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Norwegian research



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Displaced women and homelessness

30 Nov 2016 06:40:43 GMT

This report identifies conflicts as a cause of homelessness. Displaced persons, by definition, have to abandon their homes. Many of them have been forced to leave because of targeted discrimination.

NRC´s research shows that this is compounded by the repressive social norms women experience from their communities and families. Those who face discrimination because of their ethnicity, place of origin and gender, are more likely to become homeless and, oncehomeless, are exposed to more serious protection risks.




Women refugees in Lebanon and the consequences of limited legal status on their housing, land and property rights

30 Nov 2016 06:22:21 GMT

Understanding the situation for women refugees in particular, including the protection risks they face, is essential in order to develop and provide appropriate interventions taking their perspective and specific challenges into account.

The aim of this report is to highlight some of the consequences of limited legal status, with a specific focus on the coping mechanisms of refugees to try to maintain their housing each month and what impact such, often negative, coping mechanisms have on women in particular.




International law and sea-level rise: forced migration and human rights

30 Nov 2016 05:39:16 GMT

This report provides a general overview of the international law issues relating to sea-level rise, (forced) migration and human rights. The first part provides a brief accounting of 'What We Know and What We Can Expect', discussing sea-level rise and its impacts, and then, in turn, their relationship and interaction with the criteria of statehood, human rights and mobility. The second part features 'tools' with the potential to address the mobility and human rights implications associated with sea-level rise and its impacts. Part two initially explores interventions that would enable affected persons to remain in situ, before embarking on an examination of extant 'tools' pertinent to internal and cross-border movements, respectively. The final part presents the way forward, drawing out key areas and principles of international law with the capacity to lend clarity and content to States' obligations to address the challenges presented by sea-level rise.




The Nagoya Protocol on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing: User-country measures and implementation in India

30 Nov 2016 05:22:23 GMT

User-measure requirements are the cornerstone of the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization developed under the Convention on Biological Diversity. These have come about as the result of hard, persistent pressure from developing countries on developed countries to take co-responsibility in making the access and benefit sharing regime functional. The degree of national implementation of the user measure requirements will thus be an important indicator of the success of the Nagoya Protocol. This report reviews these requirements and the situations as regards national implementation so far. It reviews the  status and options for India in its implementation and notes some future challenges.




Climate change policy inventory and analysis for Tanzania

30 Nov 2016 04:51:33 GMT

This report is an output of the Global Framework for Climate Services Adaptation Programme in Africa. The goal of the report is to: 1) assess the extent to which climate change concerns have been integrated or mainstreamed into national policy documents in mainland Tanzania, 2) to consider the role of climate services in achieving national sectorial policy goals, and 3) identify entry points for the further development of climate services within the current policy frameworks. Fifteen key policy documents relevant to economic development, climate change and environment, agriculture and food security, disaster management and risk reduction, and health planning were analysed. Three major findings emerged from this analysis. First, while climate change is addressed in a number of the policy documents, the concept of climate services was not. Second, policy documents across all sectors identified improved early warning systems as a specific objective. This represents a common entry point for development and delivery of climate services, as well as an opportunity to increase cross-sectorial adaptation coordination and planning. Third, the analysis highlighted that efforts to manage short- and long-term climate risks are not well integrated under current policies and legislation in Tanzania. Additionally, we found that the National Environmental Policy and National Environmental Management Act are the primary policy documents that oversee climate change-related issues. It will be important to link the development and delivery of climate services with the established institutional structures for climate change adaptation under these current policies and legislation, to avoid creating isolated or duplicative institutional arrangements. Based on these findings, several recommendations are made that can inform climate services development and delivery in Tanzania.




Estimating mobilized private climate finance for developing countries. A Norwegian pilot study

30 Nov 2016 04:42:05 GMT

The point of departure for this study is the available data in Norway on climate finance for developing countries. The bottleneck in tracking mobilized private climate finance is availability and quality of data. The main challenge is that Norwegian public institutions sourcing public support for climate finance have not yet implemented sufficient systems for measurement, reporting and verification of mobilized private climate finance. In addition, climate finance tracking is constrained by methodological difficulties and lacking international standard definitions and methods. Despite these limitations, we have estimated that Norwegian public climate finance support to developing countries via bilateral and multi-bilateral support amounted to 1,019 MUSD in 2014, split into bilateral flows at 578 MUSD and multi-bilateral flows at 441 MUSD. The main public institutions sourcing this money, ranked according to the size of their money flows, are: Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) - embassies, Norad, MFA, KLD, and Norfund. We examined public support for projects summing up to 692 MUSD, which we could link to an estimated 202 MUSD of mobilized private co-finance. Based on our analysis, Norfund is the primary institution that has mobilized private climate finance. These climate finance flows are likely to be low estimates. In addition, Norway provided another 123 MUSD as climate-related core support to multilateral organizations. Although a number of uncertainties are attached to the data, they cover the largest flows and most available project data. One learning from this process is not to aim for a “perfect” standardized and complete tracking system, but for an international tracking standard that is simple and transparent, and with built-in flexibility to handle different contexts in terms of actors and sources at international and national levels.




Green bonds and environmental integrity: insight from CICERO second opinions

30 Nov 2016 04:29:53 GMT

This policy note shares insights from CICERO's experience in producing over 60 second opinions. Insights on the environmental integrity of green bonds include: 1) Management that is aligned for climate risk can give greater confidence in a green bond, 2) Internal dialogue with environmental experts can benefit from issuing a green bond and obtaining a second opinion, and 3) Best practice is emerging for certain project types. Issuers are more often incorporating life cycle analysis to understand the full environmental impact of the projects they finance, e.g. in renewable energy projects, as well as of their corporate activities including supply chains and subcontractors. Sustainable buildings are more likely to include an energy efficiency target in addition to building certifications. Multilateral development banks and municipalities are more likely to include adaptation components in their green bonds. In some cases, environmental experts are gaining veto power in the project selection process. Regular reporting on green bond projects is becoming the norm, with increasing interest in working towards impact reporting.




Business as UNusual: the implications of fossil divestment and green bonds for financial flows, economic growth and energy market

30 Nov 2016 04:16:09 GMT

Green bonds and fossil divestment has emerged as a bottom-up approach to climate action within the business community. Recent pledges by large banks and institutional investors have reached levels that have the potential to contribute markedly to a low carbon transition. This paper traces the impact of green finance in a multiregional global general equilibrium model with non-fossil and non-coal segments of financial flows in addition to the usual unconstrained market for funding. Our high green finance scenario reflects a reasonable upscaling of current level of pledges towards 2030. The study shows that green finance shifts the investments towards industries generating more value added and increasing GDP, future savings and investments. The green finance leads to a lower return on investments and a transfer of income from investors to wage income. Russia and China see the largest cost increase in coal investments due to constraints on finance for fossil industries. The green finance reduces coal consumption by 2.5 per cent below BAU in 2030 and raises the share of non-fossil electricity from 42 to 46 per cent at the global level. Over the whole period towards 2030, the green finance avoids global CO2 emissions corresponding to the total emissions of European Union and Japan in a recent year.




Seizing the momentum: displacement on the global climate change agenda

28 Nov 2016 10:18:50 GMT

With global temperatures breaking new records and an average of at least 21.5 million people already being displaced each year by the impact and threat of climate-related hazards, it is time to ratchet up efforts to mitigate, adapt to and prepare for ever greater displacement risk.

This briefing paper summarises where the issues of displacement, migration and planned relocation stand in the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) agreements, decisions and discourse, and highlights opportunities and challenges inherent in turning knowledge and commitments into concrete action for people already displaced and those at greatest risk of becoming so.




The rise of environmental crime: a growing threat to natural resources, peace, development and security

25 Nov 2016 04:31:21 GMT

The environment provides the very foundation of sustainable development, our health, food security and our economies. Ecosystems provide clean water supply, clean air and secure food and ultimately both physical and mental wellbeing. Natural resources also provide livelihoods, jobs and revenues to governments that can be used for education, health care, development and sustainable business models. The role of the environment is recognized across the internationally agreed seventeen sustainable development goals adopted in 2015.

The slaughter of elephants and rhinos has raised awareness of the illegal trade in wildlife. We are facing mass extinctions and countries are losing iconic wildlife species. However, the scope and spectrum of this illegal trade has widened. Criminals now include in their trafficking portfolios waste, chemicals, ozone depleting substances, illegally caught seafood, timber and other forest products, as well as conflict minerals, including gold and diamonds.

The growth rate of these crimes is astonishing. The report that follows reveals for the first time that this new area of criminality has diversified and skyrocketed to become the world’s fourth largest crime sector in a few decades, growing at 2–3 times the pace of the global economy. INTERPOL and UNEP now estimate that natural resources worth as much as USD 91 billion to USD 258 billion annually are being stolen by criminals, depriving countries of future revenues and development opportunities.

Environmental crime has impacts beyond those posed by regular criminality. It increases the fragility of an already brittle planet. The resulting vast losses to our planet rob future generations of wealth, health and wellbeing on an unprecedented scale. They also compromise our ability to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals.

An additional by-product of environmental crime is that it undermines peace. It is not surprising that the UN Security Council has recognized the serious threat to security posed by environmental crime, with UN reports pointing to armed groups and potentially even terrorists sustained through the spoils of this rising criminal industry.

However, an enhanced law enforcement response can help address this worrying trend. There are significant examples worldwide of cross-sectoral efforts working to crack down on environmental crime and successfully restore wildlife, forests and ecosystems. Such collaboration, sharing and joining of efforts within and across borders, whether formal or informal, is our strongest weapon in fighting environmental crime.

But to meet the scale of this threat, a broad-ranging, targeted effort must be put forward so that peace and sustainable development can prevail.




Blue Carbon

25 Nov 2016 04:07:39 GMT

If the world is to decisively deal with climate change, every source of emissions and every option for reducing these should be scientifically evaluated and brought to the international community’s attention. Oceans and ocean ecosystems play a critical role in maintaining our climate and in assisting policy makers to mainstream an oceans agenda into national and international climate change initiatives.

Blue Carbon is carbon captured by the world’s oceans, representing more than 55% of the green carbon (captured by plants). The carbon captured by living organisms in oceans is stored in the form of sediments from mangroves, salt marshes and seagrasses. It does not remain stored for decades or centuries (like for example rainforests), but rather for millennia.

Vegetated coastal habitats – mangrove forests, salt-marshes and seagrass meadows – have much in common with rain forests: they are hot spots for biodiversity, they provide important and valuable ecosystem functions, including a large carbon sink capacity, and they are experiencing a steep global decline.

However, whereas society is well informed of the benefits and threats associated with rainforests, there is a comparative lack of awareness on the status and benefits of vegetated coastal habitats. This is perhaps because of a “charisma” gap, where these often submerged, out of sight coastal habitats, are not as appealing to the public as their terrestrial counterparts. Yet, because of their similar functions and threats, coastal habitats can be considered as blue carbon sinks.




United Nations World Ocean Assessment

25 Nov 2016 03:52:37 GMT

The first World Ocean Assessment (WOA) is a report on the state of the planet’s oceans. It is the product of the first cycle of the Regular Process for global reporting and assessment of the state of the marine environment, including socio-economic aspects, which was established after the 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development.




Marine ecosystem services and the Sustainable Development Goals

25 Nov 2016 03:44:26 GMT

How do marine ecosystem services support the Sustainable Development Goals?
 
Marine and coastal ecosystems are vital to life on Earth. These ecosystems provide many “services” to people including food, coastal protection, carbon sequestration, biodiversity, recreation, but also inspiration for art and science, cultural identity and a spiritual home.



Endangered reefs, threatened people

24 Nov 2016 03:28:15 GMT

In a recent study, a group of scientists mapped human dependence on coral reefs and future threats to them. The findings are worrying – many places where people depend on coral reefs are the same places that are mostly likely to suffer damage from climate change and ocean acidification. 
 
Large numbers of people living in coastal areas of Southeast Asia are at greatest risk from both future bleaching and ocean acidification, while many other regions where people depend on coral reefs face high risk from at least one of these threats.



Forest governance in Latin America: strategies for implementing REDD

24 Nov 2016 02:43:29 GMT

Global interest in and attention to forests have grown as concerns about global warming and climate change have taken a heightened position in international policy debates. Forests have been repositioned in international arenas as repositories of global value for their contribution to carbon sequestration and climate mitigation. In this context, Latin American forests are seen as globally important in fighting climate change.




Changing elites, institutions and environmental governance

24 Nov 2016 02:15:13 GMT

The topic of elites has always been controversial in Latin American social sciences. Elites have been studied indirectly as landowners, capitalists, business-leaders or politicians, and have also been approached directly using concepts and theory from elite studies. Although there is a significant amount of literature on the role of elites in democratic transformations, elites have often been considered to be an obstacle to the formation of more democratic, prosperous and egalitarian societies. This is also the case in the literature on environmental governance, in which elite groups are often considered to be an obstacle to sustainable development and an obstacle to establishing more equitable influence over the use and benefits of natural resources. Therefore, although an elitist conservation movement has long existed in Latin America, struggles to protect the environment from overexploitation and contamination have commonly been related to struggles against local, national and transnational elites by subaltern groups.




Enabling more inclusive and efficient food and agricultural systems in Africa: FAO session at the IFAMA World Forum 18 June 2014, Cape Town, South Africa

23 Nov 2016 04:48:56 GMT

FAO organized a workshop during the International Food and Agribusiness Management Association's World Forum 2014, focusing on themes covered by Strategic Objective 4 that place greater emphasis on supporting national policies that enhance inclusiveness and promote efficiencies along agri-food value chains. The event brought together students, academics, government officials, private sector representatives and development practitioners to discuss innovative approaches to promote inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems in Africa.

Chapter 3. Integrating small-scale dairy farmers into school milk programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania / by Helene Lie, Department of International Environment and Development Studies, Norwegian University of Life Science, Aas, Norway.




The resource bites back: entry-points for addressing corruption in wildlife crime

23 Nov 2016 04:35:27 GMT

Corruption has recently risen up the global wildlife conservation agenda with a series of international agreements highlighting the role of corruption in facilitating wildlife crime. Though there are notable exceptions, there is still a weak treatment in the literature of the problems of, and solutions to, wildlife crime from an anti-corruption perspective. Identifying and promoting effective interventions that get to the heart of the corruption problems associated with wildlife crime is a shared responsibility across the wildlife conservation, anti-corruption, anti-illicit trade, and anti-organized crime communities.

As well as reviewing existing empirical literature to explore the types and characteristics of corruption associated with wildlife crime, this U4 Issue identifies entry-points for addressing corruption in wildlife crime based on recent anti-corruption effectiveness literature.

Building credible corruption risk assessment and corruption risk management procedures is important for improving wildlife conservation programming. This will enable generation of detailed analyses of corruption risk factors at programmatic level, the recording of baseline data on corruption prevalence, and the production of detailed plans on how best to mitigate and manage identified corruption risks.




Deciding over nature: corruption and environmental impact assessments

22 Nov 2016 02:43:46 GMT

Environmental impact assessments (EIAs) are a core aspect of environmental decision-making in most countries. Despite massive potential for public harms resulting from corrupt decision-making linked to EIAs, research on this topic is still very limited. We consider the main generic corruption risks in carrying out EIAs and provide suggestions for what public agencies, including development aid donors, might do to mitigate them.

Our analysis provides a systematic literature review of the topic, supplemented by fieldwork-based case analysis of the EIA process in Albania. We find that a range of poor practice currently afflicts Albania?s EIA system and that the present accountability and monitoring framework for EIAs does little to mitigate various corruption risks.




Lack of consultation. Stakeholders’ perspectives on local content requirements in the petroleum sector in Tanzania

22 Nov 2016 02:13:55 GMT

Tanzania has recently discovered huge offshore natural gas fields. This has led the Government to develop Local Content Policies (LCPs) to increase local job and business opportunities. This brief presents the main findings from a study of the stakeholders’ assessment of the LCPs the Tanzanian Government has developed. While there is widespread support to LCPs, the government is criticized by stakeholders for not conducting a transparent and inclusive consultative process which may weaken the implementation of the LCPs. This study follows the process from the first draft of the LCP, published in May 2014 by the Ministry of Energy and Mineral, to the Petroleum Act, passed by Parliament in July 2015 and assented to by the Tanzanian President in December 2015.




Green: at what price?

21 Nov 2016 12:56:38 GMT

Reforestation, environmental development, growth in the developing world: when does a green economy come at too high a price?

The Ugandan Government wants to encourage development and boost it’s forest reserves. They’ve leased over 8000 hectares of land to Norwegian based company, Green Resources, Africa’s largest forestation company. This sounds like a good news story in Africa, except that Bukaleba Forest Reserve, on the shores of Lake Victoria, has been home to thousands of rural people for decades.

These villagers are indicative of 90 % of rural Africans who have no land title. This film explores one simple truth: land acquisitions for growth and development can compromise the livelihoods of some of the world’s most vulnerable people.

We hear from the villagers, the Land Ministry, the company at the core. ‘Green: at what price?’ not only highlights the plight of Ugandan villagers, but reveals a vital scenario playing out across Africa and around the globe.




Panama Papers and the looting of Africa

21 Nov 2016 04:44:07 GMT

On the 3rd of April 2016 the German Newspaper Sud Deutsche Zeitung in collaboration with the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ) made an unprecedented release of documents from a database of the Panama based offshor e law firm Mossack Fonseca which is the world’s fourth largest offshore services law firm. The release captured global attention and would turn out to be the largest data leak in history. It exposed the offshore secrecy structures of wealthy businessmen, politicians, suspected drug lords and arms dealers use to hide their wealth.

The extent and magnitude to which the African continent is exposed to the shadowy world of offshore dealings is illustrated through the Panama Papers which found that implicated companies were operating in 44 out 54 African countries. A recent study by the United Nations committee on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) showed that commodity dependent countries are losing up to 67% of their export earnings worth billions of dollars due to trade misinvoicing. While it remains to be seen how much the Panama papers will lead to a rethink of the international financial system the leak has significantl y contributed to exposing its fault lines. The prevailing discourse on illicit financial flows (IFFs) and the global financial transpar ency has until now focused on the demand side elements originating primarily from poorly governed developing countries. In contrast, the revelations in the Panama Papers suggest a systemic failure in the global financial architecture and illustrate the depth of advanced accounting, finance, and legal systems providing the supply-side infrastructure for IFFs to offshore territories and high secrecy jurisdictions.




Association between malaria and malnutrition among children aged under-five years in Adami Tulu District, south-central Ethiopia: a case-control study

21 Nov 2016 04:21:00 GMT

Background: Malaria and malnutrition are the major causes of morbidity and mortality in under-five children in developing countries such as Ethiopia. Malnutrition is the associated cause for about half of the deaths that occur among under-five children in developing countries. However, the relationship between malnutrition and malaria is controversial still, and it has also not been well documented in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess whether malnutrition is associated with malaria among under-five children.

Methods: A case–control study was conducted in Adami Tulu District of East Shewa Zone in Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. Cases were all under-five children who are diagnosed with malaria at health posts and health centres. The diagnosis was made using either rapid diagnostic tests or microscopy. Controls were apparently healthy under-five children recruited from the community where cases resided. The selection of the controls was based on World Health Organization (WHO) cluster sampling method. A total of 428 children were included. Mothers/caretakers of under-five children were interviewed using pre-tested structured questionnaire prepared for this purpose. The nutritional status of the children was assessed using an anthropometric method and analyzed using WHO Anthro software. A multivariate logistic analysis model was used to determine predictors of malaria.

Results: Four hundred twenty eight under-five children comprising 107 cases and 321 controls were included in this study. Prevalence of wasting was higher among cases (17.8 %) than the controls (9.3 %). Similarly, the prevalence of stunting was 50.5 % and 45.2 % among cases and controls, respectively. Severe wasting [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) =2.9, 95 % CI (1.14, 7.61)] and caretakers who had no education [AOR = 3, 95 % CI (1.27, 7.10)] were independently associated with malarial attack among under-five children.

Conclusion: Children who were severely wasted and had uneducated caretakers had higher odds of malarial attack. Therefore, special attention should be given for severely wasted children in the prevention and control of malaria.




Self-reported acute pesticide intoxications in Ethiopia

21 Nov 2016 03:57:51 GMT

Background. Pesticide exposure is an important public health concern in Ethiopia, but there is limited information on pesticide intoxications. Residents may have an increased risk of pesticide exposure through proximity of their homes to farms using pesticides. Also the pesticide exposure might be related to employment at these farms. This study investigated the prevalence of acute pesticide intoxications (API) by residence proximity to a nearby flower farm and assessed if intoxications were related to working in these farms or not.

Methods. A cross-sectional survey involving 516 persons was conducted. Participants were grouped according to their residence proximity from a large flower farm; living within 5 kilometers and 5–12 kilometers away, respectively. In a structured interview, participants were asked if they had health symptoms within 48 h of pesticide exposure in the past year. Those who had experienced this, and reported two or more typical pesticide intoxication symptoms, were considered as having had API. Chi-square and independent t-tests were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Confounding variables were adjusted by using binomial regression model.

Results. The prevalence of API in the past year among the residents in the study area was 26 %, and it was higher in the population living close to the flower farm (42 %) compared to those living far away (11 %), prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.2, 95 % CI: 2.2-4.8, adjusted for age, gender & education. A subgroup living close to the farm & working there had significantly more API (56 %) than those living close & didn’t work there (16 %), adjusted PR = 3.0, 95 % CI: 1.8-4.9. Flower farm workers reported more API (56 %) than those not working in the flower farm (13 %,), adjusted PR = 4.0, 95 % CI: 2.9-5.6.

Conclusion. Our study indicates a 26 % prevalence of self-reported symptoms attributable to API. The residents living closer than 5 kilometers to the flower farm reported significantly higher prevalence of self-reported API than those living 5–12 kilometers away. This increased risk of API was associated with work at the flower farm.




Spatial variations in child undernutrition in Ethiopia: Implications for intervention strategies (PhD theses)

21 Nov 2016 03:37:10 GMT

Background: Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, with rates of stunting and underweight as high as 40% and 25%, respectively. National efforts are underway for an accelerated reduction of undernutrition by the year 2030. However, for this to occur, understanding the spatial variations in the distribution of undernutrition on a varying geographic scale, and its determinants will contribute a quite a bit to enhance planning and implementing nutrition intervention programmes.Objectives: The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the large- and small-scale spatial variations in the distribution of undernutrition indicators, the underlying processes and the factors responsible for the observed spatial variations.Methods: We used nationally available climate and undernutrition data to evaluate the macro-scale spatial pattern of undernutrition and its determinants. We applied a panel study design, and evaluated the effect of growing seasonal rainfall and temperature variability on the macro-scale spatial variations (Paper I). We conducted a repeated cross- sectional survey to assess the performance of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) developed internationally to measure household food insecurity. The results from this validation work were used to modify the HFIAS items for subsequent papers (Papers III and IV). We conducted a census on six randomly selected kebeles to evaluate the spatial patterns of undernutrition on a smaller scale (Paper III). For Paper IV, we conducted a cross-sectional survey on a representative sample, and employed a Bayesian geo-statistical model to help identify the risk factors for stunting, thereby accounting for the spatial structure (spatial dependency) of the data.Results: In Paper I, we demonstrated spatial variations in the distribution of stunting across administrative zones in the country, which could be explained in part by rainfall. However, the models poorly explained the variation in stunting within an administrative zone during the study period. We indicated that a single model for all agro-ecologic zones may not be appropriate. In Paper II, we showed that the internal consistency of the HFIAS' tools, as measured by Cronbach's alpha, was adequate. We observed a lack of reproducibility in HFIAS score among rural households. Therefore, we modified the HFAIS tool, and used it for subsequent surveys in this thesis (Papers III and IV). In Paper III, spatial clustering on a smaller scale (within a kebele) was found for wasting and severe wasting. Spatial clustering on a higher scale (inter-kebele) was found for stunting and severe stunting. Children found within the identified cluster were 1.5 times more at risk of stunting, and nearly five times more at risk of wasting, than children residing outside this cluster. In Paper IV, we found a significant spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of stunting in the district. Using both the local Anselin Moran's I (LISA) and the scan statistics, we identified statistically significant clusters of high value (hotspots) and a most likely significant cluster for stunting in the eastern part of the district. We found that the risk of stunting was higher among boys, children whose mother or guardian had no education and children who lived in a food-insecure household. We showed that including a spatial component (spatial structure of the data) into the Bayesian[...]



Mozambique: evaluation portrait

18 Nov 2016 04:54:47 GMT

"Evaluation Portraits" give short summaries of documents used as background for NORAD's series of "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB). Each CEB is accompanied with an Evaluation Portrait which may later be updated with new links to relevant evaluations.




Mozambique

18 Nov 2016 04:50:14 GMT

This brief on Mozambique is part of a report series from the Evaluation Department – "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB) – collecting and summarising existing evaluation findings from selected Norwegian focus countries. The purpose is to make relevant, systematically collected and collated knowledge about these countries easily accessible for people that work with these countries and other interested readers.

In the reference list there are direct links to the underlying evaluation reports and other relevant documents. In the additional document, "Evaluation Portraits", there are also short summaries of the documents. This compilation may later be updated with new evaluations.

This brief is part of the first round (the pilot phase) focusing on South Sudan, Afghanistan and Mozambique. These were presented at a seminar in Norad on Wednesday, 16 November 2016.

The CEBs were written by the Chr. Michelsen Institute upon a commission by the Evaluation Department.




South Sudan: evaluation portrait

18 Nov 2016 04:44:32 GMT

"Evaluation Portraits" give short summaries of documents used as background for NORAD's series of "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB). Each CEB is accompanied with an Evaluation Portrait which may later be updated with new links to relevant evaluations.




South Sudan

18 Nov 2016 04:38:57 GMT

This brief on South Sudan is part of a report series from the Evaluation Department – "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB) – collecting and summarising existing evaluation findings from selected Norwegian focus countries. The purpose is to make relevant, systematically collected and collated knowledge about these countries easily accessible for people that work with these countries and other interested readers.

In the reference list there are direct links to the underlying evaluation reports and other relevant documents. In the additional document, "Evaluation Portraits", there are also short summaries of the documents. This compilation may later be updated with new evaluations.

This brief is part of the first round (the pilot phase) focusing on South Sudan, Afghanistan and Mozambique. These were presented at a seminar in Norad on Wednesday, 16 November 2016.

The CEBs were written by the Chr. Michelsen Institute upon a commission by the Evaluation Department.




Afghanistan: evaluation portrait

18 Nov 2016 04:32:32 GMT

"Evaluation Portraits" give short summaries of documents used as background for NORAD's series of "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB). Each CEB is accompanied with an Evaluation Portrait which may later be updated with new links to relevant evaluations.




Afghanistan

18 Nov 2016 04:20:47 GMT

This brief on Afghanistan is part of a report series from the Evaluation Department – "Country Evaluation Briefs" (CEB) – collecting and summarising existing evaluation findings from selected Norwegian focus countries. The purpose is to make relevant, systematically collected and collated knowledge about these countries easily accessible for people that work with these countries and other interested readers.

In the reference list there are direct links to the underlying evaluation reports and other relevant documents. In the additional document, "Evaluation Portraits", there are also short summaries of the documents. This compilation may later be updated with new evaluations.

This brief is part of the first round (the pilot phase) focusing on South Sudan, Afghanistan and Mozambique. These were presented at a seminar in Norad on Wednesday, 16 November 2016.

The CEBs were written by the Chr. Michelsen Institute upon a commission by the Evaluation Department.




Mid term review of the INP Agreement Moz-0032 Moz-14/00001. Strengthening of the oil and gas sector in Mozambique

15 Nov 2016 03:39:18 GMT

INTRODUCTION
The INP Agreement MOZ-0032 MOZ-14/0000 (May 1st, 2014 to April 30th, 2018) is an institutional cooperation agreement between the Instituto Nacional de Petróleo (INP) in Mozambique and the Ministry of Petroleum in Norway implemented through the Norwegian National Petroleum Directorate (NPD).     Designed with a budget of NOK 50,460,000, its aim is to contribute to the “economically, environmentally and socially responsible management of petroleum resources in Mozambique”.
This report summarizes the findings from the Mid-Term Review (MTR) carried out by Community Wisdom Partners (CWP) in mid 2016, based on a review of relevant documentation and over 40 in-depth interviews.  The aim of the MTR was to verify the degree of progress made in planned activities, to assess results achieved to date, and to recommend any changes or measures to maximize opportunities for the second half of the programme.

FINDINGS
The MTR revealed positive results.  The INP Agreement was designed to meet the most pressing needs of Mozambique ́s petroleum sector regulatory environment.  It has successfully responded and adapted to current and emerging sector needs. The largest single deviance from plans has been the justified decision to dedicate more time and funds to legal advisory services than initially anticipated, at the expense of other areas.
There is no doubting the impact of the project in terms of building INP capacity.  The development of the INP as regulator and gatekeeper of legislation around petroleum in Mozambique has increased greatly since the start of the INP Agreement, an achievement which is in large part attributable to Norway ́s support.  The country’s great success in O&G over the last five years has been in making itself an attractive investment destination for O&G industry majors with the capital resources and technical skills to lead projects through to production in a socially and environmentally responsible way.
By the end of 2015, the programme had disbursed 56% of core programme funds; and current funding is expected to be exhausted by the end of 2016, with additional funds required for the programme to achieve its goals by the end of the established period.
It is recommended that minor programmatic adjustments be made in the final two years of operations.  It is also clear that support will be needed beyond 2018 to address the underlying imbalances in experience, capacity and money – and thus power - between INP and major O&G companies, and build a robust regulatory system and institutions in line with a fast developing oil sector.  These are essential pillars for Mozambique to work towards economically, environmentally and socially responsible management of petroleum resources.




How pro-poor are land rental markets in Ethiopia?

15 Nov 2016 03:21:16 GMT

Land rental markets can potentially improve the access to land for land-poor households that possess complementary resources that can enable them to utilize land efficiently. Land rental markets can also enable landowners who are poor in non-land resources to rent out their land such that their land is utilized more efficiently and they themselves can get a better income and improved welfare from their land resource. This report assesses the land rental market that is dominated by a reverse tenancy system with relatively poorer landlords and less poor tenants. This market has largely developed informally in Ethiopia but has also been shaped by the changing land policies. We assess how pro-poor it is and whether interventions potentially can make it even more pro-poor and welfare enhancing or whether a “hands off” policy is preferable. If we can detect a significant market failure, there is room for intervention. However, there are also a number of current interventions in the market. We assess whether these achieve the intended outcomes or rather should be lifted or modified.

Population growth, economic growth, and structural transformation in agriculture may change the role of land from being the most important safety net and livelihood opportunity to become an important resource for agricultural transformation and development. The non-farm sector in Ethiopia has grown rapidly in recent years and provides new employment opportunities and this reduces the pressure on land as the only and main source of livelihood.

Our study of land rental markets in Ethiopia covers communities in Tigray, Oromia and SNNP regions focuses particularly on the period 2006 to 2012, but draws on data and research that goes back to 1998 in Tigray and utilizes information from landlords and tenants and other rural households with male and female representatives, local Land Administrative Committee (LAC) members and local conflict mediators with long experience in handling local land disputes.

In this report, we review the relevant literature and fill important gaps in this literature. These gaps include a) the stated reasons of landlords and tenants for partner choice and contract choice in the land rental market and their attitudes and preferences regarding regulation and formalization of land rental contracts; b) we investigate land access of youth in the land rental market; c) we assesses how joint certification of husbands and wives has affected participation in the land rental market; and d) how increasing population pressure and land scarcity affects land access and the land rental market over time.




Street based self-employment: a poverty trap or a stepping stone for migrant youth in Africa?

15 Nov 2016 02:57:16 GMT

A significant percentage of youth in urban Africa is employed in the informal sector. The informal sector is more accessible than the formal sector for people with low human andfinancial capital, such as youth migrants from rural areas. But the sector is also generally considered to provide a subsistence livelihood. This study examines whether street based selfemployment in Africa offer a stepping stone towards a better livelihood or an urban poverty trap for youth migrants. The analysis is based on data from a survey of 445 street vendors in two urban areas in Ethiopia. We found that street based self-employment is indeed dominated by migrant youth; 96% of those engaged in the street based self-employment are youth and 98% are migrants from rural areas or smaller towns. Our analysis suggests that street based selfemployment can offer a viable transitional employment for migrant youth. We found that the average monthly earning of these self-employed youth is better than the minimum wage in the public sector and much higher than the official poverty line. We found that most of the youth consider this as a transitional employment and accumulate skill and capital with a view to establishing their own enterprise or accessing skilled employment. Young women are less likely than young men to seek exit out of street based self-employment but education increases their aspiration. Youth with better-off parents back home and those with larger network in their new residence are more likely to change their current occupation. The main risk for the livelihood of youth in this type of employment is lack of legal recognition to their activities and work place, which manifest itself in the form of arbitrary eviction and displacement from their work place.




Youth as environmental custodians: a potential tragedy or a sustainable business and livelihood model?

15 Nov 2016 02:42:05 GMT

Youth unemployment and migration is a growing challenge that needs more political attention in many countries in the world, particularly countries with rapid population growth and economic transformation. Proactively mobilizing the youth as a resource in the creation of sustainable livelihoods can potentially be a win-win-win solution that Ethiopia is currently attempting with its new youth employment strategy and high ambitions to transform the country’s economy into a Green Economy. If it succeeds, it can set an example for other countries in the world to follow. This paper gives and overview of the youth program and the basic ideas and challenges.




Investments in sustainable development: a comparative study on how the Nordic development finance institutions work with development impact in context of the Sustainable Development Goals

09 Nov 2016 12:25:36 GMT

The four Nordic donor countries : Finland, Norway, Sweden and Denmark, all have a long history in the international landscape of development cooperation. In their official development aid (ODA), all four countries have an implemented focus on investing in business- and private sector development and therefore allocate funds to support market development, sustainable business, employment opportunities, financial systems and increasing the tax base in developing countries.

The allocated funds are managed and invested by the individual countries'€™ Development Finance Institutions (DFIs ): Finnfund in Finland, Norfund in Norway, Swedfund in Sweden and IFU in Denmark. The DFIs play a decisive role by providing high risk loans, equity and guarantees to private sector investments in developing countries and emerging markets.

In recent years, and most notably by the 2015 adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on financing for development, the convergence between human rights, labour standards and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) has been recognised by the international community, thus setting forth a global reliance on the private sector to contribute to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda. A particular focus has been put on establishing the private sector as a active partner in eradicating extreme poverty by placing emphasis on private sector investments in supporting and creating inclusive growth and sustainable development. In the light of these international developments, the role of DFIs has been considered to be particularly important by governments to bridge traditional development aid with private investments in developing countries.

The DFIs overall objective to contribute to sustainable development, place them as an important vehicle for change. Their significant responsibility towards implementing solid policies, procedures and monitoring systems in their investments are identified as key in supporting sustainable development in the countries in which they engage. It is therefore important to continuously measure and monitor the actual long term development impact and short term effect of their investments in order to establish transparency on results. Consequently, the need for DFIs to document the actual development impacts of their investments has been further solidified.

On this backdrop and with considerations given to the general level of increased engagement by Nordic DFIs ten Nordic NGOs have commissioned this study. The study will look into the role of Nordic DFIs in development cooperation, highlight trends and developments through comparison of similarities and differences in practices and propose recommendations on how to improve their work with and reporting on development impact in the light of the 2030 Agenda.




Whose waters? Large-scale agricultural development and water grabbing in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania

08 Nov 2016 07:41:18 GMT

In Tanzania like in other parts of the global South, in the name of 'development' and 'poverty eradication' vast tracts of land have been earmarked by the government to be developed by investors for different commercial agricultural projects, giving rise to the contested land grab phenomenon. In parallel, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM ) has been promoted in the country and globally as the governance framework that seeks to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner. This article asks how IWRM manages the competing interests as well as the diverse priorities of both large and small water users in the midst of foreign direct investment. By focusing on two commercial sugar companies operating in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania and their impacts on the water and land rights of the surrounding villages, the article asks whether institutional and capacity weaknesses around IWRM implementation can be exploited by powerful actors that seek to meet their own interests, thus allowing water grabbing to take place. The paper thus highlights the power, interests and alliances of the various actors involved in the governance of water resources. By drawing on recent conceptual insights from the water grabbing literature, the empirical findings suggest that the IWRM framework indirectly and directly facilitates the phenomenon of water grabbing to take place in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania.




Links between tenure security and food security in poor agrarian economies: causal linkages and policy implications

08 Nov 2016 04:49:26 GMT

Population growth leads to growing land scarcity and landlessness in poor agrarian economies. Many of these also face severe climate risks that may increase in the future. Tenure security is important for food security in such countries and at the same time threatened by social instability that further accelerate rural-urban and international migration. Provision of secure property rights with low-cost methods that create investment incentives can lead to land use intensification and improved food security. Pro-active policies that engage youth in establishment of sustainable livelihoods hold promise. Social and political stability are essential for tenure security and food security.




Reflections on the formulation and implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management in Southern and Eastern Africa from a gender perspective

08 Nov 2016 04:33:05 GMT

While it is claimed that the founding principles of integrated water resources management are the Dublin Principles this does not appear to be the case for Principle No. 3, which underlines the importance of women in water provision, management and safeguarding. Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe are members of SADC and have signed the SADC Protocol on Women and other international human rights instruments. However, we do not see an incorporation of these instruments and other empowerment frameworks into water policies. We find that Principle No. 3 has been sidelined in the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Manageme nt (IWRM). In examining the gender practices in these four nations of Africa, gender equality remains distant from the concerns of the water sector. We enumerate many of the commonalities among these countries in how they are marginalising women'€™s access to, and use of, water.




The 'Trickle Down' of Integrated Water Resources Management: a case study of local-level realities in the Inkomati Water Management Area, South Africa

07 Nov 2016 08:10:45 GMT

The  historical  legacy  in  South  Africa  of  apartheid  and  the  resulting  discriminatory  policies  and  power imbalances  are  critical  to  understanding  how  water  is  managed  and  allocated,  and how  people  participate  in designated  water  governance  structures.  The  progressive  post-apartheid  National  Water  Act  (NWA)  is  the principal  legal  instrument  related  to  water  governance  which  has  broadly  embraced  the  principles  of  Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). This translation of IWRM into the South African context and, in particular, the integration of institutions related to land and water have faced many challenges due to the political nature of water and land reforms, and the tendency of governmental departments to work in silos. The paper explores the dynamics surrounding the implementation of IWRM in the Inkomati Water Management Area, and the degree of integration between the  parallel  land  and  water  reform  processes.  It  also  looks  at  what  these reforms mean  to black farmers’ access to water for their sugar cane crops at  the  regional  (basin)  and  local  levels.  The  empirical material  highlights  the  discrepancies  between  a  progressive  IWRM-influenced  policy  on  paper  and  the  actual realities  on  the  ground. The  paper  argues  that  the  decentralisation  and  integration  aspects  of  IWRM  in  South Africa  have  somewhat  failed  to  take  off  in  the  country  and  what 'integrated' actually  entails  is  unclear. Furthermore,  efforts  to  implement  the  NWA  and  IWRM  in  South  Africa  have  been  fraught  with  challenges  in practice, because the progressive policy did not fully recognise the complex historical context, and the underlying inequalities in knowledge, power and resource access.




Land, farming and Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM): a case study of the Middle Manyame Sub-Catchment

07 Nov 2016 06:53:11 GMT

Zimbabwe's water reforms that were undertaken in the 1990s were meant to redress the colonially inherited inequalities to agricultural water, increase water security against frequent droughts, improve water management, and realise sustainable financing of the water sector. They were underpinned by the 1998 Water and Zimbabwe National Water Authority Acts, which were based on Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) principles. This article describes how IWRM has been implemented against a backdrop of an ever - ev olving land reform programme and a struggling agriculture sector. We examine how water is accessed and used in and around three water sources in the Middle Manyame Sub-Catchment, one of the seven sub-catchments of the Manyame Catchment. The Sub-Catchment is of particular significance because there was significant agricultural production on white-owned large-scale farmers, which have now been extensively allocated to small black farmers. The study demonstrated that while the land reform has, in theory, broad ened access to water, irrigation water usage has remained low because of a depressed agriculture sector, shortage and high costs of electricity, and lack of capital needed to restore damaged or stolen irrigation equipment. The findings indicate that the as sumption of a self-financing water sector, based on a well-functioning agriculture sector, which is the largest water user, has not been realised, and this has negatively affected implementation of IWRM in the Middle Manyame area and in Zimbabwe in general.




The Complex Politics of Water and Power in Zimbabwe: IWRM in the Catchment Councils of Manyame, Mazowe and Sanyati (1993-2001) - file

07 Nov 2016 06:30:05 GMT

In the mid - nineties Zimbabwe formed participatory institutions known as catchment a nd sub - catchment councils based on river basins to govern and manage its waters. These councils were initially funded by a range of donors anticipating that they could become self - funding over time through the sale of water. In this article, we explore the origins of three of the councils and the political context in which they functioned. The internal politics were shaped by the commercial farming elites who sought to control the councils with a ' defensive strategy ' to keep control over water. However, ext ernal national political processes limited the possibilities for continued elite control while simultaneously limiting water reform. Despite significant efforts to alter the waterscape, fast track land reform which began in 2000 led to the undermining of t he first phases of IWRM and water reform and to the privileging of land over water. The economic foundations for funding the new participatory institutions were lost through the withdrawal of donors, the loss of large - scale farmers able to pay for water an d the economic and political crises that characterised the period from 2000 to 2010.




Surges and ebbs: national politics and international influence in the formulation and implementation of IWRM in Zimbabwe

07 Nov 2016 06:20:18 GMT

In  the  1990s, the  Government  of  Zimbabwe  undertook  water  reforms  to  redress  racially  defined inequitable access to agricultural water. This paper analyses how a water reform process, seemingly informed by a clear political economy objective, was hijacked by efforts directed at implementing Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). It uses the notion of policy articulation to analyse why and how IWRM 'travelled' to and in Zimbabwe  and  with  what  outcomes. The  paper  shows  that  attempts  at  introducing  and  implementing  IWRM  in Zimbabwe  have  had  a  chequered  history. The  efforts  of  Zimbabwe  in  pioneering  implementation  of  IWRM  in southern  Africa,  have  subsequently  waned,  and  prospects  for  resurrecting  IWRM  in  its  original  form  are  low. Introduced in the 1990s when Western donors jumped on the bandwagon of the liberal economic agenda inspired by the IMF/World Bank, it declined between 2000 and 2009 due to a combination of poor economic performance, national-level politics and international isolation. In 2011 IWRM was reintroduced as the country re-engaged with the international community. The re-emergence of IWRM, however, seems to be largely rhetorical as the focus is now  on  fixing  a  crisis-ridden  water  sector,  with  a  new  political  dispensation  adding  another  layer  of  complexity. The  paper  concludes  that  the  development  of  IWRM  in  Zimbabwe  mirrors  broader  national-level  socio-political processes and their complex relationship with the international community.




Unsettling business: social consequences of the Bujagali hydropower project

07 Nov 2016 05:27:59 GMT

The Bujagali hydropower dam on The River Nile in Uganda was fi nally commissioned in August 2012 after eighteen years of controversy that delayed the dam construction.  The dam faced numerous economic, environmental, social and spiritual challenges that stalled the dam construction while the project underwent investigations over bribery claims and project reviews on the dam design and capacity. The dam cost kept on growing from $580 million at inception to $860 million and finally $902 million ($3.6million per MW) at completion.  Independent investigations by the Ugandan Parliamentary adhoc committee on energy put the dam’s actual cost at $1.3 billion ($5.2million per MW or more).The dam project was marketed by The Government of Uganda and the World Bank as the least-cost project. Two different hydropower companies - AES Nile Power and Bujagali Energy Limited – feature in the development of the Bujagali hydropower dam in Uganda. The project was undertaken as a Public Private Partnership between the Government of Uganda and International Financial Corporation (IFCs), the World Bank Group, European Investment Bank, African Development Bank in collaboration with dam construction companies- Industrial Promotions Services (IPS), a holding company of the Aga Khan and Sithe Global Power. The project partners, IPS, Sithe Global Power and the government set up a new company- Bujagali Energy Ltd (BEL) to operate and run the project.The Bujagali hydropower dam development was marred with controversies that saw the dam take over 18 years to complete. The dam project was investigated four times, twice by the Inspection Panel of The World Bank, by The African Development Bank’s Independent Review Mechanism (IRM),  and by The European Investment Bank’s Compliance Review. A long range of cases have also been opened by the IFCs Compliance Advisor Ombudsman. Citizens groups in Uganda like the National Association of Professional Environmentalists (NAPE), Save Bujagali Crusade, and other international groups like International Rivers Network (IR), and Counter Balance played an important role in raising the potential social, economic and environmental impacts of the project in the public domain and prompted the lenders to investigate and consider policy adherence.The project financiers – the World Bank (WB), African Development Bank (AfDB), and the European Development Bank (EDB) – investigated the project and found the project to have violated several of their bank policies. The banks wrote reports on their findings and made recommendations, whose implementation would be the basis for the project to receive fi nancial support. The banks, however, went ahead and funded the project ignoring the concerns raised about the project. The Government of Uganda signed an agreement with IPS and BEL to construct the project in 2007 before Parliament approved the government[...]



Emergence, interpretations and translations of IWRM in South Africa

04 Nov 2016 07:29:43 GMT

South  Africa is  often  regarded  to  be  at  the  forefront  of  water  reform,  based  on  Integrated  Water Resources Management (IWRM) ideas. This paper explores how the idea of IWRM emerged in South Africa, its key debates and interpretations and how it has been translated. It maps out the history, main events, key people, and implementation  efforts  through  a  combination  of  reviews  of  available  documents  and  in-depth  semi-structured interviews  with  key  actors.  While  South  Africa  sought  to  draw  on  experiences  from  abroad  when  drawing  up  its new  legislation  towards  the  end  of  the  1990s,  the  seeds  of  IWRM  were  already  present  since  the  1970s.  What emerges is a picture of multiple efforts to get IWRM to 'work' in the South African context, but these efforts failed to  take  sufficient account  of  the  South  African  history  of  deep  structural  inequalities,  the  legacy  of  the  hydraulic mission, and the slowness of water reallocation to redress past injustices. The emphasis on institutional structures being  aligned  with  hydrological  boundaries  has  formed  a  major  part  of  how  IWRM  has  been  interpreted  and conceptualised,  and  it  has  turned  out  to  become  a  protracted  power  struggle  reflecting  the  tensions  between centralised and decentralised management.




Introduction to the special Issue: Flows and practices: the politics of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in Southern Africa

03 Nov 2016 03:20:45 GMT

For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors  who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global  water management problems. IWRM  has  been  incorporated  into  water  laws,  reforms  and  policies  of  southern  African  nations.  This  article introduces the special issue 'Flows and Practices: The Politics of IWRM in southern Africa'. It provides a conceptual framework  to  study:  the  flow  of  IWRM  as  an  idea;  its  translation  and  articulation  into  new  policies,  institutions andallocation  mechanisms,  and  the  resulting  practices  and  effects  across  multiple  scales – global,  regional, national and local. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa,  Zimbabwe,  Mozambique,  Tanzania  and  Uganda  form  the  core  of  this  special  issue.  We  demonstrate  how Africa  has  been  a  laboratory  for  IWRM  experiments,  while  donors  as  well  as  a  new  cadre  of  water  professionals and  students  have  made  IWRM  their  mission.  The  case  studies  reveal  that  IWRM  may  have  resulted  in  an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women’s and men’s access to water. The newly  created  institutional  arrangements tended  to centralise  the  power  and  control  of  the  State  and  powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.




Violence against women in the context of urban poverty in Angola

02 Nov 2016 02:13:25 GMT

Violence against women is widespread in Angola. This brief presents the main findings in a recent study of how violence against women is playing out in the context of urban poverty. Faced with day-to-day challenges for survival and social reproduction, women rank violence relatively low in their problem hierarchy. Victims of violence have very few venues for seeking help and support. Cultural norms and the country’s political history seem to “normalize” violence, perpetuating low social awareness about the issue.

This CMI/CEIC Brief emerges from the joint CEIC and CMI research project “Cooperation on Research and Development in Angola”, and is based on qualitative research in two urban poor neighbourhoods (locally known as musseques) in the city capital of Luanda, conducted in February 2016.




Petro-governance in Tanzania: opportunities and challenges

02 Nov 2016 02:01:53 GMT

Recent significant natural gas discoveries have pushed Tanzania into the international spotlight as a new petroleum producer. How can the country ensure that its newfound wealth is translated into economic development? Much depend on the way in which the petroleum resources are governed by the country’s new petroleum legislative framework. In this brief, we review the most important provisions of the new legislative framework, and argue that gaps and conflicts within and across laws must be resolved to ensure that Tanzania’s petroleum riches become a blessing rather than a curse.




The women’s rights champion. Tunisia’s potential for furthering women’s rights.

02 Nov 2016 01:33:07 GMT

Tunisia is a country in the midst of its post-revolutionary transition, and the status and legal position of women since the 2011 “Jasmine Revolution” is central to this transition. This report addresses the prospects for women-friendly family law reform in Tunisia in the aftermath of the 2011 evolution, with a particular focus on the potential impact of the 2014 Tunisian constitution.In the area of women’s rights, the constitution sets forth a principle of equality that is a departure from the currently applicable family law – the Code du Statut Personnel of 1956 (CSP). A particularly stark example is the case of inheritance law: under the CSP women are only due to inherit one-half the share due to a man, but article 21 of the new constitution states, “All citizens, male and female, have equal rights and duties, and are equal before the law without any discrimination.” Although Tunisia lifted all special reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) after the revolution, it has yet to revise domestic laws to conform to the principle of equality for all citizens that is mandated by the new constitution.Another central issue in implementing the constitution is the ambiguous nature of the constitutional text itself, which specifies that international treaties are superior to domestic law, but does not specify what weight should be given to sharia law vis-à-vis international treaties. The yet-to-be-established constitutional court will have to settle this ambiguity as well as conflicts between the constitution itself and currently applicable family law. During interviews conducted as part of the fieldwork for this report, activists, politicians, and legal professionals mentioned how Tunisia is facing an “identity crisis.” This report considers this perspective and attempts to make sense of the constitution’s ambiguities. As such, this report does not conclude how the constitutional implementation process will play out, but does shed light on the on-going process and how legal professionals, politicians and activists in Tunisia view the possibilities for change.The report also analyses the history of women’s status in Tunisia. Although Tunisia is often viewed as a secular country, Islam plays an important role both as the basis of the country’s national identity and also as the source of legal thought and the legal framework. In fact, some people interviewed in preparation of this report consider the Tunisian school of Islamic thought to be central to the liberal gender project in Tunisia. The legacy of former president Habib Bourguiba is central to the development of a post-independence state in which women have revolutionary rights (such as the right to vote,[...]



Flows and practices: The politics of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) in southern Africa

01 Nov 2016 05:14:41 GMT

For the past two decades, IWRM has been actively promoted by water experts as well as multilateral and bilateral donors  who have considered it to be a crucial way to address global  water management problems. IWRM  has  been  incorporated  into  water  laws,  reforms  and  policies  of  southern  African  nations.  This  is a special issue 'Flows and Practices: The Politics of IWRM in southern Africa' of the journal Water Alternatives. The empirical findings of the complexities of articulation and implementation of IWRM in South Africa,  Zimbabwe,  Mozambique,  Tanzania  and  Uganda  form  the  core  of  this  special  issue.  We  demonstrate  how Africa  has  been  a  laboratory  for  IWRM  experiments,  while  donors  as  well  as  a  new  cadre  of  water  professionals and  students  have  made  IWRM  their  mission.  The  case  studies  reveal  that  IWRM  may  have  resulted  in  an unwarranted policy focus on managing water instead of enlarging poor women’s and men’s access to water. The newly created  institutional  arrangements tended  to centralise  the  power  and  control  of  the  State  and  powerful users over water and failed to address historically rooted inequalities.