrust of health services, particularly due to a lack of cultural sensitivity and confidentiality among health-service providers, and 3) fear of stigma and related abuse can affect women's access to treatment, key gender-related barriers stand in the way of preventing new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive.
The following recommendations, based upon discussions in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Uganda, are proposed to overcome gender-related and cultural barriers to services.
23 Jun 2016 11:53:46 GMT
The Essential Packages Manual was produced as part of the "Access, Services and Knowledge" (ASK) programme of the Youth Empowerment Alliance, which seeks to improve the sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR) of young people (15-24 years) by increasing their uptake of SRH services in Kenya, Uganda, Ethiopia, Ghana, Senegal, Pakistan, and Indonesia.
The manual is designed to help partners understand the main concepts, principles, and values of the ASK programme, and provides information and practical tools designed to assist partners to reach programme objectives. This includes information about SRHR and related services for young people, as well as guidance in creating an enabling environment and integrating SRHR, HIV/AIDS, and meaningful youth participation into programming.
The publication includes tools for self-assessment to help identify partnersâ€™ own progress and areas requiring support. It also includes roadmaps with practical steps to move towards desired project results, and outlines available tools, guidelines, protocols, and standards.
The manual includes the following contents, organised around key result areas:
23 Jun 2016 11:18:54 GMT
"Link Up’s experience in Uganda demonstrates the success empowered young people living with HIV can have in achieving greater access to SRHR and HIV services for their peers. Building a strong team of peer educators who were visible and proud of their work proved the foundation for service provision in the project.”
This is a key outcome outlined in this 16-page case study discussing the experience of the Link Up Project in Uganda, which was designed to increase access to integrated and quality sexual and reproductive health and rights and HIV information, as well as commodities and services, for young people living with and most affected by HIV. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the Link Up Project used peer educators, along with improving youth-friendly health services, to address barriers facing young people in accessing reproductive health services, such as lack of knowledge, skills, and youth-friendly services.
The case study first explains the context of the programme and then goes on to describe the main component of the programme - the use of peer educators.
According to the case study, through the project young people who are normally hard-to-reach were brought closer to SRHR and HIV services, and many were referred for antiretroviral therapy enrolment. Between 2013 and 2015 the project:
23 Jun 2016 04:03:39 GMT
The need for HIV prevention efforts to more explicitly incorporate program elements to address gender inequality and violence has been repeatedly articulated, and the elimination of sexual and gender-based violence has been identified by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) as being one of the core pillars of HIV prevention.
Recognising that intimate partner violence (IPV) is an independent risk factor for HIV infection, researchers in this SASA! study sought to assess the community-level impact of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence and reduce HIV-risk behaviors.
14 Jun 2016 11:54:13 GMT
10 Jun 2016 06:11:49 GMT
This is a desk appraisal of the Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) done for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) by the Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU).
10 Jun 2016 04:51:14 GMT
At Mount Elgon National Park in Uganda, local conservation authorities assert that a variety of benefit sharing schemes mitigate the negative consequences of exclusionary forest conservation and carbon sequestration for nearby communities. Among other initiatives, these include the redistribution of ecotourism revenue, the signing of collaborative resource management agreements, and the provision of ecotourism-related employment opportunities. Conservationists argue that these schemes result in ‘triple-win’ outcomes for both the national park and local communities, wherein biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and development goals mutually complement each other. Taking an environmental justice approach, this report synthesizes findings concerning local notions of (in)justice, actual geographical and temporal distributions of benefits from conservation at Mount Elgon, and the effects of such distributions on perceptions and mobilizations related to environmental justice. In doing so, it identifies widespread expressions of resentment and hostility among local communities, as well as large inequalities in access to ecotourism revenue and other benefits both between and within them. To highlight a salient example, worst-off park neighbours received assistance equivalent to only 0.0085 USD per district resident over a nine-year period. The perceived injustices that arise from these inequalities exacerbate conflicts between conservationists and local people, and, consequently, result in ecological damage to protected forests. To alleviate both the environmental injustice and degradation entailed by these inequalities, the report concludes with a number of recommendations for universalizing sustainable access to collaboratively managed resources on Mount Elgon.
27 May 2016 04:13:33 GMT
Uganda has a rich tradition of care and respect for the elderly. But, as in all societies, this informal system of support – while still functioning for some – is, for many others, beginning to weaken as a result of poverty, migration, urbanisation and the impact of HIV and AIDs. In response, the government of Uganda – with support from the United Kingdom, Ireland and UNICEF – has taken the first steps in building a pension system for every citizen, with the aim of ensuring that no older person has to live in abject poverty. A pilot scheme – known as the Senior Citizens’ Grant (SCG) – is currently being established in 14 Districts to assess the feasibility of providing every older person with a regular and secure cash income. If successful, the government is considering expanding the scheme across Uganda.
This paper will discuss the value of establishing a universal pension in Uganda. It will begin by considering the challenges currently facing the nation’s older citizens, before moving on to an overview of universal pensions in other developing countries. The paper will examine the evidence on the impacts of these pensions, before briefly describing the SCG and assessing its potential benefits and costs if it were to be expanded to all older citizens. Finally, the paper will argue that it is important to ensure that the pension is accessible to all older people and that its implementation would be a popular and welcome initiative.
27 May 2016 04:04:44 GMT
According to existing survey analysis, Uganda has made steady progress in poverty reduction over the past decade. However, these gains have not been experienced evenly, with large disparities in poverty levels across geographic areas and household characteristics. These disparities persist when poverty is examined across multiple deprivations– such as health, education, sanitation, and housing – rather than only consumption.
31 Mar 2016 10:02:50 GMT
This paper documents the results of the process of developing and selecting national standard climate change indicators for integration into two national monitoring and evaluation frameworks in Uganda: the Output Budgeting Tool (OBT) and the Local Government Assessment tool (LGAT). The OBT is used by the Ministry of Finance, Planning and Economic Development (MoFPED) to determine national development standard indicators that are monitored and reported across all sectors in the country.
The LGAT determines and annually assesses the minimum performance measures for all local governments in Uganda. Before the intervention of the Africa Climate Change Resilience Allicance (ACCRA) and the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) as part of the Tracking Adaptation and Measuring Development (TAMD), both frameworks lacked standard performance indicators on climate change. This meant that local governments were not required to plan, budget or report on climate change.
The briefing draws out lessons learned from using a highly participatory and bottom-up process, as well as policy implications at national, sub-national and sectoral levels. It also highlights key prerequisites for successful development and integration of climate change indicators in existing monitoring and reporting frameworks of national states.
23 Mar 2016 05:31:35 GMT
This report presents the findings of a learning study which arose from the growing sense that not enough attention was being paid to the people expected to take up and use T4TAIs. Conducted in partnership by IDS (Dr Rosie McGee and Ruth Carlitz), Hivos’s Knowledge Progra and Amis Boersma) and ATTI (Africa Technology for T July 2012 and December 2012, the study addressed the core question: ‘Are the realities of these assumed users, and constraints that may stop them taking the action expected of them in response to T4TAIs, investigated and taken into account systematically enough, in respect of technology-based initiatives, or in the TAI field as a whole?’
Two case studies are used, one of which one focuses on water resource management, specifically drinking water.
22 Mar 2016 12:18:28 GMT
The large number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Great Lakes region poses immense challenges to peacebuilding processes within the countries affected, as well as in that entire conflict system. An influx of refugees impacts peace and security, citizenship considerations, as well as cross-border and ethnic confl icts, among others. A case in point, conflict is often triggered by competition for land and economic resources, and is exacerbated by the growing number of refugees in Africa’s Great Lakes region. The presence of refugees contributes to signifi cant security issue for several countries in the region. There have been reports of some refugees joining armed groups or terrorist organisations, occupying large territories to exploit mineral resources, attacking local communities to expropriate land, and acting as cheap labour, to the detriment of locals. These factors advance the perception among original inhabitants that crime, impunity and weapons traffi cking, among other scourges, increase with the settlement of foreigners in their communities and countries. On the other side of the debate are considerations that refugees bring important skills and knowledge into host countries, participate in entrepreneurship and development projects that contribute to local economies, and boost local markets due to increased demand for products and services.
There are questions that are central to understanding the dilemma that is the ongoing refugee crisis in the Great Lakes region. How can the challenge of huge refugee numbers in the region be addressed? How best can long-term, sustainable and holistic political and humanitarian solutions be implemented to deal with the negative impacts of the refugee crisis? Why has the fl ood of refugees been such a long-term recurrent issue in the Great Lakes region, compared to other parts of the continent? This Policy & Practice Brief (PPB) analyses why refugees have been hesitant to return to their domiciles, even when there have been indications that relative peace had returned to their countries of origin. It also examines the impacts of refugee fl ows on peace and security, as well as on land and socio-economic control and access. It concludes by proffering recommendations on what can be done, from a regional perspective, to decrease the number of refugees, while simultaneously resolving the root causes of the various confl icts that the refugees have fl ed in the fi rst place.
21 Mar 2016 02:05:29 GMT
This background paper examines the role of social protection programmes in supporting education in conflict-affected contexts. It looks at the impact, design and implementation issues of social protection programme experience in conflict, protracted crisis and post-conflict contexts, including in Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Sierra Leone, Somalia, Nepal, Northern Uganda and Pakistan.
The paper finds that the costs of education are significant in conflict-affected countries – not only are the direct costs of schooling high, but also parents often have to contribute a significant amount to the school to keep it functioning. In a context of high rates of poverty and disrupted livelihoods and potentially high opportunity costs of sending children to school, the direct and indirect costs of sending children to school are often the most substantial barrier to children’s schooling.
Experience suggests that education subsidies and fee waivers offer important potential to offset costs and increase enrolment and attendance, but they have not been widely implemented. Education has remained mainly a secondary objective in social protection programming, for example in cash grant transfers, public works programmes and school feeding programmes. Longterm funding, institutional coordination and support for capacity building are needed to deliver sustainable social protection at scale which supports households to meet both the direct and indirect costs of education in conflict-affected contexts.
21 Mar 2016 01:26:13 GMT
Care responsibilities is being increasingly identified as a factor restricting women’s empowerment outcomes, yet there is limited evidence on determinants of long hours or gender inequality in care work. To gain a clearer understanding of care work and pathways of change to promote more equitable care provision, Oxfam conducted a Household Care Survey in communities of rural Colombia, Ethiopia, the Philippines, Uganda and Zimbabwe.
Results highlight that gender inequality exists in all measures of care work, with women and girls doing significantly more primary and secondary care activities, and supervision of dependants, than men and boys. Key findings are presented in time use and work hours, and determinants of patterns of care work. In all countries, the research found that women have longer total hours of work than men, men spend more time on paid work than women, and women have longer hours of care work. The determinants of care are context-specific. Education and relative household wealth are less relevant as determinants of length, intensity or inequality in care hours than might be expected. Women’s paid/productive activities and access to labour-saving stoves and improved water systems are sometimes associated with decreases in women’s hours of care work.
Adapted from authors’ summary.
15 Mar 2016 11:54:04 GMT
We investigated the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, namely mobile phones) in support of citizen agency and its potential in calling for authorities’ accountability. We focused on Eastern Africa and we used a mixed methodology, which allowed us to explore the current uses of ICT to strengthen accountability and to forecast the growth of mobile phones’ adaption in that region. Evidence from both analyses suggests that there are two main areas where citizen agency and ICT can reinforce each other in bottom-up and horizontal processes: participation and engagement of citizens, and the diffusion of information.
15 Mar 2016 04:17:15 GMT
To successfully use mobile phones to aid development efforts, understanding the impact of the social structure on mobile phone adoption, uses, perceived impacts, and reinvention of uses is invaluable. Interviews were conducted with 90 mobile phone-owning holders of small- to medium-sized farms— 50 women and 40 men—actively involved in agricultural development-based farm groups in Kamuli District, Uganda. Respondents indicated use of the mobile phone for coordinating access to agricultural inputs, market information, to monitor financial transactions, and to consult with agricultural experts. Over time, the number and variety of agricultural uses increased among all users, indicating that adoption occurs for a few key purposes, but that uses will be added or reinvented to fit changing needs. This study identified a number of unique uses, including storing local market trends in the calendar, using the speakerphone function for group consultation with agricultural experts, and taking photos of agricultural demonstrations.
09 Mar 2016 04:55:02 GMT
As governments and donors focused on increasing access to education in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the issue of learning received comparatively little concerted attention. Some organisations working in countries where access was rapidly increasing took notice of the fact that, while rising enrollment rates were being celebrated, there was little evidence of whether or not learning was taking place.
One of the results of this realisation was the emergence of the citizen-led assessment movement, initiated by Pratham in India in 2005. The movement is an attempt by civil-society organisations to gather evidence on learning and use it for two main purposes: first, to increase awareness of low learning outcomes and second, to stimulate actions that are intended to address the learning gap.
In an effort to more deeply understand the citizen-led assessment model and to evaluate its ability to measure learning, disseminate findings, and stimulate awareness and action, Results for Development Institute (R4D) evaluated four citizen-led assessments between May 2013 and November 2014: the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) in India, Beekunko in Mali, Jàngandoo in Senegal, and Uwezo in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. This summary includes a subset of recommendations that draw on the key evaluation findings.
04 Mar 2016 11:29:09 GMT
In order to advance sustainable development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is necessary to address cross-cutting issues on gender, environment, and climate change simultaneously. Despite this, a key challenge remains in ensuring that such integrated approaches are prioritised and implemented in national, sector, and local budgets. That is the problem discussed in this gender brief by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which draws on the experiences of an ongoing partnership between UN Women and the United Nations Development Programme. The brief includes examples of gender, environment, and climate change integration in policy and programming in Mozambique, research in Malawi and Uganda, and programming in Tanzania, as well as in areas concerning the strengthening of institutional capacities and knowledge sharing.
The key messages highlighted by the gender brief emphasise that addressing gender, environment, and climate change as cross-cutting issues can advance sustainable development and empower women, and that this will necessitate the strengthening of institutional and stakeholder capacities. Furthermore, data are needed to demonstrate the added value of integrating gender into climate and natural resource frameworks to convince decision-makers to take action. Additionally, proven climate- and gender-smart technologies must be quickly up-scaled.
The brief closes by presenting three key pieces of advice:
04 Mar 2016 05:08:44 GMTThe Women for Water Partnership (WfWP) currently includes 26 women’s networks covering around 100 countries, predominantly in the developing world. This publication pays tribute to some of the work of women’s organisations involved in the WfWP, by qualitatively documenting some of the best practices displayed, and highlighting the specific contributions of women around the world toward the UN General Assembly mandated International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life 2005 - 2015. The introduction explains the context the report in terms of the importance of studying the gender-water-sustainability nexus, Water for Life, and the status of water and sanitation as a human right. The majority of the report then examines examples of good practice from a number of case studies involving WfWP members. Each of the case studies provide background information on the contexts and organisations involved, and describes the role played by the primary women’s organisations in driving change. Also disucssed are their contributions to Water for Life, which together with the Dublin/Rio Principles for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), underline the central role of women in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water. The case studies examined include women’s organisations cooperating in: efforts toward a transformative gender-water-sustainable development agenda in Tanzania; contributions toward the Protocol on Water and Health for the UNECE Water Convention in Armenia and Ukraine; the implementation of the human right to water and sanitation in Nepal; provision of social accountability for water access in Kenya; sustainable water governance at Lake Victoria in Uganda; and empowering women in Nigeria through water and sanitation interventions. The role of women’s civil society organisations, and the value they add to sustainable development, is discussed next, before the report identifies a number of lessons learned through examination of the projects. In terms of barriers to the meaningful participation of women in the water sector, most stem from either the direct and indirect difficulties of working in large, remote areas with limited access to water, or where customary law is actively involved in water rights and the role of women in society. Cultural resistance to empowering women consumes time and effort to overcome, though drivers for change exist, including: the introduction of gender equality legislation; strong political leadership committed to gender equality, as evidence by the catalytic effect of a gender-sensitive water minister in Nigeria; support by local communities themselves, which can be highly effective in changing mind-sets; and the use of peer networks that can provide support, training, coaching, and backstopping. Small scale projects that account for cultural differences are often more successful than large [...]
01 Mar 2016 04:30:26 GMT
The evaluation has assessed FK Norway’s approach and strategy when it comes to strengthening civil society in developing countries. This is one of FK Norway’s overarching objectives and core activities, as stated in the instructions for the agency.
The evaluation has answered four main questions, in accordance with the terms of reference:
The evaluation covers the period 2006-2015. It is based on data collected in Norway and two main case countries, Tanzania and Thailand, in addition to limited data collection in Uganda, South Africa and Cambodia.
The evaluation was conducted by Chr. Michelsen’s Institute in collaboration with Nordic Consulting Group, commissioned by the Evaluation Department in Norad.
15 Feb 2016 10:28:13 GMT
This case study examines whether health system reconstruction in northern Uganda has promoted equality and created a health system that is gender equitable. Measuring the health system against the World Health Organization’s six health system building blocks, the case study highlights that northern Uganda needs a post-conflict recovery plan which is sensitive to gender concerns. What little has been done for the survivors of gender-based violence has not been linked to overall health systems strengthening: this constitutes a missed opportunity. Gender equitable finding mechanisms and action to consider the health workforce from a gender perspective are identified as key.
10 Feb 2016 05:50:35 GMT
SASA! is a community mobilisation intervention developed in Uganda to prevent VAW and HIV/AIDS. SASA! is an evidenced-based methodology that takes a gender relational approach by working at multiple social levels with a range of stakeholders. The approach moves beyond having a focus only on individual relationships, which has shown to impact the wider community rather than being limited to individual participants. The SASA! website provides various strategy, learning and advocacy resources. There is also a video called “Condom Commandos” that presents soldiers in the Angolan army and women living beside the barracks using the SASA! approach, which can be seen here: https://vimeo.com/13184545.
10 Feb 2016 03:00:04 GMT
This research, based on a survey of poor urban men and women across nine developing countries, found that while the majority of men and women own a mobile phone, women are still nearly 50% less likely to access the Internet than men in the same communities. Internet use is reported by just 37% of women surveyed and, once online, women are 30-50% less likely than men to use the Internet to increase their income or participate in public life.
Among the reports key findings are:
The full report, summary, infographics and data sets for each country are available to download.
24 Jan 2016 06:19:30 GMTThis report is one of the outputs of theproject “Man and forests – an evaluation of management strategies for reduced deforestation” which aimed at evaluating the different management strategies undertaken to obtain reduced deforestation in tropical forests and hence maintain the various ecosystem services delivered. One component of this project focused on characterizing the management regimes established in the REDD+ pilot area and how well the REDD+ regime is adapted to the local institutional and ecological conditions. The site under investigation is a communally owned forest known as Ongo community forest, where the Environmental Conservation Trust of Uganda (ECOTRUST), is piloting REDD+ activities. The investigations entailed discussions with the implementing agent the ECOTRUST, local council leaders, forest management committee members, Masindi district technical staff and the local community members. The key findings indicated that Ongo is a low-stocked Tropical High Forest under the governance of community members, from the four villages surrounding the forest. The forest has continued to face deforestation and degradation with the main drivers including agricultural encroachment and harvesting of poles. With regard to governance and governance structures, there were several organizations and institutions established prior the REDD+ regime including the District and several NGOs. The REDD+ project activities were initiated in 2010 and some of the key achievements to date include the formal registration of Ongo Communal Land Association, initiating the process of acquiring a land title, forest boundary survey and mapping, more community sensitization and awareness about carbon trading and the need for forest conservation; review of the constitution and the forest management plan to fit the current conditions, and community training about benefit sharing. Some of the challenges encountered included the bureaucratic process of acquiring the land ownership document; allegations of land grabbing by some of the community members, which disrupted several awareness and sensitization sessions; resistance during the boundary survey process and demands for compensation by those individuals who had cultivated along the forest boundary; and the continued ill[...]
14 Jan 2016 04:20:52 GMT
SASA! is a community mobilisation intervention that seeks to prevent violence against women and reduce HIV-risk behaviours. The SASA! study was conducted between 2008 and 2012 in two administrative divisions of Kampala (Makindye and Rubaga). It incorporates four elements: a cluster randomised controlled trial; a nested qualitative evaluation; operations research; and an economic costing of the intervention.
The findings are extremely positive. SASA! reduced the reported social acceptance of physical violence in relationships among both women and men, and also increased the social acceptance of the belief that there are circumstances when a woman can refuse sex from her partner.
A number of stakeholder-specific policy recommendations have arisen out of this study.
14 Jan 2016 03:56:59 GMT
There is now substantial evidence that periodic cash transfers to poor households as a form of social protection, particularly when conditional on complementary investments in child schooling and health, can lead to substantial and sustained improvements in household welfare, household food security and child schooling. Similarly, food transfers can lead to substantial improvements in household food security and may have persistent effects on household expenditure and food consumption. However, there is very limited evidence directly comparing impacts of the two modalities in the same setting.
This study draws from a unique set of integrated social protection experiments conducted in two countries to compare the relative impacts of cash and food transfers on household behavior in side by side comparisons in starkly different contexts: Ecuador and Uganda.
The study addresses the following research questions: