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MDGs



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2016 Aid tansparency index

28 Apr 2016 12:43:44 GMT

2015 was an important year for international development, with governments agreeing to the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the next fifteen years. It was also a critical year for aid transparency. Back in 2011, leading donors committed in Busan to make their aid transparent by the end of 2015.

The 2016 Aid Transparency Index demonstrates whether that commitment has been met. Five years after the first Aid Transparency Index, and five years after the Busan commitment, it shows us how transparent major donors are as we begin the first year of the implementation of the SDGs.

The results find that ten donors of varied types and sizes, accounting for 25% of total aid, have met the commitment to aid transparency made in Busan. Over half of the organisations included in the 2016 Index publish data to the IATI Registry at least quarterly. However, most of the organisations covered fall into the lowest three categories, scoring below 60% and demonstrating that the publication of timely, comparable and disaggregated information about their development projects to the IATI Registry is far from complete. The Index also finds that over half of the organisations included do not publish budget information for the next one to three years – a key demand of partner countries.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) tops the Index for the second time with an excellent score of 93.3%, the only organisation to score above 90%. The Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) is placed second, performing well once again, and UNICEF enters the ‘very good’ category for the first time, jumping into third place. The ‘very good’ category also includes the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development (UK-DFID), the Global Fund, the World Bank-International Development Association (WB-IDA), the Inter- American Development Bank (IADB), the Asian Development Bank (AsDB), the government of Sweden and the African Development Bank (AfDB).

At the other end of the scale, some important donors are performing poorly. France, Italy and Japan have agencies in a group of twelve donors in the ‘poor’ and ‘very poor’ categories. The United Arab Emirates (UAE), a new addition in 2016, and China come last in the Index ranking. The largest number of donors is grouped under the ‘fair’ category, including some of the most important ones as categorised by aid budget such as USAID and Japan-JICA. Many of these donors are well established and have the structures in place to perform better.




Towards financing the Millennium Development Goals of the Philippines

04 Mar 2016 03:36:53 GMT

The Philippines is lagging behind in terms of achieving the 2015 MDG targets or compared with her neighbours.

This study resulted from UNDP’s interest in the Philippine proposal for debt-to-MDG financing presented to the United Nations in September 2005. It is based on an analysis of the problem and the processes involved as well as consultations with key Philippine stakeholders, and views of creditor countries. One of the salient points of the study is the need to improve the Philippines’ performance to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets. The Philippines lags behind in terms of achieving the 2015 MDG targets as compared with her neighbors. There is obviously a need to hasten and broaden activities, projects, and programs that will quickly address the problems. Another key point is the large gaps in financing the attainment of the MDG targets in 2006-2015. Although the enactment of new tax measures eased the fiscal situation starting in 2006, the additional fiscal resources are still inadequate to fully cover MDG resource requirements. Bridging the MDG financing gaps calls for policies geared toward improving income and employment generation as well as the savings mobilization of Filipinos.

The study suggests policies to promote equitable distribution of income and wealth to improve the MDGs substantially and reduce the MDG financing needs. It also proposes concrete recommendations to mobilize and safeguard MDG financing as well as policies for debt reduction or debt conversion to MDG financing.




Measures for assessing basic education in the Philippines

03 Mar 2016 11:40:42 GMT

The second goal of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to achieve universal primary education. The target is to reach all the MDGs by 2015. Trends in education indicators for monitoring the second MDG suggest that Philippines may probably not meet the target on achieving universal primary education. Indicators that monitor gender disparity in primary and secondary education suggest that females are at an advantage over males.

In this paper, various education indicators sourced from administrative reporting systems and surveys are looked into for assessing basic education in the country. Issues on the lack of comparability of figures from reporting systems, on the need to improve dissemination of education statistics, and on the need to properly link data with policy through a systematic monitoring and evaluation system are also discussed.




Policy study on the national and local government expenditures for Millennium Development Goals, 2000-2005

03 Mar 2016 11:36:18 GMT

In line with the commitment of the Philippine government to adopt the Millennium Declaration, there have been efforts geared toward the achievement of the millennium development goals (MDGs) particularly the specific targets set for each of the eight MDGs. The MDGs include eradication of extreme poverty and hunger; universal primary education; gender equality and women empowerment; reduction of child mortality; improvement of maternal health; control of HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases; environmental sustainability; and global partnership for development.

The country has to do better in certain aspects of all of the seven quantifiable goals, namely:

  • Goal 1 (poverty and hunger)
  • Goal 2 (education)
  • Goal 3 (gender equality)
  • Goal 5 (maternal health)
  • Goal 6 (control of communicable diseases), and Goal 7 (environmental sustainability).

In this regard, it is critical that the Philippines exercises greater vigilance and exerts increased effort in addressing the requirements of achieving the MDGs. The study aims to support this initiative by tracking and analyzing the trend in MDG expenditures of both the central and local governments. It specifically attempts to analyze trends on MDG expenditures of the national and local governments, including ODA commitments for the period 2000-2005; relate the trends in MDG expenditures with human development outcomes and related outputs/services; and recommend policy actions on how to a) increase government revenues in the aggregate, b) increase the allocation of resources for MDG-related programs and projects by improving both intersectoral and intrasectoral allocation, and c) identify ways of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the delivery of MDG-related programs.




Financing the Millennium Development Goals: the Philippines

03 Mar 2016 03:21:34 GMT

The improving fiscal situation in the Phili ppines presents an opportune time for the government to re-assess the resource requir ements of achieving the MDGs and to exercise greater vigilance in ensuring that the MDGs benefit from the fiscal space that has been created. In response, this study updated and expanded the earlier study on the financing of MDGs that was completed in 200 2. In particular, it es timated the financial requirements needed to achieve Goals 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7; co mpared the resource requirements with the funding level that is lik ely to be made available to determine the funding gap for each of these goals under altern ative macro and sectoral policy scenarios; taking existing NG-LGU expenditure assignment into account, arrived at a consolidated estimate of total general government resource requirement and resource gap in financing the said MDGs; and proposed how resources can optimally be managed, referring to both operational efficiencies and institutional arrangements, so as to maximize their effectiveness.

The estimates obtained from this study high light the fact that the Philippines cannot afford to be complacent and act as if it is “bus iness as usual.” It cannot be denied that the policy thrusts embodied in the MTPDP ar e supportive of the a ttainment of the Millennium Development Goals. In addition, the government, in general, and many government agencies, in particular, have al ready started to implement many policies, strategies and programs that are to enha nce the achievement of the MDGs. These policies, strategies and programs will have to be sustained or pursued with greater vigor. But beyond this, there is a need for furt her improvements in other policy areas and institutional arrangements.




Improving local service delivery for the MDGs in Asia: the case of the Philippines

01 Mar 2016 11:59:22 GMT

This report argues that improving local service delivery (LSD) is about improving people’s lives. It is premised on the idea that better provision of public goods and services is a prerequisite to realizing human capabilities, thus expanding human freedoms and enhancing human lives for a better society. It investigates on improving local delivery of MDG-critical services such as education, health, and water, with a view to formulating sectoral decentralization policy frameworks that would serve as inputs to national strategies and plans in improving LSD in the Philippines. It develops a Triangulation Framework as a tool of analysis that provides a perspective on how to better understand the dynamics of LSD systems and the requirements for improving them through the interdependence of policy, institutions, and finance. Corollary argument is that institutional actors take a primordial role in improving LSD systems and practices despite policy and financial gaps and development challenges. Policy, institutional, and financial analyses at the national level are provided in contextualizing the sectoral discussions on primary and secondary education, maternal and child health, and potable water based on sector analysis and performance outcomes in the LSD areas of Agusan del Sur and Dumaguete City. The main thrusts of the sectoral discussions are the key findings, issues and challenges, reforms and recommendations, and areas for further research.




Assessing development strategies to achieve the MDGs in Asia: Philippines (final report)

01 Mar 2016 11:17:09 GMT

The Philippines is a developing country with strong commitment to the millennium development goals (MDGs). However, it faces challenges in closing MDG gaps, owing to mediocre growth, macroeconomic instability, and financing constraints. Since the 1990s, increases in per capita incomes have been pulled down by tepid growth in productivity, rapid population growth, and macroeconomic instability. Since the mid-1980s, however, various reforms have been implemented to lay the foundation for sustained growth and poverty reduction.The external imbalance was a concern in the 1980s and 1990s, as the country endured balance of payments crises and persistent trade deficits; however, recently capital inflows have soared, due mainly to rapid growth of overseas remittances. The fiscal balance remains a policy challenge; public finance through borrowing, whether domestic or foreign, is complicated by large and persistent debt stocks. ODA has shrunk, owing in part to institutional factors. Recently public finance through taxation has suffered from tentative revenue effort.The country`s record in the MDGs is mixed. Progress has been made in child health, potable water, and sanitation. However, inroads against extreme poverty are complicated by an anomalous relationship between poverty and growth. The responsiveness of education outcome to public spending is apparently low; goals for education and maternal health remain elusive.

The study recommends attempting to close the MDG gaps using tax financing. This financing option is feasible in the sense that the required revenue effort has been achieved in previous decades. Admittedly, it entails a dramatic improvement in revenue effort compared to most recent (decadal) trends. This underscores the urgent, development-based rationale for raising tax collection efficiency, introducing new tax policies, in combination with public sector reforms for cost-effective service delivery.




Are we winning the fight against poverty? An assessment of the poverty situation in the Philippines

01 Mar 2016 02:51:31 GMT

In 2006, poverty incidence in the Philippines went up by 3 percentage points from 2003, marking a reversal against the downward trend in previous poverty estimates. This upward trend went against expectations after the Philippine economy exhibited a relatively robust performance during this period. The reasons as to why this has happened are explored in this paper. Meanwhile, income inequality measures do not show significant change over the years. Natural disasters and economic crises further add to the already difficult work of reducing poverty. The MDG deadline looms ahead and time is running out in the country`s battle against poverty. In this report, the poverty situation is again revisited and closely examined. It aims to assess whether the country has made any improvements or not and to answer several key questions such as: What should likely be the focus of poverty reduction efforts? Why is it that poverty rose despite the relatively fast economic growth in recent years? What can we learn from this experience?

[Draft - for discussion purposes only]




Financing the MDGs and inclusive growth in the time of fiscal consolidation

01 Mar 2016 02:23:08 GMT

The progress made by the national government in consolidating its fiscal position between 2002 and 2006 proved unsustainable as its revenue effort started to go down once again in 2007 after a brief improvement in 2005-2007. With the more expansionary stance taken by the government in 2009 as part of its effort to shield the economy from the effects of the global financial and economic crisis of 2008/9, the national government fiscal deficit jumped to 3.9% of GDP in 2009 and national government debt started to rise when measured relative to GDP.

Clearly, turning around the national government`s fiscal health should be high on the policy agenda. In previous episodes of fiscal consolidation, the easiest way to address the fiscal imbalance is by cutting expenditures. However, this option does not appear to be consistent with the government`s avowed commitment to achieving the Millennium Development Goals and inclusive growth. After estimating the budgetary requirements of achieving the MDGs and inclusive growth, this paper shows that national government revenues need to increase from 14.3% of GDP in 2009-2010 to 17.5%-17.9% in 2012-2016 if fiscal consolidation were to be achieved while providing the fiscal space for the much needed basic social services and infrastructure.

The Aquino administration has repeatedly said that the much needed revenue increases will be derived solely from improvements in tax administration rather than from the imposition of new taxes or increases in the rate of imposition of existing taxes. The record of the BIR and BOC in increasing their revenue effort through improvements in tax administration does not inspire optimism, however. This study also cautions that tax administration improvements do not happen overnight primarily because the installation and operationalization of system-wide changes take time. Thus, it argues that there is a need for government to consider the imposition of new tax measures if fiscal consolidation is to be achieved without sacrificing the financing of MDGs and inclusive growth. The least distortionary options in this regard include:

  • the restructuring of excise tax on sin products
  • the rationalization of fiscal incentives, and
  • reforming the road user charge

In addition, the government should also consider the simplification of tax structure by reducing the number of rates at which various taxes are levied or by reducing the number of taxpayers/transactions/types of income which are exempt from any given tax.




Growth and redistribution: Is there 'Trickle Down' Effect in the Philippines?

26 Feb 2016 11:18:24 GMT

There is a general belief that economic growth is linked to poverty reduction because growth offers economic opportunities to the poor to improve their lot. According to the trickle-down theory (Todaro, 1997), economic growth is favorable because economic gains from growth are transmitted to the poor through various means such as favorable labor market conditions and improved service provisions by the government (e.g., health, schooling, infrastructure etc.). Thus, policies should be centered in boosting the economy and promoting growth to improve living conditions of the people, eventually reducing poverty and improving the living conditions of the poor.

The aim of this study is to review the literature on the impact of growth on poverty reduction, measure empirically the difference between the determinants of growth and poverty in the Philippines, and examine how these two are related. This study intends to answer the question: Does the poor benefit from economic growth? The empirical part focuses on the Philippines, a country  characterised by a relatively modest economic growth, high levels of income inequality, and weak performance in poverty reduction.

Using regression analysis, five factors were examined (1) location
of the household, (2) access to infrastructure, (3) changes in rice prices, (4) peace situation, and (5) initial household endowments. The most important finding is that impacts of the five factors vary significantly across households belonging to different income groups—the rich benefit more than the poor. This calls for an effective policy intervention in targeting the poor.




Children of the Millennium: Growing up with the MDGs

18 Dec 2015 04:44:57 GMT

Huge optimism surrounded the global commitment at the turn of the century to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Many of the goals related to children and childhood, including ending poverty and hunger, expanding enrolment in primary education, and improving access to clean water and sanitation. If we can get things right at the start of a child’s life, the world agreed, we have a chance to stop poverty and inequality being passed down through the generations.

During 2015, Young Lives have been taking stock of the achievements and lessons learned since the adoption of the MDGs, in the run-up to the new Global Goals for Sustainable Development.

Using data gathered from 12,000 children and their families over the timeframe of the MDGs, and in children’s own words where possible, this report from Young Lives looks beyond the ‘big data’ to see what has changed in the reality of children’s lives in the context of the shifts in national policy, priorities and outcomes related to the MDGs.

There have been some important advances, with a reduction in childhood poverty and rise in essential services across many developing countries. However, average numbers cannot tell the whole story; the figures hide discrepancies between countries, as well as between children within countries, and gaps in quality and inclusiveness.




Priority Indicator Proposals on Gender Equality and Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights, as agreed by the Women’s Major Group

13 Oct 2015 03:07:34 GMT

This report presents the Women’s Major Group’s recommended indicators for the following:

  • Target 3.1: By 2030 reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 births
  • Target 3.7: By 2030 ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
  • Target 5: End all forms of discrimination against all women and girls everywhere
  • Target 5.2: Eliminate all forms of violence against all women and girls in public and private spheres, including trafficking and sexual and other types of exploitation
  • Target 5.3: Eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation
  • Target 5.6: Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights as agreed in accordance with the Programme of Action of the ICPD and the Beijing Platform for Action and the outcome documents of their review conferences

Alongside every proposed indicator is a data source (for example country studies, National Health Information systems, Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), a rational for the indicator, disaggregation required and possible weaknesses.



Women’s Major Group Indicator Proposals

13 Oct 2015 02:56:14 GMT

This resource presents the Women’s Major Group’s recommendations for SDG indicators. One or more indicators has been proposed for each of the targets by a variety of organisations and constituencies including UN Women, APWLD, JAG, Stakeholder Group on Aging and many others. On an overarching basis the Women's Major Group puts forth that the global indicator framework for the SDG goals and targets must measure the factors that are most likely to lead to transformative change and the realisation of gender equality and human rights and that: Gender-differentiated statistics and indicators must be collected in order to measure gender gaps and adjust development programmes to rectify inequalities. At a minimum, data should be disaggregated on the basis of age, sex, geography, income, disability, race and ethnicity. Even though some indicators are measured by household the data collected for those indicators should still be disaggregated – it is important to know how the household is comprised. The number of indicators should not be arbitrarily limited. Indicators must comply with and promote current human rights standards. There must be scope to elaborate on the indicator framework in the coming years in order to adapt to changing development environments. The Group also supports the calls of many that there be increased efforts aimed at capacity-building and supporting national and international statistics offices in the collection and analysis of data. This should include gender-expertise and improved resourcing for independent civil society participation in monitoring frameworks and providing inputs throughout the indicator development process.[...]



A position statement on mental health in the post-2015 development agenda

26 Aug 2015 08:03:24 GMT

This article reviews the evidence for the place of mental health in broader development issues in the run-up to 2015.

It argues that, if mental health is going to be recognised as having an essential role in development, there needs to be a consensus on priorities for advocacy. As mental health is a cross-cutting issue, it should be included in frameworks for action to increase the likelihood of achieving global priorities for development. Various key priorities emerged from a survey of stakeholders in the Movement for Global Mental Health (MGMH), including increasing access to mental health services, and addressing human rights abuse, stigma, and exclusion.




India's economic footprint in the developing world

11 Aug 2015 12:12:40 GMT

The year 2015 is a monumental one for the global financial order. UN member states are on the cusp of replacing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) with newly formed
Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) at the upcoming session of the General Assembly, Tsignaling the international community's adoption of a renewed development agenda. With the advent of institutions such as the BRICS New Development Bank (NDB) and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB), India's emerging economy is well poised to assume a significant role in international processes that will shape the global economic climate in the near
future.

In order to understand India's ability to influence these processes, it is imperative to examine the substance of the nation's economic presence in international development. Due to its status as an emerging economy, India is generally conceived of as a recipient of foreign aid. While the nation's
full potential as a leader in international development cooperation is yet to be fulfilled, India has established itself as a significant source of assistance for other developing countries since the liberalisation of its economy in the 1990s.

This paper attempts to map India's growing economic footprint in the developing world, from both the public and private lenses. As India makes its transition from recipient to contributor, it is crucial to identify emerging patterns in various components of its development assistance.2 In addition to trends in more conventional forms of development assistance such as grants and trade agreements, other stalwarts of India's development assistance to the global South, including lines of credit and
technical cooperation, will also be assessed. Apart from providing a clearer picture of India's stake in multilateral development processes, this footprint also serves to reflect trends in India's economic relations with other countries and regions of similar economic standing.




Final draft: Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development

03 Aug 2015 01:43:26 GMT

This is the finalised negotiated text of the draft Outcome Document which will form the basis for agreement at the UN Summit to Adopt the Post-2015 Development Agenda. It was published on 31 July 2015.

The draft covers the four components of the Agenda:

  • an opeing declaration
  • the Sustainable Development Goals and targets
  • Means of implementation and the Global Partnership
  • Follow up and review



The Millennium Development Goals Report 2015

09 Jul 2015 09:54:11 GMT

The 2015 Millennium Development Goals Report is the final annual assessment of global and regional progress towards the MDGs and reflects the most comprehensive, up-to-date data compiled by over 28 UN and international agencies. A complete set of the data used to prepare the report is available at mdgs.un.org. 

The report argues that, thanks to concerted global, regional, national and local efforts, the MDGs have saved the lives of millions and improved conditions for many more. The data and analysis presented in this report shows that, with targeted interventions,sound strategies, adequate resources and political will,even the poorest countries can make dramatic and unprecedented progress. 

The report also acknowledges that achievements have been uneven and there have been shortfalls in many areas. Areas they particularly highlight include:

  • Persistent gender inequality 
  • Gaps between the poorest and richest households, and between rural and urban areas
  • Climate change and environmental degradation
  • Conflicts 
  • Poverty, hunger and lack of access to basic services

Finally the report looks forward to the post-2015 agenda and calls for lessons to be learned from the way in which the monitoring of progress against the goals can been used to galvanise effective action and improve accountability. the report emphasises the importance of good quality, disagregated data and available data. 




Thinking beyond sectors for sustainable development

07 Jul 2015 04:48:35 GMT

This book argues that a truly interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral effort will be necessary for successful development and implementation of future international development goals.

It aims to provide a concise introduction to the debates in a number of vital development sectors, including climate and climate change, review progress made in each sector, and to consider how looking beyond sectors might open new opportunities for inclusive, sustainable development. It considers global development within and across sectors, and as a complex series of interactions and aims to provoke discussion and engagement with the post-2015 development agenda, not only on how the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) themselves are developed, but also the far more important issues of how they might be governed, implemented and achieved to ensure sustainable, inclusive global development.

[Adapted from source]




Global development goals: leaving no one behind

26 Jun 2015 12:44:33 GMT

Aimed at policy-makers, practitioners and interested observers, this publication aims to encourage renewed commitment to the existing MDGs, inspire creativity in achieving them and generate debate on the main issues that will shape the course of the next decade of international development. offers analysis and recommendations in both these areas. It considers the context in which the MDGs were developed, assesses progress to date, offers views on achieving the 2015 targets, and provides insights into the creation of the post-2015 agenda. Particular emphasis is placed on those factors that have yielded the greatest advances, and the areas most in need of urgent attention.




The United Nations Post-2015 Agenda for Global Development: perspectives from China and Europe

26 Jun 2015 03:39:34 GMT

This publication focuses on scholarly discourses and policy challenges in China and Germany. Articles from The German Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE), also cover European perspectives while chapters from the Shanghai Institutes for International Studies (SIIS) extend to the BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). The contributions demonstrate a surprising degree of convergence in German and Chinese analytical thinking but also point to substantive areas of disagreement.




Post 2015: how emerging economies shape the relevance of a new agenda

26 Jun 2015 03:23:40 GMT

The rise of emerging economies has fundamentally changed the context in which negotiations on a post-2015 agreement take place. The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were an agenda driven by traditional donors and North-South relations – a model of global relations that is outdated today. When the MDGs were negotiated at the end of the 1990s, they set a new basis for cooperation among industrialised and developing countries. By focusing on human development and orienting development aid to the poorest people, the MDGs allowed policy-makers and non-governmental organisations (NGOs) to mobilise support among the broader public for increasing aid flows.

15 years later, countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) play a major role on the global stage. A second group of emerging countries, such as Indonesia, Mexico, Nigeria and Turkey, are rapidly gaining importance as economic and political players, especially in their respective regions. The rise of these countries shapes the nature of global development challenges and the instruments used to address them.

However, as this Briefing paper argues, limited cooperation among emerging economies on development policy and weak institutions for cooperation may hinder these countries in feeding common positions into the post-2015 negotiations. Weak cooperation among emerging economies may thus make it difficult for these countries to actively support a global or even universal agenda.

 




Progress for children: beyond averages - learning from the MDGs

23 Jun 2015 03:00:39 GMT

This eleventh edition of Progress for Children is UNICEF’s final report on the child-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It presents latest data that show while the MDGs helped drive tremendous advances in the lives of the world’s children, development efforts in the past 15 years failed to reach millions of the most disadvantaged. The report spotlights where the international community must now focus attention and action to reach the most vulnerable children and achieve sustainable growth.




Integrating population issues into sustainable development, including the post- 2015 development agenda: a concise report

18 Jun 2015 03:53:26 GMT

In designing and implementing the new development agenda, post-2105, it is important to understand and account for the demographic changes that are likely to unfold over the next 15 years and how such changes are expected to contribute to or hinder the achievement of the sustainable development goals. While much remains unknown about the rate of transformation of the global economy or the speed at which technological advancements will be needed to improve efficiency and reduce the world’s environmental footprint, changes in population size, composition and spatial distribution in the near future are more certain.

Projected demographic changes over the next 15 years will shape the implementation of the post 2015 development agenda, creating both opportunities and challenges. The greatest and most fundamental challenge is to adjust to a world population of 8.4 billion people eager to achieve higher standards of living, while minimizing the negative impact of human activity on the environment.

Some of the main opportunities are those associated with declines in mortality and fertility, which will alter the age structure of populations in ways that, at various stages ofthe demographic transition, may prove to be either a boost or an additional challenge to the achievement of inclusive and sustainable economic growth. Migration can contribute to sustainable development by expanding economic opportunities, reducing poverty, addressing labour markets imbalances and accelerating the diffusion of new ideas and technologies.

Furthermore, higher population density, associated with urbanization, provides an opportunity for Governments to deliver such basic servicesas water and sanitation in a more cost-effective manner to greater numbers of people. Similarly, future population dynamics will themselves be influenced by the successes, challenges and shortcomings in the implementation of the post-2015 development agenda.




Zero draft: Transforming our world by 2030: A new agenda for global action

03 Jun 2015 12:41:46 GMT

This is the zero draft of the outcome document for the UN Summit to adopt the Post-2015 Development Agenda published on 1st June 2015.

The draft covers the four components of the Agenda:

  • an opeing declaration
  • the Sustainable Development Goals and targets
  • Means of implementation and the Global Partnership
  • Follow up and review

It also includes three annexes:

  • A paper proposing revisions to 21 of the 169 targets
  • A "food for thought" paper on a possible Technology Facilitation Mechanism
  • The 'Introduction of the Open Working Group Proposal for Sustainable development goals and targets'.



Reasonable goals for reducing poverty in Africa: targets for the post-2015 MDGs and Agenda 2063

08 May 2015 02:39:36 GMT

The eradication of extreme poverty is a key component in the post-2015 Millennium Development Goals process and the African Union’s Agenda 2063. This paper uses the International Futures forecasting system to explore this goal and finds that many African states are unlikely to make this target by 2030, even when modelling a package of aggressive poverty reduction interventions. In addition to country-level targets the authors also argue in favour of a goal that would see Africa as a whole reducing extreme poverty to below 15% by 2030, and below 4% by 2045.




China’s propositions and recommendations on the Post-2015 agenda

14 Apr 2015 01:50:37 GMT

With the MDGs coming to the end by 2015, the discussions about the Post-2015 Development Agenda in the
international world are becoming more and more vigorous. Many national governments, research institutes, NGOs,
as well as international organizations represented by the UN have attached great importance to this.

A large number of research projects, seminars and workshops have been organized and have produced many important reports. Among the heated discussions, however, China looks indifferent and quiet. It seems as though the Chinese government has not paid much attention to the Post-2015 Agenda, nor has it become actively involved in the
discussions in the UN system either. The research and debates among the Chinese academia is also very limited.
In September 2013, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China released China's Position Paper on the Development
Agenda beyond 20151. The position stated in the Paper is conservative, positioning China more as a developing
country keen on realizing its own development and avoiding any direct response to some focal dispute points in the
international world.

Here, the author suggests that China, as one of the permanent members of the UN, the largest developing country in the world as well as the largest South-South cooperation provider, should attach greater importance to and participate more actively and effectively in the negotiations and formulations of the Post-2015 Agenda, so as to better reflect and protect its own interests as well as the broader interests of other developing countries.




Sustainable Development Goals must consider security, justice and inequality to achieve social justice

26 Mar 2015 04:08:10 GMT

Security and social justice have a crucial role to play in the newly proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The goals, which aim to establish a safe, sustainable and just society for all, require a truly transformative approach, one that places inclusivity, safety, equity and justice at the centre of a global pursuit for sustainable development. However, some United Nations (UN) member states are reluctant to securitise the sustainability agenda, and are advocating against their inclusion in the SDGs. The reality is that insecurity and inequality are at the crossroad of security and sustainability, making them significant issues to overcome.

This Policy Briefing argues that a reframing of security and justice around a social justice lens would create space to address the interlinkages between sustainability and security and justice.

Policy recommendations:

If the SDGs are to achieve their aim of establishing a safe, sustainable and just society for all, the post-2015 framework should place security, justice, and inequality at the centre of a global pursuit for sustainable development. Progress towards this could be achieved by:

  • creating a new UN discourse around peace, security and justice, with security as an entitlement
  • developing a number of goals to address inequality and discrimination in terms of income redistribution, resource management and social, economic and political inclusion to address the underlying issues that drive
  • violence
  • establishing an objective that enables citizens to hold states accountable, by: securing rights to land and property for men and women; ensuring citizen participation in monitoring the effective provision of essential services such as healthcare, water and education; creating affordable and timely access to justice institutions and legal aid services



Understanding the Rising Powers' contribution to the Sustainable Development Goals

26 Mar 2015 04:01:25 GMT

Rising powers such as Brazil, India and China have been criticised for being obstructive in the negotiations on the post-2015 development agenda. The start of the United Nations (UN) negotiations saw high expectations for the role of these countries in shaping the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This leadership has not materialised.

However, what appears to be a confrontational style of diplomacy is in fact an assertive affirmation of long-standing principles. Rapid and real progress is being made both in these countries’ national frameworks and their international commitments to making the SDGs a reality, and a more nuanced understanding of these countries’ positions in the post-2015 process is required.

Recommendations made by this Rapid Response brief:

  • global development policy is rapidly shifting. In a time of geopolitical uncertainty, the UN’s continued ability to convene the world’s countries around the table should be seen as a key opportunity for prospects of global peace and prosperity
  • global policy processes are not always seen as the right fora for binding agreements, as evidenced by the China-US bilateral climate agreement. Cooperation through bilateral channels is one way to build and strengthen relations which can then serve to support processes like the SDGs and contribute to global prospects of economic, social and environmental development
  • progress made through the SDG process towards greater equality in how global policy is shaped needs to be maintained and built upon, for example in relation to the long-overdue reform of the Bretton Woods institutions
  • all countries need to recognise and respect the consensual process in which the proposed 17 goals and 169 targets were arrived at, and that these are aspirational goals which mark the starting point for a universal approach to sustainable development. Countries keen to downsize the 17 goals should be careful not to be seen as trying to steamroll other countries’ views
  • the SDGs’ voluntary nature is considered key to ensuring the diversity of countries supporting them, and concerns around their achievability should be mitigated by evidence that a willingness to set ambitious goals is also representative of commitment

 




Achieving the MDGs: at what cost?

24 Mar 2015 12:25:15 GMT

More spending is needed if progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to be accelerated. Extra funding is vitally important, particularly for the poorest countries, but it can come with risks. Those working to achieve the health MDGs cannot ignore the macroeconomic implications of injecting additional external resources into weak economies. These issues remain relevant despite the challengesof the current financial and economic crisis.

This paper provides an overview of the debates surrounding how much is needed to achieve the health MDGs, how such funds might be raised, and some of the impacts of scaling up, particularly on macroeconomic stability.

Economic growth is important, and macroeconomic stability, which contributes to it, is likely to make a major contribution to achieving the health MDGs. However, increased spending can have a detrimental impact. Those who advocate for additional resources for the health sector need to consider the wider context, as achieving a balance between increasing health expenditure and macroeconomic stability is vital. Experience also shows that some types of spending or donor behaviour work better than others towards enhancing macroeconomic stability and improving the health sector.




The road to dignity by 2030: ending poverty, transforming all lives and protecting the planet

20 Mar 2015 11:07:43 GMT

This synthesis report aims to support States’ discussions going forward, taking stock of the negotiations on the post-2015 agenda and reviewing lessons from pursuit of the MDGs. It stresses the need to “finish the job” – both to help people now and as a launch pad for the new agenda.

In the report’s conclusion, the UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon issues a powerful charge to Member States, saying: “We are on the threshold of the most important year of development since the founding of the United Nations itself. We must give meaning to this Organization’s promise to ‘reaffirm faith in the dignity and worth of the human person’ and to take the world forward to a sustainable future…[We] have an historic opportunity and duty to act, boldly, vigorously and expeditiously, to turn reality into a life of dignity for all, leaving no one behind.”

The synthesis report presented dignity, people, prosperity, the planet, justice and partnerships as an integrated set of “essential elements” aimed at providing conceptual guidance during discussions of the goals and Mr. Ban stressed that none could be considered in isolation from the others and that each was an integral part of the whole.




Avoiding 40% of the premature deaths in each country, 2010-30: review of national mortality trends to help quantify the UN Sustainable Development Goal for health

19 Mar 2015 04:01:47 GMT

The UN will formulate ambitious Sustainable Development Goals for 2030, including one for health. Feasible goals with some quantifiable, measurable targets can influence governments. This article proposes, as a quatitative health target, “Avoid in each country 40% of premature deaths (under-70 deaths that would be seen in the 2030 population at 2010 death rates), and improve health care at all ages”. Targeting overall mortality and improved health care ignores no modifiable cause of death, nor any cause of disability that is treatable (or also causes many deaths). 40% fewer premature deaths would be important in all countries, but implies very different priorities in different populations.

Reinforcing this target for overall mortality in each country are four global subtargets for 2030: avoid two-thirds of child and maternal deaths; two-thirds of tuberculosis, HIV, and malaria deaths; a third of premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs); and a third of those from other causes (other communicable diseases, undernutrition, and injuries). These challenging subtargets would halve under-50 deaths, avoid a third of the (mainly NCD) deaths at ages 50–69 years, and so avoid 40% of under-70 deaths. To help assess feasibility, we review mortality rates and trends in the 25 most populous countries, in four country income groupings, and worldwide.

Results: Throughout the world, except in countries where the effects of HIV or political disturbances predominated, mortality decreased substantially from 1970–2010, particularly in childhood. From 2000–10, under-70 age-standardised mortality rates decreased 19% (with the low-income and lower-middle-income countries having the greatest absolute gains). The proportional decreases per decade (2000–10) were: 34% at ages 0–4 years; 17% at ages 5–49 years; 15% at ages 50–69 years; 30% for communicable, perinatal, maternal, or nutritional causes; 14% for NCDs; and 13% for injuries (accident, suicide, or homicide).




Risks and opportunities in securing increased resources for MDGs at the national level

17 Mar 2015 02:12:23 GMT

Without adequate funding support, the achievement of the MDGs, particularly those in which the Philippines is lagging behind, may not be likely. It cannot be denied that financing does not automatically translate into outcomes. However, while financing may not be a sufficient condition, it is, to a large extent, a necessary condition for the attainment of the MDGs.

Given this perspective, it is critical that the Philippines exercises greater vigilance and exerts more effort in addressing the risks and taking advantage of the opportunities toward increasing the aggregate amount of resources available for achieving the MDGs. These risks and opportunities relate to:

  • increasing government revenues in the aggregate
  • increasing the allocation of resources for MDG-related programs and projects by improving both intersectoral and intrasectoral allocation; and
  • identifying ways of getting a bigger “bang for the buck"



Quality education for all children? Briefing paper

16 Mar 2015 02:20:33 GMT

Governments and donors as part of their commitment to achieve Education for All by 2015 have pledged to get children into school, provide them with quality education and respond to their learning needs. But what is most effective in getting children into school, keeping them there and ensuring that they learn?

This brief distills policy relevant messages on the impact of education interventions that address both demand and supply side challenges.

Key messages:

  • development interventions are not only getting more children into school and keeping them there but are also helping children to learn more
  • but some interventions work better than others and different interventions work for different outcomes
  • conditional cash transfers increase school enrolment and attendance, but have no overall impact on children’s test scores
  • school fees subsidies improve enrolment and progress in school, while merit-based scholarships increase learning
  • distributing teaching and learning aids in school has no impact on school attendance and language test scores of children. However, computer-based learning offered in addition to the regular school curriculum has positive impacts on mathematics test scores
  • doing a cost-benefit analysis of programmes would allow policymakers to compare programmes more easily, and also make informed choices about which interventions to launch

 




Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa

17 Feb 2015 01:49:09 GMT

Progress towards achieving the Goals has been slow, but far from uniform across Africa. Although it is unlikely that the continent will achieve all the targets by 2015, the rate of progress is improving on several indicators such as primary school enrolment; the proportion of seats held by women in national parliaments; rates of HIV-prevalence; and the proportion of women in non-agricultural wage employment. Lack of financial resources and a hostile economic environment are the most visible hurdles to progress in achieving the MDGs in Africa.

The Centre for Conflict Resolution (CCR), Cape Town, South Africa, held a policy research seminar in Cape Town May 2013 on “Achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in Africa”. The emerging consensus on the post-2015 development agenda for Africa is that the MDGs cannot be achieved unless they are expanded to include broader concerns such as climate change and environmental sustainability; economic and social transformation; institutional capacity challenges; greater roles for civil society and the private sector; and the improved accountability of external donors in delivering on their commitments. Furthermore, African governments and regional bodies should assume ownership of this agenda – prioritising measures to reduce poverty and improve health.




Overview of Civil Society engagement in the Post - 2015 Development Agenda

16 Feb 2015 12:43:15 GMT

This paper provides conference proceedings of the Civil Society Consultation around the Post-2015 Development Agenda, held 11 September 2013, which aimed to identify Indian aspirations within a common framework in general and within the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) frame in specific to also list the possible replacements for the MDGs.




What after the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015? Achievements of MDGs, future prospects and recommendations for India

16 Feb 2015 12:36:41 GMT

The discussion on the post-2015/post-MDGs process presents a vital opportunity for India to play a leadership role in international affairs. India has the chance to address key domestic challenges as well as to shape global norms in ways that protect its interests.

This Newsletter includes:

  • Background: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Achievements in India so far
  • The post-2015 Agenda
  • Civil Society response
  • Call for Action
  • Recommendations to Parliamentarians



Post - 2015 Development Agenda - India National Consultation Report: Youth Constituency

16 Feb 2015 12:28:00 GMT

This National consultation report highlights the issues and concerns of Indian youth.  The issues and concerns of the youth were treated holistically and therefore self-reflection and sharing of personal experiences were key processes which allowed participants to share freely. In all 5 consultations the design comprised consultative processes in small groups as well as discussions and presentations in the plenary to encourage consensus and collective opinions to inform recommendations. Each group collectively came up with strategies as well as parameters of success for the emerging recommendations.




Post - 2015 Development Agenda - India National Consultation Report: Women’s Associations Constituency

16 Feb 2015 12:22:48 GMT

The National Women’s Empowerment Mission (NWEM), as the convener of the women’s associations, organised consultations where conscious effort was made to ensure participation from the most marginalised communities including dalits, tribals, and Muslim women, the urban poor and other stakeholders.

The consultations reviewed the MDG framework from gender perspective. Participants raised concerns over absence of a strong and cross cutting focus on gender across all goals. That the MDG’s translation of global goals into internationally applicable targets was inappropriate, given that different countries are in different stages of development and hence might require indicators and targets that are relevant to the particular country in context were the other concerns which emerged during the consultations. The discussants made recommendations for the thematic sectors including environment sustainability, health, education, economic empowerment, violence and gender responsive budgeting and highlighted exclusion. The panel on dalits, tribals, minority and disability highlighted the inequities experienced by women belonging to the most marginalised sections.




Post - 2015 Development Agenda - India National Consultation Report: Research Institutes Constituency

16 Feb 2015 12:10:02 GMT

The processes leading up to the designing of the Global Development Agenda Post-2015 indicate that this Agenda would have two dimensions that are not necessarily distinct. The first of these is provided by the experiences gained in the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), which give an indication as to the nature and extent of the existing development deficits. The proposed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the most significant outcome of the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20 Conference), would provide the second dimension.

This paper is an attempt to develop a perspective on the Post-2015 Global Development Agenda in light of some of the discussions taking place in the think tank community in India. It provides an overview of the implementation of the MDGs both at the national level in India and globally. The paper then lays down the contours of the SDGs as laid out in the outcome document of the Rio+20 Conference. Finally, it provides an indicative list of issues that may be included in the Post-2015 Global Development Agenda. The list of issues, it may be clarified, is not intended to be exhaustive; its only purpose is to trigger discussions on some of the critical areas where the global community needs to exert its energies in order to find mutually agreeable solutions.




Post - 2015 Development Agenda - India National Consultation Report: Industry Constituency

16 Feb 2015 12:04:43 GMT

The deadline for achieving the MDGs is set to expire by 2015. The United Nations and its member states have initiated a process to define the future development agenda. As part of the nine structured National consultations in India, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) was given the responsibility of organising industry consultations, and articulate opinion of the industry related to the post 2015 development agenda. This report look at the series of consultations for providing an opportunity to various industry representatives to participate in discussions and provide their inputs.




Post - 2015 Development Agenda - India National Consultation Report: Farmer’s Associations Constituency

16 Feb 2015 12:00:54 GMT

The Small Farmers’ Agri-Business Consortium (SFAC) in India was set up in 1994 to create a conducive environment for generating rural employment and facilitating farmer-growth through new ventures in agro-based industries, fisheries and horticulture. As part of their mandate, one of the initiatives taken up by SFAC and supported by the Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DAC) is to incubate 250 farmer producer organizations (FPOS) covering two hundred and fifty thousand farmers to integrate primary producers in the value chain and enhance incomes through increased access to investments, technology and markets.

This report looks at a series of national and regional consultations to create a conducive environment for generating rural employment and facilitating farmer-growth through new ventures in agro-based industries, fisheries and horticulture.




Post-2015 Development Agenda - India National Consultation Report: Civil Society Constituency

16 Feb 2015 11:55:47 GMT

This report covers Indian national level consultations and international-level dialogues that brought together southern voices to articulate key asks from the post-2015 agenda.

The paper identifies 15 Key Concerns that would need to be addressedby the post-2015 development agenda. These have been arrived at following a series of consultations and exchanges among Indian civil society activists and development practitioners.




On target for people and planet: Setting and achieving water related Sustainable Development Goals

16 Feb 2015 03:24:00 GMT

This report cautions against an overly rigid approach to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which it argues could limit development options for poor countries, particularly in how they are able to manage critical water resources. It identifies key challenges such as setting realistic targets, carefully considering the local context to address the needs of the poor, and promoting sustainable water resources development in a way that values healthy ecosystems. Case studies and examples are provided to give critical analyses of how national SDG targets can be defined and met through the most current evidence-based water policies.




Sustainable development goals: the quest for a Post-2015 Agenda

05 Feb 2015 12:30:22 GMT

The global community is currently engaged in a wide-ranging process to define a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to replace the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in 2015.

This summary outlines discussions held at a workshop in India -attended by attended by international stakeholders from India, China, Brazil, Nepal, Bangladesh, Pakistan and high-level representatives of the African Union (AU) – aiming to engage with policy stakeholders to identify respective priorities to help secure an inclusive agreement on the SDGs.




On the future Africa wants: the Common African Position on the post-2015 development agenda

02 Feb 2015 05:02:53 GMT

n many ways, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (2000–15) focused the world’s attention on the global challenge of development. While progress produced prosperity in the West and, more recently, parts of the East, it caused underdevelopment and poverty for the rest of the world. However, as 2015 – when the MDGs will lapse – approaches, there is growing realisation of how poorly MDG interventions were implemented, and the negative ramifi cations of this on Africa. Aware of their position as the biggest losers due to global failure to fully implement the MDGs, African states engaged on, and came up with, a common negotiating position on the Post-2015 Development Agenda. While this is a major step forward and demonstrates agency on the part of Africa, there are many hurdles that must be overcome for this achievement to result in prosperity for all. Principal among these is the current world system, which brought forth slavery, imperialism, colonialism and globalisation as successive orders. This system is a matrix of power that impinges on the dynamics of multilateral negotiations, the nature of international development assistance, and on Africa’s ownership of its own development.

This Policy & Practice Brief critically discusses the Common African Position (CAP) on the Post-2015 Development Agenda against lessons learnt from operationalisation of the MDGs, particularly in light of the fact that a truly humanist future is nearly impossible in a neo-colonial world order.




The policy case for a tailor-made indicator of sustainable development for South Africa

20 Jan 2015 01:42:37 GMT

South Africa reflects many of the world’s sustainability problems. Gains from the rise in commodity prices and debt-fueled, consumption-led growth have masked issues such as rising costs and declining competitiveness of the economy.

Monitoring and evaluating progress towards sustainability, as well as performance, has become a priority for many nations, along with the social and environmental urgency of sustainable development. International negotiations on climate change mitigation and adaptation have also encouraged the development of sustainability assessment frameworks. Consequently, appropriate tools informing trade-offs and guiding an economy towards a sustainable path are required by policymakers.

Since its conception, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has been the main indicator used to measure economic activity and characterise the success or failure of an economy, but South African authorities have recognised the challenges of using GDP as a measure of progress.

This policy brief looks at calls for for the construction of a tailor-made sustainability indicator based on the ANS Adjusted Net Savings (ANS) - also known as genuine savings, genuine investment or real wealth - methodology, but adjusted to reflect South Africa’s specific realities (e.g. dual economic system) and policy priorities (e.g. job creation, education).

The South African government has recognised the importance of developing indicators of progress and performance for current policies and for sustainable development. However, further work is required to link these sets of instruments and to design one that would: (a) give a clear indication of the country’s progress on a sustainable growth path, and (b) could also inform the trade-offs policymakers have to make based on an objective approach, thereby facilitating truly evidence-based policymaking.




Post-2015 development agenda: an Indian perspective

19 Dec 2014 11:22:54 GMT

The global debate around the finalisation of the Post-2015 development agenda aims to consider how societies could work towards attaining sustainable development in the coming years. This policy brief from the Forum for Indian Development Cooperation (FIDC) argues that, from India’s point of view the Post 2015 Development Agenda is primarily a development agenda with an emphasis squarely on poverty eradication as the biggest priority. This would require a rapid and inclusive economic growth, which in turn requires adequate means of implementation and facilitation of an enabling environment to pursue that.

From India’s point of view, there are clear indications that the commitment towards providing overseas development assistance (ODA) are not as per expectations. Increasingly the talk is about sources of financing other than the ODA. It has to be clearly understood by all parties about what the implications of this may be. There is talk about private sector investment. Whether this is purely investment or what kind of business proposition is being talked about, much more discussion is needed on that.

 




The Millennium Development Goals Report 2014

10 Dec 2014 06:54:23 GMT

Fourteen years ago, the Millennium Declaration articulated a bold vision and established concrete targets for improving the existence of many and for saving the lives of those threatened by disease and hunger. There has been important progress across all goals, with some targets already having been met well ahead of the 2015 deadline. All stakeholders will have to intensify and focus their efforts on the areas where advancement has been too slow and has not reached all.

Major achievements include:

  • The world has reduced extreme poverty by half. In 1990, almost half of the population in developing regions lived on less than $1.25 a day. This rate dropped to 22 per cent by 2010, reducing the number of people living in extreme poverty by 700 million.
  • Efforts in the fight against malaria and tuberculosis have shown results. Between 2000 and 2012, an estimated 3.3 million deaths from malaria were averted due to the substantial expansion of malaria interventions.
  • Access to an improved drinking water source became a reality for 2.3 billion people. Over 2.3 billion people gained access to an improved source of drinking water between 1990 and 2012.
  • Disparities in primary school enrolment between boys and girls are being eliminated in all developing regions. Substantial gains have been made towards reaching gender parity in school enrolment at all levels of education in all developing regions.
  • The political participation of women has continued to increase. In January 2014, 46 countries boasted having more than 30 per cent female members of parliament in at least one chamber.
  • Development assistance rebounded, the trading system stayed favourable for developing countries and their debt burden remained low.

Challenges include:

  • Major trends that threaten environmental sustainability continue, but examples of successful global action exist.
  • Hunger continues to decline, but immediate additional efforts are needed to reach the MDG target.

[Summary adapted from source]




Economic policy monitor 2010: fiscal space, investment, and poverty alleviation

02 Oct 2014 11:09:46 GMT

This first issue of the PIDS Economic Policy Monitor focuses on three related issues: fiscal space, investment, and poverty alleviation. With a 7.3 percent growth achieved in the country`s gross domestic product (GDP) in 2010, a feat that was beyond expectations of all analysts, the challenge for the government is to sustain this momentum and make economic growth more inclusive so that poverty may be reduced.

The EPM thus looks at how the government can improve its fiscal position to close the national deficit and have the needed resources to finance the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and achieve inclusive growth for the economy. The EPM likewise provides an assessment of the Philippines` poverty situation from a new perspective.




Understanding the extent, composition, and characteristics of the poor

02 Oct 2014 09:57:05 GMT

The 2010 Philippine Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Report noted that the country has been posting a medium rate of progress in terms of meeting the MDG target for poverty reduction. At this stage, the country has recently been challenged by a number of economic and natural shocks which include the food and fuel price hikes in 2008, the global financial and economic crisis in the latter part of 2008, devastating typhoons during the last quarter of 2009, followed by the El Niño phenomenon in the latter part of 2009.

This Policy Note looks into the extent and composition of poverty, and provides some idea on the basic characteristics of the poor in recent years. It also presents some insights that could guide the government in the formulation of specific types of interventions for different groups of households, especially the chronic and transient poor.