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Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa: ALP results, outcomes and impacts report, January 2010 to June 2015

31 Aug 2016 11:42:49 GMT

This report presents an overview of the outcomes and learning generated from the Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP) over five and a half years of implementation (2010-2015). It presents the perspectives of the ALP teams and CARE International, as the implementers of the programme. Many actors and stakeholders have taken part in the implementation and learning process, including local and national government institutions, research and civil society partners, and various parts of CARE International.The challenges facing poor and marginalised communities in Africa are multiple and complex. Already prone to erratic rainfall, droughts, floods and cyclones, climate change is increasing the frequency and intensity of these climatic hazards, resulting in significant impacts on livelihoods and affecting the drivers of poverty. Heavy reliance on the natural resource base means rural livelihoods in Africa are more sensitive to climate. These impacts add to the continent’s existing development challenges concerning food and income security, poverty, disease, environmental degradation, and inequitable rights, with the greatest impact being on women and marginalized groups. Poor rural women, in particular, are often the most vulnerable and the least included in decision-making, yet their voices and their different knowledge and capacity are vital for effective adaptation. Increasing the capacity of vulnerable people in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to the impacts of climate variability and change is essential for sustaining development progress and future economic growth. This is ALP's overall desired goal.CARE International launched the Adaptation Learning Programme in 2010, implemented in Ghana, Niger, Mozambique and Kenya, in partnership with local civil society and government institutions. The programme seeks to identify successful approaches to  Community-Based Adaptation (CBA) through working directly with vulnerable communities as well as learning with other organisations practising CBA, and supporting incorporation of these approaches into development policies and programmes in the four countries and their regions in Africa. Key CBA messagesbuilding climate resilience requires a coordinated approach which goes beyond stand-alone adaptation actions to integrate adaptation into local and national development planning, disaster risk reduction and early warning systems, ecosystem management and sustainable developmentempowering vulnerable communities to play a central role in the planning and decision making processes affecting their lives will be more successful than pre-determining solutionsadaptive capacity is central to building resilience and involves developing processes and capacities which enable continued response to a changing and uncertain climate over timedifferential vulnerability and capacity of different groups and individuals to respond to the impacts of climate change, along with their valuable knowledge, must be taken into account when developing responsesinformation from climate science and the ability to understand and work with uncertainty is an essential resource to assist decision making for adaptation and resiliencea multi-level, cross-sectoral approach involving a range of different stakeholders is necessary to develop adaptive capacity and build long term resiliencecommunity based adaptation depends upon but also adds new dimensions to good development practice, ensuring that interventions are decided and designed based on understanding current and future impacts of climate change and ensuring resilient development outcomesCBA is a cost effective approach to developing adaptive capacity and building resilience; the social, economic and environmental benefits outweigh the costs of implementation in virtually all scenarios  [...]

The East African energy frontier, a decade on

12 Aug 2016 11:07:29 GMT

The East Africa region has seen some of the decade’ s largest natural gas and energy finds. However, despite their magnitude, these discoveries have yet to fulfil the promise of social and economic progress. With some signs of the negative impact of resource wealth already in evidence, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique all require changes to their natural resources policies to ensure that revenues are shared and invested in the future. Underpinning this is the need for governments to improve transparency, allowing local institutions to hold the government and other stakeholders accountable. Without such steps, the full potential of these finds is set to go unrealised.
The past decade’s energy finds created great promise for Eastern Africa. Yet questions remain about whether these finds will be a burden or blessing. With the downturn in global energy markets and production dates being repeatedly postponed, any potential benefits are subject to the uncertainties and political volatilities that have come to characterise the region. However, it is not too late for these countries to use their assets wisely. A real commitment to accountability and the channelling of revenues towards development objectives is needed, as well as the necessary freedoms for local institutions to monitor the sector and hold government and other stakeholders to account. Now, while prices are low, is a good opportunity for states to get their institutional houses in order. With the effective infrastructure in place, as well as co-operation between states and profits being invested in their future, these finds can in time contribute to the development of the region.

The Mozambique Development Programme, 2012-15, of Norwegian People's aid: final evaluation

12 Aug 2016 05:28:37 GMT

BackgroundThe NPA programme in Mozambique, with funding from Norad supports civil society organization engaged on issues related to Natural Resource Management , and in particular on redistribution of resources and land conflicts.The main NPA partners are UNAC (Uniao Nacional de Camponeses) and ORAM (Organisacao de Ajuda Mutua) and some of their Provincial Delegations and Chapters.The NPA support covers, between the Maputo and the Provinces, a wide range of the activities of UNAC and ORAM: from Organisation Development, to gender policy, to technical and political activities around land and resource conflicts, to technical support to agriculture activities of UNAC members. The evaluation shall cover the whole cooperation agreement from 2012 to 2015Purpose/objectiveTo evaluate the results achieved by the Programme, and in particular:Results in comparison with the expected results of the NPA-Mozambique Multi-Year PlanResponsiveness of the partners to the support provided by NPARelevance of the Programme to the current context in MozambiqueRelevance of the Partners to the current context in MozambiqueNPA value added to the partners in addition to financial support in comparison to allocated resources.Need for re-alignment between the NORAD and the Embassy ProgrammesMethodology The study has applied the following principles:Centrality of partners’ plans and activities. The NPA inputs have been evaluated according to the added value and the support provided by NPA to the Partners’ objectives, activities, and results.Information has been collected from all stakeholders: NPA HQ, NPA Mozambique Office, Partners, and from Partners’ other counterparts (e.g. INGOs). Information has been collected through three main methods:a) Desk study of NPA and partners relevant documents (i.e. strategy, plans, reports)b) Interviews with stakeholders c) Selected field visits.Key findingsThe Mozambique Development Programme of NPA is of high relevance to the current context.UNAC and its provincial and local organisations are unique in Mozambique by representing rural, genuine and clear constituencies in terms of mass membership, internal formal democracy a fairly effective functioning. However, the representativity of UNAC has to be claimed by facts coming out of the planned membership roll in 2016. It is reason to believe that the number of members, both in terms of local associations and individual members, is much lower than what has been claimed in the reviewed documents of NPA and UNAC. Notwithstanding low quality of the baseline of the 2012-2015 program as well of its monitoring and reporting system, the programme has achieved mixed results in comparison with the plan and what could be expected.. However, the results are quite impressive regarding advocacy outcomes beyond the community-level, e.g. at national and even transnational levels.Among the partner organisations we find a very high degree of responsiveness to the support provided by NPA. NPA’s “value added” is considered to be very high among the interview persons, and the evaluator agrees. Five types of ‘value added’ is being accomplished: first, an immediate technical-advisory value, in terms of a trustful and non-imposing approach to partners; second, a political culture value; third, a multi-scale networking value; fourth, the women’s empowerment value of NPA, spearheaded by the Women-Can-Do-It activities; and finally, an advanced managerial-professional value, advocating the principles of results-based management. However, the monitoring and reporting system of the partners are very much activity-centered, opposite to results-centered. Among other issues raised, is the lack of strategy to increase the financial sustainability of the partner organizations. RecommendationsNPA’s programmes in Mozambique should continue – it should maintain the same objectives as in the 2012-2015 period and keep the same partners.The advocacy work at the community level, “to m[...]

Becoming a climate-resilient green economy: planning for climate compatible development in Ethiopia

08 Aug 2016 03:22:19 GMT

Ethiopia has emerged as one of Africa’s champions in responding to the implications of climate change. This is demonstrated by the strong commitment shown by the country’s political leadership on the issues. Much of this commitment has been driven by the impacts of climatic events in Ethiopia, mainly the drought episodes that have hit the country since the early 1970s. These experiences have contributed to the widespread understanding that climate change can have severe consequences, and has the potential to hold back economic progress and reverse the gains made in Ethiopia’s development.
This Working Paper documents Ethiopia’s lessons from the study ‘Lesson learning from national climate compatible development planning’, which aimed to capture and share institutional experiences of climate compatible development, and provide recommendations for the future. Kenya, Mozambique and Rwanda also participated.
Conclusions and lessons learned:

Establishing a climate-resilient green economy is a nationally owned process and a priority for Ethiopia. It is being driven domestically, with substantive investments – being made from national budgets, international climate finance, and multilateral and bilateral partners. As a result, there are several large-scale initiatives underway in a range of priority sectors, which will bring about substantial climate-resilience and low-carbon benefits.

Other decision-makers and development practitioners can learn from the Ethiopian experience, which includes the following lessons:
  • financing from international climate funds should be available to countries that pursue a holistic, ambitious and nationally driven development agenda that includes climate-related goals, such as zero growth in net carbon emissions or enhancing the adaptive capacity of communities. The opportunities presented by international climate funds set the tempo for Ethiopia to realign its strategic thinking in order to attract this financing for climate compatible development
  • engagement by political champions enhances the development and implementation of the governance and institutional arrangements, strategies and frameworks needed for climate compatible development
  • robust governance and institutional structures form a strong basis for establishing effective cross-government working relations. These are important for the development and implementation of climate compatible development interventions, which are inherently cross-cutting in nature
  • collaboration between the ministries responsible for finance and the environment creates a solid platform for the coordinated implementation and mainstreaming of climate compatible development into national development plans
  • commitment, ownership, nationally driven investments and the demonstration of results on the ground are critical for unlocking additional finance to implement climate compatible development programmes and projects
  • in planning and mainstreaming climate compatible development, decision-makers should give consideration to long-term technical and institutional capacity development, particularly in terms of the ongoing need to prepare fundable project and programme proposals and subsequently to implement these

Climate resilient development: experience from an African capacity development programme

08 Aug 2016 03:11:03 GMT

This learning brief presents insights and lessons learned from a capacity development programme on water security and climate resilient development covering eight countries in Africa – Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tunisia and Zimbabwe. The programme engaged some 140 participants and 30 lecturers/mentors, and held over 50 workshops. Large investments were made in the development of learning material in three languages (English, French and Portuguese), the establishment of national management and lecturing units, and building a strong sense of programme ownership in each country.

The capacity to promote water security and integrate climate change considerations into national planning processes is still limited in most of the eight countries. However, following the implementation of this programme, much has been learned by individual participants, their home institutions, and engaged lecturers, and there are now many ongoing initiatives that promote the inclusion of climate change considerations in national development efforts. There is great scope both to extend the programme for several more rounds in the same countries, and to expand to other countries. With significant efforts already invested into the development of learning materials and training of trainers (ToT), the cost per participant will be much reduced in future new programmes.

Planning for peace: Lessons from Mozambique's peacebuilding

06 Jul 2016 02:59:28 GMT

In the more than two decades since Mozambique'€™s civil war ended and its first multiparty elections were held, the country still faces persistent social, political, economical and developmental challenges. What have been some of the main drivers and threats to Mozambique'€™s peace? this paper examines the plans and processes that have been developed in the pursuit of national stability. It also highlights current and future challenges for continued consolidation of peace. By exploring key plans to address demobilisation, disarmament and reintegration, economic and social development, decentralisation, justice, and natural resource investment, this paper puts forward seven key findings with implications for peacebuilding in Mozambique and for the field as a whole.

Participation and planning for climate change – Lessons from an experimental project in Maputo, Mozambique

04 Jul 2016 04:43:19 GMT

Mozambique is highly vulnerable to natural disasters, in particular those of hydro-meteorological origin such as floods, drought and cyclones. Increases in both temperature and average precipitation due to climate change will exacerbate the already high incidence of extreme events in Mozambique. This will contribute to the uninterrupted sequence of drought and floods that Mozambique has suffered. Since 1970, Mozambique has been hit by 34 cyclones or tropical depressions and five major flood events (in 2000, 2001, 2007, 2008 and most recently in early 2012 following tropical cyclones from the Indian Ocean coast). These events have had dramatic social and economic consequences. For example, in 2000 the most devastating floods in the history of Mozambique killed 700 people, with damages estimated at US$600 million.In the capital city of Maputo, the main hazards associated with climate change are likely to be temperature increases, extreme events related to precipitation and sea level rise. The rising sea level has already resulted in saline intrusion, which affects urban land and infrastructure. There are already noticeable coastal erosion problems, but further sea level rise will increase the risk of flooding in the lowest lying areas. The potential impacts of extreme events in Maputo are likely to be associated with the deterioration of the already precarious infrastructure system, food insecurity and an increase in vector-borne diseases.The impacts of climate change in the city of Maputo need to be understood in the context of vulnerability. Approximately 54% of Maputo City’s residents live below the poverty line of US$1.50 per day, and 70% live in informal settlements and areas of dense unregulated growth that lack basic infrastructure and services such as water, sanitation, drainage and electricity. Government authorities and expert assessments link flood vulnerability to a proliferation of unplanned human settlements during the last three decades; these areas have gradually expanded to low-lying and marshy areas characterised as having high flood risk. More than 60% of the population has limited access to services such as energy, cooking fuel and sanitation. Thus, access to services and infrastructure constitutes one of the main aspects of urban deprivation in Maputo.The capacity of the city to respond to extreme events related to climate change is limited by existing urban conditions. Not only are the impacts more severe in deprived areas, but also the residents in such areas may have fewer resources to cope with the aftermath of these disasters. Moreover, the focus on developing formal strategies for land planning may clash with informal strategies to access land and resources adopted by residents in deprived areas. The urgency of the climate change challenge may lead to policies that overlook the complexity of arrangements whereby these citizens not only survive but also contribute to and maintain the city.The project ‘Public, Private, People Partnerships for Climate Compatible Development’ (4PCCD) in Maputo, Mozambique, developed participatory planning methods to foster partnerships between actors within different sectors in order to tackle climate change through actions in specific locations in Maputo. The objective was the creation of partnerships that could integrate climate change concerns fully, while at the same time addressing directly the concerns of local residents. This background paper provides an overview of the case of Maputo, specifically the neighbourhood of Chamanculo C in which the project took place.This Learning Paper by facilitators of the 4PCCD project explores the particular, participatory approaches taken in identifying climate-related development problems and solutions in Chamanculo C. Through the process, residents pinpointed the need to address sanitation issues as a key development priority – and it was found that addr[...]

Programa Geração Biz, Mozambique: how did this adolescent health initiative grow from a pilot to a national programme, and what did it achieve?

23 Jun 2016 05:48:57 GMT

Adolescent sexual and reproductive health gained particular traction in Mozambique following the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development leading to the inception of Programa Geração Biz (PGB), a multi-sectoral initiative that was piloted starting in 1999 and fully scaled-up to all provinces by 2007.
The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature to gather information on PGB and analyzed how it planned and managed the scale-up effort using the WHO-ExpandNet framework. PGB’s activities comprised a clear and credible innovation. Appropriate resource and user organizations further facilitated national scale-up. Challenges relating to the complex nature of the multi-sectoral approach and resistance due to norms about adolescent sexual and reproductive health hindered scaling-up in some geographic areas. The national government exhibited commitment and ownership to PGB through budgetary support and integration into multiple policies.
This study adds to the documentation of successful scaling-up strategies that can provide guidance for policy makers and programme managers.
The challenge for Geracao Biz is to continue and build on its good work of providing adolescents with information, education and health services, and in addition to find ways of addressing the powerful social, economic and cultural factors that drive which decisions adolescents make, and which of their decisions they act upon.

Multisectoral responses to gender-based violence in Mozambique

23 Jun 2016 02:11:45 GMT

Gender-based violence (GBV) is both pervasive and widely accepted in Mozambique. The complex and multifaceted structural and sociocultural factors that underlie and reinforce GBV warrant a strong multi-level and multisectoral response. Since 2010, Pathfinder International has pioneered the implementation of multisectoral approaches to GBV prevention and response in Mozambique.
Pathfinder developed two projects, "Enhancing Reproductive Rights to Reduce Violence against Women in Gaza Province" (2010-2013), funded by the United Nations (UN) Trust Fund to End Violence against Women, and "Enhancing Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights of Women and Youth in Mozambique: Integrating Comprehensive GBV Services and Support and Safe Abortion Care in Inhambane and Gaza Provinces" (2011-2013), funded by the Royal Norwegian Embassy. This brief offers a critical analysis of the projects' shared strategy and implementation experience and discusses lessons learned.

Gender sensitive climate vulnerability and capacity analysis

31 Mar 2016 07:33:53 GMT

The GCVCA practitioners guidebook provides a framework for analysing vulnerability and capacity to adapt to climate change and build resilience to disasters at the community level, with a particular focus on social and in particular gender dynamics, based on experiences of using the approach in Mozambique. It incorporates and builds on content from the Climate Vulnerability and Capacity Analysis (CVCA) Handbook, which has been used and adapted in different ways since its initial release in 2009, within CARE and with other organisations. Feedback on its strengths and weaknesses often included demand for more specific guidance on applying the approach in a more gender-sensitive way.

The GCVCA Practitioners Guide is designed to help conduct a process that stimulates analysis and dialogue about climate change and the conditions and drivers of vulnerability different socio- economic groups find themselves in, in a given community setting, with particular focus on gender dynamics. It uses guiding questions to examine factors at multiple levels through a variety of tools to gather information. It is designed to be flexible so that the learning process can be adapted to suit the needs of particular users.

What the GCVCA Practitioners Guide will not do: The GCVCA guide is not meant to guide the entire process of developing a project or designing an advocacy campaign. Rather, it is intended to help create the understanding of a particular context for either of these undertakings, and to provide suggestions on types of actions to support community-based adaptation to climate change. It is also important to note that the GCVCA methodology is not designed to quantify vulnerability or provide results that can be generalised to regional or national levels. However, qualitative information from the GCVCA can be used to design or complement quantitative surveys, if desired.

[adapted from source]

Report ALP final evaluation final

18 Mar 2016 06:09:45 GMT

This report summarises five and a half years of ALP’s work in Community Based Adaptation practice, learning and advocacy in Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique and Niger and outreach across Africa. It demonstrates the programme outcomes and how they have contributed to increasing the capacity of vulnerable households in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to climate variability and change.

The impacts and examples given from the four ALP countries are drawn from the 2015 Final Evaluation report and from learning among the ALP teams. The report reflects on the importance of learning, collaborative relationships and policy influence in the adoption and up-scaling of CBA in ALP countries and across Africa, and looks ahead at the future for CBA as a critical component of adaptation and resilient development.

With continued funding until 2017, ALP is in a position to build on the CBA approaches, evidence and learning to date in the context of new developments in adaptation finance, climate information services, climate smart agriculture and drought resilience.

[adapted from source]

Gender equality as a pathway for sustainable development: lessons learned in Eastern and Southern Africa

04 Mar 2016 11:29:09 GMT

In order to advance sustainable development in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it is necessary to address cross-cutting issues on gender, environment, and climate change simultaneously. Despite this, a key challenge remains in ensuring that such integrated approaches are prioritised and implemented in national, sector, and local budgets. That is the problem discussed in this gender brief by the Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), which draws on the experiences of an ongoing partnership between UN Women and the United Nations Development Programme. The brief includes examples of gender, environment, and climate change integration in policy and programming in Mozambique, research in Malawi and Uganda, and programming in Tanzania, as well as in areas concerning the strengthening of institutional capacities and knowledge sharing.


The key messages highlighted by the gender brief emphasise that addressing gender, environment, and climate change as cross-cutting issues can advance sustainable development and empower women, and that this will necessitate the strengthening of institutional and stakeholder capacities. Furthermore, data are needed to demonstrate the added value of integrating gender into climate and natural resource frameworks to convince decision-makers to take action. Additionally, proven climate- and gender-smart technologies must be quickly up-scaled.


The brief closes by presenting three key pieces of advice:


  • It is important to inform policy-makers and practitioners in the design and implementation of cross-sectoral, gender-sensitive climate and environment policies and programmes.
  • Concerted action and partnerships leveraging government, the legislature, civil society, and the private sector are needed to enact policies that can achieve the SDGs.
  • Partnerships between UN agencies and other multilateral organisations should be strengthened to increase support for the integration of gender, environment, and climate-linked concerns in policies, budgets, and programmes.

The timing of agricultural production in hazard-prone areas to prevent losses at peak- risk periods: a case of Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique

23 Feb 2016 10:16:01 GMT

Hazard-prone areas in southern Africa experience many natural hazards, which include cyclones, floods and droughts. The severe climatic conditions of southern Africa have an especially large impact on the agricultural practices of small-scale farmers.

These hazards should be mitigated to ensure more resilient communities and food security. This study mainly focuses on the timing of agricultural production in hazard-prone areas to prevent losses at peak-risk periods by adapting the agricultural cycle. This study focuses on the agricultural activities of small-scale farmers in Malawi, Madagascar and Mozambique.

A literature review is presented, and a mixed-method research design were followed to determine the timing of production followed by these small-scale farmers and its impact on production and food security.

Although this study found that the small-scale farmers generally plant with the first rains, it is recommended by literature that early planting should be practised to ensure optimal production.

It is also recommended that small-scale farmers should implement water- management techniques for dry periods, and when farmers practice late planting, the use of residual-moisture retention should be utilised as a mitigation measure.

This will in effect ensure that the communities are less vulnerable during peak-risk periods by improving or ensuring food security. Therefore, adapting the planting and production time in these hazard- prone areas at peak-risk periods could limit losses and increase communities’ resilience.

Capacity building in higher education in Mozambique and the role played by co-operating foreign agencies: the case of the World Bank

16 Feb 2016 11:33:13 GMT

The major goal of this paper is to throw light on and share the Mozambican experience of designing higher education projects for submission to international partners in the request for funding. Drawing from Mozambique’s experience over the last 12 years, it is argued that in order to assure ownership of any national policy governing higher education, it is important to involve ab initio all the stakeholders in the country, namely the Government, civil society, national and international partners and higher education institutions (HEIs). This constitutes the milestone leading to a successful design of projects and, consequently, their implementation. Judging from the Mozambican experience, for a successful conception of projects to be funded by the World Bank it is important to start from a participatory formulation of a national higher education strategic plan, thus involving all the stakeholders concerned.

Rebuilding health systems in conflict-affected states: Mozambique

15 Feb 2016 10:30:06 GMT

Mozambique health system reconstruction supports the conclusion that the reconstruction of health systems is mainly “gender blind”. Policy-makers in Mozambique have not adequately considered the role of gender in contributing to health or addressed women’s and men’s different health needs. Despite government commitment to gender mainstreaming, the health system is far from gender equitable. Donors have shied away from tackling the issue of the social and cultural norms, including gender, which drive ill health. As such, an opportunity has been missed not only to promote gender equity in the health system but also gender equality in society.

Women’s Rights Online: Translating Access into Empowerment

10 Feb 2016 03:00:04 GMT

This research, based on a survey of poor urban men and women across nine developing countries, found that while the majority of men and women own a mobile phone, women are still nearly 50% less likely to access the Internet than men in the same communities. Internet use is reported by just 37% of women surveyed and, once online, women are 30-50% less likely than men to use the Internet to increase their income or participate in public life.

Among the reports key findings are:

  • Lack of know-how and high cost are the two main barriers keeping women offline. Women are 1.6 times more likely than men to report lack of skills as a barrier to Internet use, while one gigabyte of data costs as much as 76% of monthly poverty line incomes in the countries in the study.
  • Women’s access to education is a strong determinant of Internet use. Controlling for other variables, urban poor women with at least some secondary education were six times more likely to be online than urban poor women with lower levels of schooling.
  • Maintaining existing family and neighbourhood ties through social media is the main Internet activity for urban poor women, with 97% of male and female Internet users surveyed using social media.
  • Only a small minority of women Internet users surveyed are tapping into technology’s full empowering potential. Controlling for other variables, women are 25% less likely to use the Internet for job-seeking than men,and 52% less likely than men to express controversial views online.
  • However, the research also identified a group of women digital trailblazers. Women who are active in offline community life are three times more likely than others to speak out online on important issues, controlling for education, age and income.
  • Young people were most likely to have suffered harassment online, with over six in 10 women and men aged 18 – 24 saying they had suffered online abuse.

The full report, summary, infographics and data sets for each country are available to download. 

Mozambique service delivery indicators for education

08 Feb 2016 02:52:28 GMT

Mozambique is poised to meet the Millennium Development Goal of 100 per cent primary education enrollment. The achievement will have limited impact if the quality of the education that pupils have access to is lacking. Education quality will critically determine whether the promise of the newfound mineral wealth is shared among all Mozambicans and whether the economic growth will be concentrated in the extractive industries, while innovation, education and training remain underdeveloped.

The service delivery indicators (SDI) survey was conducted between March and June, 2014. The fieldwork involved collecting information from 200 primary schools, 1006 teachers, and 1,731 grade four pupils.

The results provide a representative snapshot of the quality of service delivery and the physical environment within which services are delivered in public primary schools. The survey provides information on three dimensions of service delivery: measures of (i) teacher effort; (ii) teacher knowledge and ability; and (iii) the availability of key inputs, such as textbooks, basic teaching equipment and infrastructure (such as availability of sanitation, quality of lighting in classrooms, etc.).

Understanding patterns of climate resilient economic development: a synthesis

02 Feb 2016 07:07:13 GMT

Data availability and quality were one of the binding constraints throughout the development of the case studies: — as adaptation is context specific, the degree of geographical resolution must be high to arrive at meaningful, evidence - based conclusions. However, the data relevant to both adaptation efforts and impacts are generally difficult or costly to find or unavailable; — similarly, analysis concerning distributional patterns of development requires highly disaggregated household data which are generally rare; — issues surrounding data availability worsen when looking at a municipal - or city - scale as opposed to a national scale.

Statistical agencies often do not collect the wide range of indicators required and, even when they do, they are subject to differences in exact geographical boundaries, gaps and opaque methodologies. Even where data are available, quantitative attribution of effects and issues around causality are challenging. While this project produced a number of findings about the relationship between economic development and climate resilience, these are based on the synthesis of four case studies.

The data gathered were not sufficient to perform robust data - driven analysis in each individual case study to gain a more accurate perception of correlation and causality. Likewise, general equilibrium modelling of climate impacts remains analytically challenging.

Brazil and China in Mozambican agriculture: emerging insights from the field

26 Jan 2016 04:40:32 GMT

Mozambique, a country undergoing rapid transformations driven by the recent discovery of mineral resources, is one of the top destinations of Chinese and Brazilian cooperation and investment in Africa.

This article provides an account of the policies, narratives, operational modalities and underlying motivations of Brazilian and Chinese development cooperation in Mozambique. It is particularly interested in understanding how the engagements are perceived and talked about, what drives them and what formal and informal relations are emerging at the level of particular exchanges.

The article draws on three cases (i) ProSavana, Brazil‟s current flagship programme in Mozambique, which aims to transform the country's savanna spreading along the Nacala corridor, drawing on Brazil‟s own experience in the Cerrado; (ii) the Chinese Agricultural Technology Demonstration Centre (ATDC) and (iii) a private Chinese rice investment project in the Xai-Xai irrigation scheme, which builds on a technical cooperation initiative. Commonalities and differences between the Brazilian and Chinese approaches are discussed. 

Evaluation of Norwegian support to capacity development

30 Dec 2015 12:00:24 GMT

The report presents the results of an evaluation of Norwegian support to capacity development in public sector, aiming at

  • assessing results of support to capacity development and to what degree it represents value for money; and
  • generative learning to enable policy, strategy and decision makers to design good strategies for support to capacity development

The evaluation was based on 19 case studies in nine countries. 11 cases were subject to in-depth studies in the three countries Malawi, Mozambique and Vietnam, while the rest were carried out as document reviews supplemented by interviews.

The evaluation is limited to bilateral support aiming at improved capacity in public sector, but the results are also relevant for comparable interventions via multilateral organisations or in civil society.

In many cases, Norwegian support has been channeled via twinning between comparable institutions in Norway and in partner countries, a modality that is given particular emphasis in the evaluation.

The evaluation was conducted by Itad ltd (UK), commissioned by the Evaluation Department in Norad.

Gender dynamics in a changing climate: How gender and adaptive capacity affect resilience

21 Dec 2015 11:48:28 GMT

This learning brief synthesises lessons drawn from CARE’s Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP), which has been supporting vulnerable communities in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to the impacts of climate change since 2010. It is based on evidence and practical experience in implementing community based adaptation (CBA), about gender dynamics and the ways in which CBA can increase adaptive capacity and promote gender equality. It identifies the factors shaping gender dynamics and adaptive capacity and gives examples of how to integrate gender into CBA approaches as well as outlining knowledge gaps and recommendations for policy and practice.

Gender, climate change and adaptive capacity are intricately linked. Poor and marginalised women and men face multiple and complex challenges. Climate change further exacerbates these challenges and threatens to erode development gains made to date. Unequal distribution of resources and power imbalances are both the root cause of poverty and also impact on a person’s capacity to adapt.

It addresses a range of case studies including methods of sharing information and new wasy of access via technology and support mechanisms. For example, in Kenya 20% of women attended workshops getting seasonal forecast information, but when interviewed 76% of women received that information.



ALP adaptation strategies compendium

21 Dec 2015 11:04:49 GMT

The Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP) has sought to increase the capacity of vulnerable households in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to climate variability and change. Through insightful case stidies from the four-country programme with vulnerable communities in northern Ghana, southern Niger, eastern Kenya and northern coastal Mozambique this research demonstrates participatory initiatives aiming to pioneer and deepen practical understanding of Community Based Adaptation (CBA). ALP’s approach gives explicit focus on integrating gender equality and diversity into the process.

ALP uses a learning-by-doing approach in facilitating CBA in a growing number of vulnerable communities across a range of livelihood groups, agro- ecological zones and climates. The goal is to develop and document effective CBA approaches that result in practical community-generated adaptation decisions that will increase and sustain peoples resilience to climate change. The CBA approaches have the potential to be adopted and integrated into community district and county level development planning cycles and adaptation and related sector programmes. Community plans resulting from participation in CBA approaches relate to livelihood and risk reduction activities, collectively known as ‘adaptation strategies’, which the communities prioritise as those which will best support their climate resilience in the short and long-term.

This compendium presents the range of different adaptation strategies supported by ALP in communities across the four countries where the programme is working. For each strategy evidence and lessons are provided from successful implementation and impacts in reducing vulnerability and building adaptive capacity in different contexts in Africa. The material is relevant to practitioners, policy makers and local government officers in promoting the future adoption of CBA approaches and adaptation strategies that enable more sustainable adaptation. 

The post ALP Adaptation Strategies Compendium appeared first on CareClimateChange.

Final report: scoping study for a non-renewable resources, climate change and environmental programme in Southern Africa

11 Dec 2015 11:51:26 GMT

DFID commissioned a scoping study to assess the Extractive Industry (EI) sector’s environmental and climate change impacts, status and prospects of GHG emissions, and how both impacts and GHG emissions could be mitigated in the sector. The analysis included a review of national and global policy, legal and institutional landscape that could inform a voluntary compliance mechanism that the EI sector could adopt. The study was conducted in Zambia, Malawi and Mozambique.

The effects of climate change have become significant challenges to sustainable development in developing countries. In Southern Africa where this study focused, the impacts are likely to be substantial due to the reliance on climate-sensitive resources such as rain-fed agriculture for economic growth, trade and food security. East and Southern Africa are expected to experience compounded effects of climate change because of their high poverty levels, weak infrastructure, poor management of natural resources and dependence on agriculture.

Emerging pillars for a DFID climate change and environmental Programme in Southern Africa:

  • support to development planning, policy and compliance frameworks
  • awareness, sensitization and communication
  • capacity building and institutional strengthening of systems, infrastructure and human resources
  • information development and management
  • facilitating the creation of a compliance mechanism

Contextualising curriculum design and recontextualising its implementation: The case of climate change education for Southern African Transfrontier Conservation Area practitioners

26 Oct 2015 05:43:31 GMT

This paper discusses how the climate change education needs of park managers, ecologists, and community development officers in Southern African Development Community (SADC) Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) were established through contextual profiling.

It subsequently analyses how a curriculum that was designed in response to a contextual profiling process was recontextualised during implementation by the SADC Regional Environmental Education Programme  (REEP), with support from German Federal Enterprise for International Cooperation (GIZ).

The paper’s purpose is to trace the trajectory of contextualised   curriculum development and implementation with a view to identifying how the twin concepts of contextual profiling and recontextualisation were utilised and lessons were learnt.

The paper has potential value for educators/trainers interested in increasing the relevance of protected area workplace learning and its congruence to learners’ realities.

Development, sustainability and social justice: the elusive balancing act of African fisheries governance

22 Oct 2015 10:25:22 GMT

The discourse on African fisheries governance is dominated by themes of unrealised potential and crisis. In this respect, illegal fishing and overfishing by foreign industrial vessels, as well as intense fishing pressure in the small-scale sector, have decreased stocks substantially in many coastal and inland waters.

To improve the efficiency of the sector, the author suggests to assign and enforce fishing quotas to individual fishers, thereby preventing the scenario where too many fishers chasing too few fish make too little income. Furthermore, he underlines the importance of developing appropriate and effective governance frameworks for African small-scale fisheries.

On the other hand, the document highlights that global co-operation is central to curbing illegal fishing off Africa’s coast. Consequently, it presents the following recommendations:

  • for management measures to be successful, fisheries officials and fishers must co-operate in the development of co-management systems that fishers view and support as being legitimate
  • African states must participate in the global discourse on flags of convenience and port state measures that are seeking to address the loopholes in international fisheries governance
  • it is necessary to transcend the themes of unrealised potential and crisis in order to build on existing successes in achieving sustainable and prosperous fisheries


Botswana’s coal: dead in the water or economic game changer?

19 Oct 2015 07:08:32 GMT

Botswana possesses substantial coal deposits of 212 billion tonnes, the majority of which are low grade. This paper demonstrates that under favourable conditions, and until solar power becomes a feasible option for supplying base-load electricity, this coal could be either exported or used for local regional electricity production and consumption.

However, the author figures that coal extraction for either export or local production is environmentally costly despite advances in technology. In addition, exporting coal would attract immediate export revenue, but it is unlikely to create sustainable economic diversification.

Equally important, the document underlines that regional coal and natural gas deposits could provide sufficient power for the region if they were harnessed in a more efficient and coordinated manner. Yet, doing so requires a level of political co-operation among the regional countries.

In the final analysis, the paper concludes that:

  • climate change and its attendant mitigation and adaptation policies pose a serious risk to any new coal-mining or coal-fired power investments
  • electrifying Southern Africa through coal by harnessing new technologies is arguably less environmentally and socially costly than the current costs of indoor air pollution from burning wood and other fuels
  • thus, new thinking is necessary, and research to ascertain how to optimally harness the region’s coal and gas to secure reliable power generation is needed



HIV-related discrimination among grade six Students in nine Southern African countries

16 Oct 2015 03:17:00 GMT

HIV-related stigmatisation and discrimination by young children towards their peers have important consequences at the individual level and for our response to the epidemic, yet research on this area is limited.

This study examines stigma and discrimination of HIV-positive children by grade six students (n = 39,664) across nine countries in Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Stigma, as reported here, can result in: bullying, victimisation, and poorer mental health outcomes among HIV-affected and infected children; disclosure-of-status decisions and school attendance; and possible delays in treatment and care for children living with HIV due to caregivers' hesitation to disclose a child's status. Intervention designs that reduce stigma at an early age, minimise negative impacts on child health, and reduce discrimination that distances and excludes children may, as researchers indicate, improve health outcomes for children living with HIV.

The levels and determinants of discrimination varied significantly between the nine countries. While one in ten students in Botswana, Malawi, South Africa and Swaziland would “avoid or shun” an HIV positive friend, the proportions in Lesotho, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe were twice as high (approximately 20%). A large proportion of students believed that HIV positive children should not be allowed to continue to attend school, particularly in Zambia (33%), Lesotho (37%) and Zimbabwe (42%). The corresponding figures for Malawi and Swaziland were significantly lower at 13% and 12% respectively. Small differences were found by gender. Children from rural areas and poorer schools were much more likely to discriminate than those from urban areas and wealthier schools. Importantly, we identified factors consistently associated with discrimination across the region: students with greater exposure to HIV information, better general HIV knowledge and fewer misconceptions about transmission of HIV via casual contact were less likely to report discrimination.

The study points toward the need for early interventions (grade six or before) to reduce stigma and discrimination among children, especially in schools situated in rural areas and poorer communities. In particular, interventions should focus on correcting misconceptions that HIV can be transmitted via casual contact.

Always alert: Reducing disaster risk

15 Oct 2015 01:30:24 GMT

In recent years, Mozambique has made strides towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and reducing human insecurity and absolute poverty. However, it is still one of the least developed countries in the world, ranking 184 out of 187 countries and territories in the 2011 Human Development Index. The country’s frequent and devastating natural disasters create significant challenges for development, while widespread poverty makes communities more vulnerable to disaster risks. The Government of Mozambique has recognised that reducing the country’s vulnerability to disasters is fundamental to sustainable development. 

Community radio provides an unmatched avenue for the widespread distribution of locally appropriate information concerning disaster risk reduction (DRR). It is a vital tool for early warning. Radio can also be a resource for education, information and opening community dialogue around mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. The International Organization for Migration (IOM) in Mozambique, as part of the United Nations Delivering as One Joint Programme on Disaster Risk Reduction, has been working to strengthen the DRR capacity of Mozambique’s community radio sector, especially in the Zambezi Limpopo Valleys. 

Focusing on broadcasting around disaster risk reduction, this English-language manual, adapted from a Portuguese-language training toolkit, Sempre Alerta: Redução do Risco de Calamidades, was produced to further support community radio’s role in DRR. The Portuguese toolkit comprises a 3-module training programme, sample training plans, handouts and printable materials on CD. 

The guide is useful for programme managers using the toolkit, and those who are developing their own training programmes, in both the radio and other communication sectors. While background information is specific to Mozambique, programming ideas and approaches to communicating DRR can be applied across a wide variety of settings. 

Compiled and edited by Community Media for Development (CMFD), the guide was produced in collaboration with the Instituto de Comunicação Social (ICS), National Institute of Disaster Management (INGC), and station partners.

SADC investment perspectives in a changing international investment landscape

14 Oct 2015 06:32:06 GMT

The global arena for foreign direct investment (FDI) has become much more fluid and complex in the five years from 2010 to 2015. The Southern African Development Community (SADC) as a region has shown exceptional growth but relatively lacklustre FDI inflows.

Although the International Monetary Fund (IMF) predicts sustained high short-term growth in all of sub-Saharan Africa, the dependence of SADC countries on resource-orientated exports has exposed them to the biggest slump in commodity prices in the period from 2010 to 2015. Furthermore, the decline in resource prices is estimated to be a long-term structural shift.

Therefore, SADC policymakers should to take a new look at current investment policies and attitudes. In particular, a clear policy shift will be needed to diversify investment portfolios and grow domestic markets.

Recommendations include:

  • governments in SADC should strive towards clear and transparent policies on the protection of investors’ capital and subsequent returns on investment
  • investment in renewable resources and value-added service investments and exports should be encouraged
  • SADC member states should adopt policies based on proven developmental strategies that focus on enabling and growing capital rather than dated ideological policies
  • investment should be made in a skilled labour force and in hard infrastructure that connects SADC markets


Food security in a climate perspective: what role could the private sector play regarding investment in smallholder agriculture in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia

10 Sep 2015 04:01:26 GMT

The purpose of this study is to discuss different ways of implementing the "Food Security in a Climate  Perspective  strategy 2013-15" in  relation  to  support  to  private  sector  development and  public-private  partnership  (PPP)  as  regards  agriculture,  climate  change  and  food security in Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia. We assess eleven different cases  of  private  sector  development  and  their relevance  to smallholder  investments  in agriculture.  An  important basis for this  study  is  the  voluntary Principles  for  Responsible Agricultural Investments (RAI) developed by the Committee on World Food  Security (CFS). These  guidelines  define  both  business  enterprises  and  smallholders  as possible private sector actors, and thereby included  in private  sector  development.  The  implications  of the CFS-RAI guidelines is  that  investment  in,  by  and  with  smallholders,  and  support  to  such investments,  are  seen as private  sector  development.  We assess three  different  approaches to supporting private sector developments: i) promote an enabling environment for private sector  development;  ii)  provision  of  public  goods  and  services;  and  iii)  direct  investment support. In all three approaches, the interests and needs of both business enterprises, such as  companies, and  smallholders  should  be recognized.  The  enabling  environment  should balance  the  needs  and  demands  of  both  smallholders  and  business  enterprises; the  public goods   and   services should address factors affecting   both   smallholders   and   business enterprises, and direct support could be provided to both   business enterprises and smallholders.

Annotated bibliography on developmental states, political settlements and citizenship formation: towards increased state capacity and legitimacy?

22 Aug 2015 12:35:55 GMT

Policymakers and academics agree that an effective state is the foundation for inclusive development, whilst also recognising the critical role of non-state actors in the delivery of goods and services to poor people. This compilation demonstrates that recent research has offered important insights into the role of state-society relations and bargaining amongst elites in shaping development, and of the progressive role that informal forms of politics can sometimes play.

However, the author points that most governance research has tended to focus on either elitist or popular forms of politics (rarely both), to ignore the importance of global influences, and to deal with one-off case-studies. Yet, the paper underlines that full understanding the political process of globalisation and the retrenchment of the welfare state cannot be achieved without examining how these policies are experienced differentially on the ground.

The document argues that existing donor programmes fail to recognise the full potential of citizen engagement, resulting in lack of understanding of the complex relationship between citizens and the state that shapes governance outcomes. On the other hand, the inability of post-colonial states to move away from the colonial legacy and “depoliticise” cultural difference hinders processes of nation-building and gives rise to political and ethnic violence, particularly in Africa.

China in Africa: impacts and prospects for accountable development

14 Aug 2015 07:35:18 GMT

China is the major “new” player in Africa and impacts on development and politics in numerous ways. This paper shows that China impacts on African development in multiple ways that go well beyond aid. The paper sets out an analytical framework which identifies the channels through which China engages with African development and the role the African state plays in mediating these interactions.

The author clarifies that in most cases China delivers much needed infrastructure which benefits wider society. However, he underlines that a feature of this engagement is inter-elite brokerage which tends to bypass domestic channels of accountability and so undermines good governance. Subsequently, civil and political society in Africa has started to contest this elitism, pointing that there are more transparent attempts to negotiate this relationship.

All things considered, the document concludes that China is changing the political landscape of African states though not as drastically as western sceptics would believe. As a result, there is a clear opportunity for Africa to grab now, since both traditional and “new” players are in an important phase of reforming and designing their development policy towards Africa. Yet, to capitalise on this opportunity requires a series of coordinated responses across African, BRICS and multilateral political spaces.


Strategic research into national and local capacity building for DRM: Mozambique fieldwork report

13 Aug 2015 02:11:18 GMT

To date there has been little formal, empirical research that has been conducted on capacity building for disaster risk management (DRM), and as a result international actors lack robust, evidence-based guidance on how capacity for DRM can be effectively generated at national and local levels. This report on Mozambique is part of a research project designed as an initial step towards filling that knowledge and evidence gap.

Two programmes emerged as appropriate case studies:
  • GIZ:PRO-GRCI and II (Disaster Risk Management Programme)
  • GFDRR / INGC / Ministry of Education and UN-Habitat Partnership: Safer Schools Project
The PRO-GRC programme was executed by INGC with advice and guidance of consultants from the German Development Cooperation (GIZ). This programme was selected because it was noted that one of the main objectives was to establish and reinforce holistic disaster risk management practice in Mozambique and that it was a large-scale programme, with a large budget and long duration. The team saw an opportunity to learn how the programme enabled government and other DRM actors in Mozambique to make better decisions on DRM and how the programme influenced the DRM context. The project included different actors and scales across national, regional, provincial, and community levels, working specifically on capacity building for DRM.

The partnership programme, Safer Schools, was funded by GFDRR and UN-Habitat and so provided an opportunity to investigate how the World Bank-GFDRR approaches capacity building, in this case specifically in relation to building codes and guidelines in relation to school safety. The team was interested to learn about the inter-ministerial partnership and the very high level working groups that the project established. This project focused mainly at the national, institutional level. Both initiatives fit in with the selection criteria and reached from the national to the community level. The combination of the initiatives was believed to be an opportunity for rich findings for the fieldwork report.

Evaluation of Norway’s support to women’s rights and gender equality in development cooperation

27 May 2015 07:31:30 GMT

The report evaluates Norway’s support to strengthening women and girls ‘rights and gender equality through its development cooperation. It assesses the extent to which results have been achieved and whether they are in line with the Action plan for Women’s Rights and Gender Equality in development cooperation and its four thematic priorities. Political empowerment, economic empowerment, sexual and reproductive health rights and violence against women.

The evaluation covers the period 2007-2013 in includes a desk study of on the global dimensions of Norwegian development cooperation’s support to women’s rights and gender equality as well as three in-depth country case studies including Ethiopia, Mozambique and Nepal. In addition, a desk study of Norway’s gender aid to Zambia is conducted.

The evaluation is commissioned by the Evaluation Department in Norad and carried out by Swedish Institute for Development Cooperation (SIPU) in collaboration with Overseas Development Institute (ODI) and Chr Michelsen Institute.

Alternatives to hydropower

22 May 2015 05:29:06 GMT

Our argument in this report is that hydropower falls short of being the renewable energy solution. The intrinsic problems of hydropower demands that we explore alternative avenues to supply modern renewable energy.
It has been well documented that large scale hydropower or mega dam projects have considerable consequences for the environment and groups of people living both upstream and downstream of hydropower installations. In many developing countries, dams are built without the full participation and consent of local inhabitants and without the proper environmental and social impact assessments. Local populations rarely receive the necessary compensation for their loss of habitat and livelihood. The subsequent energy that is produced by the dams often bypasses local populations and is sent to regional and national hubs where it is used predominantly to power industrial demands. In addition, the power produced is often too expensive for the majority of rural inhabitants.

The report has a case study from Mozambique.

Making economic corridors work for the agricultural sector

08 May 2015 10:54:35 GMT

In times of economic crisis, development models that help create jobs, generate wealth, mobilise public and private resources and stimulate key economic sectors sustainably are more important than ever. While there are no universal solutions, a development tool that seems to be gaining ground is the so-called “economic corridor”. This could be defined as a conceptual and programmatic model to structure socio-economic responses to develop a territory, building on a linear agglomeration of population and economic activities along existing transportation infrastructure (adapted from Healey, 2004). 

This study tries to shed some light on economic corridors in developing and emerging countries. In their part of the world, the agricultural and agro-industrial sectors are among the main employment generators and contributors to gross domestic product (GDP). Naturally, many corridor initiatives in developing countries target the agricultural sector, which is why the study focuses on the potential role of economic corridors as an engine of agricultural growth. The goal of the book is to provide policy-makers and practitioners with a series of evidence-based, practical instruments (a checklist and a good practices tool) to guide the design and implementation of agrocorridors.

The report appraises economic corridor experiences with a strong agricultural component in Central Asia, the Greater Mekong Subregion, Indonesia, Mozambique, Peru and the United Republic of Tanzania. It also documents the evolution of corridor interventions from purely transport sector-based initiatives, to logistics and trade corridors, and finally to economic corridors with a multisectoral approach. It corroborates that agriculture has become a key part of economic corridor programmes, especially in the Southern Hemisphere.

The comparative analysis undertaken here seeks to establish a corridor typology, and to identify the main drivers and components. It also describes corridor budgets and sources of funding, stakeholders, and management and governance mechanisms. A large part of this cross-comparison focuses on the agricultural component of corridor interventions, identifying the most recurrent activities under this component, the financial resources involved, the most often selected subsectors or value chains and target markets (domestic and international), the interface between infrastructure and agro-industrial development and the positive or negative impacts of corridor interventions on the agricultural sector.

Finally, the author proposes a checklist of necessary measures or elements that those interested in developing agrocorridors can use as a reference for deciding what activities to pursue, what organisational models are most suitable and clarify the steps that need to be taken.

Priests, technicians and traders? The discursive politics of Brazil’s agricultural cooperation in Mozambique

10 Apr 2015 12:24:14 GMT

Questions such as whose interests drive Brazil into Africa, what development models are carried along and what is in them for African countries have been guiding research and debates about Brazil’s cooperation in Africa. This paper contributes to this emerging body of work by looking at the specific case of agricultural cooperation. The analysis highlights the discursive side of Brazilian cooperation, where competing narratives about models and purposes reproduce different versions of reality for reasons related to the political character of cooperation. Discourse is hence an expression of the political. One account frames Brazil’s agricultural cooperation as a domain of priests, technicians and traders, driven, respectively, by doctrinal, technical fixing and business rationales. This provides an initial frame of reference to distil actors’ narratives about cooperation programmes.

The paper focuses specifically on two cooperation initiatives in Mozambique: ProSavana and More Food International. The key for understanding competing narratives on these two programmes and how they intermingle and change over time can be found in Brazil’s domestic sphere. The two programmes have been interpreted as an expression of contradictions in Brazil’s agriculture and particularly its dualistic character, typically framed as family farming versus agribusiness. Through the lenses of discourse analysis, this paper offers a critical reading of the interplay between priests, technicians and traders, or different thrusts in cooperation relations. The interplay suggests that the terms of Brazil’s agriculture dualism need recasting. While the paper prioritises the discussion of how Brazil’s internal agricultural politics pervade the realm of development cooperation abroad, forthcoming research will reflect more extensively on why this happen

Mozambican elite in a Chinese rice ‘friendship’: an ethnographic study of the Xai-Xai irrigation scheme

10 Apr 2015 11:54:01 GMT

In April 2007, the Mozambican and the Chinese governments through the Provinces of Gaza and Hubei respectively set up an agreement for the establishment of a Chinese ‘friendship’ rice farm at the Lower Limpopo scheme (also known as Xai-Xai irrigation scheme). Among the main objectives of this partnership was agricultural technology transfer from Chinese to Mozambican farmers. In order to benefit from this technology transfer, the Mozambican government asked local farmers to organise themselves within an association, named ARPONE. The association intended to develop agriculture and livestock.

However, it appeared that the main people who created the association and started to work alongside the Chinese company were mostly Frelimo members, the party ruling the country since its independence in 1975. In the same way, some high-up employees of Regadio do Baixo Limpopo (RBL), the public company in charge of the irrigation scheme, joined ARPONE and started to produce rice. It is important to stress that high state officials are usually linked to Frelimo. The main purpose of this paper, which focuses on the example of ARPONE association farmers in Xai-Xai, is to show how the Mozambican political elite – usually linked to Frelimo – are using their positions within the party or the state to take advantage of the Chinese project. 

Chinese and Brazilian agricultural models in Mozambique. The case of the Chinese Agricultural Technology Demonstration Centre and of the Brazilian ProALIMENTOS programme

10 Apr 2015 11:32:57 GMT

China and Brazil have called increasing attention from the international community, especially in the field of development cooperation. In Africa, for instance, both countries have expanded their development activities and defined agriculture as one of the main sectors to boost mutual cooperation. Recognising that agriculture played a key role in both China’s and Brazil’s economic development, these countries, usually called ‘emerging donors’ or ‘new donors’, state that unlike ‘traditional donors’ they will be able to bring their respective agriculture-based developmental experiences to African countries.

Although both countries stress how their own local experience may inspire African agriculture, it is important to highlight that the modalities and models of technology transfer might differ from one country to another. In order to understand how Chinese and Brazilian models and modalities play out in the African context, this study has examined and compared the activities of a Chinese and a Brazilian project carried out in the district of Boane in Mozambique. Due to cultural and communication issues, as well as managerial practices, the Chinese agricultural model is facing more difficulties in Mozambique than the Brazilian one, although the Chinese have more financial capacity to implement their agriculture-based experience.

Zimbabwe-Brazil cooperation through the More Food Africa programme

10 Apr 2015 10:55:51 GMT

The expanding footprint of BRICS countries in Africa, especially over the last 15 years, has remained a subject of intense public interest in academic, development and diplomatic circles. There is some understandable trepidation among traditional donors towards the BRICS approach, and their focus remains on China.

Zimbabwe experienced intractable socio-economic development challenges from 2000 and the period 1998- 2008 has been referred to mildly as one of ‘political and economic crisis’. The European Union, which had hitherto been the largest development partner for Zimbabwe, suspended development cooperation with the Government of Zimbabwe (GoZ) and confirmed the fallout by imposing sanctions on specified state entities and members of the ruling Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (ZANUPF). As Zimbabwe was actively courting investment from the East, Brazil was in its own way extending its tentacles across Africa in line with its increasing economic stature.

The GoZ has been in discussion with the Government of Brazil (GoB) for a major agricultural mechanisation cooperation programme since 2010, and the first batch of machinery and equipment was delivered between October 2014 and January 2015. The South American country is supplying tractors, tractor-drawn equipment and irrigation equipment under a concessionary loan agreement through the More Food Africa programme. The process to culminate in the supply of the equipment has been intractable and is yet to fully play out. Yet negotiations have been undertaken cordially and with mutual respect. This paper documents the negotiation process to date, situating it within the broad development encounters between Brazil and Africa, and in particular that BRICS country and Zimbabwe.

Chinese agricultural investment in Mozambique: the case of Wanbao rice farm

10 Apr 2015 10:34:37 GMT

The Hubei Gaza Friendship Farm was established in 2007 in Xai-Xai, Mozambique, and has been managed by Wanbao Africa Agriculture Development Limited (WAADL), a private Chinese company, since 2011. Critics
see this project as a "land grab"; supporters argue that the investment is a positive force for agriculturaJ growth and development. This case demonstrates the many obstacles to successful agricultural investment in Mozambique, which are exacerbated by tension between local civil society organisations, the Mozambican government, and Chinese investors.

REDD: A Collection of Conflicts, Contradictions and Lies

30 Mar 2015 08:15:44 GMT

The complexity of REDD initiatives from another perspective.

REDD: A Collection of Conflicts, Contradictions and Lies presents summaries of reports from 24 REDD projects or programmes with a common characteristic: they all show a number of structural characteristics that undermine forest peoples' rights, or fail to address deforestation. The publication highlights that as offset projects, they all fail to address the climate crisis because by definition, offset projects do not reduce overall emissions: Emission reductions claimed in one place justify extra emissions elsewhere. The authors argue that what is needed, however, are overall reductions – and steep ones, in particular in industrialised countries. Offsets by definition cannot help achieve that goal, they are a distraction. The collection is based on already existing documentation, and the compilation is far from complete. The authors note that there are care manyother examples that also expose REDD projects that have weakened or caused harm to forest communities' way of life.


Review of Norad´s Assistance to gender mainstreaming in the energy and petroleum sector 2010-2014

27 Mar 2015 05:04:24 GMT


A review of Norad’s assistance to gender mainstreaming in the energy and petroleum sector through the framework agreement with ENERGIA was conducted by Norconsult in 2014. The purpose of the Framework Agreement (2010 – 2014) was to provide Norad with high quality technical support for gender mainstreaming in Norwegian support to the energy- and petroleum sectors.

Key findings

Through the framework agreement Norad has supported a variety of mechanisms for gender mainstreaming and the review found that they have had different degrees of success. Norad has for example successfully raised the visibility of gender issues in the energy sector through analytical work in several countries. In Nepal, Norad used the framework agreement to provide gender inputs to programme appraisals and the experience shows that they are the most strategic and effective when they feed directly into sectoral plans and programme appraisals to inform funding decisions. In Nepal, Mozambique and Ethiopia, Norad has provided advise in the development of gender action plans with technical support from ENERGIA. These plans have a practical approach and focus on operational measures. The report concludes that effective implementation of the action plans will require continued investments in capacity building and support to enable the gender focal points to implement the plans in the respective national energy institutions. The review also found that the demonstration projects developed and implemented through the framework agreement have had mixed results.


Norconsult concludes that the framework agreement has been achieved in so far as that through the agreement, ENERGIA was able to provide Norad with relevant and effective expertise on integrating gender equality in the clean energy and petroleum sectors. Capacity building on gender mainstreaming takes time. Finally, the report recommends strengthening the integration of gender equality and human rights in the petroleum sector, specifically. In many countries, this emerging sector represents both risks and opportunities to the affected population groups, with different impacts on women and men. 

A synthesis of institutional arrangements of National AIDS Commissions in seven African countries: work in progress

24 Mar 2015 02:24:30 GMT

This paper presents a synthesis of institutional arrangements and issues currently facing National AIDS Councils/Commissions (NACs) in 2007. It reviews the governance and institutional arrangements of African NACs as well as harmonisation and alignement processes. For each topic there is an analysis of emerging themes. The countries reviewed include: Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda.

Helpdesk Report: Evidence base for local block grants in Education

23 Mar 2015 12:31:03 GMT

This Helpdesk query was asked to provide a literature / evidence review of the effectiveness – or otherwise – of sub-national flexible block grants in education in delivering enrolment, attendance and quality objectives.

The report looks at several examples of programmes using local block grants in education.  Section 2 covers Direct Support to Schools (DSS) in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania and Mozambique and includes information on the objectives and
the results.  Section 3 includes information on Educational Block Grants to Orphans and Vulnerable Children (OVC) in Tanzania and Uganda.  This study compared four approaches: two used block grants, two used scholarship approaches.  Promoting Basic Services (PBS), Ethiopia is the subject of section 4.  The Government provided un-earmarked block-grant financing through regional governments. These provide block grants to third-level administrative divisions, so that these local governments deliver decentralised services.

Indonesia is the focus of section 5.  In the Indonesia 98/99 Scholarship and Block Grant Programme the scholarships provide an amount of money to assist students to pay their school fees, while the block grants provide direct financial assistance to these educational institutions so that despite rising costs, the provision of services can be maintained.  Information is also provided on the Stay in School campaign, Indonesia 99/00.  The provision of block grants to schools was one of the main features of the country’s “Stay in School” campaign for combating the economic crisis. Generasi uses a facilitated community decision-making process to allocate block grant funds to target 12 health and education indicators.

India is the country focused on in section 6.  Block grant programmes were mentioned in a policy brief and in the media.  A report found block grants with no incentives led to poor student learning outcomes.  In section 7 there is information on Kenya.  An amount of money was allocated per student and transferred directly to school accounts.  This led to small but statistically significant impact on test scores after one year; however the impact seems to diminish over time.


Helpdesk Report: Higher education reform

23 Mar 2015 10:05:23 GMT

The report covers seven countries - for each country there is a profile outlining how higher education is organised and drawing together the key points on reform. This is followed in each case by an annotated bibliography of resources on higher education reform.

Countries covered:

  • Ethiopia
  • Kenya
  • Mozambique
  • Nigeria
  • Rwanda
  • South Africa
  • Tanzania

Final evaluation of the Regional Community Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM) Capacity Building Programme for Southern Africa

16 Mar 2015 04:33:44 GMT

This programme was established to address the challenges facing CBNRM in Southern Africa, such as policies which were not explicitly inclusive of communities in wildlife management and benefits; or, where there was policy, limited implementation of it, or poor monitoring of natural resources. This was addressed through the establishment and strengthening of civil society networks which then worked to lobby government and advocate for improved policy and / or implementation. The programme was implemented in six countries namely Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Key findings of the evaluation:
• The programme delivered good value for the 11-year financial investment given the regional scope of the programme, the range of activities implemented, the range of stakeholders engaged and the multiplier effect (of capacity, training and policy reforms)
• The programme was relevant to CBNRM stakeholders in participating countries, to WWF, to environmental Multilateral Environmental Agreements and to Norwegian Development policy.
• The programme contributed towards achieving its goal of improved rural livelihoods and it fulfilled its purpose.
• The programme successfully facilitated the process of anchoring and reinforcing CBNRM policy and practice into Government structures and adoption of its principles in development plans. Botswana and Namibia now have stand-alone CBNRM policies whilst Malawi, Namibia and Zambia incorporated CBNRM into National Development Plans. CBNRM principles have been adopted in the mining, agriculture and water sectors.
• The programme unlocked funding and opportunities for collaborative engagements at national and regional levels.
• The programme created, formalised and strengthened communities of CBNRM practice at national and regional levels in the form of National Forums and SACF respectively. There is high probability that all Forums in the countries will continue to exist beyond the programme.
• The Forums raised US$2.56 million to complement Norad/WWF-Norway funds in the last four years. This also provides a good measure of organisational capacity.
• The programme promoted and initiated participatory mechanisms for measuring and recording the contribution of CBNRM across the region using Performance Monitoring and Evaluation and Management Orientated Monitoring Systems (MOMS).
• The programme is highly replicable and the approach should replicated to strengthen civil society and promotion of partnerships and coalitions for knowledge sharing, learning and advocacy around several issues, e.g. MOMS and incorporating CBNRM into mining, energy, water and other sectors across the region and in Africa.

The promise of preschool in Africa: a randomized impact evaluation of early childhood development in rural Mozambique

16 Mar 2015 02:29:39 GMT

Early childhood development programmes are seen as a promising way to prevent such delays and foster early development. While there is a growing evidence base on the effects of early childhood development programmes in the United States, Latin America and elsewhere, there is little evidence of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of such programmes in the African context.

The analysis presented in this report shows that the preschool intervention implemented by Save the Children in rural communities in Mozambique has improved a number of important dimensions of child development, including cognitive, fine motor and socio-emotional (although not language), leading to higher levels of school readiness and significantly increased primary school enrolment (at the appropriate age). The programme also produced positive impacts on the school enrolment of older siblings and increased the labour supply of primary caregivers.

Taken together, these results suggest that low-cost community-based preschool interventions such as the one studied here show potential for positively affecting early childhood development in rural African contexts.

While the initial results discussed here are encouraging, a number of caveats are in order. First, while this is the first randomised experiment of a preschool intervention in rural Africa, with rich data, large sample sizes and rigorous internal validity of the estimated impacts, the results are not necessarily externally valid. Whether or not the results of the small and well-implemented programme studied here can be reproduced at a national level or by a government agency should be tested using rigorous evaluations of similar interventions in other countries and contexts. Second, the focus in this report was on the impact of preschool for the subset of children who actually enrolled in preschool. The results discussed here are not necessarily the average impacts that would be expected from the group of children who did not participate had they enrolled in preschool. As documented in the report, several demand-side constraints exist that prevent children from participating in early childhood development programmes even when these are locally available.

Further research is needed to better understand how to alleviate these constraints to ensure that all targeted children, especially the most vulnerable, can benefit. Finally, it is important to note that the preschool programme had only mild impacts on children’s language development and that there are mixed results on children’s health. These aspects of the programme design merit further consideration before scaling up the model.

Ready for school

16 Mar 2015 02:15:35 GMT

In Mozambique, only 4 out of 100 children go to preschool and very few programmes are available in rural areas where poverty is more acute. Existing evidence shows that investment in education early in life gives children a head start, and has effects on their immediate well-being and future prospects. But such evidence is not available from Africa. Are effective pre-school interventions viable in poor rural African communities?

A randomised control trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Save the Children’s preschool programme on children’s enrolment and readiness for primary school in rural Mozambique. This study is funded by 3ie and the World Bank Spanish Impact Evaluation Fund and is the first evaluation of an early childhood development programme in Africa.

The first issue of Evidence in Brief draws on the key findings of this 3ie supported impact evaluation.

Key findings:

Children who attended preschool:

  • are more likely to enrol in primary school at the right age. They spend more time on schooling and less time working on the family farm
  • show large improvements in cognitive and problem solving abilities, fine motor skills and social behaviour
  • are less prone to diarrhea and skin problems, though there is no evidence of positive impacts on nutrition
  • their siblings are more likely to go to primary school
  • their caregivers show improvements in parenting practices and an increase in parents' employment

Policy impact:

As a result of these findings, the Ministry of Education in Mozambique is now planning to extend community-based preschools to 600 communities. Early childhood education was included in the country's 2012-2016 national education plan. The government has also created a national early childhood development commission.

Legislation on the for-profit private health sector in east and southern Africa

12 Mar 2015 09:09:23 GMT

International evidence shows that, if left unregulated, the for-profit sector may lead to distortions in the quantity, distribution and quality of health services, as well as anti-competitive behaviour (Marriott 2009). As the for-profit private sector appears to be expanding in east and southern African (ESA) countries, governments need to strengthen regulations to ensure that the for-profit sector does not undermine national health system objectives. This paper examines how existing regulation provides for objectives such as the quantity, quality, distribution and price of health care services and suggests priorities for strengthening legal frameworks in 16 countries in east and southern Africa (Angola, Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe). It draws on a desk-based review of legislation accessed through the internet or from in-country researchers and interviews with in-country experts. The paper suggests that governments and other policy makers need to embark on a programme of action to strengthen regulatory frameworks and instruments in relation to private health care provision and insurance. Some activities are necessary regardless of whether strategic purchasing policies are implemented, but others will be easier to achieve under a mandatory prepayment system. The recommended some steps such as; develop in-country capacity to evaluate legislation affecting the private health sector against public health and other objectives; develop an overarching policy on the private sector to guide legislation and clarify regulatory objectives; rationalise the number of regulatory authorities or harmonise their activities and ensure that regulators and the industry well understand the legal requirements of multiple pieces of legislation; clarify how and where private health professionals and organisations could address the needs of disadvantaged populations and create enabling policy and legislation; create greater transparency, inform patients, health insurance beneficiaries and the public at large of their rights, and strengthen the accountability of regulatory authorities, health care providers and health insurers; develop direct and indirect mechanisms for reducing cost escalation, especially within the hospital sector but also in relation to the administration of health insurers; investigate and act against anti-competitive behaviour. The paper also highlighted that legislation is not the only route for regulating the private sector and can be complex and costly to implement. Strengthening legislation should be accompanied by the development of both positive and nega[...]