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Climbing the inclusion ladder: artisanal gold mining in Tanzania

22 Jun 2017 10:21:12 GMT

Tanzania faces significant development challenges. While gross domestic product growth remains relatively impressive, many sectors are growing off a small base. Both the longevity of the acceleration and the quality of the growth are in question. Tanzania’s educational outcomes remain poor, and young people are less likely to find good quality employment. A fast-growing population requires an expansion of employment opportunities, and it is not clear that these are being created. A handful of companies provide the majority of tax revenue, rendering the government reliant on foreign aid in addition to taxation. President John Magufuli’s government therefore needs to broaden the tax base and diversify the economy without undermining current foreign exchange and tax earnings. Tanzania is endowed with extensive mineral resources (and recently discovered natural gas), which could mobilise resources for development, provided the sector is well governed.

This paper examines the artisanal gold mining sector as an important employer and potential revenue generator. It also explores the negative social and environmental externalities associated with the sector. The barriers to entry for artisanal miners to formalise should be lowered, although this will not guarantee development. Most importantly, the government – in partnership with development organisations and the private sector – should roll out and ensure the uptake of inexpensive technologies (such as retorts) that will reduce negative externalities and increase potential positive economic spillover effects.

Africa’s youth employment challenge: new perspectives | IDS Bulletin Vol 48, No 3

16 Jun 2017 12:12:13 GMT

Youth and employment concepts are not new to development discourse in sub-Saharan Africa but over the last decade interest has increased dramatically, becoming a much more important focus for policy, intervention and research throughout the continent (and globally).

This IDS Bulletin reflects challenges in Africa and demonstrates how political context shapes youth-related policy.The articles in the Bulletin consider the evidence on youth employment policy and interventions, the politics of youth policy, the changing nature of young people’s work, and the promotion of entrepreneurship. They are authored by the ten members of the first cohort of the Matasa Fellows Network (a joint initiative by the MasterCard Foundation and IDS), which has a particular focus on the youth employment challenge in Africa.


  • Introduction: New Perspectives on Africa’s Youth Employment Challenge: Seife Ayele, Samir Khan and James Sumberg
  • Youth Employment in Developing Economies: Evidence on Policies and Interventions: Nicholas Kilimani
  • The Politics of Youth Employment and Policy Processes in Ethiopia: Eyob Balcha Gebremariam
  • The Side-Hustle: Diversified Livelihoods of Kenyan Educated Young Farmers: Grace Muthoni Mwaura
  • Gambling, Dancing, Sex Work: Notions of Youth Employment in Uganda: Victoria Flavia Namuggala
  • Navigating Precarious Employment: Social Networks Among Migrant Youth in Ghana: Thomas Yeboah
  • Youth Participation in Smallholder Livestock Production and Marketing: Edna Mutua, Salome Bukachi, Bernard Bett, Benson Estambale and Isaac Nyamongo
  • Non-Farm Enterprises and the Rural Youth Employment Challenge in Ghana: Monica Lambon-Quayefio
  • Does Kenya’s Youth Enterprise Development Fund Serve Young People?: Maurice Sikenyi
  • Promoting Youth Entrepreneurship: The Role of Mentoring: Ayodele Ibrahim Shittu
  • Programme-Induced Entrepreneurship and Young People’s Aspirations: Jacqueline Halima Mgumia



In search of the solution to farmer–pastoralist conflicts in Tanzania

23 May 2017 10:12:04 GMT

Land-use conflict is not a new phenomenon for pastoralists and farmers in Tanzania with murders, the killing of livestock and the loss of property as a consequence of this conflict featuring in the news for many years now. Various actors, including civil society organisations, have tried to address farmer-pastoralist conflict through mass education programmes, land-use planning, policy reforms and the development of community institutions. However, these efforts have not succeeded in the conflict. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa traditional systems are not making much headway either.
This paper finds that resolving the mutual hostility between farmers and pastoralists is problematic because it is linked to historical evictions that happened from the colonial and post-colonial period until the early 1990s. It also points to the limitations of Tanzania’s formal land dispute settlement machinery, which does not provide appropriate forums and mechanisms for resolving farmer-pastoralist conflicts. The paper argues that the existing systems do not favour the interests of either farmers or pastoralists, and calls for specific reforms. Drawing on the experiences of a farmer-pastoralist platform established by the Tanzania Natural Resource Forum, a local non-governmental organisation working on natural resource governance issues, it proposes an alternative mechanism based on the popular participation of the victims in resolving such conflicts.

Equate and conflate: political commitment to hunger and undernutrition reduction in five high-burden countries

16 May 2017 04:27:25 GMT

As political commitment is an essential ingredient for elevating food and nutrition security onto policy agendas, commitment metrics have proliferated. Many conflate government commitment to fight hunger with combating undernutrition. Here the authors test the hypothesis that commitment to hunger reduction is empirically different from commitment to reducing undernutrition through expert surveys in five high-burden countries: Bangladesh, Malawi, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia.

Findings confirm the hypothesis. The paper concludes that sensitive commitment metrics are needed to guide government and donor policies and programmatic action. Without, historically inadequate prioritisation of non-food aspects of malnutrition may persist to imperil achieving global nutrition targets.


  • nine key components of political commitment are identified

  • political commitment to reducing (a) hunger and (b) undernutrition is measured
  • research uses expert perception surveys in Bangladesh, Malawi, Nepal, Tanzania, and Zambia

  • hunger reduction commitment differs from commitment to address undernutrition
  • commitment metrics must be sensitive to these differences to better guide policy

Tanzania summary of baseline studies: country report for the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa

10 Jan 2017 10:57:05 GMT

This report reflects upon the consolidated findings from the baseline and scoping studies conducted under the auspices of Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. It identifies gaps in climate information access and use at the local level, type of climate services farmers and pastoralists need in Tanzania, relevant channels to reach farmers with requested services, lead-time and gender specific requirements.

The analysis supports several recommendations for improving the supply, delivery, and iterative feedback and improvement of climate services in Tanzania:

  • to improve the supply of useful services, first, co-produce climate services with farmers, and integrate indigenous knowledge with scientific climate forecasts to enhance relevance of climate information for local communities. Second, ensure timely delivery of accurate climate services, which is essential for these services to be useful to farmers and pastoralists for agricultural decision-making. Finally, downscale climate information to render it location specific, and make the service more relevant and credible for farmers
  • to improve the delivery of climate information and advisories, first, invest in good radio coverage.  This is critical for the delivery of climate information as most households have access to climate information through radio. Second, diversify communication channels.  This includes leveraging the power of ICTs (cell phones voice messages and reliance on village leaders) to reach all farmers with climate information, including women. Third, train government extension agents in understanding climate forecasts, and rely on these agents to deliver the information
  • rigorous evaluation of climate services is a requirement for improving the usefulness of the services. Conduct post-season reviews to capture farmer feedback on received services. Lastly, continue to track climate information access and use at the local level, and note changes against the baseline

It is hoped that these findings will offer valuable insights to the GFCS Adaptation Program in Africa, and future projects working to scale up relevant climate services for farmers and pastoralists in Tanzania.  

Training agricultural research & extension staff to produce and communicate agro-climatic information, to enhance the resilience and food security of farmers and pastoralists in Kiteto, Tanzania

06 Jan 2017 01:20:48 GMT

National Agricultural Extension Systems in ten districts in Tanzania and Malawi are receiving training in the production and use of climate services as part of a WFP-CCAFS joint activity within the GFCS Adaptation Programme in Africa. This document reports on the first training of intermediaries, conducted for 30 agricultural extension and NGO staff from Kiteto District, Tanzania, 13-17th October 2014 and draws lessons from this to feed forward into preparation and training in the remaining districts in 2015. Preparation for the course included analysis of historical climate information, as well as training of staff from the Tanzania Meteorological Agency in downscaling using the Climate Prediction Tool (CPT). The ensuing training course for intermediaries covered the Participatory Integrated Climate Services for Agriculture (PICSA) approach. This aimed to equip agricultural extension field staff to provide local historical climate information, seasonal and sub-seasonal forecasts (seamless forecasts) together with crop and livelihood information and to facilitate use of participatory decision making tools by smallholder farmers, in order to enhance farm and field-level decision making for resilience and food security.

Training included a strong practical component. At the end of the training course agricultural extension officers and NGO staff developed plans for implementation in the locations that they work. Formal and informal feedback from participants was very positive. From this first training several improvements to feed into subsequent training in Tanzania and Malawi were identified and recommendations are made. These include: how to ensure that climate information for districts is analysed well in advance; appropriate crop and livestock management options are identified to cover variation within each district; climatic variability is adequately addressed within districts; and the potential benefits of CPT downscaled forecasting are fully explored.

Evidence-based opportunities for out-scaling climate-smart agriculture in East Africa

16 Dec 2016 11:31:23 GMT

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is being widely promoted as a solution for food insecurity and climate change adaptation in food systems of sub-Saharan Africa, while simultaneously reducing the rate of greenhouse gas emissions. Governments throughout Africa are writing
policies and programs to promote CSA practices despite uncertainty about the ability for  practices to meet the triple CSA objectives of CSA.

I this paper, the auuthors conducted a systematic review of 175 peer-reviewed and grey literature studies, to gauge the impact of over seventy potential CSA practices on CSA outcomes in Tanzania and Uganda. Using a total of 6,342 observations, it was found that practice impacts were highly context (i.e. farming system and location) specific. Nevertheless, practice effect across CSA outcomes generally agreed in direction.

While results suggest that CSA is indeed possible, lack of mitigation data precludes a more conclusive statement. Furthermore, the inclusion of potential adoption rates changes the potential of CSA practices to achieve benefits at scale. Given the uncertainty and variable impacts of practices across regions and outcomes, it is critical for decision makers to prioritize practices based on their desired outcomes and local context.

Uptake and dissemination pathways for climate-smart agriculture technologies and practices in Lushoto, Tanzania

16 Dec 2016 02:20:30 GMT

Smallholder farmers in East Africa need information and knowledge on appropriate climate- smart agriculture (CSA) technologies and practices, and institutional innovations in order to effectively adapt to climate change and cope with climate variability. This paper assesses farmer uptake of climate-smart agricultural practices and innovations following a farmer learning journey through the Farms of the Future (FotF) approach. First, we explore and assess the various CSA technologies and practices, including institutional innovations farmers are using. Second, we identify and document farmer learning and dissemination pathways that can enhance uptake of CSA technologies and practices. Third, we identify existing institutions that can enhance uptake of CSA practices. We use household survey data, complimented with qualitative information from focus group discussions and key informant interviews. The results show farmers are using a variety of CSA technologies and practices, and institutional innovations. Improved crop varieties, agroforestry, and scientific weather forecast information were cited as the main CSA practices used. To minimize their risks and reduce vulnerabilities, farmers are diversifying and integrating five to ten practices in one season. Matengo pits, Savings and Credit Cooperative Organization (SACCOs) and energy efficient cook stoves were used by very few farmers due to high initial investment costs and unsuitability to the area. Over 95% of the farmers reported receiving agricultural information orally from a variety of sources including government extension workers, seed companies, researchers, traditional experts, neighbors, radio agricultural shows, religious groups, farmer groups, and family members. Farmers acknowledged the FotF approach as a useful tool that enabled them to interact with other farmers and learn new CSA practices and innovations.  

Eight things to know about Green Climate Fund

13 Dec 2016 02:19:29 GMT

The Green Climate Fund (GCF), the world’s largest climate fund, is designed to help developing countries achieve their ambition for low-carbon resilient development. Tanzania has been accessing a range of sources for climate finance to fund its climate change responses, but needs additional finance to meet the projected future costs of adaption and mitigation.

OECD reports that approximately USD 200 million each year was being spent on climate change actions between 2010 and 2013. An economic analysis of climate change in Tanzania shows that Tanzania will need about USD 600 million per year to address climate change issues. In addition Tanzania’s nationally determined contributions (NDCs) states that the Tanzania will need around USD 500 million to USD 1 billion per year to meet its adaptation ambition each year and a total of USD 60 billion by 2030 for achieving its mitigation contributions (URT, 2015). Meeting these ambitions will depend on how financial support can be accessed from sources like the Green Climate Fund.
In preparation for Tanzania having direct access to the GCF, this document provides a snapshot of GCF processes and procedures to help stakeholders understand these as well as the concepts, relevant standards and frequently asked questions related to the GCF. It is an internal briefing document commissioned by PO-RALG to brief its staff on the GCF procedures.

It includes 8 core things which policy makers would need to know about the Green Climate Fund:
  • What is the Green Climate Fund?
  • What are the total resources in the fund?
  • How can Tanzania access the GCF?
  • What is the role of the National Designated Authority?
  • How national Tanzanian entities can get direct access to GCF funds?
  • How many entities have been accredited globally?
  • The type of funds Tanzania can receive, and
  • The investment criteria for approving funding proposals

Climate change policy inventory and analysis for Tanzania

30 Nov 2016 04:51:33 GMT

This report is an output of the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Programme in Africa. The goal of the report is to: 1) assess the extent to which climate change concerns have been integrated or mainstreamed into national policy documents in mainland Tanzania, 2) to consider the role of climate services in achieving national sectorial policy goals, and 3) identify entry points for the further development of climate services within the current policy frameworks. Fifteen key policy documents relevant to economic development, climate change and environment, agriculture and food security, disaster management and risk reduction, and health planning were analysed. Three major findings emerged from this analysis. First, while climate change is addressed in a number of the policy documents, the concept of climate services was not. Second, policy documents across all sectors identified improved early warning systems as a specific objective. This represents a common entry point for development and delivery of climate services, as well as an opportunity to increase cross-sectorial adaptation coordination and planning. Third, the analysis highlighted that efforts to manage short- and long-term climate risks are not well integrated under current policies and legislation in Tanzania. Additionally, we found that the National Environmental Policy and National Environmental Management Act are the primary policy documents that oversee climate change-related issues. It will be important to link the development and delivery of climate services with the established institutional structures for climate change adaptation under these current policies and legislation, to avoid creating isolated or duplicative institutional arrangements. Based on these findings, several recommendations are made that can inform climate services development and delivery in Tanzania.

Climate change adaptation in agriculture and natural resource management in Tanzania: a gender policy review

29 Nov 2016 02:33:51 GMT

More than twenty years have passed since the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, where gender mainstreaming was acknowledged as an indispensable global strategy for achieving gender equality. Since then, Tanzania has undoubtedly made efforts in mainstreaming gender in its national policies and strategies.

This Info Note examines the state of gender responsiveness of fourteen agriculture, climate change and natural resource management policy documents and strategy plans in Tanzania. The desk-review focuses on mainland Tanzania, acknowledging that the Zanzibar Archipelago is governed, in some cases, by independent regulations.

Key messages:

  • the inclusion of gender considerations in agriculture and natural resource management policies is of paramount importance if Tanzania is to create sustainable, inclusive and gender-sensitive interventions to mitigate and adapt to climate change. However, the disharmony existing between the different policies and sectors suggests the need for a planning framework that harmonizes and coordinates gender integration in policies and sectoral plans
  • the policy documents remain silent on the role that gender plays in the different sub-sectors and consequently the proposed actions and strategies also remain gender-blind. In addition, gender is equated to women’s issues in most of the documents, presenting a narrow approach to gender and leaving untapped the important role that men could have in closing the gender gap in agriculture and natural resource management
  • several of the reviewed documents relegate the achievement of these gender considerations to the NGO sector. There is need for an enhanced institutional arrangement and to mainstream gender throughout all sections of the policy documents for an improved performance
  • there is a mismatch between the identified gender constraints that the documents present and the suggested policy solutions, and a lack of clear strategies by which the gender goals present in the policies could be achieved
  • the proposed gender policy interventions do not yet have the potential to dramatically change or address current gender gaps. However, there are opportunities to redress the situation. First, three key national policies are under review (i.e. the National Environment Policy, the National Forest Policy and the Land Policy) and could sufficiently integrate gender. Second, planning for CSA offers a great opportunity to holistically integrate gender across implementation levels

Enabling more inclusive and efficient food and agricultural systems in Africa: FAO session at the IFAMA World Forum 18 June 2014, Cape Town, South Africa

23 Nov 2016 04:48:56 GMT

FAO organized a workshop during the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association's World Forum 2014, focusing on themes covered by Strategic Objective 4 that place greater emphasis on supporting national policies that enhance inclusiveness and promote efficiencies along agri-food value chains. The event brought together students, academics, government officials, private sector representatives and development practitioners to discuss innovative approaches to promote inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems in Africa.

Chapter 3. Integrating small-scale dairy farmers into school milk programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania / by Helene Lie, Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Science, Aas, Norway.

Lack of consultation. Stakeholders’ perspectives on local content requirements in the petroleum sector in Tanzania

22 Nov 2016 02:13:55 GMT

Tanzania has recently discovered huge offshore natural gas fields. This has led the Government to develop Local Content Policies (LCPs) to increase local job and business opportunities. This brief presents the main findings from a study of the stakeholders’ assessment of the LCPs the Tanzanian Government has developed. While there is widespread support to LCPs, the government is criticized by stakeholders for not conducting a transparent and inclusive consultative process which may weaken the implementation of the LCPs. This study follows the process from the first draft of the LCP, published in May 2014 by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral, to the Petroleum Act, passed by Parliament in July 2015 and assented to by the Tanzanian President in December 2015.

Agency and advocacy: disabled students in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania

11 Nov 2016 11:12:46 GMT

Between 10% and 15% of the world’s population are thought to be disabled. The 2006 United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities is an example of emerging global policy architecture for human rights for disabled people. Article 24 states that disabled people should receive the support required to facilitate their effective education. In research, links between higher education access, equalities and disability are being explored by scholars of the sociology of higher education. However, with the exception of some small-scale studies from Zimbabwe, South Africa, Rwanda, Namibia, Uganda and Pakistan, literature tends to come from the global North. Yet there is a toxic correlation between disability and poverty – especially in the global South.

This article is based on a review of the global literature on disability in higher education and interview findings from the project ‘Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: developing an Equity Scorecard’, (WPHEGT) funded by the Economic and Social Research Council and the Department for International Development. A central finding was that while disability was associated with constraints, misrecognition, frustration, exclusion and even danger, students’ agency, advocacy and achievement in higher education offered opportunities for transforming spoiled identities.

The students in the WPHEGT study have shown their detailed knowledge of what they need to enable them to contribute to their societies materially and socially. Their narratives of struggle to succeed in education demonstrate the agency and advocacy that they have exercised individually and collectively through disabled people’s organisations. For many of the students, disability was at least partly about a positive identity rather than only about impairment.

It was the built environment and social relations that created difficulties for them as they sought to develop their capacities and realise their educational and professional potential. Questions remain about the disabled students who were unable to maintain the struggle to be educated in schools largely serving to select the few rather than educate all. The students in this study aspired to be advocates for other disabled people as they sought to redefine what it means to be a disabled person in Ghana and Tanzania. Universities need to provide an education in learning to live together, for disabled and non-disabled students alike. As a pivotal knowledge hub, HE needs to play an enhanced role in the creation and dissemination of knowledge by and with disabled people in order to challenge prejudice and promote social inclusion. In a globalised knowledge economy, the value of HE needs to be seen in terms of social justice, well-being, wealth distribution and poverty alleviation, and not only as wealth creation.

For richer, for poorer: marriage and casualized sex in East African artisanal mining settlements

08 Nov 2016 11:39:15 GMT

Migrants to Tanzania’s artisanal gold mining sites seek mineral wealth, which is accompanied by high risks of occupational hazards, economic failure, AIDS and social censure from their home communities. Male miners in these settlements compete to attract newly arrived young women who are perceived to be diverting male material support from older women and children’s economic survival. This article explores the dynamics of monogamy, polygamy and promiscuity in the context of rapid occupational change. It shows how a wide spectrum of productive and welfare outcomes is generated through sexual experimentation, which calls into question conventional concepts of prostitution, marriage and gender power relations.
Contrary to the view that women are parasitically dependent on miners’ economic support, financial interdependency between miners and their stable female partners is the norm. Most women are self-making in terms of constructing a livelihood combined with searching for a male partner. Viable emotionally and financially supportive sexual partnerships can and do form in a significant proportion of relationships despite miners’ temptation to seek the company of young good-time girls and their financial capability to have many girlfriends and/or marry frequently. Women who are strong, business-diversified, calculating planners with enduring marital relationships are rewarded whereas many others fall on exceptionally hard times, often dislocated from the material and moral support of their extended families.
Thus, men’s luck, skill and willingness to move to new mining strike sites are only part of the story. Many have female partners, be they informal wives or girlfriends, who facilitate their economic success. Reciprocal balance between men’s and women’s ad hoc sexual and economic partnerships is hard to achieve. Miners’ mobility can be enriching for men, but impoverishing for their female partners and the children they father. Nonetheless, women in Tanzanian mining settlements generally do not perceive or portray themselves as victims of sexual oppression. No longer subject to the control of their elders, they have migrated to the mining settlements, engaged in sexual relationships, and pursued productive and reproductive paths of self-making in or out of relationships with men.

Whose waters? Large-scale agricultural development and water grabbing in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania

08 Nov 2016 07:41:18 GMT

In Tanzania like in other parts of the global South, in the name of 'development' and 'poverty eradication' vast tracts of land have been earmarked by the government to be developed by investors for different commercial agricultural projects, giving rise to the contested land grab phenomenon. In parallel, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM ) has been promoted in the country and globally as the governance framework that seeks to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner. This article asks how IWRM manages the competing interests as well as the diverse priorities of both large and small water users in the midst of foreign direct investment. By focusing on two commercial sugar companies operating in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania and their impacts on the water and land rights of the surrounding villages, the article asks whether institutional and capacity weaknesses around IWRM implementation can be exploited by powerful actors that seek to meet their own interests, thus allowing water grabbing to take place. The paper thus highlights the power, interests and alliances of the various actors involved in the governance of water resources. By drawing on recent conceptual insights from the water grabbing literature, the empirical findings suggest that the IWRM framework indirectly and directly facilitates the phenomenon of water grabbing to take place in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania.

Reflections on the formulation and implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management in Southern and Eastern Africa from a gender perspective

08 Nov 2016 04:33:05 GMT

While it is claimed that the founding principles of integrated water resources management are the Dublin Principles this does not appear to be the case for Principle No. 3, which underlines the importance of women in water provision, management and safeguarding. Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe are members of SADC and have signed the SADC Protocol on Women and other international human rights instruments. However, we do not see an incorporation of these instruments and other empowerment frameworks into water policies. We find that Principle No. 3 has been sidelined in the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Manageme nt (IWRM). In examining the gender practices in these four nations of Africa, gender equality remains distant from the concerns of the water sector. We enumerate many of the commonalities among these countries in how they are marginalising women'€™s access to, and use of, water.

Introduction to the special Issue: Flows and practices: the politics of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Southern Africa

03 Nov 2016 03:20:45 GMT

For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors  who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global  water management problems. IWRM  has  been  incorporated  into  water  laws,  reforms  and  policies  of  southern  African  nations.  This  article introduces the special issue 'Flows and Practices: The Politics of IWRM in southern Africa'. It provides a conceptual framework  to  study:  the  flow  of  IWRM  as  an  idea;  its  translation  and  articulation  into  new  policies,  institutions andallocation  mechanisms,  and  the  resulting  practices  and  effects  across  multiple  scales – global,  regional, national and local. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa,  Zimbabwe,  Mozambique,  Tanzania  and  Uganda  form  the  core  of  this  special  issue.  We  demonstrate  how Africa  has  been  a  laboratory  for  IWRM  experiments,  while  donors  as  well  as  a  new  cadre  of  water  professionals and  students  have  made  IWRM  their  mission.  The  case  studies  reveal  that  IWRM  may  have  resulted  in  an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women’s and men’s access to water. The newly  created  institutional  arrangements tended  to centralise  the  power  and  control  of  the  State  and  powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.

Youth in Tanzania’s urbanizing mining settlements: prospecting a mineralized future

03 Nov 2016 01:43:17 GMT

Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a ‘mining takeoff’. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the current and future development of mining.

Focusing on Tanzania as typical of the emerging ‘new mineralizing Africa’, this paper, examines youth’s role in mining based on recent fieldwork in the country’s northwestern gold fields. Youth’s current involvement in mining as full-fledged, as opposed to part-time, miners is distinguished. The attitudes of secondary school students towards mining as a form of employment and its impact on economic and social life in mining communities are discussed within the context of the uneasy transitions from an agrarian to a mining-based country, from rural to urban lifestyles, and the growing scope and power of foreign-directed, capital-intensive, corporate mining relative to local  labour-intensive artisanal mining.

Youth are playing an active role in the emergence of new economic sectors and are currently engaging in and shaping the artisanal mining sector. Nonetheless, there is a discontinuity with the past in terms on the part of full-time, youthful miners, intent on improving their lives and gaining autonomy, who tend to be completely removed from elder or parental control and are rarely planning to return to their home areas. They are no longer endeavouring to earn bridewealth payments and return to their home areas to farm, which marks a distinct break in the inter-generational contract between older and younger generations. So too, secondary school students’ criticisms of their parents’ absence from the home and their lack of parental care, can be interpreted as a new tension between the young and older generation.

Artisanal mining, particularly that related to mineral rushes, places high demands on male mobility and has an erosive effect on family life. There are several other drawbacks: artisanal mining is physically dangerous, its excavation depth is technically limited and as large-scale mining expands, it is bound to contract spatially as government-granted large-scale mineral rights increasingly gain precedence over those of artisanal miners, displacing artisanal miners and fuelling their conflictual incursions on large-scale mining. Most miners and mining settlement residents see artisanal mining as an opportunity of the moment, not one that can be counted on far into the future. Thus Tanzanian youth, whether they are full-time or part-time miners think of artisanal mining as a temporary fix or more optimistically a stepping stone to gaining capital to invest in another occupation elsewhere. In other words, for most youth, despite all its pitfalls, mining can be a means to a better future but not their chosen future.

Petro-governance in Tanzania: opportunities and challenges

02 Nov 2016 02:01:53 GMT

Recent significant natural gas discoveries have pushed Tanzania into the international spotlight as a new petroleum producer. How can the country ensure that its newfound wealth is translated into economic development? Much depend on the way in which the petroleum resources are governed by the country’s new petroleum legislative framework. In this brief, we review the most important provisions of the new legislative framework, and argue that gaps and conflicts within and across laws must be resolved to ensure that Tanzania’s petroleum riches become a blessing rather than a curse.

Flows and practices: The politics of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in southern Africa

01 Nov 2016 05:14:41 GMT

For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors  who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global  water management problems. IWRM  has  been  incorporated  into  water  laws,  reforms  and  policies  of  southern  African  nations.  This  is a special issue 'Flows and Practices: The Politics of IWRM in southern Africa' of the journal Water Alternatives. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa,  Zimbabwe,  Mozambique,  Tanzania  and  Uganda  form  the  core  of  this  special  issue.  We  demonstrate  how Africa  has  been  a  laboratory  for  IWRM  experiments,  while  donors  as  well  as  a  new  cadre  of  water  professionals and  students  have  made  IWRM  their  mission.  The  case  studies  reveal  that  IWRM  may  have  resulted  in  an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women’s and men’s access to water. The newly created  institutional  arrangements tended  to centralise  the  power  and  control  of  the  State  and  powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.

Youth in Tanzania’s urbanizing mining settlements

14 Oct 2016 03:48:04 GMT

Over the last fifteen years many African countries have experienced a ‘mining takeoff’. Mining activities have bifurcated into two sectors: large-scale, capital-intensive production generating the bulk of the exported minerals, and small-scale, labour-intensive artisanal mining, which, at present, is catalyzing far greater immediate primary, secondary and tertiary employment opportunities for unskilled African labourers. Youth residing in mining settlements, have a large vested interest in the current and future development of mining.

Focusing on Tanzania as typical of the emerging ‘new mineralizing Africa’, this paper, examines youth’s role in mining based on recent fieldwork in the country’s northwestern gold fields. Youth’s current involvement in mining as full-fledged, as opposed to part-time, miners is distinguished. The attitudes of secondary school students towards mining as a form of employment and its impact on economic and social life in mining communities are discussed within the context of the uneasy transitions from an agrarian to a mining-based country, from rural to urban lifestyles, and the growing scope and power of foreign-directed, capital-intensive, corporate mining relative to local labourintensive artisanal mining.

New knowledge on children and young people: a synthesis of evidence - summary paper

14 Oct 2016 03:22:41 GMT

Improving children and young people’s (CYP) wellbeing, and recognising the role they can play in creating a more sustainable world will be critical to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This timely report provides insights into how ESRC-DFID funded research has provided new knowledge that can inform and strengthen policy making in relation to CYP issues and help meet global development ambitions.

Key research findings:

  • recognising young people’s agency and the role they can play in research and policy making around the issues that matter to them most is critical
  • enhanced participation and community engagement programmes amongst the most marginalised can contribute to reduction in inequalities of new born survival rates
  • religion can have a significant impact on child wellbeing outcomes in India
  • CYP’s psychological wellbeing is positively associated with staying in school and negatively associated with entering the labour market in China. However for CYP in Tanzania there is often a clash between their perceptions of the long term gain of education and the more immediate benefits of employment
  • marriage is often viewed by both CYP and their families as a key livelihood strategy
  • young people are using mobile technologies to access services and build up social capital. They also have concerns around mobile phones and the potential negative impact on their personal safety and wellbeing

No sense of ownership in weak participation: a forest conservation experiment in Tanzania

11 Oct 2016 01:47:17 GMT

Sense of ownership is often advocated as an argument for local participation within the epistemic development and nature conservation communities. Stakeholder participation in initiating, designing or implementing institutions is claimed to establish a sense of ownership among the stakeholders and subsequently improve the intended outcomes of the given institution. Theoretical and empirical justi cations of the hypothesis remain scarce. A better understanding of the effects of local participation can motivate more extensive and stronger participation of local stakeholders and improve institutional performance. This paper applies theories from psychology and behavioral economics to better understand sense of ownership. The empirical investigation is a framed fi eld experiment, in the context of tropical forest conservation and payments for environmental services in Tanzania. The results lend little support to the hypothesis in this context. The participation treatment in the experiment is weak, and a possible explanation is that sense of ownership is sensitive to the form of participation.

Local content requirements in the petroleum sector in Tanzania: a thorny road from inception to implementation?

26 Sep 2016 03:29:53 GMT

Tanzania has recently discovered huge offshore natural gas fields. This has led the Government to develop local content policies (LCPs) to increase job and business opportunities for nationals in the sector. We study the process behind the development of these policies and the positions of stakeholders. We find that although there is a positive view among domestic stakeholders of imposing such policies, there is much suspicion–to such a degree that it shapes their recommendations of which policies to include in the LCP. One reason is that the Government monopolized the policy development process and abstained from conducting a consultative process. Our findings suggest that future Tanzanian policy development should include in-depth consultations to maximize the decision maker’s knowledge base, add to the transparency of the process and manage expectations. This would also contribute to effective implementation and lessen tensions, conflicts and suspicion among stakeholders.

Communities and conservation in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania : participation, costs and benefits

20 Sep 2016 03:11:53 GMT

This thesis contributes to the current debate on how to balance conservation and development objectives. The extent of land under protection globally has increased enormously over the last 30 years, and there are still plans to expand the current protected areas (PAs) and create new ones. Their establishment is associated with impacts on local communities who live in the proximity of such areas. Different actors have proposed local participation and benefit sharing for people affected by these conservation initiatives. Despite their implementation over three decades, the social, economic, and political impacts of establishing and maintaining PAs remain debatable. It is in this context that this study was conducted in the Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA), the Kilimanjaro National Park, and the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation in Tanzania. The specific research questions of the study are: i. What are the social and economic impacts of the expansion and establishment of conservation areas on local people in West Kilimanjaro; and how are the impacts distributed along gender lines? ii. How are the conservation benefits shared with local communities in West Kilimanjaro? iii. How do the conservation benefits and costs affect local peoples‟ attitudes towards and perceptions of conservation? iv. What are the factors that drive human-wildlife conflicts? Data were collected using qualitative methods through the combination of in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, informal interviews, and participant observation. Secondary data in the form of written sources on the study area were used in addition to the primary data gathered. The research results are presented in four separate but interrelated papers. [...] All areas studied (Enduimet WMA, Kilimanjaro National Park, and West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation) share a centralised structure in terms of decision making on the management of natural resources and benefit sharing. Local people are not able to participate in decision making in the management of the areas, and it is difficult for communities to influence or challenge the way the structure operates. In Enduimet, the WMA was proposed as community-run conservation area. In practice, the communities do not have the power to collect revenues, decide on shares, or to verify whether they receive the income they are entitled to receive. The central government collects the revenues and channels the percentage to local people. The Kilimanjaro National Park was found to involve local people only when there is a fire outbreak; thus local people claimed to be used as „tools‟. The park management system does not allow space for local people‟s opinions. Most of the collected revenues are retained by the national parks headquarters and local people do not have any power or influence over the revenues. In practice, the park operates under a strict „fences and fines‟ or „fortress conservation‟ strategy. In the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation, local people do not have any power or share of the revenues collected from the sale of logs and poles, apart from payment received from casual labour. The income from logs sold is remitted to the central government. In all three areas, participation is used as „means‟ to improve environmental conservation and a way to accrue more revenue for the government.


Welfare impacts of climate shocks: evidence from Tanzania

31 Aug 2016 12:45:27 GMT

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the world’s most food-insecure region characterized by high levels of child mortality and poverty and low levels of human and physical capital (FAO, 2009). Countries in SSA, including Tanzania, heavily depend on a smallholder-based agricultural sector, which makes their welfare and food security particularly vulnerable to climate change.

The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of weather risk on rural households’ welfare in Tanzania using nationally representative household panel data together with a set of novel weather variation indicators based on interpolated gridded and re-analysis weather data that capture the peculiar features of short term and long term variations in rainfall and temperature. In particular, we estimate the impact of weather shocks on a rich set of welfare indicators (including total income, total expenditure, food expenditure and its share in total expenditure and calorie intake) and investigate whether and how they vary by different definitions of shocks - capturing changes in levels and variations over different time periods.

The authors find that both rainfall and maximum temperature variability exert a negative impact on welfare (i.e. no consumption smoothing) and that households that have adopted SLM practices are able to achieve income-smoothing. We also find that the most vulnerable rural households are much more affected by a rainfall deficit compared to the households in the top income quantile. Results underline the key role extension services play in enhancing adaptive capacity to reduce vulnerability to adverse weather conditions, as well as the importance of targeting the most vulnerable households in policy interventions to improve food security in the face of weather shocks.

The East African energy frontier, a decade on

12 Aug 2016 11:07:29 GMT

The East Africa region has seen some of the decade’ s largest natural gas and energy finds. However, despite their magnitude, these discoveries have yet to fulfil the promise of social and economic progress. With some signs of the negative impact of resource wealth already in evidence, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique all require changes to their natural resources policies to ensure that revenues are shared and invested in the future. Underpinning this is the need for governments to improve transparency, allowing local institutions to hold the government and other stakeholders accountable. Without such steps, the full potential of these finds is set to go unrealised.
The past decade’s energy finds created great promise for Eastern Africa. Yet questions remain about whether these finds will be a burden or blessing. With the downturn in global energy markets and production dates being repeatedly postponed, any potential benefits are subject to the uncertainties and political volatilities that have come to characterise the region. However, it is not too late for these countries to use their assets wisely. A real commitment to accountability and the channelling of revenues towards development objectives is needed, as well as the necessary freedoms for local institutions to monitor the sector and hold government and other stakeholders to account. Now, while prices are low, is a good opportunity for states to get their institutional houses in order. With the effective infrastructure in place, as well as co-operation between states and profits being invested in their future, these finds can in time contribute to the development of the region.

Tanzania-China all-weather friendship from socialism to globalization: a case of relative decline

12 Aug 2016 10:00:00 GMT

How close is the Tanzanian-Chinese partnership today? Bi-lateral trade and Chinese economic activity in Tanzania today is far more significant than in the 1970s; China’s “no strings attached” policy is still attractive and political solidarities and military co-operation have remained relatively strong. However, this bi-lateral relationship does not have the importance, nor the exclusiveness it enjoyed in the heydays of socialism. Today, China must compete economically, politically and culturally with the activism and soft power of a larger group of countries, particularly the United States. Although both in Dar es Salaam and in Beijing this relationship is still presented as “special”, it has lost the structural role that it had until the late 1970s in shaping Sino-African relations. Growing Sino-American and Sino-Western competition in Africa has increased Tanzania’s option and helped it, to some extent, to better defend its own interests.

This paper examines Tanzanian-Chinese relations over the past half century and more particularly since 2005, highlighting how global political, strategic and economic shifts have affected and on the whole reduced, in relative terms, the importance of this bi-lateral relationship.

Should Tanzania establish a sovereign wealth fund?

12 Aug 2016 06:32:40 GMT

Many natural resource abundant countries have established sovereign wealth funds as part of their strategy of managing the resource wealth. This working paper by Ragnar Torvik looks into different arguments used as reasons to establish such funds, discuss how these funds are organized, and draw some policy lessons. The paper then develops a theory of how petroleum funds may affect the economic and political equilibrium of an economy, and how this depends on initial institutions. A challenge with petroleum funds is that they may produce economic and political incentives that undermines their potential benefits. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the best way to manage the petroleum wealth of Tanzania may not be to establish a sovereign wealth fund, but rather use revenues to invest domestically in sectors such as infrastructure, education and health. Such investments may produce a better economic, as well as institutional, development.

Petroleum fund in Tanzania? Other alternatives may be better

12 Aug 2016 06:03:11 GMT

This Brief is an output from Tanzania as a future petrostate: Prospects and challenges, a five-year (2014-19) institutional collaborative programme for research, capacity building, and policy dialogue. It is jointly implemented by REPOA and CMI, in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics. The programme is funded by the Norwegian Embassy, Dar es Salaam.

Review of support to female engineers through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship Program (SEAP) implemented by Engineers Registration Board (ERB)

12 Aug 2016 05:51:50 GMT


The Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE) has requested Norad to undertake a review of
the support to female engineers through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship
Program (SEAP) in order to assess the progress and give recommendations on the
best ways forward to meet the project objectives. The purpose of the review is to
contribute to the quality and delivery of the programme, and the findings from the
review will be used to guide the implementation of the remaining part of the project.

The project

RNE has been providing financial support to the Engineers Registration Board (ERB)
since 2010 to strengthen the capacity of female engineers and support their full
registration as professional engineers. The support to the female engineers is
implemented through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship Program (SEAP). The
project is scheduled to end in 2015, but a no-cost extension until ultimo 2016 has been
approved by the RNE.

In order to achieve a higher number of registered female engineers, the project set out
to give the female SEAP trainees subsistence allowance and additional trainings, as
well as provide training for mentors and build the capacity of the ERB staff managing
the project. Furthermore, the project set out to strengthen professional associations for
female engineers in Tanzania.

Implication of participatory forest management on Duru-Haitemba and Ufiome Forest reserves and community livelihoods

12 Aug 2016 03:30:00 GMT

The fate of the forest is usually connected with forest management systems, societal demands as well as exposure to major disturbances such as wildfires, heavy browsing animals. Since the early 1990s, Tanzania have adopted participatory forest management (PFM) approaches, namely Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) and Joint forest management (JFM) to effectively and adequately protect the forests. In Manyara region where this study is based, Duru-Haitemba and Suledo forest reserves are managed under CBFM, while Ufiome forest reserve is managed under JFM. This study analyses forest management systems and their implication on Duru-Haitemba and Ufiome forest Reserves. The research methods used in this study included household surveys, focus group discussion, key informant interviews and field observation. Finding from the study showed that both JFM and CBFM approaches have been effectively implemented in the two forest reserves. It was also found that some of the traditional ceremonies undertaken in the forest also support the forest management efforts, since areas where such activities take place are considered sacred and are always left intact. Therefore, collective results from forest management approaches and cultural activities have greatly minimised illegal forest based activities such as timber harvesting and forest fires and the once heavily degraded forests have significantly recovered. Such success has been attributed to increased sense of ownership and control over the forest resources as the community feel more responsible for protection of the forest after realising the benefits brought by their efforts. Those benefits include enhanced availability of water and local herbs, easy collection of firewood, protection of their homes and farms from strong wind and more reliable rains that give them a stable economy from agriculture. Although, the forest status has improved significantly, there are still challenges in managing more remote parts of the forest where misconducts are hard to be spotted. Among the reasons that have contributed to the far distance misconduct, are poor accessibility, inadequate financial resources, necessary working gears and protection of social relations. Therefore, there is a need to further ensure enforcement of the regulations, sensitization of the local community participation in forest management related activities, as well as unswerving support to forest patrols.

The article is an output from the research programme Climate Change Impact, Adaptaition and Mitigation (CCIAM) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

04 Jul 2016 01:42:37 GMT

Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

The article is an output from the research programme Climate Change Impact, Adaptaition and Mitigation (CCIAM) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Public spending on climate change in Africa: Experiences from Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda

27 Jun 2016 03:48:34 GMT

Public spending on climate change in Africa describes the extent to which public expenditure responds to national climate change policy and the institutional demands required to implement such policy. The four countries of the study: “ Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda provide insights into the early mobilisation of climate change finance, as each country attempts to address the new challenges that climate change is bringing about. The report is divided into three parts. The first part introduces the concept of climate change finance and outlines the effectiveness framework used in each of the country studies. The methodological challenges associated with public expenditure reviews as applied to national climate change actions are also described. The second part provides in-depth country accounts for Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda, on the level and nature of climate change-relevant public spending, set in the context of each country’s macroeconomic and public finance management systems. The final section concludes by drawing lessons for climate change policy development, institutional strengthening, local delivery of climate change finance and the monitoring of public finance, based on the insights gained from the country studies.

Vunja Ukimya, Zungumza na Mwenzio: a mass media campaign to motivate couples to communicate effectively for HIV-free households

23 Jun 2016 10:15:33 GMT

Vunja Ukimya, Zungumza na Mwenzio: A Mass Media Campaign to Motivate Couples to Communicate Effectively for HIV-Free Households

"As a result of the campaign, couples were motivated to communicate about health, and men and women were more likely to seek reproductive health services together."

This was one of the key results of the Vunja Ukimya. Zungumza na Mwenzio (Break the Silence. Talk to your partner) campaign in Tanzania. The campaign was launched in 2010 as part of the CHAMPION project, a six-year initiative (2008-2014) to increase men's positive involvement in preventing the spread of HIV in Tanzania. The 5-month national social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) campaign was designed to encourage couples to communicate more effectively for healthier, more equitable relationships and to prevent the spread of HIV. "Campaign messages focused on the role of gender equity in ensuring health, and targeted individuals, couples, and communities in promoting dialogue around HIV, gender equality, and positive health-seeking behavior." The brief forms part of a series of CHAMPION briefs to highlight some of the project's achievements.

The brief explains the campaign approach, which used radio, television, national newspapers, billboards, and outreach events and activities to reach audiences of adult men and women over the age of 25 and in established, longer-term relationships. The roll-out occurred in phases, beginning with a teaser phase, followed by a two month "problem phase" that also incorporated a World Cup sub-campaign, and then a "how to" phase, highlighting and demonstrating the health benefits of effective communication between partners. The messages focused on positive couple communication and used food as a metaphor for relationships, "indicating that both (dinner and happiness) require preparation and care to achieve the desired results."

The following are a selection of lessons learned:

  • campaign slogans need to be specific, should not reinforce gender inequality, and should use language not specific to particular regions within a country;
  • large events, public gatherings, holidays, and international events are key opportunities to increase awareness about gender and health;
  • combining entertainment with community dialogue (as used in the Vunja Ukimya Activation Tour) is an effective way to communicate campaign messages.

Overall, the assessment of the Vunja Ukimya campaign was that it was widely well received, with community members responding positively to the promotion of couples being close and the concept of "transparency" within relationships.

Shuga: engaging Tanzanian young people in HIV prevention through edutainment radio

23 Jun 2016 03:07:04 GMT

The Shuga radio serial drama is an evidence-based and participatory behaviour change communication edutainment drama designed to increase demand for HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and condom use among sexually active youth aged 15-24 years. The 12-episode drama series was developed in collaboration with UNICEF, MTV and HIV and AIDS Free Generation, together with government representatives and young people from six participating countries - Tanzania, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lesotho, South Africa and Cameroon.

This report highlights key results and lessons learned from implementation of the first phase of Shuga radio, initiated by UNICEF Tanzania in a partnership with UNESCO and in collaboration with TACAIDS, MOHSW and key partners including JHU-CCP, PSI, T-MARC, PASADA, Baylor, Restless Development and SUMASESU and broadcast partners Tanzania Network of Community Radios and Clouds FM.

Lessons learned:

Multisectoral support is needed to design successful behavior change communication programs. Much of the success of Shuga radio is because of the support obtained from key partners at community level, the Shuga Advisory Committee, partnership with UNESCO. Moreover, within UNICEF planning, monitoring and evaluation colleagues played a big role in supporting the M&E design and data analysis, and communication advocacy and partnership colleagues supported in Facebook posts and linking Shuga radio serial drama to Radio 5.

Although there is a challenge of attribution of a particular social behaviour change communication activities to HTC outcomes, use of multiple M&E approaches generated the assertion that radio was among the top three sources of information for young people about HTC (along with health workers and teachers) and suggested that more efforts should focus on adolescents, who were less likely than young adults to be aware about HTC and to report being HIV tested.

Community matters: fostering community-level champions in addressing HIV and gender-based violence in Tanzania

21 Jun 2016 04:08:08 GMT

Local activists, leaders, and experts are best positioned to challenge the harmful social and gender norms within their communities that contribute to HIV transmission, gender-based violence (GBV), and other poor health outcomes.This brief discusses the experience of the CHAMPION Project in Tanzania, which trained and supported community partners in 14 urban districts in 10 regions of Tanzania to plan and implement gender transformative HIV and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention activities in their communities. The project used community-level 'champions' to lead local actions to raise awareness about HIV and GBV, champion equitable gender norms to promote long term behaviour and social change related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and encourage community members to test for HIV. These community champions were found to be critical allies within Tanzania's HIV prevention efforts, a "promising approach to engendering social change and improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes." This brief forms part of a series of CHAMPION briefs to highlight some of the project's achievements.The brief discusses the importance of partnerships across various levels of intervention, including working with local partners to identify champions to serve as change agents; building partners' capacity around in-depth understanding of gender norms; and building leadership, communication, and community mobilisation skills. These community-level partners "planned and led a variety of activities in their communities to create awareness, promote behaviour change, and stimulate community dialogue about gender norms, HIV, SRH, and GBV." Their activities included community dialogues, discussions, video shows, street dialogues and theatre, health fairs, sporting events, and rallies, all of which are briefly explained in the publication.Based on learning from the project, the brief outlines a number of recommendations:Go local: " interventions and related capacity building must be tailored to specific communities and to the partners who are working to lead social change. Efforts should be made to identify audio-visual materials that resonate with community members. The more 'foreign' the messenger, the less likely the message is to resonate."Creativity matters: Messages should be "clever, catchy, persuasive, compelling, and tailored to the local context." They should provoke discussion and reflection, rather than reiterate facts people already know."Avoid the blame game: Positive approaches can best contribute to a more constructive dialogue about gender norms, why inequities exist, how they are harmful, why challenging them is important, and how they can be transformed.Programme holistically: Programmes should ensure that community capacity building and engagement is accompanied by the availability and accessibility of health services. "Service providers must also have the capacity, resources, and commodities available that are needed to provide the full range of client-centred services for HIV, RH, and GBV prevention and response[...]

CoupleConnect: a gender-transformative approach to HIV prevention for Tanzanian couples

21 Jun 2016 03:38:44 GMT

Couple connectedness is defined as the quality of the emotional bond between partners that is both mutual and sustained over time. For couple connectedness to exist, it must be experienced by both partners in the relationship who are committed to practicing these behaviors..."This was the core principle underlying CoupleConnect, a gender-transformative curriculum developed by the CHAMPION Project in Tanzania to help couples communicate more effectively about relationship challenges as a way to foster improved sexual and reproductive health and prevent HIV. Created in 2011, the CoupleConnect curriculum was used to guide group education workshops designed to provide couples with insights, information, and skills needed to increase their "connectedness," considered an important determinant of healthy sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviour.The brief explains that "couple connectedness is operationalized by nine determinants of sexual behavior focused on mutual trust and support, communication, financial planning and management, shared goals, love and affection, joint decision making, achievement and maintenance of RH, and conflict resolution." The 15-session CoupleConnect curriculum was designed specifically for Tanzania through a process that included stakeholder meetings and key informant interviews, followed by a pilot project in nine districts. Couples participated in sessions using interactive teaching methodologies, such as large-group and knee-to-knee couple discussions, fishbowls, and other adult learning games. Workshop results were assessed through a comparison of questionnaires to assess attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to "couple connectedness."The brief offers a number of recommendations:Tailor Interventions to Meet Couples' Needs: Workshops should consider education and literacy and group similar sets of couples. The implementation should also respond to identified needs. For example, during the pilot the intervention was adapted from a two-month intervention to an intensive three-day course, which improved attendance and participation by both partnersInvolve Community Leaders in Implementation: Implementation and recruitments should happen at ward level, as participants then have greater connection to the facilitators who come from the community. Likewise, obtaining intervention buy-in from local authorities and leaders (e.g., community, religious) is criticalEnsure Strong Facilitator Capacity and Equitable Interaction: CoupleConnect is facilitated by married co-facilitators. "The manner in which married co-facilitators communicate, negotiate, resolve conflict, and support each other is critical to the success of interactive, mixed-sex, gender-transformative programs like CoupleConnect. Cofacilitators must mirror the positive and gender-equitable communication skills that the curriculum promotes"Collect More In-Depth Data: In order to better understand how post-workshop dialogues among couples is nurtured and practiced, more in-depth and rigorous evaluation is required, to he[...]

Seeing through fishers' lenses: Exploring marine ecological changes within Mafia Island Merine Park, Tanzania

12 Jun 2016 09:06:59 GMT

nsights from traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of the marine environment are difficult to integrate into conventional science knowledge (CSK) initiatives. Where TEK is integrated into CSK at all, it is usually either marginalized or restricted to CSK modes of interpretation, hence limiting its potential contribution to the understanding of social-ecological systems. This study uses semi-directive interviews, direct observations, and structured open-ended questionnaires (n = 103) to explore TEK of marine ecological changes occurring within the Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania, and factors contributing to these changes. It illuminates TEK insights that can be valuable in parallel with CSK to provide a more nuanced understanding of ecological changes. In some areas, fishers observed coral reef growth, increased fish abundance, and increased sea temperatures, whereas in others, they reported decreases in sea level, coral cover, fish abundance, catch composition, catch quantities, and fish size. They associated these changes with interrelated factors emanating from environmental processes, conservation outcomes, marketing constraints, population dynamics, and disappearance of cultural traditions. Utilizing TEK without restricting it to CSK modes of interpretation has the potential to improve CSK initiatives by promoting complementarity and mutual enrichment between the two kinds of knowledge, thereby contributing new insights that may enhance adaptive management and resilience in social-ecological systems.

Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) “Faith Engagement in Climate Smart Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

10 Jun 2016 06:11:49 GMT

This is a desk appraisal of the Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) done for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) by the Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU).

REDD+ hits the ground: lessons learned from Tanzania's REDD+ pilot projects

10 Jun 2016 05:35:36 GMT

Tanzania launched a series of REDD+ pilot projects in 2009 with the goal of testing approaches to reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). These projects, funded by the government of Norway experimented with a range of different approaches to protect forests, while supporting livelihoods and local economic development. In this report, we review the experiences and lessons learned from these pilot projects. Initially, we assess the feasibility of voluntary market, project approaches within a context of low forest carbon stocks and complex local deforestation drivers. We go on to explore how participatory forest management (PFM) has been adopted by REDD+ projects and used to address local deforestation drivers. In some cases, orienting PFM to REDD+ goals has helped address long standing barriers to PFM implementation. Elsewhere, viewing PFM through a REDD+ lens has highlighted weaknesses with current approaches to PFM, which will need to be addressed in the future. Furthermore, we identify lessons on consultation, consent and stakeholder engagement as well as how different projects have identified and addressed deforestation drivers at the project level.

Does clientelism help Tanzanian MPs establish long-term electoral support?

07 Apr 2016 01:29:03 GMT

The relationships between Members of Parliament (MPs) and voters in developing countries are often characterised by clientelistic exchanges of tangible goods and votes. In Tanzania, clientelism has been prominent in MP-voter relationships since the transit ion to multiparty democracy in the early 1990s. It was enhanced in part by the legalisation of election incentives given by politicians to voters between 2000 and 2006. Against this unique background, this paper examines the way in which election incentive s and electoral clientelism affected public views on MPs.

Drawing on Afrobarometer survey data for 2005, 2008, and 2012 as well as data on electoral competitiveness and MPs’ engagement with parliamentary discussions, this examination reveals a shifting trend in public expectations and evaluations of MPs: Tanzanian voters increasingly favoured programmatic MPs rather than clientelistic MPs. Moreover, Tanzanians who had been offered election incentives in 2010 and preferred clientelistic MPs were more likely to disapprove of the performance of MPs. These results suggest that clientelism does not necessarily help Tanzanian MPs to maintain long-term electoral support.

Local content in the Tanzanian mining sector

04 Apr 2016 05:28:41 GMT

This brief examines the factors that have influenced local content in the Tanzanian mining sector, and some of the challenges and successes of local content initiatives in mining. Local content has gradually gained momentum over the last ten years, both among government bodies, companies, and civil society organizations. We argue that there has been a focus on quantity rather than quality in the reporting of local content, that there is a need for stronger regulation of local suppliers to make them adhere to ethical standards, but also that investment in training and local cooperatives can be beneficial for both corporations and host communities.

Not so great expectations: gas revenue, corruption and willingness to pay tax in Tanzania

04 Apr 2016 05:02:30 GMT

Huge reservoirs of natural gas have been discovered offshore the southern coast of Tanzania. There are high expectations that exploitation of natural resources will substantially increase Tanzania’s national income. This brief presents results from a recent survey experiment of 3000 respondents in Dar es Salaam, Mtwara gas revenue causally increase expectations about corruption, it has no effect on willingness to pay tax. We argue that successful handling of the gas discoveries should include strategies to keep people’s expectations about future gas revenues realistic and to strengthen the control of corruption.

Real-time evaluation of Norway's international climate and forest initiative. Literature review and programme theory.

04 Apr 2016 04:42:53 GMT

The report presents findings of a baseline for a new wave of real time evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI). Two separate but closely connected studies have been conducted following an extensive literature review, workshops, and interviews.

Study A reviews and summarizes research relevant to REDD+ and identifies the gaps where additional research and evaluation is needed.

Study B considers the program theories behind NICFI and REDD+ and assesses the extent to which the current intervention theories and design of NICFI show the conditions necessary to achieve its objectives. The study draws on the findings from study A and includes an assessment of the degree to which the program/intervention theory or theories are based on available research based knowledge.

The two studies conducted in parallel, identify ways in which NICFI can improve and capitalize on emerging best practices and knowledge.

The Norwegian government launched its International Climate and Forest Initiative in December 2007, pledging up to NOK 3 billion annually to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). 

The Evaluation Department at the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) has commissioned real-time evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI) from consultants and experts. Comprising evaluations and studies on specific topics and themes, the objective is to provide timely information and rapid learning opportunities for programing and management of NICFI.

Phase 1 of the real time evaluation was conducted during 2010- 2013. Phase 2 of the real time evaluation started in 2015. This report is the first publication within the second phase of the evaluation.

Institutional analysis for climate services development and delivery in Tanzania

04 Apr 2016 03:50:03 GMT

This report is an output of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. The goal of the report is to describe and assess the current institutional landscape for development and delivery of climate services in Tanzania and to suggest pathways for leveraging current opportunities, as well as for addressing current institutional barriers, to enable improved production, access, and use of climate services in Tanzania. This report is based on a review of relevant policy documents and grey literature, focus group discussions with communities in Longido and Kiteto Districts, and key informant interviews with selected policy-makers, authorities, and non-governmental actors at national and district levels involved in the fields of agriculture and food security, health, and disaster risk reduction and management. The report findings suggest that there are four major institutional challenges to the delivery of usable climate services across institutional scales in Tanzania: 1) potential mismatches between national institutional arrangements and legal mandates, 2) limited technical, financial, and human resources, 3) lack of sufficient mechanisms to facilitate systematic flows of information between government agencies, both vertically and horizontally, and 4) limited specialized climate change knowledge and expertise within government structures. Recommendations are made for addressing these challenges.

Establishing a baseline for monitoring and evaluating user satisfaction with climate services in Tanzania

03 Apr 2016 12:17:34 GMT

This report is a contribution toward the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Program in Africa (GFCS-APA) Tanzania country activities. CICERO and UDSM are tasked with establishing a baseline for monitoring “User Satisfaction with Climate Services” at the national, district, and local levels, with a focus on the programme target districts of Longido and Kiteto. A qualitative approach was employed to document 1) existing institutional coordination and steering mechanisms for a dedicated climate services platform at the national level; 2) respondents’ awareness of and access to climate information and services at national, district and local levels; 3) respondents’ perceptions of the ‘usability’ of climate information and services, and 4) the role of indigenous knowledge (IK) about weather, climate, and related adaptation options. Following Cash et al., (2003), we analyzed “user satisfaction” in relation to respondents’ perceptions of the credibility, salience, and legitimacy of climate information and services. Key findings include: 1) A national steering mechanism for climate services has been adopted, but there is a need to strengthen institutional coordination across all scales; 2) Awareness of and access to climate information and services are highly variable across institutional scales, indicating a need for increased awareness of the concept of climate services as well as efforts to enhance delivery of climate information; 3) Perceptions of the credibility of climate information and services are paramount to increasing user satisfaction, and depend upon respondents’ experience using climate information in practice. Mismatches between the timing of decision-making and the production and delivery of forecasts, as well as the limited spatial and temporal resolution of climate information and products, undermine the salience of climate information. The way in which forecasts are currently packaged and communicated presents additional challenges to understanding and interpreting the information for practical decision-making. At the local level, disparities in capacities to access and benefit from climate information and services and the potential for climate information to take on political implications when attached to specific advice pose challenges to the legitimacy of climate information and services development. 4) IK was seen as being particularly important to decision-making at local levels, where it gains its credibility through the long-term observations it is based on, as well as the experience that communities already have working with this knowledge. The findings highlight that improving user satisfaction with climate services will be a long-term process that requires capacity building, knowledge exchange, and empowerm[...]

Climate change policy inventory and analysis for Tanzania

31 Mar 2016 06:49:30 GMT

This report assesses the extent to which climate change concerns have been integrated or mainstreamed into national policy documents in mainland Tanzania. It considers the role of climate services in achieving national sectorial policy goals, and identifies entry points for the further development of climate services within the current policy frameworks. Fifteen key policy documents relevant to economic development, climate change and environment, agriculture and food security, disaster management and risk reduction, and health planning were analysed. Three major findings emerged from this analysis.

First, while climate change is addressed in a number of the policy documents, the concept of climate services was not.

Second, policy documents across all sectors identified improved early warning systems as a specific objective.

Third, the analysis highlighted that efforts to manage short and long-term climate risks are not well integrated under current policies and legislation in Tanzania.

Based on these findings, several recommendations are made that can inform climate services development and delivery in Tanzania.

Stakeholder Participatory Workshops in Lushoto, Tanzania: Climate Smart Agriculture Practices

24 Mar 2016 07:42:12 GMT

In June 2014, participatory workshops and field visits were conducted by the CIAT-DAPA and CIAT-Soils Research Area teams in the CCAFS Climate Smart Village of Lushoto, Tanzania in the West Usambara Mountains to identify locally appropriate climate smart practices and potential barriers to adopt them. Two stakeholder workshops were conducted; farmers’ workshop and national and local expert workshop. The key objectives for workshops included identifying the different agroecological zones around Lushoto CCAFS villages and their characteristics; assimilating information, opinions, and or concerns regarding CSA practices from farmers and experts; developing a prioritized list of CSA practices and or packages for each agroecological zone; and identifying current and past demonstration plots of different sustainable land management (SLM), CSA, or other agricultural practices in the region. In addition to the workshops, researchers visited several farms and demonstration sites to better understand farming systems and practices used by farmers. Chapter four documents a case study example of digital technology in practice; namely GPS and tablets being utilised in the process of recording data and exploring and promoting climate smart agriculture possibilities.