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The political economy of conservation at Mount Elgon, Uganda: between local deprivation, regional sustainability, and global public goods

13 Oct 2016 04:15:34 GMT

This paper presents a case study from Mount Elgon National Park, Uganda, examining and deepening an understanding of direct incomes and costs of conservation for local people close to protected areas. In the early 1990s, collaborative arrangements were introduced to Mount Elgon National Park to improve people-park relations and enhance rural livelihoods after a period of violent evictions and severe resource access restrictions. In areas with such arrangements – including resource access agreements, Taungya farming, and beekeeping schemes – we observe a marginal increase in annual incomes for involved households. Other incomes accrue from tourism revenue sharing schemes, a community revolving fund, and payments for carbon sequestration. However, these incomes are economically marginal (1.2% of household income), unevenly distributed and instrumentally used to reward compliance with park regulations. They do not necessarily accrue to those incurring costs due to eviction and exclusion, crop raiding, resource access restrictions and conflicts. By contrast, costs constitute at least 20.5 % of total household incomes, making it difficult to see how conservation, poverty alleviation and development can be locally reconciled if local populations continue to bear the economic brunt of conservation. We recommend a shift in policy towards donor and state responsibility for compensating costs on a relevant scale. Such a shift would be an important step towards a more substantive rights-based model of conservation, and would enhance the legitimacy of protected area management in the context of both extreme poverty and natural resource dependence.

The flow of IWRM in SADC: the role of regional dynamics, advocacy networks and external actors

13 Oct 2016 03:54:02 GMT

This article explores the entry and spread of IWRM in the Southern African Development Community (SADC) region. It traces how the idea of IWRM was promoted and sustained throughout the region by mapping key events, actors and networks that were involved in promoting the approach. It highlights the importance of regional networks in promoting IWRM and shows how regional dynamics, playing out at the interface between the global and local levels, influenced the adoption/adaptation and spread of IWRM. The article finds that the idea of IWRM 'hit the ground running' in SADC due to several contributing factors. These include: historical political connections between the member countries; historically rooted well-established channels and connections with bilateral and multilateral donors; the success of networks such as the Global Water Partnership and WaterNet whose mandate was to promote the concept; and the fact that two-thirds of the region’s population live in transboundary basins with IWRM providing a suitable  hook for transboundary cooperation, often inspired by European models. The article further argues that IWRM thrived because of strong donor agendas that were adapted by key SADC actors to suit strategic interests. It thus provided a platform for complex politically charged negotiations to reconcile apparently divergent goals such as infrastructure vs management and regional vs national interests. The practice of IWRM in the region is very much shaped by a conflation of regional, national and donor interests and has now acquired a life of its own, despite changing donor priorities.

Tropical Forest Fire Susceptibility Mapping at the Cat Ba National Park Area, Hai Phong City, Vietnam, Using GIS-Based Kernel Logistic Regression

11 Oct 2016 02:21:46 GMT

The Cat Ba National Park area (Vietnam) with its tropical forest is recognized as being part of the world biodiversity conservation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and is a well-known destination for tourists, with around 500,000 travelers per year. This area has been the site for many research projects; however, no project has been carried out for forest fire susceptibility assessment. Thus, protection of the forest including fire prevention is one of the main concerns of the local authorities. This work aims to produce a tropical forest fire susceptibility map for the Cat Ba National Park area, which may be helpful for the local authorities in forest fire protection management. To obtain this purpose, first, historical forest fires and related factors were collected from various sources to construct a GIS database. Then, a forest fire susceptibility model was developed using Kernel logistic regression. The quality of the model was assessed using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, area under the ROC curve (AUC), and five statistical evaluation measures. The usability of the resulting model is further compared with a benchmark model, the support vector machine (SVM). The results show that the Kernel logistic regression model has a high level of performance in both the training and validation dataset, with a prediction capability of 92.2%. Since the Kernel logistic regression model outperforms the benchmark model, we conclude that the proposed model is a promising alternative tool that should also be considered for forest fire susceptibility mapping in other areas. The results of this study are useful for the local authorities in forest planning and management.

No sense of ownership in weak participation: a forest conservation experiment in Tanzania

11 Oct 2016 01:47:17 GMT

Sense of ownership is often advocated as an argument for local participation within the epistemic development and nature conservation communities. Stakeholder participation in initiating, designing or implementing institutions is claimed to establish a sense of ownership among the stakeholders and subsequently improve the intended outcomes of the given institution. Theoretical and empirical justi cations of the hypothesis remain scarce. A better understanding of the effects of local participation can motivate more extensive and stronger participation of local stakeholders and improve institutional performance. This paper applies theories from psychology and behavioral economics to better understand sense of ownership. The empirical investigation is a framed fi eld experiment, in the context of tropical forest conservation and payments for environmental services in Tanzania. The results lend little support to the hypothesis in this context. The participation treatment in the experiment is weak, and a possible explanation is that sense of ownership is sensitive to the form of participation.

The Importance of addressing housing, hand and property (HLP) challenges in humanitarian response

10 Oct 2016 12:11:32 GMT

This paper was published by the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC) to inform the round table talks on ‘the importance of housing, land and property (HLP) rights in humanitarian response’ held in Geneva.

The NRC and IFRC are the global focal point agencies within the HLP Area of Responsibility under the Global Protection Cluster, a collaboration between NGOs, UN agencies, and academic institutions. The statement of the Global Protection Cluster provides the basis for this paper to develop a deeper understanding of how a human rights framework, specifically the right to adequate housing, can inform responses to disasters and conflict and promote protection within humanitarian operations. This paper aims to present that HLP rights is a cross-sectoral issue, and although this manifestation is acknowledged by some, it still represents a barrier to operations.

Assistance for this report was provided by the UK Department for International Development (DFID) and the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (NMFA).

Pushed aside: displaced for "development" in India

10 Oct 2016 11:41:35 GMT

By providing a first-hand account of development projects and business activities that have caused displacement across India, this report documents and analyses the scale, process and impacts of this phenomenon. It contributes to the existing body of evidence on this type of displacement and aims to raise awareness among policy-makers, business elites, academics, NGOs and operational decision-makers at the national and international level.

The report examines nine cases of displacement caused by development in the states of Gujarat, Jharkhand, Kerala and the national capital territory of Delhi. They reveal failed regulation, inadequate enforcement and harm to communities that extend to other cases elsewhere in India. They show that land acquisitions have pushed people aside with no regard for their rights or needs for decades. They are the result of government indifference and a failure to monitor the human rights impacts of projects and establish accountability mechanisms to address them.

The case studies for this report contribute to the global evidence base on displacement caused by development. The detrimental impacts of development projects in India highlight the need to address the issue in key policy agendas and discussions. Despite IDPs’ awareness of their rights and resistance to their eviction and displacement, they will not escape poverty without significant external support and systemic changes to social and economic policies.

Global development agendas should ensure that while development projects may alleviate poverty for some, they should not at the same time create new poor or heighten the existing economic vulnerabilities of those evicted. Neglecting those evicted and displaced would undermine the achievement of global development goals. The timescale for planning and implementing projects provides ample opportunity to avoid or minimise  displacement, and to put measures in place to ensure that those who are displaced achieve durable solutions.

From a temporary emergency shelter to an urbanized neighborhood: The Abu Shoak IDP Camp in North Dārfūr

26 Sep 2016 03:37:12 GMT

In early 2003, two rebel movements (the Sudanese Liberation Army and the Justiceand Equality Movement) launched an insurgency against the rule in Khartoum.Supported byJanjaweedtribal militias, the government of Sudan responded withdecisive counteroffensives. Mass displacement of predominantly rural people wasevident from April onwards, increasing steadily throughout 2003–04. By May2003, there were over 500 000 internally displaced persons in Greater Dārfūr,mostly in IDP camps at the edge of big towns (Minear 2004, 78). Most, if not all, ofthese camps still exist, because the causes that generated them are still very muchpresent; i.e., insecurity in the rural home areas. Also to be noted is that towns haveencroached on many of them.There are many studies on IDP camps in Sudan, as shown in the subsequentparagraphs, but none of them offer longitudinal information which allows us to seeprocesses of adaptation within a camp. The present article is a contribution towardsunderstanding long-term transformations and how such camps end up not beingtemporary, as the word “camp” would suggest, but rather become permanent andpart of the towns/cities they are close to.This article is part of a longitudinal study of one group; namely, the IDPs living inthe Abu Shoak camp1in the periphery of El-Fāsher, in NorthDārfūrState. Followingearlier work on this camp, the article looks at, and traces changes in the lives of, theseIDPs since the inception of their camp in 2004. Specifically, the article looks at howdisplaced rural families adapted to the new urban life. This effort builds upon anassumption in urban sociology; that “urbanization as a way of life wreaks profoundchanges in virtually every phase of social life” (Wirth 1938, 1).Primary data was gathered for the same group of people repeatedly over thepast twelve years, through field visits in 2004, 2008, 2013, and 2016. Group andindividual interviews were used every time with mostly the same group of IDPs,who played the role of cohort for the study. Most of these interviewees were headsof displaced families, officials in the camp administration and representatives oforganizations operating inside the camp. The topics of the interviews includedeveryday problems, changes in production and consumption patterns, impact ofthe absence of husbands, working women and children, education, customs andtraditions, positive and negative impacts of displacement, food assistance to families,and social facilities in the camp. The secondary data were derived by reviewing somenewspapers, scientific reports, documents and statistics.This was beside the repeated direct field observations of the camp environment,the nature of housing, the distribution and planning of residential sectors, and thebehaviors and dealings among individuals within and outside the camp over thestudy period. Structured interviews using prolonged questionnaires with the headsof displaced families were utilized in three surveys (in 2004, 2008, and 2013),depending on a systematic random sample of 100 households every time. Samplingframes of households in the camp were obtained from the camp administrationfor the three surveys. The questions were about education, professions, numberof household members, ownership and legality of residence, housing constructionmaterials, water, electricity, sanitation, sources of income, and consumption.The longitudinal approach allowed the authors of this article to detectdevelopments and changes in the characteristics of the target population. It washelpful in making useful comparisons over time, distinguishing between short- andlong-term changes, and establishing sequences of events in the Abu Shoak camp.[...]

Local content requirements in the petroleum sector in Tanzania: a thorny road from inception to implementation?

26 Sep 2016 03:29:53 GMT

Tanzania has recently discovered huge offshore natural gas fields. This has led the Government to develop local content policies (LCPs) to increase job and business opportunities for nationals in the sector. We study the process behind the development of these policies and the positions of stakeholders. We find that although there is a positive view among domestic stakeholders of imposing such policies, there is much suspicion–to such a degree that it shapes their recommendations of which policies to include in the LCP. One reason is that the Government monopolized the policy development process and abstained from conducting a consultative process. Our findings suggest that future Tanzanian policy development should include in-depth consultations to maximize the decision maker’s knowledge base, add to the transparency of the process and manage expectations. This would also contribute to effective implementation and lessen tensions, conflicts and suspicion among stakeholders.

At the extremes: corruption in natural resource management revisited

26 Sep 2016 03:18:06 GMT

Natural resource sectors are undergoing profound changes. Resources are being extracted in more remote locations within corruption-prone developing countries than was previously the case; there is an increased proliferation of actors involved in resource extraction; and a marked shift towards renewable energy, conservation and climate change projects in developing countries. Formulating generic anti-corruption policy prescriptions for the wide range of heavily contextualised corruption challenges natural resource sectors face is unlikely to help. This U4 Brief offers instead modest advice for advancing solutions through development cooperation, with a focus on analytical methods, project management approaches, and tracking evidence for effectiveness.

Civilians’ survival strategies amid institutionalized insecurity and violence in the Nuba Mountains, Sudan

26 Sep 2016 03:07:15 GMT

The Nuba’s peripheral homeland of the Nuba Mountains, in southern Kordofan, is one of Sudan’s current killing fields, with high numbers of civilian casualties, of wounded and internally displaced persons, refugees, families, and individuals. One key overarching argument framing this paper is that the recurring and prolonged wars in Sudan are better understood when put in a wider precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial historical context of the Sudanese socio-political historiography. Thus, it is argued here that the present excessive violence in Sudan in general, and in the Nuba Mountains in particular, is essentially a result of institutionalized insecurity prevalent throughout the precolonial, colonial, and postcolonial history of the Sudanese state.

The wide range of literature covering different political episodes in Sudan supports this assertion. It succinctly confirms the continuity of institutionalized insecurity and perpetual violence from the precolonial kingdom; the Turco-Egyptian rule and its slave trade institutions, the Mahdist’s brutal Jihaddiya of forced militarization; the colonial closed district policy coupled with brutal punitive operations, the postcolonial violence and protracted civil wars generated by the state against its own citizens at the peripheries.

The future of mechanized schemes and agricultural investment in the South Kordofan State / Nuba Mountains

26 Sep 2016 02:55:53 GMT

This paper tackles the issue of the future of mechanized schemes and investment in the agricultural sector in the South Kordofan State/Nuba Mountains. The main objective of this study is to assess the viability of investment in mechanized scheme areas in South Kordofan, such as Habila, which witnessed the intervention of mechanized farming in the 1960s. The study suggests that there are overlapping socio-economic, political, environmental and security factors that have affected the process of investment in agriculture in the area. The approach is multi-disciplinary and the researchers relied on secondary and primary data by using diverse sources and techniques. The study documents that the socio-economic, political and security environments emerging in South Kordofan over the last two decades have seriously changed the conditions for investments in the Habila area. Indicators show that Habila is no longer a part of the planning for agricultural investment in South Kordofan. Other areas, such as the AbuJubaiha, Talodi and Kalogi localities are the areas with most potential for future investment, because of the availability of lands free from disputes and conflicts. However, factors other than security are also relevant for the willingness of investors to focus on these areas. The productivity of land shows a deteriorating trend as a result of overexploitation. Confusion following the two contradicting land ownership systems emerging out of the civil war, as well as environmental changes, have resulted in the emergence of disputes and conflicts in the mechanized schemes of the Habila area. The appearance of Village Development Committees indicates that the future of investments in the agricultural sector in Habila is ambiguous and discouraging.

The ocean and us: how healthy marine and coastal ecosystems support the achievement of the UN Sustainable Development Goals

23 Sep 2016 12:53:59 GMT

The ocean has been a cornerstone of human development throughout the history of civilization. People continue to come to the coasts to build some of the largest cities on the planet, with thriving economies, culture and communities. Ocean and coastal ecosystems provide us with resources and trade opportunities that greatly benefit human well-being.

These benefits are often taken for granted as we fail to recognize their underlying value. In our narrow pursuit of progress through purely economic and social development we often fail to protect the health of our marine system that we depend upon. Today, however, we increasingly realize the importance of healthy ecosystems for sustainable development that is reflected in the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) recently adopted by the United Nations. We can no longer afford to apply an antagonistic paradigm between development and conservation. The SDG framework provides the world with the opportunity to transform how we think about the ‘Oceans and Us’.

This publication highlights the critical contribution of healthy marine and coastal ecosystems to achieving the SDGs and describes the role of credible and accessible data, well communicated knowledge generated through dialogue with users, in supporting informed decision-making.

Mesophotic coral ecosystems - a lifeboat for coral reefs?

23 Sep 2016 01:49:16 GMT

The shallow coral reefs that we all know, are like the tip of an iceberg - they are the more visible part of an extensive coral ecosystem that reaches into depths far beyond where most people visit.  The invisible reefs, known as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs) are widespread and diverse, however they remain largely unexplored in most parts of the world.  With the global climate heating up, the world’s shallow coral reefs are predicted to experience increasing levels of catastrophic bleaching. This report asks the question – can MCEs provide a “life boat” for shallow coral reefs that are suffering decimation from rising sea surface temperatures and other anthropogenic impacts?

Picture a coral reef — most people will probably imagine brightly coloured corals, fish and other animals swimming in well-lit shallow waters. In fact, the coral reefs that live close to the surface of the sea — the ones that we can swim, snorkel, or dive near and see from space — are only a small portion of the complete coral reef ecosystem. Light-dependent corals can live in much deeper water (up to a depth of 150 m in clear waters). The shallow coral reefs from the surface of the sea to 30–40  m below are more like the tip of an iceberg; they are the more visible part of an extensive coral ecosystem that reaches into depths far beyond where most people visit. These intermediate depth reefs, known as mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCEs), are the subject of this report.

Marine Litter Vital Graphics | GRID-Arendal - Publications

23 Sep 2016 01:23:23 GMT

Every year, the sum of humanity’s knowledge increases exponentially. And as we learn more, we also learn there is much we still don’t know. Plastic litter in our oceans is one area where we need to learn more, and we need to learn it quickly. That’s one of the main messages in Marine Litter Vital Graphics. Another important message is that we already know enough to take action.

It sounds like a contradiction, but it’s not. As this report explains, we need to act now if we want to avoid living in a sea of plastic by mid-century – even if we don’t know everything about what it’s doing to the health of people or of the environment.

Produced by UNEP and GRID-Arendal, this report shows that we have to take a hard look at how we produce and use plastics.

Communities and conservation in West Kilimanjaro, Tanzania : participation, costs and benefits

20 Sep 2016 03:11:53 GMT

This thesis contributes to the current debate on how to balance conservation and development objectives. The extent of land under protection globally has increased enormously over the last 30 years, and there are still plans to expand the current protected areas (PAs) and create new ones. Their establishment is associated with impacts on local communities who live in the proximity of such areas. Different actors have proposed local participation and benefit sharing for people affected by these conservation initiatives. Despite their implementation over three decades, the social, economic, and political impacts of establishing and maintaining PAs remain debatable. It is in this context that this study was conducted in the Enduimet Wildlife Management Area (WMA), the Kilimanjaro National Park, and the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation in Tanzania. The specific research questions of the study are: i. What are the social and economic impacts of the expansion and establishment of conservation areas on local people in West Kilimanjaro; and how are the impacts distributed along gender lines? ii. How are the conservation benefits shared with local communities in West Kilimanjaro? iii. How do the conservation benefits and costs affect local peoples‟ attitudes towards and perceptions of conservation? iv. What are the factors that drive human-wildlife conflicts? Data were collected using qualitative methods through the combination of in-depth interviews, focus group discussions, informal interviews, and participant observation. Secondary data in the form of written sources on the study area were used in addition to the primary data gathered. The research results are presented in four separate but interrelated papers. [...] All areas studied (Enduimet WMA, Kilimanjaro National Park, and West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation) share a centralised structure in terms of decision making on the management of natural resources and benefit sharing. Local people are not able to participate in decision making in the management of the areas, and it is difficult for communities to influence or challenge the way the structure operates. In Enduimet, the WMA was proposed as community-run conservation area. In practice, the communities do not have the power to collect revenues, decide on shares, or to verify whether they receive the income they are entitled to receive. The central government collects the revenues and channels the percentage to local people. The Kilimanjaro National Park was found to involve local people only when there is a fire outbreak; thus local people claimed to be used as „tools‟. The park management system does not allow space for local people‟s opinions. Most of the collected revenues are retained by the national parks headquarters and local people do not have any power or influence over the revenues. In practice, the park operates under a strict „fences and fines‟ or „fortress conservation‟ strategy. In the West Kilimanjaro Forest Plantation, local people do not have any power or share of the revenues collected from the sale of logs and poles, apart from payment received from casual labour. The income from logs sold is remitted to the central government. In all three areas, participation is used as „means‟ to improve environmental conservation and a way to accrue more revenue for the government.


Norway’s role in supporting green growth in developing countries

20 Sep 2016 02:57:33 GMT

This report discusses green growth in developing countries, and Norway's role supporting such a green development strategy. After defining green growth in the context of developing countries, the report discusses indicators of green growth, barriers, and prominent instruments to facilitate green growth. Two case studies are presented, the first on green bonds in Ethiopia, and the second on introducing a green growth credit mechanism. The report concludes with some general findings, and findings linked to the two case studies.

What’s fair – and why? An empirical analysis of distributive fairness in the climate negotiations

20 Sep 2016 02:38:07 GMT

In the climate negotiations, conceptions of fairness plays an important role. For a climate agreement to be effective and durable, it must be conceived as fair by as many of its parties as possible. Unfortunately, there is hardly a consensus in the negotiations on what a fair agreement should constitute, and diverging fairness conceptions are at the heart of the conflicts of the negotiations. This thesis is an attempt at understanding this fairness dimension. It attempts to answer two related questions: 1) what do the parties in the negotiations conceive as fair? And 2) why do parties in the negotiations have differing conceptions of what constitutes a fair agreement? The findings of this thesis indicate that there has been little progress on reaching a common understanding of fairness in the negotiations over the last five-year cycle of negotiations that concluded with the Paris agreement. Even though a significant potential for compromise exists, key actors’ positions on the fairness dimension are polarized. This might be an explanation for why a burden-sharing approach is no longer possible in the negotiations. Whether a country is listed as “developing” or “developed” in the UNFCCC is the most important explanatory factor for diverging fairness conceptions - indicating that conceptions of fairness are largely driven by self-interest.

Assessment of women’s livelihood needs in three eco-zones of Bangladesh

23 Aug 2016 01:06:10 GMT

Evidently women are more severely affected by climate change and natural disasters because of their social roles, discrimination and poverty. In rural Bangladesh they are specially vulnerable since they are highly dependent on local natural resources for their livelihood. A needs assessment survey was conducted between May and July of 2013, to identify viable livelihoods of women affected by climate change in ten climate vulnerable Upazilas of three eco-zones (flood prone, drought prone and cyclone prone) in Bangladesh.

The research was conducted to investigate viable recommendations for livelihood intervention activities, which can be carried out by other organisations, in an attempt to give women, who are most vulnerable to climate change and its impacts, solid and more resilient livelihood options. In the process, the study investigates the current situation women face and women’s views on their needs.

Agenda for the protection of cross-border displaced persons in the context of disasters and climate change, volume 2

16 Aug 2016 03:02:47 GMT

Companion for volime of annexes to accompany Agenda for the protection of cross-border displaced persons in the context of disasters and climate change, volume 1.

  • Annex I Regional Dynamics of Disaster-Related Human Mobility
  • Annex II Effective Practices for Cross-Border Disaster-Displacement
  • Annex III Disaster Displacement References in International, (Sub-)Regional and Bilateral Agreements, Declarations, and Policies
  • Annex IV Protection Agenda Regional Consultation Conclusions

Agenda for the protection of cross-border displaced persons in the context of disasters and climate change, volume 1

16 Aug 2016 02:45:02 GMT

Forced displacement related to disasters, including the adverse effects of climate change (disaster displacement), is a reality and among the biggest humanitarian challenges facing States and the international community in the 21st century. Every year, millions of people are displaced by disasters caused by natural hazards such as floods, tropical storms, earthquakes, landslides, droughts, salt water intrusion, glacial melting, glacial lake outburst floods, and melting permafrost. Most disaster displaced persons remain within their own country. However, some cross borders in order to reach safety and/or protection and assistance in another country. While comprehensive and systematic data collection and analysis on cross-border disaster-displacement is lacking, based on available data, Africa along with Central and South America, in particular have seen the largest number of incidences of cross-border disaster-displacement. Current and emerging realities call for increased preparedness, solidarity and cooperation by States, (sub-)regional organizations and the international community to prevent, avoid, and respond to disaster displacement and its causes. Since sudden-onset disasters may occur at any time and slow-onset disasters are likely to arise in many parts of the world, cross-border disaster-displacement is a global challenge. This document discusses the Agenda for the Protection of Cross-Border Displaced Persons in the Context of Disasters and Climate Change (hereinafter Protection Agenda), endorsed by a global intergovernmental consultation on 12-13 October 2015 in Geneva, Switzerland, consolidates the outcomes of a series of regional intergovernmental consultations and civil society meetings convened by the Nansen Initiative.  The Agenda identifies futire priority areas for action: Preventing and responding to cross-border disaster-displacement requires enhanced action at the national, (sub-)regional and international level. These effective practices identified in the Protection Agenda provide a starting point to inspire future action, and bring together the many existing policy and action areas discussed in this agenda that have been relatively uncoordinated to date.As a contribution to future efforts to address cross-border disaster-displacement, this agenda identifies three priority areas for action to support the implementation of identified effective practices:collecting data and enhancing knowledge on cross-border disaster-displacementenhancing the use of humanitarian protection measures for cross-border disaster-displaced persons, including mechanisms for lasting solutions, for instance by harmonizing approaches at (sub-)regional levelsstrengthening the management of disaster displacement risk in the country of origin by:integrating human mobility within disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation strategies,and other relevant development processesfacilitating migration with dignity as a potentially positive way to cope with the effects of natural hazards and climate changeimproving the use of planned relocation as preventative or responsive measure to disaster risk and displacementensuring that the needs of IDPs displaced in disaster situations are specifically addressed by relevant laws and policies on disaster risk management or internal displacement  [...]

Should Tanzania establish a sovereign wealth fund?

12 Aug 2016 06:32:40 GMT

Many natural resource abundant countries have established sovereign wealth funds as part of their strategy of managing the resource wealth. This working paper by Ragnar Torvik looks into different arguments used as reasons to establish such funds, discuss how these funds are organized, and draw some policy lessons. The paper then develops a theory of how petroleum funds may affect the economic and political equilibrium of an economy, and how this depends on initial institutions. A challenge with petroleum funds is that they may produce economic and political incentives that undermines their potential benefits. In conclusion, the paper suggests that the best way to manage the petroleum wealth of Tanzania may not be to establish a sovereign wealth fund, but rather use revenues to invest domestically in sectors such as infrastructure, education and health. Such investments may produce a better economic, as well as institutional, development.

Enforcement of water rights

12 Aug 2016 06:16:22 GMT

In 2010, a UN Resolution explicitly recognized the human right to water and sanitation (HRtWS). But has this international recognition improved the ability of poor and marginalized people to secure access to water? Of the countries discussed in this brief, Brazil, Costa Rica, India, Peru and South Africa voted in favor of the resolution, while Ethiopia and Zambia did not. All have experienced significant attempts to enforce the human right to water through litigation, legal reforms, use of UN mechanisms (such as shadow reports), and/or political mobilization, and increased attention have been given to vulnerable and previously neglected areas and groups. This brief explores whether the resolution has been followed by changes in the national framework concerning the human right to water, and in the way countries are reporting on this right to the UN’s Universal Periodic Review (UPR).

Petroleum fund in Tanzania? Other alternatives may be better

12 Aug 2016 06:03:11 GMT

This Brief is an output from Tanzania as a future petrostate: Prospects and challenges, a five-year (2014-19) institutional collaborative programme for research, capacity building, and policy dialogue. It is jointly implemented by REPOA and CMI, in collaboration with the National Bureau of Statistics. The programme is funded by the Norwegian Embassy, Dar es Salaam.

Review of support to female engineers through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship Program (SEAP) implemented by Engineers Registration Board (ERB)

12 Aug 2016 05:51:50 GMT


The Royal Norwegian Embassy (RNE) has requested Norad to undertake a review of
the support to female engineers through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship
Program (SEAP) in order to assess the progress and give recommendations on the
best ways forward to meet the project objectives. The purpose of the review is to
contribute to the quality and delivery of the programme, and the findings from the
review will be used to guide the implementation of the remaining part of the project.

The project

RNE has been providing financial support to the Engineers Registration Board (ERB)
since 2010 to strengthen the capacity of female engineers and support their full
registration as professional engineers. The support to the female engineers is
implemented through the Structured Engineers Apprenticeship Program (SEAP). The
project is scheduled to end in 2015, but a no-cost extension until ultimo 2016 has been
approved by the RNE.

In order to achieve a higher number of registered female engineers, the project set out
to give the female SEAP trainees subsistence allowance and additional trainings, as
well as provide training for mentors and build the capacity of the ERB staff managing
the project. Furthermore, the project set out to strengthen professional associations for
female engineers in Tanzania.

Final evaluation - NPA Vietnam Development Program

12 Aug 2016 05:36:38 GMT

BackgroundThe NPA programme in Vietnam, with funding from Norad has focused on Natural Resources Management (NRM) and promotion of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) role in policy advocacy.In the 2012-2015 period, the Program identified priorities on forestland rights, Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) rights, ethnic minority (EM) rights in general, and promotion of the Extraction Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI).Purpose/objectiveIn this context, the final evaluation is conducted to assess:Results in comparison with the expected results of the NPA-Vietnam Multi-Year PlanRelevance of the Program to the current context in VietnamRelevance of the Partners to the current context in VietnamNPA value added to the partners in addition to financial support in comparison to allocated resources.MethodologyTwo main methods have been employed during the final evaluation including desk study and qualitative research.Key findingsIt can be concluded that NPA Development Program 2012-2015 in Vietnam is relevant to the country’s current context, and to the partner organizations.The Program added values for partners, besides financial support, are an important background for these partners to continue their pursuit of long-term goals in areas including forestland rights, LGBT rights, EM rights in general, and promotion of EITI.The programmatic approach of NPA has enabled its partners to synthesize resources from different donors, contributing to the significant impacts on the legal environment, the transformation of general public perception of natural resources management and minority rights, and particularly the creation of an important civil society space where NGOs can proactively operate in policy advocacy.RecommendationsNPA decision in choosing well-established organizations operating in NRM and the enhancement of the formal and informal space for CSOs is considered to be strategic since it would enhance the program probability of success.In addition, this approach is evaluated to be suitable for NPA as the organization has constraints in providing financial support and technical support to its partners. As a result, NPA could replicate this approach in other countries that the organization is operating provided that there are similarly highly capable local NGOs in the target countries.While NPA approach in Vietnam is evaluated to be highly relevant, the organization should consider adjustments on the following issues:First and foremost, NPA should consider conducting a thorough assessment on each topic/issue in the Development Program so that time and resource could be allocated most effectively and efficiently for each partner’ program.Although NPA partners have showed some levels of commitment towards the end goal of Vietnam joining EITI, they admitted that NPA phase-out is likely to disrupt the continuity of recent activities.Furthermore, NPA should consider transferring its supporting role to other INGOs that share the same interest in the topic NPA is pursuing.At the level of operational management, NPA should conduct periodic reviews to update or even adjust its Multiyear Plan based on practical developments. This underlies in the M&E function of constantly updating information to support decision-making process.[...]

The Mozambique Development Programme, 2012-15, of Norwegian People's aid: final evaluation

12 Aug 2016 05:28:37 GMT

BackgroundThe NPA programme in Mozambique, with funding from Norad supports civil society organization engaged on issues related to Natural Resource Management , and in particular on redistribution of resources and land conflicts.The main NPA partners are UNAC (Uniao Nacional de Camponeses) and ORAM (Organisacao de Ajuda Mutua) and some of their Provincial Delegations and Chapters.The NPA support covers, between the Maputo and the Provinces, a wide range of the activities of UNAC and ORAM: from Organisation Development, to gender policy, to technical and political activities around land and resource conflicts, to technical support to agriculture activities of UNAC members. The evaluation shall cover the whole cooperation agreement from 2012 to 2015Purpose/objectiveTo evaluate the results achieved by the Programme, and in particular:Results in comparison with the expected results of the NPA-Mozambique Multi-Year PlanResponsiveness of the partners to the support provided by NPARelevance of the Programme to the current context in MozambiqueRelevance of the Partners to the current context in MozambiqueNPA value added to the partners in addition to financial support in comparison to allocated resources.Need for re-alignment between the NORAD and the Embassy ProgrammesMethodology The study has applied the following principles:Centrality of partners’ plans and activities. The NPA inputs have been evaluated according to the added value and the support provided by NPA to the Partners’ objectives, activities, and results.Information has been collected from all stakeholders: NPA HQ, NPA Mozambique Office, Partners, and from Partners’ other counterparts (e.g. INGOs). Information has been collected through three main methods:a) Desk study of NPA and partners relevant documents (i.e. strategy, plans, reports)b) Interviews with stakeholders c) Selected field visits.Key findingsThe Mozambique Development Programme of NPA is of high relevance to the current context.UNAC and its provincial and local organisations are unique in Mozambique by representing rural, genuine and clear constituencies in terms of mass membership, internal formal democracy a fairly effective functioning. However, the representativity of UNAC has to be claimed by facts coming out of the planned membership roll in 2016. It is reason to believe that the number of members, both in terms of local associations and individual members, is much lower than what has been claimed in the reviewed documents of NPA and UNAC. Notwithstanding low quality of the baseline of the 2012-2015 program as well of its monitoring and reporting system, the programme has achieved mixed results in comparison with the plan and what could be expected.. However, the results are quite impressive regarding advocacy outcomes beyond the community-level, e.g. at national and even transnational levels.Among the partner organisations we find a very high degree of responsiveness to the support provided by NPA. NPA’s “value added” is considered to be very high among the interview persons, and the evaluator agrees. Five types of ‘value added’ is being accomplished: first, an immediate technical-advisory value, in terms of a trustful and non-imposing approach to partners; second, a political culture value; third, a multi-scale networking value; fourth, the women’s empowerment value of N[...]

Final Evaluation, Coastal East Africa Global Initiative, (FY11-FY15)

12 Aug 2016 05:17:54 GMT

BackgroundThe Coastal East Africa Global Initiative (CEA GI, or Coastal East Africa Initiative - CEAI) is one of the 13 Global Initiatives (GIs) that the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) embarked on since 2007.GIs were intended to be transformational interventions implemented through concerted WWF Network action to meaningfully impact critical threats, opportunities in support of biodiversity conservation and development targets within priority places or on priority themes.The CEAI is a place-based GI, with a geographical focus on three countries along the East African coast i.e., Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique, and includes also tuna fisheries related work in Madagascar.This area incorporates a number of eco-regions (some fully, some partially) and 9 seascapes / landscapes and as such the programme built on and complemented WWF’s previous and ongoing work in these eco-regions and landscapes.Key findingsThe conclusion of the consultant is that the CEAI produced commendable achievements in almost all of its components despite several major challenges the programme has faced.    The consultant found that how the CEAI has adapted and evolved during the first phase of five years together with what it has been able to deliver (on average having achieved its KPI targets) has made it into a critical and commendable programme for WWF, and the region. By working together with partners across levels, countries and the region and guided by a regional strategic programme the stage has been set to achieve real transformational change in support of significant outcomes and conservation and socio-economic impacts.    Out of the list with 12 Big Wins (a significant conservation achievement capable of stimulating attention and leveraging commitment) eight were fully achieved and the other four were partly achieved (as they were over-ambitious, will be achieved soon, of for reasons beyond the CEAIs control), which is again a commendable achievement.    The overall efficiency of the programme has been very good despite several challenges which have been outside the direct control of the CEAI but which hampered its operations.    The programme’s effectiveness has been very good as reflected in an average CEAI component score on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) under its Monitoring and Evaluation Plan of 6.1 (on a scale of 7 with 6 meaning “having achieved its target”).    The governance and empowerment component has been successful in establishing and developing CSO platforms which in turn contributed to the review/drafting of 30 natural resource related policies in the region, supporting responsible trade and investments through the development and approval of Strategic Environmental Assessments (SEAs), support of the Green Economy (which together with SEAs was requested by neighbouring countries to be scaled up into the region), and engagement with China and its role in Africa through FOCAC.    The work by the CEAI has already led to the recommendable achievement of the CEA governments now being much more actively engaged regarding the sustainable management of natural resources; particularly in the tuna and timber trade sector and regarding certain governance aspects there is quite a noticeable change in attitude. This has in turn resulted in i[...]

The Oil for Development Programme: annual report 2015

12 Aug 2016 05:05:55 GMT

The Norwegian Government launched the Oil for Development (OfD) Programme in 2005. The creation of the programme led to a considerable increase in petroleum-related aid. 10 years later, it represents an important contribution to Norwegian development cooperation.

OfD’s main approach is capacity development through institutional cooperation. The programme is demand-driven, meaning that the applicant country must present a formal request for assistance. A country must also fulfil a set of criteria before long-term agreements can be formed between public institutions in the applicant country and Norwegian public institutions.

Key developments in 2015

In 2015, there were 12 partner countries included in the OfD portfolio. Two new countries, Kenya and Myanmar, were added at the end of the year.

During 2015, the OfD Programme:

  • Increased its engagement with civil society
  • Expanded the revenue and environmental components
  • Consolidated the country portfolio
  • Prioritized results management and sustainable capacity development
  • Strengthened planning and preparation for new country programmes

Strengthening the oil and gas sector in Iraq

12 Aug 2016 03:56:43 GMT

This report presents a review of a bilateral cooperation in the petroleum sector between Norway and Iraq. The cooperation was initiated in 2004 and has been organized in two phases; this review is limited to current programme phase II.

This phase is based on a programme agreement concluded between Norad and the Iraqi Ministry of Oil (MoO) in 2011. Subsequently, MoO and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy (MPE) entered into a three-year institutional Cooperation Contract in 2013, which stipulates a review of phase II before its end.

The purpose of the review is threefold:

  • documentation and assessment of achievements made so far in programme phase II;
  • identification of areas in the Iraqi sector in need and suitable for continued support by OfD under the remaining part of programme phase II and a potential new phase;
  • a thorough risk assessment including external and internal risk factors, and identification of efficient mitigating measures for programme phase II.

Implication of participatory forest management on Duru-Haitemba and Ufiome Forest reserves and community livelihoods

12 Aug 2016 03:30:00 GMT

The fate of the forest is usually connected with forest management systems, societal demands as well as exposure to major disturbances such as wildfires, heavy browsing animals. Since the early 1990s, Tanzania have adopted participatory forest management (PFM) approaches, namely Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) and Joint forest management (JFM) to effectively and adequately protect the forests. In Manyara region where this study is based, Duru-Haitemba and Suledo forest reserves are managed under CBFM, while Ufiome forest reserve is managed under JFM. This study analyses forest management systems and their implication on Duru-Haitemba and Ufiome forest Reserves. The research methods used in this study included household surveys, focus group discussion, key informant interviews and field observation. Finding from the study showed that both JFM and CBFM approaches have been effectively implemented in the two forest reserves. It was also found that some of the traditional ceremonies undertaken in the forest also support the forest management efforts, since areas where such activities take place are considered sacred and are always left intact. Therefore, collective results from forest management approaches and cultural activities have greatly minimised illegal forest based activities such as timber harvesting and forest fires and the once heavily degraded forests have significantly recovered. Such success has been attributed to increased sense of ownership and control over the forest resources as the community feel more responsible for protection of the forest after realising the benefits brought by their efforts. Those benefits include enhanced availability of water and local herbs, easy collection of firewood, protection of their homes and farms from strong wind and more reliable rains that give them a stable economy from agriculture. Although, the forest status has improved significantly, there are still challenges in managing more remote parts of the forest where misconducts are hard to be spotted. Among the reasons that have contributed to the far distance misconduct, are poor accessibility, inadequate financial resources, necessary working gears and protection of social relations. Therefore, there is a need to further ensure enforcement of the regulations, sensitization of the local community participation in forest management related activities, as well as unswerving support to forest patrols.

The article is an output from the research programme Climate Change Impact, Adaptaition and Mitigation (CCIAM) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Forest adjacent households’ voices on their perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania

04 Jul 2016 01:42:37 GMT

Climate change is a global and local challenge to both sustainable livelihoods and economic development. Tanzania as other countries of the world has been affected. Several studies have been conducted on farmers’ perceptions and adaptation to climate change in the country, but little attention has been devoted to forest adjacent households in humid areas. This study assessed this gap through assessing forest adjacent households’ voices on perceptions and adaptation strategies to climate change in Kilombero District, Tanzania. Data collection involved key informant interviews, focus group discussions and household questionnaires. Results showed that the majority of households perceived changed climate in terms of temperature increase, unpredictable rainfall, frequent occurrence of floods, increased dry spells during rainy season coupled with decreased water sources and emergence of new pests and diseases. The perceived change in climate has impacted agriculture productivity as the main livelihood source. Different coping and adaptation strategies are employed. These are; crop diversification, changing cropping calendar, adopting modern farming technologies, and increasing reliance on non-timber forest products. These strategies were positively and significantly influenced by socio-economic factors including household size, residence period, land ownership and household income. The study concludes that, there are changes in climatic conditions; and to respond to these climatic changes, forest adjacent households have developed numerous coping and adaptation strategies, which were positively and significantly influenced by some socio-economic factors. The study calls for actual implementation of local climate change policies and strategies in order to enhance adaptive capacity at household level.

The article is an output from the research programme Climate Change Impact, Adaptaition and Mitigation (CCIAM) funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy in Tanzania.

Climate change, children and poverty: engaging children and youth in policy debate and action

28 Jun 2016 12:44:01 GMT

Children’s vulnerability to climate change can be understood as an intersection of three axes. The first is exposure; the extent to which children live in a physical location that is vulnerable to drought, floods, extreme weather events and sea level rise. Recent estimates by UNICEF indicate that 160 million children live in drought-prone areas, and half a billion more live in zones at risk to high floods and severe storms.

The second axis is socio-economic, with vulnerability to hazards due to a lack of resources, poverty and
marginalization. Families without adequate incomes and assets, protective infrastructure and housing, access to basic services, and inadequate nutrition and clean water, face the greatest risk in a changing climate.
The third axis is time, today’s children and future generations will bear the brunt of environmental impacts, creating an inter-generational injustice without precedent. All children fall somewhere along these three axes, but it is the children who live in greatest poverty and in the most exposed places that face the greatest risks. More than just passive victims, these young people, often with the support of their caregivers and communities, also represent agents of change and have consistently demonstrated the capacity to devise local solutions, participate in global conversations and contribute to a safe and sustainable future.
This brief argues that:
  • children and young people, particularly those living in poverty, are among the most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change
  • nevertheless, children and youth have shown that they can take an active role in raising awareness and creating innovative solutions
  • they must be empowered and supported to project their voice and to be part of the conversation in mitigation and adaptation planning and action
  • including the voice and needs of children at all levels of decision-making will help create a more sustainable, equitable and resilient society

REDD+ finance flows 2009-2014: trends and lessons learned in REDDX countries

12 Jun 2016 09:41:25 GMT

The study follows the money trail in 13 countries that account for 65 percent of the globe’s tropical forest cover under the U.N.’s Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) initiative, a key part of the ongoing U.N. climate negotiations. The research by Forest Trends’ REDDX (REDD eXpenditures) initiative covers six years from 2009 to 2014, the last year for which complete data is available. It tracks more than $6 billion of the nearly $10 billion that has been committed or pledged to REDD+ programs.

Seeing through fishers' lenses: Exploring marine ecological changes within Mafia Island Merine Park, Tanzania

12 Jun 2016 09:06:59 GMT

nsights from traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of the marine environment are difficult to integrate into conventional science knowledge (CSK) initiatives. Where TEK is integrated into CSK at all, it is usually either marginalized or restricted to CSK modes of interpretation, hence limiting its potential contribution to the understanding of social-ecological systems. This study uses semi-directive interviews, direct observations, and structured open-ended questionnaires (n = 103) to explore TEK of marine ecological changes occurring within the Mafia Island Marine Park, Tanzania, and factors contributing to these changes. It illuminates TEK insights that can be valuable in parallel with CSK to provide a more nuanced understanding of ecological changes. In some areas, fishers observed coral reef growth, increased fish abundance, and increased sea temperatures, whereas in others, they reported decreases in sea level, coral cover, fish abundance, catch composition, catch quantities, and fish size. They associated these changes with interrelated factors emanating from environmental processes, conservation outcomes, marketing constraints, population dynamics, and disappearance of cultural traditions. Utilizing TEK without restricting it to CSK modes of interpretation has the potential to improve CSK initiatives by promoting complementarity and mutual enrichment between the two kinds of knowledge, thereby contributing new insights that may enhance adaptive management and resilience in social-ecological systems.

Strengthening displaced women's housing, land and property rights in Afghanistan

12 Jun 2016 08:42:44 GMT

This report captures the Norwegian Refugee Council’s (NRC) groundbreaking work in Afghanistan, including NRC’s role in bringing greater understanding and visibility to Afghan women’s housing, land and property (WHLP) issues in a displacement context. Over three million Afghan women have been internally displaced or sought refuge in neighbouring countries. Regaining or accessing housing, land and property is one of the most important steps towards achieving a durable solution.

Women’s housing, land and property rights are recognised in Afghanistan’s constitution and its civil code, as well as in Shari’a. However in reality women continue to face discriminatory cultural norms and customary practices. This report aims to highlight such customs and cultural practices and demonstrate the challenges women face to fully realise their rights enshrined in law. It also provides recommendations to the Government of Afghanistan, donors, humanitarian actors and civil society organisations on how to tackle these challenges and increase meaningful engagement on women’s HLP issues.

NRC Afghanistan is proud to be a leading organisation working on and bringing attention to women’s HLP issues. This report is based on experiences directly from the field. It captures the bravery of our clients, who are increasingly seeking recognition of their rights and challenging deep-rooted customs which constitute roadblocks to Afghan women achieving their rights.

Life can change: securing housing, land and property rights for displaced women

12 Jun 2016 08:15:37 GMT

In  many  places  affected  by  conflict  and  crisis,  displaced  women continue  to  live  in  extreme  vulnerability.  They  often  suffer  unbelievable human rights abuses and remain marginalised, unable to make decisions about their lives and their communities. This is especially the case with respect to the realisation of their housing, land and property (HLP) rights. Norwegian  Refugee  Council’s  (NRC)  staff  witness  first-hand  how conflict  is  most  acutely  felt  by  women  and  exacerbated  by  discrimination.  Through  our  legal  assistance  operations  we  have  witnessed the magnitude of the difficulties confronting displaced women seeking to access justice in order to claim their housing, land and property. We  fail  in  our  humanitarian,  development  and  peace-building  efforts if  we  do  not  adequately  support  women  and  build  on  their  own resourcefulness.  In  2000,  the  UN  Security  Council  passed  the landmark Resolution 1325, generating numerous global initiatives and subsequent resolutions promoting the rights of women in conflict and post-conflict  situations.  Yet  almost  15  years  later,  humanitarians  still have a long way to go to put women at the centre of policy and operations. This is even more acute for displaced women’s rights.This  report  is  NRC’s  contribution  to  generating  policy  and  practice solutions based on our operational experience. We aim to shed light on the major hurdles that displaced women face when seeking to secure a  home  and  rebuild  their  lives  both  during  and  after  crisis.  We  have listened  to  their  experiences  in  many  countries  and  sought  to  reflect their  voices,  their  concerns  and  their  own  vision  for  solutions.  The report speaks of the difficulties, courage and triumphs of the displaced women with whom NRC works, and offers practical recommendations for humanitarians to support women as they recover from tremendous hardship. But  beyond  this,  the  report  reinforces  NRC’s  belief  that  even  in  the midst  of  conflict  and  crisis,  humanitarians  can  seize  opportunities  to bring  about  lasting  transformation  and  greater  equality  through  our conflict and post-conflict interventions. We can do this by challenging discriminatory laws and practices that undermine not only women and girls’  rights,  but  also  t[...]

Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) “Faith Engagement in Climate Smart Agriculture and Sustainable Land Management in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda

10 Jun 2016 06:11:49 GMT

This is a desk appraisal of the Alliances for Religions and Conservations (ARC) done for the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) by the Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Noragric, at the Norwegian University of Life Sciences (NMBU).

The Norwegian climate and forest funding to civil society: key results 2013-2015

10 Jun 2016 05:54:36 GMT

Civil society is an important complement to the bilateral and multilateral support under Norway’s Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI). From indigenous peoples’ networks, through watchdogs and knowledge and service providers, they help ensure accountability in, and sustainability of, efforts to reduce deforestation in tropical forests.
This report sums up results achieved by the 42 civil society actors who received support from NICFI through the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation in the period 2013-2015. The following achievements can be highlighted:

  • An estimated 3,8 million people made their main income/livelihood from sustainable land use in targeted landscapes.
  • 13 organisations report that Indigenous Peoples and forest dependent communities gained land rights with support from the organisations.
  • 19 organisations report to have contributed to emissions reductions. Examples of activities to reduce emissions may include influencing companies, developing new and alternative sources of income, or influencing REDD+ programs.
  • The report is structured around the three goals for this grant scheme. The fact base for the report are the common indicators filled out by each organization, and examples of results submitted by the organisations.


REDD+ hits the ground: lessons learned from Tanzania's REDD+ pilot projects

10 Jun 2016 05:35:36 GMT

Tanzania launched a series of REDD+ pilot projects in 2009 with the goal of testing approaches to reducing deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). These projects, funded by the government of Norway experimented with a range of different approaches to protect forests, while supporting livelihoods and local economic development. In this report, we review the experiences and lessons learned from these pilot projects. Initially, we assess the feasibility of voluntary market, project approaches within a context of low forest carbon stocks and complex local deforestation drivers. We go on to explore how participatory forest management (PFM) has been adopted by REDD+ projects and used to address local deforestation drivers. In some cases, orienting PFM to REDD+ goals has helped address long standing barriers to PFM implementation. Elsewhere, viewing PFM through a REDD+ lens has highlighted weaknesses with current approaches to PFM, which will need to be addressed in the future. Furthermore, we identify lessons on consultation, consent and stakeholder engagement as well as how different projects have identified and addressed deforestation drivers at the project level.

Protected area governance, carbon offset forestry, and environmental (in)justice at Mount Elgon, Uganda

10 Jun 2016 04:51:14 GMT

At Mount Elgon National Park in Uganda, local conservation authorities assert that a variety of benefit sharing schemes mitigate the negative consequences of exclusionary forest conservation and carbon sequestration for nearby communities. Among other initiatives, these include the redistribution of ecotourism revenue, the signing of collaborative resource management agreements, and the provision of ecotourism-related employment opportunities. Conservationists argue that these schemes result in ‘triple-win’ outcomes for both the national park and local communities, wherein biodiversity conservation, climate change mitigation, and development goals mutually complement each other. Taking an environmental justice approach, this report synthesizes findings concerning local notions of (in)justice, actual geographical and temporal distributions of benefits from conservation at Mount Elgon, and the effects of such distributions on perceptions and mobilizations related to environmental justice. In doing so, it identifies widespread expressions of resentment and hostility among local communities, as well as large inequalities in access to ecotourism revenue and other benefits both between and within them. To highlight a salient example, worst-off park neighbours received assistance equivalent to only 0.0085 USD per district resident over a nine-year period. The perceived injustices that arise from these inequalities exacerbate conflicts between conservationists and local people, and, consequently, result in ecological damage to protected forests. To alleviate both the environmental injustice and degradation entailed by these inequalities, the report concludes with a number of recommendations for universalizing sustainable access to collaboratively managed resources on Mount Elgon.

Local biomass burning is a dominant cause of the observed precipitation reduction in southern Africa

14 Apr 2016 09:23:40 GMT

Observations indicate a precipitation decline over large parts of southern Africa since the 1950s. Concurrently, atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases and aerosols have increased due to anthropogenic activities. Here we show that local black carbon and organic carbon aerosol emissions from biomass burning activities are a main cause of the observed decline in southern African dry season precipitation over the last century. Near the main biomass burning regions, global and regional modelling indicates precipitation decreases of 20–30%, with large spatial variability. Increasing global CO2 concentrations further contribute to precipitation reductions, somewhat less in magnitude but covering a larger area. Whereas precipitation changes from increased CO2 are driven by large-scale circulation changes, the increase in biomass burning aerosols causes local drying of the atmosphere. This study illustrates that reducing local biomass burning aerosol emissions may be a useful way to mitigate reduced rainfall in the region.

WFP and Norway: partners against hunger

06 Apr 2016 12:51:14 GMT

This report provides an overview of the use and impact of the Norwegian aid contribution to the World Food Programme's (WFP) humanitarian activities.

Local content in the Tanzanian mining sector

04 Apr 2016 05:28:41 GMT

This brief examines the factors that have influenced local content in the Tanzanian mining sector, and some of the challenges and successes of local content initiatives in mining. Local content has gradually gained momentum over the last ten years, both among government bodies, companies, and civil society organizations. We argue that there has been a focus on quantity rather than quality in the reporting of local content, that there is a need for stronger regulation of local suppliers to make them adhere to ethical standards, but also that investment in training and local cooperatives can be beneficial for both corporations and host communities.

Not so great expectations: gas revenue, corruption and willingness to pay tax in Tanzania

04 Apr 2016 05:02:30 GMT

Huge reservoirs of natural gas have been discovered offshore the southern coast of Tanzania. There are high expectations that exploitation of natural resources will substantially increase Tanzania’s national income. This brief presents results from a recent survey experiment of 3000 respondents in Dar es Salaam, Mtwara gas revenue causally increase expectations about corruption, it has no effect on willingness to pay tax. We argue that successful handling of the gas discoveries should include strategies to keep people’s expectations about future gas revenues realistic and to strengthen the control of corruption.

Real-time evaluation of Norway's international climate and forest initiative. Literature review and programme theory.

04 Apr 2016 04:42:53 GMT

The report presents findings of a baseline for a new wave of real time evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI). Two separate but closely connected studies have been conducted following an extensive literature review, workshops, and interviews.

Study A reviews and summarizes research relevant to REDD+ and identifies the gaps where additional research and evaluation is needed.

Study B considers the program theories behind NICFI and REDD+ and assesses the extent to which the current intervention theories and design of NICFI show the conditions necessary to achieve its objectives. The study draws on the findings from study A and includes an assessment of the degree to which the program/intervention theory or theories are based on available research based knowledge.

The two studies conducted in parallel, identify ways in which NICFI can improve and capitalize on emerging best practices and knowledge.

The Norwegian government launched its International Climate and Forest Initiative in December 2007, pledging up to NOK 3 billion annually to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+). 

The Evaluation Department at the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) has commissioned real-time evaluation of Norway’s International Climate and Forest Initiative (NICFI) from consultants and experts. Comprising evaluations and studies on specific topics and themes, the objective is to provide timely information and rapid learning opportunities for programing and management of NICFI.

Phase 1 of the real time evaluation was conducted during 2010- 2013. Phase 2 of the real time evaluation started in 2015. This report is the first publication within the second phase of the evaluation.

Climate projections for local adaptation in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas

04 Apr 2016 03:57:40 GMT

This report is an output of the Himalayan Climate Change Adaptation Programme (HICAP). The aim of this report is to present downscaled climate scenarios in a relevant, understandable and illustrative manner for a diverse group of end-users and stakeholders, including other HICAP research components decision-makers at different levels. This report is based on dynamically downscaled temperature and precipitation projections for 8 different domains in the Hindu-Kush Himalayas. It uses the HICAP model (the WRF model, driven by the NorESM GCM model) for the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios. Comparing model results with local observations for a reference period (1996-2005, the output was corrected for various under- and overestimations. For each domain, projections for periods 1996-2005, 2010-2030, 2030-2050 and 2050-2080 are presented a) in figures relevant for local users and decision makers, b) in a simplified text summing up the projections, and briefly discussing them in relation to potential impacts. This report provides highly relevant, locally specific results for the HICAP region, and relates these to geographical variations within each domain across the Himalayas. No other models and projections have been used in this report, and the HICAP model results should be compared with other sources of information for a final assessment of local climate change and impacts. The usability of the report extends beyond the HICAP project: the model-adjustment method, aimed at showing how to make projections realistic and relevant at the local level, the ease of the calculations and the guided interpretations of the figures and projections can serve as a guide to model use and presentations anywhere, provided the availability of a minimal amount of observations to compare and adjust larger scale model outputs to local climate observations for a certain reference period.

Institutional analysis for climate services development and delivery in Tanzania

04 Apr 2016 03:50:03 GMT

This report is an output of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) Adaptation Programme in Africa. The goal of the report is to describe and assess the current institutional landscape for development and delivery of climate services in Tanzania and to suggest pathways for leveraging current opportunities, as well as for addressing current institutional barriers, to enable improved production, access, and use of climate services in Tanzania. This report is based on a review of relevant policy documents and grey literature, focus group discussions with communities in Longido and Kiteto Districts, and key informant interviews with selected policy-makers, authorities, and non-governmental actors at national and district levels involved in the fields of agriculture and food security, health, and disaster risk reduction and management. The report findings suggest that there are four major institutional challenges to the delivery of usable climate services across institutional scales in Tanzania: 1) potential mismatches between national institutional arrangements and legal mandates, 2) limited technical, financial, and human resources, 3) lack of sufficient mechanisms to facilitate systematic flows of information between government agencies, both vertically and horizontally, and 4) limited specialized climate change knowledge and expertise within government structures. Recommendations are made for addressing these challenges.

Establishing a baseline for monitoring and evaluating user satisfaction with climate services in Tanzania

03 Apr 2016 12:17:34 GMT

This report is a contribution toward the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Program in Africa (GFCS-APA) Tanzania country activities. CICERO and UDSM are tasked with establishing a baseline for monitoring “User Satisfaction with Climate Services” at the national, district, and local levels, with a focus on the programme target districts of Longido and Kiteto. A qualitative approach was employed to document 1) existing institutional coordination and steering mechanisms for a dedicated climate services platform at the national level; 2) respondents’ awareness of and access to climate information and services at national, district and local levels; 3) respondents’ perceptions of the ‘usability’ of climate information and services, and 4) the role of indigenous knowledge (IK) about weather, climate, and related adaptation options. Following Cash et al., (2003), we analyzed “user satisfaction” in relation to respondents’ perceptions of the credibility, salience, and legitimacy of climate information and services. Key findings include: 1) A national steering mechanism for climate services has been adopted, but there is a need to strengthen institutional coordination across all scales; 2) Awareness of and access to climate information and services are highly variable across institutional scales, indicating a need for increased awareness of the concept of climate services as well as efforts to enhance delivery of climate information; 3) Perceptions of the credibility of climate information and services are paramount to increasing user satisfaction, and depend upon respondents’ experience using climate information in practice. Mismatches between the timing of decision-making and the production and delivery of forecasts, as well as the limited spatial and temporal resolution of climate information and products, undermine the salience of climate information. The way in which forecasts are currently packaged and communicated presents additional challenges to understanding and interpreting the information for practical decision-making. At the local level, disparities in capacities to access and benefit from climate information and services and the potential for climate information to take on political implications when attached to specific advice pose challenges to the legitimacy of climate information and services development. 4) IK was seen as being particularly important to decision-making at local levels, where it gains its credibility through the long-term observations it is based on, as well as the experience that communities already have working with this knowledge. The findings highlight that improving user satisfaction with climate services will be a long-term process that requires capacity bu[...]

The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the Uluguru Mountains, Tanzania

18 Mar 2016 04:57:33 GMT

Biogas can be a clean cooking alternative where biomass is the dominant source of cooking energy and where feedstock for anaerobic digestion is available.  By substituting woody biomass for energy, biogas may reduce local deforestation. Tanzania has more than 15.6 million goats. Dairy goats of different breeds are found in the  mid-to high altitudes of the country. Population density has made firewood increasingly scarce and there are few energy alternatives in mountainous areas such as in the Uluguru Mountains. In Mgeta ward, Morogoro region, introduction of Norwegian dairy goats in the 1980s has improved livelihoods in the area. In this study, goat manure was assessed as feedstock for biogas and as fertilizer. Field work among small-holder dairy goat farmers in Mgeta was conducted to measure daily  manure production, and to provide  a basic model for  prediction of the quantity of  droppings which  may  be  collected  by  farmers. Biogas  and  fertilizer  potential  from  goat  manure was compared to cow  and  pig  manure. Buswell’s  formula was used to  calculate approximate  methane  yield. The  results  show that  goat manure  from  Mgeta  can  yield 167 l∙kg Volatile Solids-1 (VS).  Compared  with  other  substrates  approximate  methane yield can be ranked as pig > guatemala grass > cow > goat. The average goat of 25 kg in  Mgeta  leaves  61 kg  Total Solids  (TS) droppings  per  year.  It was estimated  that  15 goats∙capita-1 would be required to meet the total cooking energy needs of small-holder households in the study location. N:P:K content in goat manure (TS) is 2:1:1, similar to cow  and  pig  manure.  Goat  droppings had to  be  macerated  to  reduce  particle  size  for anaerobic  digestion.  Biogas  from  dairy  goats  could  be  combined  with  the  year-round irrigated  horticulture  production  in  Mgeta.  Vegetable gardens  in  the  slope  below  the digesters could be fertilized by gravitation with the NH4+-rich bioslurry, to save labour and increase yields.

Norfund’s Kilombero Plantation in Tanzania: meagre results from a large investment

18 Mar 2016 03:57:28 GMT

This report set out to analyse water use by Kilombero Plantations Limited (KPL) in  Tanzania  and  its  effect  on  the  people  dependent  on  local  water  resources. Norfund,  the  Norwegian  development  finance  institution,  is  invested  in  the plantation company KPL through its stake in Agrica Limited. The report finds that the water management regime of the plantation is affecting the local people minimally. Exposure to risks has increased slightly, especially for the poorer villagers unable to afford storage of water. The main risk emanating from the lack of  improved  water  sources  is  however  the  responsibility  of  the  Government  of Tanzania,  and  not  the  company. The  developmental  effect  however  is  unclear. KPL  has  contributed  to  the  local  and  regional  economy  by  buying  materials and by hiring skilled and unskilled labour. These are however meagre spill overs compared to the planned effects of economical growth and increased domestic rice production. More significantly this report shows that Tanzania, like many other developing countries, lacks the fundamentals for private sector development. The challenges from  unfavourable  circumstances  have  prevented  the  company  from  turning  a profit in the first seven years. The still pending expansion of the plantation and the limited success of the outgrower scheme means that the contribution to reduce Tanzania’s dependence on imported rice has also been impaired. The marketing of  rice  from  Kilombero  was  exposed  to  sudden  shifts  in  the  imported  volume of rice and thus to a fall in prices. Volatile road taxation is another policy issue. There are also virtually no medium sized modern farms to recruit skilled labour from;  there  is  a  huge  technological  gap  between  mostly  traditional  household level farms and industrial plantations in Tanzania. The unstable regulative regime and weak enforcement of policies are hallmarks of weak institutions. The large-scale investment favoured up until now will not benefit poor farmers in the short or medium term. One could argue that the prevailing mode is neither favourable for large agribusiness. This report shows how a matrix of criteria are necessary to create a beneficial environment for large-scale agriculture, most of which are missing or only partly p[...]