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Local content requirements in the petroleum sector in Tanzania: a thorny road from inception to implementation?

26 Sep 2016 03:29:53 GMT

Tanzania has recently discovered huge offshore natural gas fields. This has led the Government to develop local content policies (LCPs) to increase job and business opportunities for nationals in the sector. We study the process behind the development of these policies and the positions of stakeholders. We find that although there is a positive view among domestic stakeholders of imposing such policies, there is much suspicion–to such a degree that it shapes their recommendations of which policies to include in the LCP. One reason is that the Government monopolized the policy development process and abstained from conducting a consultative process. Our findings suggest that future Tanzanian policy development should include in-depth consultations to maximize the decision maker’s knowledge base, add to the transparency of the process and manage expectations. This would also contribute to effective implementation and lessen tensions, conflicts and suspicion among stakeholders.

Communities and conservation in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania : participation, costs and benefits

20 Sep 2016 03:11:53 GMT

This thesis contributes to the current debate on how to balance conservation and development objectives. The extent of land under protection globally has increased enormously over the last 30 years, and there are still plans to expand the current protected areas (PAs) and create new ones. Their establishment is associated with impacts on local communities who live in the proximity of such areas. Different actors have proposed local participation and benefit sharing for people affected by these conservation initiatives. Despite their implementation over three decades, the social, economic, and political impacts of establishing and maintaining PAs remain debatable. It is in this context that this study was conducted in the Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA), the Kilimanjaro National Park, and the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation in Tanzania. The specific research questions of the study are: i. What are the social and economic impacts of the expansion and establishment of conservation areas on local people in West Kilimanjaro; and how are the impacts distributed along gender lines? ii. How are the conservation benefits shared with local communities in West Kilimanjaro? iii. How do the conservation benefits and costs affect local peoples‟ attitudes towards and perceptions of conservation? iv. What are the factors that drive human-wildlife conflicts? Data were collected using qualitative methods through the combination of in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, informal interviews, and participant observation. Secondary data in the form of written sources on the study area were used in addition to the primary data gathered. The research results are presented in four separate but interrelated papers. [...] All areas studied (Enduimet WMA, Kilimanjaro National Park, and West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation) share a centralised structure in terms of decision making on the management of natural resources and benefit sharing. Local people are not able to participate in decision making in the management of the areas, and it is difficult for communities to influence or challenge the way the structure operates. In Enduimet, the WMA was proposed as community-run conservation area. In practice, the communities do not have the power to collect revenues, decide on shares, or to verify whether they receive the income they are entitled to receive. The central government collects the revenues and channels the percentage to local people. The Kilimanjaro National Park was found to involve local people only when there is a fire outbreak; thus local people claimed to be used as „tools‟. The park management system does not allow space for local people‟s opinions. Most of the collected revenues are retained by the national parks headquarters and local people do not have any power or influence over the revenues. In practice, the park operates under a strict „fences and fines‟ or „fortress conservation‟ strategy. In the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation, local people do not have any power or share of the revenues collected from the sale of logs and poles, apart from payment received from casual labour. The income from logs sold is remitted to the central government. In all three areas, participation is used as „means‟ to improve environmental conservation and a way to accrue more revenue for the government.


Welfare impacts of climate shocks: evidence from Tanzania

31 Aug 2016 12:45:27 GMT

Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) remains the world’s most food-insecure region characterized by high levels of child mortality and poverty and low levels of human and physical capital (FAO, 2009). Countries in SSA, including Tanzania, heavily depend on a smallholder-based agricultural sector, which makes their welfare and food security particularly vulnerable to climate change.

The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of weather risk on rural households’ welfare in Tanzania using nationally representative household panel data together with a set of novel weather variation indicators based on interpolated gridded and re-analysis weather data that capture the peculiar features of short term and long term variations in rainfall and temperature. In particular, we estimate the impact of weather shocks on a rich set of welfare indicators (including total income, total expenditure, food expenditure and its share in total expenditure and calorie intake) and investigate whether and how they vary by different definitions of shocks - capturing changes in levels and variations over different time periods.

The authors find that both rainfall and maximum temperature variability exert a negative impact on welfare (i.e. no consumption smoothing) and that households that have adopted SLM practices are able to achieve income-smoothing. We also find that the most vulnerable rural households are much more affected by a rainfall deficit compared to the households in the top income quantile. Results underline the key role extension services play in enhancing adaptive capacity to reduce vulnerability to adverse weather conditions, as well as the importance of targeting the most vulnerable households in policy interventions to improve food security in the face of weather shocks.

The East African energy frontier, a decade on

12 Aug 2016 11:07:29 GMT

The East Africa region has seen some of the decade’ s largest natural gas and energy finds. However, despite their magnitude, these discoveries have yet to fulfil the promise of social and economic progress. With some signs of the negative impact of resource wealth already in evidence, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique all require changes to their natural resources policies to ensure that revenues are shared and invested in the future. Underpinning this is the need for governments to improve transparency, allowing local institutions to hold the government and other stakeholders accountable. Without such steps, the full potential of these finds is set to go unrealised.
The past decade’s energy finds created great promise for Eastern Africa. Yet questions remain about whether these finds will be a burden or blessing. With the downturn in global energy markets and production dates being repeatedly postponed, any potential benefits are subject to the uncertainties and political volatilities that have come to characterise the region. However, it is not too late for these countries to use their assets wisely. A real commitment to accountability and the channelling of revenues towards development objectives is needed, as well as the necessary freedoms for local institutions to monitor the sector and hold government and other stakeholders to account. Now, while prices are low, is a good opportunity for states to get their institutional houses in order. With the effective infrastructure in place, as well as co-operation between states and profits being invested in their future, these finds can in time contribute to the development of the region.

Tanzania-China all-weather friendship from socialism to globalization: a case of relative decline

12 Aug 2016 10:00:00 GMT

How close is the Tanzanian-Chinese partnership today? Bi-lateral trade and Chinese economic activity in Tanzania today is far more significant than in the 1970s; China’s “no strings attached” policy is still attractive and political solidarities and military co-operation have remained relatively strong. However, this bi-lateral relationship does not have the importance, nor the exclusiveness it enjoyed in the heydays of socialism. Today, China must compete economically, politically and culturally with the activism and soft power of a larger group of countries, particularly the United States. Although both in Dar es Salaam and in Beijing this relationship is still presented as “special”, it has lost the structural role that it had until the late 1970s in shaping Sino-African relations. Growing Sino-American and Sino-Western competition in Africa has increased Tanzania’s option and helped it, to some extent, to better defend its own interests.

This paper examines Tanzanian-Chinese relations over the past half century and more particularly since 2005, highlighting how global political, strategic and economic shifts have affected and on the whole reduced, in relative terms, the importance of this bi-lateral relationship.

Should Tanzania establish a sovereign wealth fund?

12 Aug 2016 06:32:40 GMT

Many natural resource abundant countries have established sovereign wealth funds as part of their strategy of managing the resource wealth. This working paper by Ragnar Torvik looks into different arguments used as reasons to establish such funds, discuss how these funds are organized, and draw some policy lessons. The paper then develops a theory of how petroleum funds may affect the economic and political equilibrium of an economy, and how this depends on initial institutions. A challenge with petroleum funds is that they may produce economic and political incentives that undermines their potential benefits. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the best way to manage the petroleum wealth of Tanzania may not be to establish a sovereign wealth fund, but rather use revenues to invest domestically in sectors such as infrastructure, education and health. Such investments may produce a better economic, as well as institutional, development.

Petroleum fund in Tanzania? Other alternatives may be better

12 Aug 2016 06:03:11 GMT

This Brief is an output from Tanzania as a future petrostate: Prospects and challenges, a five-year (2014-19) institutional collaborative programme for research, capacity building, and policy dialogue. It is jointly implemented by REPOA and CMI, in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics. The programme is funded by the Norwegian Embassy, Dar es Salaam.

Review of support to female engineers through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship Program (SEAP) implemented by Engineers Registration Board (ERB)

12 Aug 2016 05:51:50 GMT


The Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE) has requested Norad to undertake a review of
the support to female engineers through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship
Program (SEAP) in order to assess the progress and give recommendations on the
best ways forward to meet the project objectives. The purpose of the review is to
contribute to the quality and delivery of the programme, and the findings from the
review will be used to guide the implementation of the remaining part of the project.

The project

RNE has been providing financial support to the Engineers Registration Board (ERB)
since 2010 to strengthen the capacity of female engineers and support their full
registration as professional engineers. The support to the female engineers is
implemented through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship Program (SEAP). The
project is scheduled to end in 2015, but a no-cost extension until ultimo 2016 has been
approved by the RNE.

In order to achieve a higher number of registered female engineers, the project set out
to give the female SEAP trainees subsistence allowance and additional trainings, as
well as provide training for mentors and build the capacity of the ERB staff managing
the project. Furthermore, the project set out to strengthen professional associations for
female engineers in Tanzania.

Implication of participatory forest management on Duru-Haitemba and Ufiome Forest reserves and community livelihoods

12 Aug 2016 03:30:00 GMT

The fate of the forest is usually connected with forest management systems, societal demands as well as exposure to major disturbances such as wildfires, heavy browsing animals. Since the early 1990s, Tanzania have adopted participatory forest management (PFM) approaches, namely Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) and Joint forest management (JFM) to effectively and adequately protect the forests. In Manyara region where this study is based, Duru-Haitemba and Suledo forest reserves are managed under CBFM, while Ufiome forest reserve is managed under JFM. This study analyses forest management systems and their implication on Duru-Haitemba and Ufiome forest Reserves. The research methods used in this study included household surveys, focus group discussion, key informant interviews and field observation. Finding from the study showed that both JFM and CBFM approaches have been effectively implemented in the two forest reserves. It was also found that some of the traditional ceremonies undertaken in the forest also support the forest management efforts, since areas where such activities take place are considered sacred and are always left intact. Therefore, collective results from forest management approaches and cultural activities have greatly minimised illegal forest based activities such as timber harvesting and forest fires and the once heavily degraded forests have significantly recovered. Such success has been attributed to increased sense of ownership and control over the forest resources as the community feel more responsible for protection of the forest after realising the benefits brought by their efforts. Those benefits include enhanced availability of water and local herbs, easy collection of firewood, protection of their homes and farms from strong wind and more reliable rains that give them a stable economy from agriculture. Although, the forest status has improved significantly, there are still challenges in managing more remote parts of the forest where misconducts are hard to be spotted. Among the reasons that have contributed to the far distance misconduct, are poor accessibility, inadequate financial resources, necessary working gears and protection of social relations. Therefore, there is a need to further ensure enforcement of the regulations, sensitization of the local community participation in forest management related activities, as well as unswerving support to forest patrols.

The article is an output from the research programme Climate Change Impact, Adaptaition and Mitigation (CCIAM) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

04 Jul 2016 01:42:37 GMT

Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

The article is an output from the research programme Climate Change Impact, Adaptaition and Mitigation (CCIAM) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Public spending on climate change in Africa: Experiences from Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda

27 Jun 2016 03:48:34 GMT

Public spending on climate change in Africa describes the extent to which public expenditure responds to national climate change policy and the institutional demands required to implement such policy. The four countries of the study: “ Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda provide insights into the early mobilisation of climate change finance, as each country attempts to address the new challenges that climate change is bringing about. The report is divided into three parts. The first part introduces the concept of climate change finance and outlines the effectiveness framework used in each of the country studies. The methodological challenges associated with public expenditure reviews as applied to national climate change actions are also described. The second part provides in-depth country accounts for Ethiopia, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda, on the level and nature of climate change-relevant public spending, set in the context of each country’s macroeconomic and public finance management systems. The final section concludes by drawing lessons for climate change policy development, institutional strengthening, local delivery of climate change finance and the monitoring of public finance, based on the insights gained from the country studies.

Vunja Ukimya, Zungumza na Mwenzio: a mass media campaign to motivate couples to communicate effectively for HIV-free households

23 Jun 2016 10:15:33 GMT

Vunja Ukimya, Zungumza na Mwenzio: A Mass Media Campaign to Motivate Couples to Communicate Effectively for HIV-Free Households

"As a result of the campaign, couples were motivated to communicate about health, and men and women were more likely to seek reproductive health services together."

This was one of the key results of the Vunja Ukimya. Zungumza na Mwenzio (Break the Silence. Talk to your partner) campaign in Tanzania. The campaign was launched in 2010 as part of the CHAMPION project, a six-year initiative (2008-2014) to increase men's positive involvement in preventing the spread of HIV in Tanzania. The 5-month national social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) campaign was designed to encourage couples to communicate more effectively for healthier, more equitable relationships and to prevent the spread of HIV. "Campaign messages focused on the role of gender equity in ensuring health, and targeted individuals, couples, and communities in promoting dialogue around HIV, gender equality, and positive health-seeking behavior." The brief forms part of a series of CHAMPION briefs to highlight some of the project's achievements.

The brief explains the campaign approach, which used radio, television, national newspapers, billboards, and outreach events and activities to reach audiences of adult men and women over the age of 25 and in established, longer-term relationships. The roll-out occurred in phases, beginning with a teaser phase, followed by a two month "problem phase" that also incorporated a World Cup sub-campaign, and then a "how to" phase, highlighting and demonstrating the health benefits of effective communication between partners. The messages focused on positive couple communication and used food as a metaphor for relationships, "indicating that both (dinner and happiness) require preparation and care to achieve the desired results."

The following are a selection of lessons learned:

  • campaign slogans need to be specific, should not reinforce gender inequality, and should use language not specific to particular regions within a country;
  • large events, public gatherings, holidays, and international events are key opportunities to increase awareness about gender and health;
  • combining entertainment with community dialogue (as used in the Vunja Ukimya Activation Tour) is an effective way to communicate campaign messages.

Overall, the assessment of the Vunja Ukimya campaign was that it was widely well received, with community members responding positively to the promotion of couples being close and the concept of "transparency" within relationships.

Shuga: engaging Tanzanian young people in HIV prevention through edutainment radio

23 Jun 2016 03:07:04 GMT

The Shuga radio serial drama is an evidence-based and participatory behaviour change communication edutainment drama designed to increase demand for HIV testing and counselling (HTC) and condom use among sexually active youth aged 15-24 years. The 12-episode drama series was developed in collaboration with UNICEF, MTV and HIV and AIDS Free Generation, together with government representatives and young people from six participating countries - Tanzania, Kenya, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Lesotho, South Africa and Cameroon.

This report highlights key results and lessons learned from implementation of the first phase of Shuga radio, initiated by UNICEF Tanzania in a partnership with UNESCO and in collaboration with TACAIDS, MOHSW and key partners including JHU-CCP, PSI, T-MARC, PASADA, Baylor, Restless Development and SUMASESU and broadcast partners Tanzania Network of Community Radios and Clouds FM.

Lessons learned:

Multisectoral support is needed to design successful behavior change communication programs. Much of the success of Shuga radio is because of the support obtained from key partners at community level, the Shuga Advisory Committee, partnership with UNESCO. Moreover, within UNICEF planning, monitoring and evaluation colleagues played a big role in supporting the M&E design and data analysis, and communication advocacy and partnership colleagues supported in Facebook posts and linking Shuga radio serial drama to Radio 5.

Although there is a challenge of attribution of a particular social behaviour change communication activities to HTC outcomes, use of multiple M&E approaches generated the assertion that radio was among the top three sources of information for young people about HTC (along with health workers and teachers) and suggested that more efforts should focus on adolescents, who were less likely than young adults to be aware about HTC and to report being HIV tested.

Community matters: fostering community-level champions in addressing HIV and gender-based violence in Tanzania

21 Jun 2016 04:08:08 GMT

Local activists, leaders, and experts are best positioned to challenge the harmful social and gender norms within their communities that contribute to HIV transmission, gender-based violence (GBV), and other poor health outcomes.

This brief discusses the experience of the CHAMPION Project in Tanzania, which trained and supported community partners in 14 urban districts in 10 regions of Tanzania to plan and implement gender transformative HIV and gender-based violence (GBV) prevention activities in their communities. The project used community-level 'champions' to lead local actions to raise awareness about HIV and GBV, champion equitable gender norms to promote long term behaviour and social change related to sexual and reproductive health (SRH), and encourage community members to test for HIV. These community champions were found to be critical allies within Tanzania's HIV prevention efforts, a "promising approach to engendering social change and improving sexual and reproductive health outcomes." This brief forms part of a series of CHAMPION briefs to highlight some of the project's achievements.

The brief discusses the importance of partnerships across various levels of intervention, including working with local partners to identify champions to serve as change agents; building partners' capacity around in-depth understanding of gender norms; and building leadership, communication, and community mobilisation skills. These community-level partners "planned and led a variety of activities in their communities to create awareness, promote behaviour change, and stimulate community dialogue about gender norms, HIV, SRH, and GBV." Their activities included community dialogues, discussions, video shows, street dialogues and theatre, health fairs, sporting events, and rallies, all of which are briefly explained in the publication.

Based on learning from the project, the brief outlines a number of recommendations:

  • Go local: " interventions and related capacity building must be tailored to specific communities and to the partners who are working to lead social change. Efforts should be made to identify audio-visual materials that resonate with community members. The more 'foreign' the messenger, the less likely the message is to resonate."
  • Creativity matters: Messages should be "clever, catchy, persuasive, compelling, and tailored to the local context." They should provoke discussion and reflection, rather than reiterate facts people already know."
  • Avoid the blame game: Positive approaches can best contribute to a more constructive dialogue about gender norms, why inequities exist, how they are harmful, why challenging them is important, and how they can be transformed.
  • Programme holistically: Programmes should ensure that community capacity building and engagement is accompanied by the availability and accessibility of health services. "Service providers must also have the capacity, resources, and commodities available that are needed to provide the full range of client-centred services for HIV, RH, and GBV prevention and response."

CoupleConnect: a gender-transformative approach to HIV prevention for Tanzanian couples

21 Jun 2016 03:38:44 GMT

Couple connectedness is defined as the quality of the emotional bond between partners that is both mutual and sustained over time. For couple connectedness to exist, it must be experienced by both partners in the relationship who are committed to practicing these behaviors..."

This was the core principle underlying CoupleConnect, a gender-transformative curriculum developed by the CHAMPION Project in Tanzania to help couples communicate more effectively about relationship challenges as a way to foster improved sexual and reproductive health and prevent HIV. Created in 2011, the CoupleConnect curriculum was used to guide group education workshops designed to provide couples with insights, information, and skills needed to increase their "connectedness," considered an important determinant of healthy sexual and reproductive health (SRH) behaviour.

The brief explains that "couple connectedness is operationalized by nine determinants of sexual behavior focused on mutual trust and support, communication, financial planning and management, shared goals, love and affection, joint decision making, achievement and maintenance of RH, and conflict resolution." The 15-session CoupleConnect curriculum was designed specifically for Tanzania through a process that included stakeholder meetings and key informant interviews, followed by a pilot project in nine districts. Couples participated in sessions using interactive teaching methodologies, such as large-group and knee-to-knee couple discussions, fishbowls, and other adult learning games. Workshop results were assessed through a comparison of questionnaires to assess attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge related to "couple connectedness."

The brief offers a number of recommendations:

  • Tailor Interventions to Meet Couples' Needs: Workshops should consider education and literacy and group similar sets of couples. The implementation should also respond to identified needs. For example, during the pilot the intervention was adapted from a two-month intervention to an intensive three-day course, which improved attendance and participation by both partners
  • Involve Community Leaders in Implementation: Implementation and recruitments should happen at ward level, as participants then have greater connection to the facilitators who come from the community. Likewise, obtaining intervention buy-in from local authorities and leaders (e.g., community, religious) is critical
  • Ensure Strong Facilitator Capacity and Equitable Interaction: CoupleConnect is facilitated by married co-facilitators. "The manner in which married co-facilitators communicate, negotiate, resolve conflict, and support each other is critical to the success of interactive, mixed-sex, gender-transformative programs like CoupleConnect. Cofacilitators must mirror the positive and gender-equitable communication skills that the curriculum promotes"
  • Collect More In-Depth Data: In order to better understand how post-workshop dialogues among couples is nurtured and practiced, more in-depth and rigorous evaluation is required, to help strengthen conclusions about the sustainability of the programme's impact on knowledge and attitudes in the longer term

Seeing through fishers' lenses: Exploring marine ecological changes within Mafia Island Merine Park, Tanzania

12 Jun 2016 09:06:59 GMT

nsights from traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of the marine environment are difficult to integrate into conventional science knowledge (CSK) initiatives. Where TEK is integrated into CSK at all, it is usually either marginalized or restricted to CSK modes of interpretation, hence limiting its potential contribution to the understanding of social-ecological systems. This study uses semi-directive interviews, direct observations, and structured open-ended questionnaires (n = 103) to explore TEK of marine ecological changes occurring within the Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania, and factors contributing to these changes. It illuminates TEK insights that can be valuable in parallel with CSK to provide a more nuanced understanding of ecological changes. In some areas, fishers observed coral reef growth, increased fish abundance, and increased sea temperatures, whereas in others, they reported decreases in sea level, coral cover, fish abundance, catch composition, catch quantities, and fish size. They associated these changes with interrelated factors emanating from environmental processes, conservation outcomes, marketing constraints, population dynamics, and disappearance of cultural traditions. Utilizing TEK without restricting it to CSK modes of interpretation has the potential to improve CSK initiatives by promoting complementarity and mutual enrichment between the two kinds of knowledge, thereby contributing new insights that may enhance adaptive management and resilience in social-ecological systems.

Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) “Faith Engagement in Climate Smart Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

10 Jun 2016 06:11:49 GMT

This is a desk appraisal of the Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) done for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) by the Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU).

REDD+ hits the ground: lessons learned from Tanzania's REDD+ pilot projects

10 Jun 2016 05:35:36 GMT

Tanzania launched a series of REDD+ pilot projects in 2009 with the goal of testing approaches to reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). These projects, funded by the government of Norway experimented with a range of different approaches to protect forests, while supporting livelihoods and local economic development. In this report, we review the experiences and lessons learned from these pilot projects. Initially, we assess the feasibility of voluntary market, project approaches within a context of low forest carbon stocks and complex local deforestation drivers. We go on to explore how participatory forest management (PFM) has been adopted by REDD+ projects and used to address local deforestation drivers. In some cases, orienting PFM to REDD+ goals has helped address long standing barriers to PFM implementation. Elsewhere, viewing PFM through a REDD+ lens has highlighted weaknesses with current approaches to PFM, which will need to be addressed in the future. Furthermore, we identify lessons on consultation, consent and stakeholder engagement as well as how different projects have identified and addressed deforestation drivers at the project level.

Does clientelism help Tanzanian MPs establish long-term electoral support?

07 Apr 2016 01:29:03 GMT

The relationships between Members of Parliament (MPs) and voters in developing countries are often characterised by clientelistic exchanges of tangible goods and votes. In Tanzania, clientelism has been prominent in MP-voter relationships since the transit ion to multiparty democracy in the early 1990s. It was enhanced in part by the legalisation of election incentives given by politicians to voters between 2000 and 2006. Against this unique background, this paper examines the way in which election incentive s and electoral clientelism affected public views on MPs.

Drawing on Afrobarometer survey data for 2005, 2008, and 2012 as well as data on electoral competitiveness and MPs’ engagement with parliamentary discussions, this examination reveals a shifting trend in public expectations and evaluations of MPs: Tanzanian voters increasingly favoured programmatic MPs rather than clientelistic MPs. Moreover, Tanzanians who had been offered election incentives in 2010 and preferred clientelistic MPs were more likely to disapprove of the performance of MPs. These results suggest that clientelism does not necessarily help Tanzanian MPs to maintain long-term electoral support.

Local content in the Tanzanian mining sector

04 Apr 2016 05:28:41 GMT

This brief examines the factors that have influenced local content in the Tanzanian mining sector, and some of the challenges and successes of local content initiatives in mining. Local content has gradually gained momentum over the last ten years, both among government bodies, companies, and civil society organizations. We argue that there has been a focus on quantity rather than quality in the reporting of local content, that there is a need for stronger regulation of local suppliers to make them adhere to ethical standards, but also that investment in training and local cooperatives can be beneficial for both corporations and host communities.

Not so great expectations: gas revenue, corruption and willingness to pay tax in Tanzania

04 Apr 2016 05:02:30 GMT

Huge reservoirs of natural gas have been discovered offshore the southern coast of Tanzania. There are high expectations that exploitation of natural resources will substantially increase Tanzania’s national income. This brief presents results from a recent survey experiment of 3000 respondents in Dar es Salaam, Mtwara gas revenue causally increase expectations about corruption, it has no effect on willingness to pay tax. We argue that successful handling of the gas discoveries should include strategies to keep people’s expectations about future gas revenues realistic and to strengthen the control of corruption.

Real-time evaluation of Norway's international climate and forest initiative. Literature review and programme theory.

04 Apr 2016 04:42:53 GMT

The report presents findings of a baseline for a new wave of real time evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI). Two separate but closely connected studies have been conducted following an extensive literature review, workshops, and interviews.

Study A reviews and summarizes research relevant to REDD+ and identifies the gaps where additional research and evaluation is needed.

Study B considers the program theories behind NICFI and REDD+ and assesses the extent to which the current intervention theories and design of NICFI show the conditions necessary to achieve its objectives. The study draws on the findings from study A and includes an assessment of the degree to which the program/intervention theory or theories are based on available research based knowledge.

The two studies conducted in parallel, identify ways in which NICFI can improve and capitalize on emerging best practices and knowledge.

The Norwegian government launched its International Climate and Forest Initiative in December 2007, pledging up to NOK 3 billion annually to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). 

The Evaluation Department at the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) has commissioned real-time evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI) from consultants and experts. Comprising evaluations and studies on specific topics and themes, the objective is to provide timely information and rapid learning opportunities for programing and management of NICFI.

Phase 1 of the real time evaluation was conducted during 2010- 2013. Phase 2 of the real time evaluation started in 2015. This report is the first publication within the second phase of the evaluation.

Institutional analysis for climate services development and delivery in Tanzania

04 Apr 2016 03:50:03 GMT

This report is an output of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. The goal of the report is to describe and assess the current institutional landscape for development and delivery of climate services in Tanzania and to suggest pathways for leveraging current opportunities, as well as for addressing current institutional barriers, to enable improved production, access, and use of climate services in Tanzania. This report is based on a review of relevant policy documents and grey literature, focus group discussions with communities in Longido and Kiteto Districts, and key informant interviews with selected policy-makers, authorities, and non-governmental actors at national and district levels involved in the fields of agriculture and food security, health, and disaster risk reduction and management. The report findings suggest that there are four major institutional challenges to the delivery of usable climate services across institutional scales in Tanzania: 1) potential mismatches between national institutional arrangements and legal mandates, 2) limited technical, financial, and human resources, 3) lack of sufficient mechanisms to facilitate systematic flows of information between government agencies, both vertically and horizontally, and 4) limited specialized climate change knowledge and expertise within government structures. Recommendations are made for addressing these challenges.

Establishing a baseline for monitoring and evaluating user satisfaction with climate services in Tanzania

03 Apr 2016 12:17:34 GMT

This report is a contribution toward the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Program in Africa (GFCS-APA) Tanzania country activities. CICERO and UDSM are tasked with establishing a baseline for monitoring “User Satisfaction with Climate Services” at the national, district, and local levels, with a focus on the programme target districts of Longido and Kiteto. A qualitative approach was employed to document 1) existing institutional coordination and steering mechanisms for a dedicated climate services platform at the national level; 2) respondents’ awareness of and access to climate information and services at national, district and local levels; 3) respondents’ perceptions of the ‘usability’ of climate information and services, and 4) the role of indigenous knowledge (IK) about weather, climate, and related adaptation options. Following Cash et al., (2003), we analyzed “user satisfaction” in relation to respondents’ perceptions of the credibility, salience, and legitimacy of climate information and services. Key findings include: 1) A national steering mechanism for climate services has been adopted, but there is a need to strengthen institutional coordination across all scales; 2) Awareness of and access to climate information and services are highly variable across institutional scales, indicating a need for increased awareness of the concept of climate services as well as efforts to enhance delivery of climate information; 3) Perceptions of the credibility of climate information and services are paramount to increasing user satisfaction, and depend upon respondents’ experience using climate information in practice. Mismatches between the timing of decision-making and the production and delivery of forecasts, as well as the limited spatial and temporal resolution of climate information and products, undermine the salience of climate information. The way in which forecasts are currently packaged and communicated presents additional challenges to understanding and interpreting the information for practical decision-making. At the local level, disparities in capacities to access and benefit from climate information and services and the potential for climate information to take on political implications when attached to specific advice pose challenges to the legitimacy of climate information and services development. 4) IK was seen as being particularly important to decision-making at local levels, where it gains its credibility through the long-term observations it is based on, as well as the experience that communities already have working with this knowledge. The findings highlight that improving user satisfaction with climate services will be a long-term process that requires capacity building, knowledge exchange, and empowerment. Based on the analysis, the authors put forward twelve recommendations to improve user satisfaction with climate information and services in Tanzania in the future.

Climate change policy inventory and analysis for Tanzania

31 Mar 2016 06:49:30 GMT

This report assesses the extent to which climate change concerns have been integrated or mainstreamed into national policy documents in mainland Tanzania. It considers the role of climate services in achieving national sectorial policy goals, and identifies entry points for the further development of climate services within the current policy frameworks. Fifteen key policy documents relevant to economic development, climate change and environment, agriculture and food security, disaster management and risk reduction, and health planning were analysed. Three major findings emerged from this analysis.

First, while climate change is addressed in a number of the policy documents, the concept of climate services was not.

Second, policy documents across all sectors identified improved early warning systems as a specific objective.

Third, the analysis highlighted that efforts to manage short and long-term climate risks are not well integrated under current policies and legislation in Tanzania.

Based on these findings, several recommendations are made that can inform climate services development and delivery in Tanzania.

Stakeholder Participatory Workshops in Lushoto, Tanzania: Climate Smart Agriculture Practices

24 Mar 2016 07:42:12 GMT

In June 2014, participatory workshops and field visits were conducted by the CIAT-DAPA and CIAT-Soils Research Area teams in the CCAFS Climate Smart Village of Lushoto, Tanzania in the West Usambara Mountains to identify locally appropriate climate smart practices and potential barriers to adopt them. Two stakeholder workshops were conducted; farmers’ workshop and national and local expert workshop. The key objectives for workshops included identifying the different agroecological zones around Lushoto CCAFS villages and their characteristics; assimilating information, opinions, and or concerns regarding CSA practices from farmers and experts; developing a prioritized list of CSA practices and or packages for each agroecological zone; and identifying current and past demonstration plots of different sustainable land management (SLM), CSA, or other agricultural practices in the region. In addition to the workshops, researchers visited several farms and demonstration sites to better understand farming systems and practices used by farmers. Chapter four documents a case study example of digital technology in practice; namely GPS and tablets being utilised in the process of recording data and exploring and promoting climate smart agriculture possibilities.


When refugees cannot return home: A conflict conundrum in Africa’s Great Lakes region

22 Mar 2016 12:18:28 GMT

The large number of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the Great Lakes region poses immense challenges to peacebuilding processes within the countries affected, as well as in that entire conflict system. An influx of refugees impacts peace and security, citizenship considerations, as well as cross-border and ethnic confl icts, among others. A case in point, conflict is often triggered by competition for land and economic resources, and is exacerbated by the growing number of refugees in Africa’s Great Lakes region. The presence of refugees contributes to signifi cant security issue for several countries in the region. There have been reports of some refugees joining armed groups or terrorist organisations, occupying large territories to exploit mineral resources, attacking local communities to expropriate land, and acting as cheap labour, to the detriment of locals. These factors advance the perception among original inhabitants that crime, impunity and weapons traffi cking, among other scourges, increase with the settlement of foreigners in their communities and countries. On the other side of the debate are considerations that refugees bring important skills and knowledge into host countries, participate in entrepreneurship and development projects that contribute to local economies, and boost local markets due to increased demand for products and services.

There are questions that are central to understanding the dilemma that is the ongoing refugee crisis in the Great Lakes region. How can the challenge of huge refugee numbers in the region be addressed? How best can long-term, sustainable and holistic political and humanitarian solutions be implemented to deal with the negative impacts of the refugee crisis? Why has the fl ood of refugees been such a long-term recurrent issue in the Great Lakes region, compared to other parts of the continent? This Policy & Practice Brief (PPB) analyses why refugees have been hesitant to return to their domiciles, even when there have been indications that relative peace had returned to their countries of origin. It also examines the impacts of refugee fl ows on peace and security, as well as on land and socio-economic control and access. It concludes by proffering recommendations on what can be done, from a regional perspective, to decrease the number of refugees, while simultaneously resolving the root causes of the various confl icts that the refugees have fl ed in the fi rst place.

The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania

18 Mar 2016 04:57:33 GMT

Biogas can be a clean cooking alternative where biomass is the dominant source of cooking energy and where feedstock for anaerobic digestion is available.  By substituting woody biomass for energy, biogas may reduce local deforestation. Tanzania has more than 15.6 million goats. Dairy goats of different breeds are found in the  mid-to high altitudes of the country. Population density has made firewood increasingly scarce and there are few energy alternatives in mountainous areas such as in the Uluguru Mountains. In Mgeta ward, Morogoro region, introduction of Norwegian dairy goats in the 1980s has improved livelihoods in the area. In this study, goat manure was assessed as feedstock for biogas and as fertilizer. Field work among small-holder dairy goat farmers in Mgeta was conducted to measure daily  manure production, and to provide  a basic model for  prediction of the quantity of  droppings which  may  be  collected  by  farmers. Biogas  and  fertilizer  potential  from  goat  manure was compared to cow  and  pig  manure. Buswell’s  formula was used to  calculate approximate  methane  yield. The  results  show that  goat manure  from  Mgeta  can  yield 167 l∙kg Volatile Solids-1 (VS).  Compared  with  other  substrates  approximate  methane yield can be ranked as pig > guatemala grass > cow > goat. The average goat of 25 kg in  Mgeta  leaves  61 kg  Total Solids  (TS) droppings  per  year.  It was estimated  that  15 goats∙capita-1 would be required to meet the total cooking energy needs of small-holder households in the study location. N:P:K content in goat manure (TS) is 2:1:1, similar to cow  and  pig  manure.  Goat  droppings had to  be  macerated  to  reduce  particle  size  for anaerobic  digestion.  Biogas  from  dairy  goats  could  be  combined  with  the  year-round irrigated  horticulture  production  in  Mgeta.  Vegetable gardens  in  the  slope  below  the digesters could be fertilized by gravitation with the NH4+-rich bioslurry, to save labour and increase yields.

Norfund’s Kilombero Plantation in Tanzania: meagre results from a large investment

18 Mar 2016 03:57:28 GMT

This report set out to analyse water use by Kilombero Plantations Limited (KPL) in  Tanzania  and  its  effect  on  the  people  dependent  on  local  water  resources. Norfund,  the  Norwegian  development  finance  institution,  is  invested  in  the plantation company KPL through its stake in Agrica Limited. The report finds that the water management regime of the plantation is affecting the local people minimally. Exposure to risks has increased slightly, especially for the poorer villagers unable to afford storage of water. The main risk emanating from the lack of  improved  water  sources  is  however  the  responsibility  of  the  Government  of Tanzania,  and  not  the  company. The  developmental  effect  however  is  unclear. KPL  has  contributed  to  the  local  and  regional  economy  by  buying  materials and by hiring skilled and unskilled labour. These are however meagre spill overs compared to the planned effects of economical growth and increased domestic rice production. More significantly this report shows that Tanzania, like many other developing countries, lacks the fundamentals for private sector development. The challenges from  unfavourable  circumstances  have  prevented  the  company  from  turning  a profit in the first seven years. The still pending expansion of the plantation and the limited success of the outgrower scheme means that the contribution to reduce Tanzania’s dependence on imported rice has also been impaired. The marketing of  rice  from  Kilombero  was  exposed  to  sudden  shifts  in  the  imported  volume of rice and thus to a fall in prices. Volatile road taxation is another policy issue. There are also virtually no medium sized modern farms to recruit skilled labour from;  there  is  a  huge  technological  gap  between  mostly  traditional  household level farms and industrial plantations in Tanzania. The unstable regulative regime and weak enforcement of policies are hallmarks of weak institutions. The large-scale investment favoured up until now will not benefit poor farmers in the short or medium term. One could argue that the prevailing mode is neither favourable for large agribusiness. This report shows how a matrix of criteria are necessary to create a beneficial environment for large-scale agriculture, most of which are missing or only partly present in Tanzania. A stable regulative environment, decent roads and a skilled workforce are some. Not to mention public water management. An increased effort on infrastructure, institutions  and  policies  seem  necessary  before  private  sector  investments  can  have  a reasonable chance of impact on development. The spill over effects from foreign investments are biggest when the technology gap to the domestic enterprises is more moderate, allowing transfusion of technologies and skilled workers.[...]

Strengthening citizen agency and accountability through ICT: an extrapolation for Eastern Africa

15 Mar 2016 11:54:04 GMT

We investigated the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT, namely mobile phones) in support of citizen agency and its potential in calling for authorities’ accountability. We focused on Eastern Africa and we used a mixed methodology, which allowed us to explore the current uses of ICT to strengthen accountability and to forecast the growth of mobile phones’ adaption in that region. Evidence from both analyses suggests that there are two main areas where citizen agency and ICT can reinforce each other in bottom-up and horizontal processes: participation and engagement of citizens, and the diffusion of information.

Mobile Phones and Poverty Alleviation: A Survey Study in Rural Tanzania

15 Mar 2016 04:50:45 GMT

Access to telecommunication has been cited as a factor for economic development. As such it is expected that mobile phones would increase growth, alleviate poverty and overcome the perceived digital divide. Although the literature is associating mobile phone usage directly with socio economic development, there still appears to be mixed feelings on the perceived economic benefits of mobile phones especially at the bottom poor. This research challenges the prevailing ideas and investigates whether mobile phones increase or reduce income poverty in the rural areas of Southern Highlands of Tanzania.

Modernization of deposit insurance system in Tanzania

11 Mar 2016 10:39:53 GMT

The Korea Deposit Insurance Corporation (KDIC) has had ties with the Deposit Insurance Board (DIB) of Tanzania since 2009. In November 2010, the DIB applied for the 2011 Knowledge Sharing Program (KSP) and asked the Korean government and the KDIC to provide technical assistance for the establishment of an independent deposit insurance agency. In August 2011, the KDIC conducted a demand survey and a pilot study. The results were reported at an interim reporting session followed by training for policy practitioners in November 2011.

The final reporting session was held in January 2012, along with a senior-level policy dialogue, in which the KDIC provided policy consultation regarding how Tanzania would build a deposit insurance system that matches the country’s circumstances, and laid out a roadmap for future development

Bringing learning to light: the role of citizen-led assessments in shifting the education agenda

09 Mar 2016 04:55:02 GMT

As governments and donors focused on increasing access to education in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), the issue of learning received comparatively little concerted attention. Some organisations working in countries where access was rapidly increasing took notice of the fact that, while rising enrollment rates were being celebrated, there was little evidence of whether or not learning was taking place.

One of the results of this realisation was the emergence of the citizen-led assessment movement, initiated by Pratham in India in 2005. The movement is an attempt by civil-society organisations to gather evidence on learning and use it for two main purposes: first, to increase awareness of low learning outcomes and second, to stimulate actions that are intended to address the learning gap. 

In an effort to more deeply understand the citizen-led assessment model and to evaluate its ability to measure learning, disseminate findings, and stimulate awareness and action, Results for Development Institute (R4D) evaluated four citizen-led assessments between May 2013 and November 2014: the Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) in India, Beekunko in Mali, Jàngandoo in Senegal, and Uwezo in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. This summary includes a subset of recommendations that draw on the key evaluation findings.

Gender equality as a pathway for sustainable development: lessons learned in Eastern and Southern Africa

04 Mar 2016 11:29:09 GMT

In order to advance sustainable development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is necessary to address cross-cutting issues on gender, environment, and climate change simultaneously. Despite this, a key challenge remains in ensuring that such integrated approaches are prioritised and implemented in national, sector, and local budgets. That is the problem discussed in this gender brief by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which draws on the experiences of an ongoing partnership between UN Women and the United Nations Development Programme. The brief includes examples of gender, environment, and climate change integration in policy and programming in Mozambique, research in Malawi and Uganda, and programming in Tanzania, as well as in areas concerning the strengthening of institutional capacities and knowledge sharing.


The key messages highlighted by the gender brief emphasise that addressing gender, environment, and climate change as cross-cutting issues can advance sustainable development and empower women, and that this will necessitate the strengthening of institutional and stakeholder capacities. Furthermore, data are needed to demonstrate the added value of integrating gender into climate and natural resource frameworks to convince decision-makers to take action. Additionally, proven climate- and gender-smart technologies must be quickly up-scaled.


The brief closes by presenting three key pieces of advice:


  • It is important to inform policy-makers and practitioners in the design and implementation of cross-sectoral, gender-sensitive climate and environment policies and programmes.
  • Concerted action and partnerships leveraging government, the legislature, civil society, and the private sector are needed to enact policies that can achieve the SDGs.
  • Partnerships between UN agencies and other multilateral organisations should be strengthened to increase support for the integration of gender, environment, and climate-linked concerns in policies, budgets, and programmes.

Empowering drylands women

04 Mar 2016 09:12:51 GMT

The Integrated Drylands Development Programme (IDDP) is a global UNDP initiative to promote sustainable development in the drylands, and advance the implementation of the UN Convention to Combat Desertification. This topic brief highlights the important role that gender plays in this context of sustainable development, in particular the role of women in the Arab States and Africa. In these regions, inequality and stereotypical gender norms often prevent women from contributing to the sustainable development of drylands, despite possessing a wealth of traditional knowledge and skills. To help address this, the promotion of gender equality and women’s empowerment was made a core component of the IDDP in its efforts toward poverty reduction and environmental conservation in partner countries. This brief summarises some of the results of these efforts.


The majority of the brief describes IDDP related programmes and activities in Africa and the Arab States, and how they have helped to reduce poverty, increase resilience, and empower women. Case studies presented include: the strengthening of women’s groups in Morocco through skill-building and cooperatisation; improving energy and water access, and participation in their management, for women in Tunisia; the mainstreaming of desertification and climate change issues in Benin through the Programme to Support Drylands Development Activities, which benefited women’s energy efficiency and productivity; support for the diversification of women’s livelihoods in Kenya; and capacity-building initiatives in Tanzania that included poultry farming, tree planting, and beekeeping.


The brief closes by taking a look to the future, reiterating the commitment of the IDDP to scale-up its efforts toward gender equality and women’s empowerment, as per Outcome Four of the UNDP Strategic Plan for 2014-2017. In the Arab states, IDDP’s approach will be two-fold: first, stepping up support within country projects to better address issues concerning gender in mainstreaming, livelihoods, and natural resource management, and second, supporting gender specific activities in partner countries to advance women’s empowerment. In Africa, significant improvements in working conditions, income levels, and the overall status of women will continue to be encouraged through a commitment that 50% of direct beneficiaries will be women. This is also in recognition of the key role they play in all aspects of agriculture, from cultivation to processing. Specifically, the IDDP will contribute to: enhancing women’s livelihoods; reducing wage gaps based on gender; strengthening women’s roles in decision-making for drylands development; and improving women’s access to environmental goods and services.


Women as agents of change in water: reflections on experiences from the field

04 Mar 2016 05:08:44 GMT

The Women for Water Partnership (WfWP) currently includes 26 women’s networks covering around 100 countries, predominantly in the developing world. This publication pays tribute to some of the work of women’s organisations involved in the WfWP, by qualitatively documenting some of the best practices displayed, and highlighting the specific contributions of women around the world toward the UN General Assembly mandated International Decade for Action ‘Water for Life 2005 - 2015.   The introduction explains the context the report in terms of the importance of studying the gender-water-sustainability nexus, Water for Life, and the status of water and sanitation as a human right. The majority of the report then examines examples of good practice from a number of case studies involving WfWP members. Each of the case studies provide background information on the contexts and organisations involved, and describes the role played by the primary women’s organisations in driving change. Also disucssed are their contributions to Water for Life, which together with the Dublin/Rio Principles for Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM), underline the central role of women in the provision, management, and safeguarding of water. The case studies examined include women’s organisations cooperating in: efforts toward a transformative gender-water-sustainable development agenda in Tanzania; contributions toward the Protocol on Water and Health for the UNECE Water Convention in Armenia and Ukraine; the implementation of the human right to water and sanitation in Nepal; provision of social accountability for water access in Kenya; sustainable water governance at Lake Victoria in Uganda; and empowering women in Nigeria through water and sanitation interventions.   The role of women’s civil society organisations, and the value they add to sustainable development, is discussed next, before the report identifies a number of lessons learned through examination of the projects. In terms of barriers to the meaningful participation of women in the water sector, most stem from either the direct and indirect difficulties of working in large, remote areas with limited access to water, or where customary law is actively involved in water rights and the role of women in society. Cultural resistance to empowering women consumes time and effort to overcome, though drivers for change exist, including: the introduction of gender equality legislation; strong political leadership committed to gender equality, as evidence by the catalytic effect of a gender-sensitive water minister in Nigeria; support by local communities themselves, which can be highly effective in changing mind-sets; and the use of peer networks that can provide support, training, coaching, and backstopping. Small scale projects that account for cultural differences are often more successful than large scale projects, but scaling-up these projects is an intensive and difficult task due to geographical scale, and a perpetual challenge of under-funding for women’s organisations.   [...]

Chasing civil society? Evaluation of Fredskorpset

01 Mar 2016 04:30:26 GMT

The evaluation has assessed FK Norway’s approach and strategy when it comes to strengthening civil society in developing countries. This is one of FK Norway’s overarching objectives and core activities, as stated in the instructions for the agency.

The evaluation has answered four main questions, in accordance with the terms of reference:

  1. Is the current strategy and approach of FK Norway optimal when it comes to developing and strengthening the civil society in developing countries?
  2. What is the comparative advantage of FK’s strategy, approach and work compared with other Norwegian funded means for developing and strengthening of the civil society in developing countries?
  3. What are the possible future options for FK when it comes to approach, set-up, programs and partners?
  4. What is the added value of FK’s programs for the civil society organisations, in particular those that receive other kind of Norwegian assistance?

The evaluation covers the period 2006-2015. It is based on data collected in Norway and two main case countries, Tanzania and Thailand, in addition to limited data collection in Uganda, South Africa and Cambodia.

The evaluation was conducted by Chr. Michelsen’s Institute in collaboration with Nordic Consulting Group, commissioned by the Evaluation Department in Norad.

Women and girls failed: the Burundian refugee response in Tanzania

23 Feb 2016 02:00:28 GMT

Since April 2015, political instability and violence has rocked Burundi, forcing an estimated 220,000 people to flee to neighbouring countries. Approximately half of these refugees are women, and around half of the many women who reported gender-based violence (GBV) upon reaching refugee camps in Tanzania required post-rape care. Yet, even at the  camps, where refugees are meant to be protected, women and girls report that the threat of violence remains. According to this publication, these circumstances represent a significant failure on the part of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHRC), Tanzanian authorities, and implementing partners Researches from Refugee International traveled to Burundi, Tanzania, and Rwanda in September/October of 2015 to assess the protection needs of newly-displaced Burundians. Since Tanzania had recently become a host to around 92,000 refugees, it was an ideal context to evaluate GBV prevention and response integration into the humanitarian response. Most refugees were transferred to the Nyarugusu refugee camp, one of the oldest and largest refugee camps in Africa. The research team visited the camp and spoke to many Burundian survivors, finding that between May and September, there were 224 reported GBV incidents in or around the camp, including rape and sexual assault. The number of unreported incidents can be assumed to be much higher still. Upon further consultation with refugees and survivors, the team found that aside from the hospital, police station, and the GBV resource centre, refugees deemed most of the rest of the camp as dangerous, particularly the showers, latrines, and even their own shelters. The camp perimeter was ranked the most dangerous area, and the chore of collecting firewood the most dangerous activity. Males also noted the dangerous areas, but agreed it was more dangerous for women than for themselves. The report goes into some depth on the shortcomings of the camp infrastructure, including: unsafe access to firewood; inadequate water, sanitation, and hygiene conditions; unsafe distribution centres; and the use of mass shelters in very poor condition. Furthermore, recommendations from two previous assessments appear not to have been acted upon, and multiple sources said that those leading the response did not seem to have a firm grasp of the importance of minimum standards to reduce the risk of GBV, or know how to implement them. The authors recognise that these unacceptable conditions have come about partly due to the scale and speed with which the crisis unfolded. The camp soon exceeded the numbers it was designed for, and responses were often desperate, and lacked adequate support from the Tanzanian authorities. Additionally, funding was wholly inadequate from the start; six months after the crisis started, the inter-agency refugee response was only 24% funded. That said, the authors conclude that all stakeholders have essentially failed these refugees; and that they need to invest more expertise, resources, and funding to significantly improve the sit[...]

The growth of micro and small, cluster based furniture manufacturing firms and their implications for poverty reduction in Tanzania

11 Feb 2016 03:07:05 GMT

Micro, small, and medium manufacturing enterprises (MSMEs) offer good examples of firm clustering and incipient entry points for industrial development in Tanzania. This study analyses the growth of cluster-based, micro and small furniture-manufacturing firms located in the Keko, Buguruni-Malapa, and Mbezi Beach kwa Komba industrial clusters. The results of quantitative growth indicators show that on average the furniture manufacturing firms in the studied clusters grew, and real payments to
the firm owners and workers grew as well.

The analysis shows that real values of payments to the firm owners and workers have positive implications for poverty reduction since the values placed the firm owners and workers above the basic and food poverty lines for Tanzania in general and for Dar es Salaam in particular. Firm owners
as well as workers believe that the income earned as a result of firm growth helped to reduce poverty. They note that the income generated from firm growth helps to reduce poverty by increasing their spending power, thereby increasing their demand for other goods and services in the economy through the multiplier effect.

Consistent with the literature on agglomeration economics, which describes the costs and benefits of firm clustering, the current study reveals that firms benefit from clustering, and firm owners are aware of the importance of being in clusters. Moreover, firm owners feel that they are better off in clusters when compared to the quality of those scattered array of firms that operate alone. Interfirm sales, purchases of raw materials and inputs, subcontracting, lending machinery, marketing of furniture products, and training workers through apprenticeships were all found to be the major methods by which firms interact with one another. The firm owners acknowledge the clusters
as being catalysts for firm growth because the arrangements allow firms to cooperate with each other.

This finding suggests that the degree of cooperation among entrepreneurs in industrial clusters is critical for the development of these industrial clusters. While there is huge growth potential for those furniture manufacturing firms that are organised in clusters, insufficient business skills, poor infrastructure within the industrial clusters, technological backwardness, and other challenges constrain the current growth of furniture manufacturing firms. These obstacles to growth need to be addressed strategically.

Energy, jobs and skills: a rapid assessment of potential in Mtwara, Tanzania

09 Feb 2016 03:29:17 GMT

Energy development in Mtwara is a fundamental part of the overall national energy strategy which is based on the desire to move away from hydro-dependent power sources, and the opportunity to achieve this through the development of natural gas for energy development. Therefore, for the purpose of this study, energy focuses specifically on electricity and natural gas. Mtwara’s abundance of natural gas for energy development for Tanzania, and the East African Region, is a national priority of the Government. This natural resource is at the root of considering Mtwara’s employment potential in this sector, and for electricians in particular, as well as for many other sectors whose development has been held back by the lack of basic infrastructure, including electricity.

This study sets out to deepen the analysis of the earlier research by examining, in more detail, the growth and labour potential of the energy sector, one of the most promising labour absorbing sectors, and the demand that it is creating for young electricians in Mtwara and beyond. It does this by rapidly assessing the energy sector from macro policy level through to the micro-level in Mtwara. It begins by providing a brief contextual overview of the country and its development challenges, and links these to recent changes in the energy sector as a whole. It considers developments in recent sector policies and the new national Rural Energy Agency.

Improving skills development in the informal sector: strategies for Sub-Saharan Africa

02 Feb 2016 10:54:13 GMT

This study examines the role played by education and skills development in achieving sub-saharan Africa’s full potential.

The study uses household labour force surveys to look at the experience of skills development in Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Tanzania. The household labour force surveys capture the skills profile of the informal sector and study how different means of skills development – including formal education, technical and vocational education and training, apprenticeships, and learning on the job — shape productivity and earnings in the informal sector as compared with the formal wage sector. It quantitatively assesses how different sources of skills development are related to the sector in which one works and the earnings received in that sector. It highlights economic constraints to skills acquisition. It delivers a comprehensive strategy for improving employment outcomes in the informal sector through skills development with examples of successful interventions taken from international experience and the five countries.

Institutional analysis of nutrition in Tanzania

01 Feb 2016 04:17:40 GMT

This paper provides a summary of the situation of nutrition in Tanzania, and an institutional analysis of the principal actors in nutrition nationally and locally. The paper argues the need to focus on prevention of malnutrition by protecting, promoting and sustaining improved nutrition in children under two.

Preventing malnutrition in Tanzania: a focused strategy to improve nutrition in young children

01 Feb 2016 04:08:31 GMT

This brief examines the status of nutrition in Tanzania. Despite improvements between 1999 and 2004/05, data clearly show that the prevalence of child undernutrition remains high in Tanzania and malnutrition begins at an early age. Based on the evidence presented, the brief concludes that a national strategy to prevent malnutrition must focus upon protecting, promoting and sustaining improved nutrition in children under two years of age. Strong advocacy for nutrition and effective coordination of interventions under national leadership are urgently required to raise the profile of nutrition and improve nutritional outcomes in Tanzania. 

The Role of Businesses in Providing Nutrient-Rich Foods for the Poor: A Case Study in Tanzania

27 Jan 2016 04:22:30 GMT

This case study of a Tanzanian food processing business analyses the potential of mid-sized businesses to
contribute to tackling undernutrition. Particularly among young children and pregnant mothers, undernutrition has lifelong consequences and impedes individuals’ health, wellbeing and life chances. Providing nutrients through food is one way to reduce undernutrition, in conjunction with improvements in health and sanitation.

This report examines how private companies can contribute to producing and delivering nutrient-rich foods to undernourished populations, as well as the constraints they face in doing so. It offers recommendations to governments, non -profit organisations and other development actors on how to collaborate with businesses
in this area to catalyse their potential. The study examines the case of Power Foods Limited, a midsize company,
and the first in Tanzania to produce fortified nutrient-rich foods from traditional crops. It is also the first local
company to produce ready -to-use therapeutic food (RUTF), used for the treatment of severe acute malnutrition.

Skills development in the informal sector of sub‐Saharan Africa

26 Jan 2016 10:09:56 GMT

This study examines the role played by education and skills development in achieving this objective.

Until now, few studies have used household labour force surveys to capture the skills profile of the informal sector and study how different means of skills development – formal education, technical and vocational education and training, apprenticeships, and learning on the job – shape productivity and earnings in the informal sector as compared with the formal wage sector. This study uses household labour force surveys to look at the experience of skills development in five African countries – Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Tanzania – that together account for one-third of the nearly 900 million persons living in sub-saharan Africa. 

When does the state listen?

26 Jan 2016 04:42:42 GMT

In this article, we look at four cases of key historical policies in Ghana, Kenya, South Africa and Tanzania to examine how states engage with citizen voices. The policies all took place in contexts of political change and major junctures of democratisation. We identify three kinds of moments when the state listens: hearing moments, when it engages with citizen voices but does not change the way it acts; consultation moments, when it engages with citizen voices through two-way dialogue, resulting in one-sided action; and concertation moments, when coalitions between reform-minded officials and politicians and organised citizen voices engage in two-way dialogue and action for accountable governance. Concertation moments occurred when there was a shared sense of urgency and a common goal across state and non-state actors, and despite different understandings of accountable governance. But concertation moments are also laborious and temporary, part of larger, ever-changing policy processes, and often states revert to consultation or hearing.

(adapted from author)

The adaptation of REDD+ initiatives in forest management regimes in two pilot projects of Kondoa and Kilosa Districts, Tanzania

24 Jan 2016 06:51:07 GMT

As one of the countries with a higher rate of deforestation and forest degradation, Tanzania contributes high CO2 emissions per annum through deforestation estimated to be in the order of 78 million tons and forest degradation of about 48 million tons amounting to a total of 126 million tons CO2 emissions per year. The country was earmarked for piloting REDD+ activities in order to inform the UNFCCC global process on designing and implementing REDD+. Therefore, since April 2009, Tanzania has been piloting REDD+ after signing a Letter of Intent with the Government of the Kingdom of Norway on a Climate Change Partnership with a focus on reduced emission from deforestation and forest degradation. The aim of the Kilosa REDD+ pilot project was to conserve forest resources through CBFM and ensuring that forests serve as a spring board for carbon storage and local communities’ livelihood as well as revitalizing local level governance structures. Moreover the project intended to link local communities to the international carbon markets. The  REDD+ pilot in Kondoa district aimed at mitigating climate change by conserving Kolo Hills Forests as well as reducing poverty among the targeted communities in the project area. The project also planned to prepare local stakeholders to enter the carbon trading successfully. Furthermore, the project intended to revitalize local level governance structures and recreating the trust lost as a result of top down conservation model used by HADO (Hifadhi Ardhi Dodoma – A Land Rehabilitation Programme). REDD+ pilot project in Kilosa was based on CBFM. The regime demands the establishment of titled village forest reserves; forest resource management plans; village land–use plans, and bylaws defining rules for forest resource use. The project also worked towards establishing a system for validation, monitoring, reporting and verification. As part of this process, by-laws were established that defined rules regarding the use and protection of the resources. Before the introduction of REDD in the district, the key institutions existed include Village Councils and the General Assemblies as well as the Village Natural resources Committees (VNRCs). However, VNRCs were vitalized by REDD+. The REDD+ Piloting in Kondoa adapted JFM and CBFM management options for the state and village forests respectively. Under JFM arrangement, the state has absolute property rights while local communities are given some specified user rights. While, under CBFM, local  communities  are  owners  and  have  absolute  user  rights. AWF in Kondoa opted to establish a special committee for REDD+ implementation in the villages. While this approach aimed at increasing efficiency and effectiveness it was later learned to have been a sour[...]

Pay little, get little; pay more, get a little more: a framed forest experiment in Tanzania

24 Jan 2016 04:43:12 GMT

How do different levels of individual payments for environmental services (PES) affect intrinsic and social motivations for forest conservation? Does introducing low levels of PES crowd out these motivations? This paper presents findings from framed field experiments (FFE) conducted with local forest users in Tanzania. The payoff structure represents a common-pool resource situation; participants’ payoffs depend on the number of trees  harvested, and aggregate over-harvesting can harm future harvest. Four levels of individual PES are tested in a between-group design: no (0%), low (20%), medium (60%) and full (100%) PES, where the level is relative to the harvest value. We observe lower than theoretically predicted harvest rates at no, low and medium PES, while the opposite is true at full PES. Low PES has a weak negative effect on harvest rates among certain sub-groups, while medium and full PES give strong reductions in harvest rates (c. -43% and -75%). The results suggest that low PES has little impact on local forest use in Tanzania and has on aggregate a neutral effect on intrinsic and social motivations. Increasing payments has a negative, but diminishing effect on harvest rates.

Assessment of the patient, health system, and population effects of Xpert MTB/RIF and alternative diagnostics for tuberculosis in Tanzania: an integrated modelling approach

20 Jan 2016 10:52:02 GMT

Several promising new diagnostic methods and algorithms for tuberculosis have been endorsed by WHO. National tuberculosis programmes now face the decision on which methods to implement and where to place them in the diagnostic algorithm.

For Tanzania, this integrated modelling approach predicts that full rollout of Xpert is a cost effective option for tuberculosis diagnosis and has the potential to substantially reduce the national tuberculosis burden. It also estimates the substantial level of funding that will need to be mobilised to translate this into clinical practice. This approach could be adapted and replicated in other developing countries to inform rational health policy formulation.

Widening participation in higher education in Ghana and Tanzania

19 Jan 2016 03:46:41 GMT

An interrogation under way is whether policies for widening participation in sub-Saharan Africa are working. That was one of the key questions addressed by the research project Widening Participation in Higher Education in Ghana and Tanzania: Developing an Equity Scorecard. Research teams—at the Universities of Sussex, UK; Cape Coast, Ghana; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania—found that the policies were working in the sense of increasing the overall number of students, especially women, participating in higher education. However, they found that poorer and mature students were still absent from many of the programmes investigated in one public and one private university, in both Ghana and Tanzania. The universities included in the study did have quotas for students from disadvantaged backgrounds, but failed to fill them or monitor how many poorer students were participating and completing their studies. Students who did succeed, in entering university, shared helpful insights into their lived experiences.