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A gender approach to understanding the differentiated impact of barriers to adaptation: responses to climate change in rural Ethiopia
01 Dec 2016 02:39:11 GMT
While adaptation has received a fair amount of attention in the climate change debate, barriers to adaptation are the focus of a more specific, recent discussion. In this discussion, such barriers are generally treated as having a uniform, negative impact on all actors. However, this paper argues that the precise nature and impact of such barriers on different actors has so far been largely overlooked.
This study of two drought-prone communities in rural Ethiopia sets out to examine how female- and male-headed households adapt to climate change, particularly focusing on how a variety of barriers influence the choice of adaptation measures to varying extents.
To this purpose, the authors built a conceptual framework based on the Sustainable Livelihood Approach. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions with male- and female-headed households, community leaders and local extension workers.
Findings suggest that gender-based differences in the choice of adaptation measures at the household level are driven by cultural, social, financial and institutional barriers. Barriers to adaptation—particularly when interacting—have a differentiated impact upon different actors. This outcome hints at the need for donors and policymakers to develop intervention strategies that are sensitive to this fact.
Displaced women and homelessness
30 Nov 2016 06:40:43 GMT
NRC´s research shows that this is compounded by the repressive social norms women experience from their communities and families. Those who face discrimination because of their ethnicity, place of origin and gender, are more likely to become homeless and, oncehomeless, are exposed to more serious protection risks.
Climate change adaptation in agriculture and natural resource management in Tanzania: a gender policy review
29 Nov 2016 02:33:51 GMT
More than twenty years have passed since the 1995 Beijing Platform for Action, where gender mainstreaming was acknowledged as an indispensable global strategy for achieving gender equality. Since then, Tanzania has undoubtedly made efforts in mainstreaming gender in its national policies and strategies.
This Info Note examines the state of gender responsiveness of fourteen agriculture, climate change and natural resource management policy documents and strategy plans in Tanzania. The desk-review focuses on mainland Tanzania, acknowledging that the Zanzibar Archipelago is governed, in some cases, by independent regulations.
- the inclusion of gender considerations in agriculture and natural resource management policies is of paramount importance if Tanzania is to create sustainable, inclusive and gender-sensitive interventions to mitigate and adapt to climate change. However, the disharmony existing between the different policies and sectors suggests the need for a planning framework that harmonizes and coordinates gender integration in policies and sectoral plans
- the policy documents remain silent on the role that gender plays in the different sub-sectors and consequently the proposed actions and strategies also remain gender-blind. In addition, gender is equated to women’s issues in most of the documents, presenting a narrow approach to gender and leaving untapped the important role that men could have in closing the gender gap in agriculture and natural resource management
- several of the reviewed documents relegate the achievement of these gender considerations to the NGO sector. There is need for an enhanced institutional arrangement and to mainstream gender throughout all sections of the policy documents for an improved performance
- there is a mismatch between the identified gender constraints that the documents present and the suggested policy solutions, and a lack of clear strategies by which the gender goals present in the policies could be achieved
- the proposed gender policy interventions do not yet have the potential to dramatically change or address current gender gaps. However, there are opportunities to redress the situation. First, three key national policies are under review (i.e. the National Environment Policy, the National Forest Policy and the Land Policy) and could sufficiently integrate gender. Second, planning for CSA offers a great opportunity to holistically integrate gender across implementation levels
Gendered vulnerabilities to climate change: insights from the semi-arid regions of Africa and Asia
25 Nov 2016 01:59:18 GMT
Vulnerabilities to impacts of climate change are gendered. Still, policy approaches aimed at strengthening local communities’ adaptive capacity largely fail to recognise the gendered nature of everyday realities and experiences.
Key points and recommendations:
- gender is not just about women, but the arrangement of roles, responsibilities and relations between men and women of different social groups, ages, educational and marital statuses. Both perceptions of risks and actual vulnerabilities are shaped by these roles, responsibilities and relations, and hence may vary across place, time and social position/location
- policies still largely fail to acknowledge the intersection of social relations and identities, which could provide a more exact understanding of adaptive behaviour in semi-arid contexts. To facilitate the inclusion of gender in policies, practices and extension services, gender should form an early focus in dialogue spaces, decision making processes and policy discussions
- adaptive strategies need to pay attention to the divisions of work between men and women to ensure that women’s everyday lives are not overburdened, and that suitable technologies are put in place to support their performance of everyday tasks (e.g., ensuring water for domestic use in the context of scarcity)
- adaptive strategies also need to work with social norms (that shape what kind of activities are appropriate for men and women to engage in) which might be restrictive but are not inflexible. Such social norms must be taken into consideration, and sometimes challenged, to promote gender equality and improve or increase women’s rights
- attention needs to be paid to the growing resource conflicts around the use and management of water and land, and the underlying causes ‒ particularly with the monetisation and commoditisation of these resources posing a threat to the already-precarious survival of some semi-arid communities
- new forms of diversification and collective action are emerging, especially by women, and trade-offs between short-term coping strategies and longer-term adaptation adaptation are becoming more apparent. All of these changes need to be better understood in terms of how gender works, is arranged and rearranged over time and place. At the same time, by building the capacity of local community ‒ especially women ‒ to access resources and ensure their voices are heard, their adaptive capacity can be increased and their dependency on state welfare can be reduced
- studies on climate change vulnerability and impacts and identification of adaptation strategies should be done from a gender-sensitive perspective. Further research is needed to understand the potential impacts of the reorganisation of domestic groups and the rise in numbers of female-headed households on their adaptive and coping strategies, particularly in the semi-arid regions in Africa
Gender and finance: coming out of the margins. Climate policy brief
24 Nov 2016 11:01:56 GMT
Climate finance must be managed at the global, regional and national levels to ensure and promote gender equality and the empowerment of women as key actors, both in climate protection and sustainable development efforts. Managing climate change impacts at the household and community levels will undoubtedly add to women’s and girls’ time burden, impacting their overall well-being. Hence, there will be need for more focused attention on climate-induced shifts in time-use patterns in men’s and women’s care activities. Understanding and taking actions to mitigate the most negative impacts will also require en-hanced Time-Use Surveys, requiring data and analysis which will have to be financed.
- the two-way inter-linkages between gender equality and women’s empowerment and climate change are now well established: climate change impacts and how they are managed, including financing and capacity building support, can help to foster or hinder gender equality and women’s empowerment goals (women’s and men’s lives, liveli-hoods and well-being) and enhancing gender equality and women’s empowerment goals and processes can help in the successful achievement of climate goals and policies, at national, regional and global levels
- climate finance is important for tackling areas, including promoting food security, ensuring and enhancing protec-tion from the adverse impacts of extreme weather events, covering losses and damages from storms, droughts and hurricanes, the provision of clean energy for cooking, lighting and agro processing, public transportation, the acces-sibility of individuals, households and businesses and their responsibilities for energy efficiency, waste handling etc.
- the distribution and flows of billions of dollars of climate finance, as they exist now and in the foreseeable future ($100 billion, per year, up to 2020, including $10.2 billion pledged to the Green Climate Fund) should be amenable to gender equality and women’s empowerment, otherwise, they may impede or otherwise limit women’s abilities to adapt to and to create and maintain climate resilience of individual women, households and communities
- ultimately, if designed, implemented and evaluated with gender sensitivity and gender responsiveness, climate finance may present new opportunities for promoting gender equality and women’s empowerment
- gender machineries and gender advocates in developing countries must be empowered and resourced to become (more) proactively engaged with climate change policy, projects and programmes and their financing at local and national levels
Hope dries up? Women and girls coping with drought and climate change
17 Nov 2016 04:55:30 GMT
The current drought in Mozambique has a disproportionate impact on women and girls. Unequal power relations, gender inequalities and discrimination mean that women and girls are often hardest hit during a crisis and will take longer to recover. Women and girls experience vulnerability different to men. During times of crisis women`s access to, or control over, critical resources worsens, and can lead to exclusion from claiming basic services and rights. As a result women’s and girl's vulnerability can increase and under-mine their ability to cope with the impacts of droughts and other disasters.
Many women are empowering themselves and others to cope with the drought by identifying mechanisms to better influence the control of key resources, including water, and to address evolving social norms. This adaptability has crossed into the areas of informal savings and loans mechanisms, water management, outreach and the sharing of critical information. There is also a high interest among women to identify ways to diversify their agricultural production to include drought tolerant crops that can be grown beyond the current 4-month agrarian season.
- environmental impacts - women and girls effectively supported to develop coping mechanisms that minimize negative environmental impacts while meeting critical income and food requirements at household level
- food & income shortfalls - adoption of alternative income sources including using village savings and loans mechanisms to start small businesses. Practicing conservation agriculture technologies that help women to plant a range of drought tolerant crops and resume cultivating cashew groves
- water shortfalls - participation in the management of water resources to ensure access and sustain resource
Climate finance briefing: gender and climate finance
17 Nov 2016 04:09:15 GMT
Women, who form the majority of the world’s 2 billion poorest people, are often disproportionally affected by climate change impacts as a result of persisting gender norms and discriminations. Women and men also contribute to climate change responses in different ways. The Cancun Agreements acknowledge that gender equality and the effective participation of women are important for all aspects of any response to climate change, but especially for adaptation.
Gender-responsive climate financing instruments and funding allocations are needed. This is a matter of using scarce public funding in an equitable, efficient and effective way. It also acknowledges that climate finance decisions are not made within a normative vacuum, but must be guided by the acknowledgement of women’s rights as unalienable human rights. Many climate funds started out gender-blind, but over the past few years have recognised the need to consider gender retroactively, resulting in important fund structure and policy improvements. In contrast, the Green Climate Fund, which weeks before COP 21 in Paris approved its first projects, started out with a mandate to integrate a gender perspective from the outset into its operational and policy frameworks. It could set new best practice for gender-responsiveness in funding climate actions by addressing not only the way how, but also what it will fund.
This briefing outlines some key principles and actions for making climate-financing instruments more responsive to the needs of men and women as equal participants in decision-making about and as beneficiaries of climate actions.
Gender, youth and urban labour market participation: evidence from the tailoring sector in Kabul, Afghanistan
11 Nov 2016 01:21:46 GMT
The creation of good jobs and decent work in conflict-affected places is widely seen to generate not just better-off households, but also safer societies and more legitimate states. However, so much of the good jobs agenda is dominated by technical approaches more concerned with balancing out supply and demand than with serious analysis of the role of institutions, identity and power in mediating access to opportunities. This study is about understanding how labour markets actually work in insecure and dynamic contexts, with a particular focus on: how young women and men acquire skills and enter the urban labour market in the first place, particularly in light of the highly gendered nature of boundaries between public and private spacewhat the nature, terms and limits of their labour market participation look like; andwhether participation in that urban labour market is working for or against them (in terms of its effects on various dimensions of their wellbeing).More specifically, it looks at young women’s and men’s experiences in Kabul’s tailoring labour market.labour market participation are socially regulated and deeply gendered. Networks matter, and labour market outcomes have a strong relational dimension to them. For example, gaining the support of key male figures (fathers, uncles, husbands) appears important for young women wanting to enter the sector, and, for young men, access to tailoring ‘apprenticeships’ (informal, but widespread) is largely dependent on social connections and the relationship between teachers and students’ parents. Second, the multiple ways in which women’s access to the market is regulated can be understood as a kind of informal tax on women’s livelihoods. The combination of years of unpaid labour, a more limited and lower quality skill-set relative to male tailors, and restricted access to various parts of the physical marketplace works to reduce economic returns for most women (although examples of real success are also apparent, but in far smaller numbers). And third, participation in the tailoring labour market has quite different meanings for young women compared to young men: while for the latter, the acquisition of tailoring skills is often seen as forming an economic safety net when times get tough – a long-term Plan B, as it were – for women, participation is much more about the hard-won outcome of a struggle against institutional bounds on economic activity. In some ways, the very act of being able to operate visibly in the urban labourmarket constitutes if not a major achievement, then at least a symbol of resistance against the (highly patriarchal) social rules of the game. However, the generally poor terms of women’s participation in the urban labour market serve to remind us that there is still a long way to go before we might consider calling this a good news story.These findings suggest that the labour market ultimately functions as a social economy: one’s access and participation are socially regulated not only by one’s networks, but also by institutionalised ideas about what is seen to constitute acceptable behaviour for different social groups. As such, donor programming seeking to create better work for young people in Afghanistan must start with the idea that labour markets both reflect and reinforce existing social inequality, and engage with the evidence showing how the constraints facing women and men in finding and staying in work are of a completely separate nature. In this context, the notion of ‘decent work’ cannot just be about increasing the supply of less insecure jobs, but rather demands practical engagement with the deeply gendered way in which things work – not only in the space of the economic marketplace, but also within the reproductive economic space of the household.[...]
For richer, for poorer: marriage and casualized sex in East African artisanal mining settlements
08 Nov 2016 11:39:15 GMT
Migrants to Tanzania’s artisanal gold mining sites seek mineral wealth, which is accompanied by high risks of occupational hazards, economic failure, AIDS and social censure from their home communities. Male miners in these settlements compete to attract newly arrived young women who are perceived to be diverting male material support from older women and children’s economic survival. This article explores the dynamics of monogamy, polygamy and promiscuity in the context of rapid occupational change. It shows how a wide spectrum of productive and welfare outcomes is generated through sexual experimentation, which calls into question conventional concepts of prostitution, marriage and gender power relations.
Contrary to the view that women are parasitically dependent on miners’ economic support, financial interdependency between miners and their stable female partners is the norm. Most women are self-making in terms of constructing a livelihood combined with searching for a male partner. Viable emotionally and financially supportive sexual partnerships can and do form in a significant proportion of relationships despite miners’ temptation to seek the company of young good-time girls and their financial capability to have many girlfriends and/or marry frequently. Women who are strong, business-diversified, calculating planners with enduring marital relationships are rewarded whereas many others fall on exceptionally hard times, often dislocated from the material and moral support of their extended families.
Thus, men’s luck, skill and willingness to move to new mining strike sites are only part of the story. Many have female partners, be they informal wives or girlfriends, who facilitate their economic success. Reciprocal balance between men’s and women’s ad hoc sexual and economic partnerships is hard to achieve. Miners’ mobility can be enriching for men, but impoverishing for their female partners and the children they father. Nonetheless, women in Tanzanian mining settlements generally do not perceive or portray themselves as victims of sexual oppression. No longer subject to the control of their elders, they have migrated to the mining settlements, engaged in sexual relationships, and pursued productive and reproductive paths of self-making in or out of relationships with men.
Reflections on the formulation and implementation of Integrated Water Resources Management in Southern and Eastern Africa from a gender perspective
08 Nov 2016 04:33:05 GMT
While it is claimed that the founding principles of integrated water resources management are the Dublin Principles this does not appear to be the case for Principle No. 3, which underlines the importance of women in water provision, management and safeguarding. Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe are members of SADC and have signed the SADC Protocol on Women and other international human rights instruments. However, we do not see an incorporation of these instruments and other empowerment frameworks into water policies. We find that Principle No. 3 has been sidelined in the implementation of Integrated Water Resource Manageme nt (IWRM). In examining the gender practices in these four nations of Africa, gender equality remains distant from the concerns of the water sector. We enumerate many of the commonalities among these countries in how they are marginalising women's access to, and use of, water.
The equity impact of participatory women's groups to reduce neonatal mortality in India: secondary analysis of a cluster-randomised trial
03 Nov 2016 02:14:26 GMT
Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) has been uneven. Inequalities in child health are large and effective interventions rarely reach the most in need. Little is known about how to reduce these inequalities. We describe and explain the equity impact of a women’s group intervention in India that strongly reduced the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) in a cluster-randomised trial. We conducted secondary analyses of the trial data, obtained through prospective surveillance of a population of 228, 186. The intervention effects were estimated separately, through random effects logistic regression, for the most and less socio-economically marginalised groups.
the effects of the women’s group intervention on NMR were substantially stronger among the most socio-economically marginalised than among less marginalised groups in the Ekjut trial.
socio-economic inequalities in neonatal mortality can be substantially reduced through a low-cost participatory community intervention.
universal coverage combined with ‘soft targeting’ of high-risk groups with effective interventions can have very substantial and equitable effects on mortality
Violence against women in the context of urban poverty in Angola
02 Nov 2016 02:13:25 GMT
Violence against women is widespread in Angola. This brief presents the main findings in a recent study of how violence against women is playing out in the context of urban poverty. Faced with day-to-day challenges for survival and social reproduction, women rank violence relatively low in their problem hierarchy. Victims of violence have very few venues for seeking help and support. Cultural norms and the country’s political history seem to “normalize” violence, perpetuating low social awareness about the issue.
This CMI/CEIC Brief emerges from the joint CEIC and CMI research project “Cooperation on Research and Development in Angola”, and is based on qualitative research in two urban poor neighbourhoods (locally known as musseques) in the city capital of Luanda, conducted in February 2016.
The women’s rights champion. Tunisia’s potential for furthering women’s rights.
02 Nov 2016 01:33:07 GMT
Tunisia is a country in the midst of its post-revolutionary transition, and the status and legal position of women since the 2011 “Jasmine Revolution” is central to this transition. This report addresses the prospects for women-friendly family law reform in Tunisia in the aftermath of the 2011 evolution, with a particular focus on the potential impact of the 2014 Tunisian constitution.
In the area of women’s rights, the constitution sets forth a principle of equality that is a departure from the currently applicable family law – the Code du Statut Personnel of 1956 (CSP). A particularly stark example is the case of inheritance law: under the CSP women are only due to inherit one-half the share due to a man, but article 21 of the new constitution states, “All citizens, male and female, have equal rights and duties, and are equal before the law without any discrimination.” Although Tunisia lifted all special reservations to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) after the revolution, it has yet to revise domestic laws to conform to the principle of equality for all citizens that is mandated by the new constitution.
Another central issue in implementing the constitution is the ambiguous nature of the constitutional text itself, which specifies that international treaties are superior to domestic law, but does not specify what weight should be given to sharia law vis-à-vis international treaties. The yet-to-be-established constitutional court will have to settle this ambiguity as well as conflicts between the constitution itself and currently applicable family law. During interviews conducted as part of the fieldwork for this report, activists, politicians, and legal professionals mentioned how Tunisia is facing an “identity crisis.” This report considers this perspective and attempts to make sense of the constitution’s ambiguities. As such, this report does not conclude how the constitutional implementation process will play out, but does shed light on the on-going process and how legal professionals, politicians and activists in Tunisia view the possibilities for change.
The report also analyses the history of women’s status in Tunisia. Although Tunisia is often viewed as a secular country, Islam plays an important role both as the basis of the country’s national identity and also as the source of legal thought and the legal framework. In fact, some people interviewed in preparation of this report consider the Tunisian school of Islamic thought to be central to the liberal gender project in Tunisia. The legacy of former president Habib Bourguiba is central to the development of a post-independence state in which women have revolutionary rights (such as the right to vote, to obtain free abortions, to avoid polygamy, and to divorce).
New knowledge on children and young people: a synthesis of evidence
14 Oct 2016 03:12:58 GMT
This report synthesises insights on children and young people (CYP) from research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation Research. It identifies the major contributions the scheme has made to knowledge on CYP in low- and middle-income countries and on effective policies for promoting CYP wellbeing. It situates learning from scheme-funded research within the wider field of CYP-oriented international development research and reflects on the ways in which findings relate to contemporary
development policy agendas for CYP. The report is based on a thorough review of all available documentation and outputs related to the 126 grants funded at the start of the review period and on conversations and interviews with current grant-holders.
- 44 grants (35% of all scheme-funded research) generated insights on children and young people. Of these two-thirds had a strong or moderate focus on CYP. Insights are diverse, with no two grants examining the same issue
- most new knowledge has been generated on education and health, followed by livelihoods issues, transitions to marriage and sexual relationships and violence against children and young people
- 55% of grants provide insights into the effectiveness of particular policies and programmes. Many studies address current policy dilemmas; others probe the impact of significant development trends on children and young people
- there was a strong youth focus in these grants with 73% of grants producing knowledge on young people aged 15 and over, or on key policy issues affecting them
- a third of research projects had achieved positive impacts on children and young people or are expected to do so
Every last girl: free to live, free to learn, free from harm
11 Oct 2016 10:21:25 GMT
More than 700 million women in the world today were married before their 18th birthday and one in three of those women was married before age 15. Child marriage can trigger a cycle of disadvantage across every part of a girl’s life.
Maternal mortality is the second leading cause of death for adolescent girls aged 15–19 years old (after suicide). An estimated 70,000 adolescent girls die each year from complications during pregnancy or childbirth. Every year 2.5 million girls under 16 give birth.
Aside from child marriage and inadequate sexual and reproductive helath care, this report highlights further barriers to girls' equality, including gender-based violence, trafficking, economic exclusion when household resources are limited and boys are prioritised, education and learning gaps, and gender issues arising from conflict and disasters.
This report identifies the three specific Guarantees to Girls that governments must make - fair finance, equal treatment and accountability - that governments must make to reach excluded children.
Gender dynamics in a changing climate: how gender and adaptive capacity affect resilience
07 Oct 2016 02:29:01 GMT
Gender, climate change and adaptive capacity are intricately linked. Poor and marginalised women and men face multiple and complex challenges. Climate change further exacerbates these challenges and threatens to erode development gains made to date. Unequal distribution of resources and power imbalances are both the root cause of poverty and also impact on a person’s capacity to adapt. Adaptation interventions are often based on the belief that women’s role in the home makes them critical agents of change and, thus, a focus for adaptation interventions. But many women do not have decision-making power within the home or over all household resources, let alone over valued livelihood resources and may not be able to keep or manage their own earnings. Even in some female-headed households, social stigma may prevent many women from being treated as economic or social equals, despite their sole management of their livelihoods. These barriers tend not to be addressed by climate change adaptation programmes, which can inadvertently entrench gender inequality and even increase women’s workloads. This learning brief synthesises lessons drawn from CARE’s Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP), which has been supporting vulnerable communities in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to the impacts of climate change since 2010. It is based on evidence and practical experience in implementing community based adaptation (CBA), about gender dynamics and the ways in which CBA can increase adaptive capacity and promote gender equality. It identifies the factors shaping gender dynamics and adaptive capacity and gives examples of how to integrate gender into CBA approaches as well as outlining knowledge gaps and recommendations for policy and practice. Recommendations for policy and practice include:tackle the gender dimensions of livelihoods: they are context-specific and addressing them in appropriate ways demands context-specific action. Gender-sensitive analysis, policy and planning is critical to thisinclude gender equality in climate change policy goals and strategiesnational and sub-national adaptation planning needs to be led by affected communities, and be based on an understanding of the gendered nature of climate change impacts as well as adaptation initiatives themselves so as not to further entrench inequality. Gender-equitable participatory actions will bring more gender balance into initiativesstrengthen interdepartmental work between women’s departments and climate change departmentspower imbalance and access to decision-making in the home, community and country must be recognised and addressed in the global responseapproach efforts to address adaptive capacity and gender equality not as an issue for women alone, but as an issue that is critical for the advancement of everyone in society; it is an indispensable part of achieving social justiceinvest in improving women’s economic empowerment in the face of climate change to address the way resources and labour are distributed and valued in the economyprogrammes need appropriate timeframes and adequate resources in order to influence social changeCBA programme designs should be required to produce gender disaggregated monitoring and to establish monitoring and evaluation of changes in gender dynamicsinvesting in understanding and measuring the gendered impacts of climate change beyond economic loss is important for making all types of loss and damage visible and to ensure it is accounted for, so as to build an evidence base of the human impact of climate change[...]
Does international migration help them marry earlier? A hazard model for the case of Egypt
04 Oct 2016 04:22:19 GMT
Marriage represents an important step of entering adulthood in the Egyptian society and its delay often results in tensions and frustration among youth. Considering migration as a predetermined strategy to reach a targeted level of savings, the authors question whether having migrated helps shorten the duration to marriage in the case of Egypt. To the best of their knowledge, the present study will be the first to link the timing of migration to the timing of marriage in the case of Egypt. The paper finds no effect of migration on the timing of marriage, except within the migrant population.
Why is fertility on the rise in Egypt? The role of women’s employment opportunities
04 Oct 2016 04:13:46 GMT
Can declining employment opportunities for women reverse the fertility transition? This paper presents new evidence that the demographic transition has not just stalled, but in fact reversed in Egypt. After falling for decades, fertility rates are increasing. The drivers of rising fertility rates are examined, with a particular focus on the role of declining public sector employment opportunities for women. By using unique data with detailed fertility and employment histories, the effects of public sector employment opportunities on women’s fertility are estimated. Estimates are calculated by examining the effect of public sector employment on the spacing and occurrence of births using discrete-time hazard models, the results of which are then used to simulate total fertility rates. The potential endogeneity of employment is addressed by incorporating woman-specific fixed effects, incorporating local employment opportunities rather than women’s own employment, and using local employment opportunities as an instrument.
Results indicate that the decrease in public sector employment, which is particularly appealing to women, has contributed to the rise in fertility.
Understanding teenage fertility, cohabitation, and marriage: the case of Peru
29 Sep 2016 10:19:14 GMT
In this study, the authors used data from the Young Lives study, which investigates teenage childbearing, marriage, and cohabitation by tracking a cohort of individuals from the ages of 8 to 19 years. While the present analysis does not intend to establish causality, the longitudinal nature of the data allows us to identify the combination of early circumstances and life changes that induce a higher likelihood of these events. The analysis addresses bias due both to reverse causality and to community characteristics that are usually unobserved and fixed over time, a strategy that is quite unique in studies of developing countries.
About 1 out of 5 females (and 1 out of 20 males) in the sample here had at least one child by the age of 19, and 80 percent of them were married or cohabiting. Early marriage/cohabitation is indeed intrinsically related to early pregnancy and largely predicted by the same factors. For females specifically, girls from poor households with an absent parent for a prolonged period have a higher risk of early childbearing. Similarly, girls whose self-efficacy and educational aspirations decrease over time are more at risk of becoming a mother during adolescence. Conversely, school attendance and better school performance predict a lower risk of early pregnancy; our analysis suggests that this is largely because it postpones the first sexual relationship.
Between hope and a hard place: boys and young men negotiating gender, poverty and social worth in Ethiopia
29 Sep 2016 09:58:54 GMT
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on adolescence as a key transition to adulthood. Young people are navigating puberty and making life choices around schooling, work, and intimate and family relationships. However, much of the attention has been on girls. This has led to a lack of gendered analysis and has also meant that adolescent boys have been largely left out of the picture.
This paper uses Young Lives research in Ethiopia, carried out over multiple years, to look at boys and young men’s lives, their aspirations, and the obstacles they face as they grow into adults. It examines the diverse strategies they employ to overcome these challenges, and compares their experiences with those of girls and young women of the same age.
- Education is seen by both parents and children as a route out of poverty. 95 per cent of Young Lives boys and girls were enrolled in school at the age of 12. By age 19, there was a growing ambivalence regarding education, particularly for young men who increasingly oriented their aspirations towards the world of work.
- Rural/urban contrasts: Young people growing up in rural areas are often seen as having fewer life chances than those in towns. But the least optimistic young men were located in urban areas where they felt disconnected from development opportunities.
- Livelihoods: Many of the young men had left school and were trying to find work, both as a response to poverty and a vital source of respect in the community. But because they found so few opportunities for gainful employment, some of them were left feeling stuck and hopeless.
- Marriage Girls: see marriage as one way of improving their lives. But for young men, marriage was impossible until they had adequately paid work, and was therefore a way of entering into adulthood that they could not imagine in the near future.
The paper concludes by drawing out the policy implications of our findings. It calls for stronger gendered evidence on the relationship between gender inequality and childhood poverty, and an approach to gender justice that include boys and young men, as well as girls and young women, so that none are left trapped between hope and a hard place.
[Summary from Younf Lives]
Empowering women for sustainable energy solutions to address climate change: experiences from UN Women and UNDP-UNEP PEI Africa
23 Sep 2016 01:34:21 GMT
Renewable, clean energy and gender equality are preconditions for sustainable development and for tackling climate change, as envisioned by the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. Women’s knowledge, empowerment and collective action are central to finding and building more environmentally sustainable pathways to manage our environment; adapt to climate change; and secure access to sustainable energy.
The experiences documented in this paper provide an overview of lessons learned which can help address bottlenecks and inform the way forward for gender-responsive climate, energy and environment policies and programmes. These can be summarised as follows:
- women need to be involved in decision making and play a leadership role in promoting decentralized renewable energy access; they also need to benefit from renewable energy for economic empowerment
- apply a cross-sectoral approach to gender, climate and energy policy and programming
- promote women’s productive use of renewable energy, and reduce women’s time dedicated to unpaid care and domestic work
- target policy processes and build capacity to mainstream gender, climate and energy in an integrated manner
- remove investment barriers and create equal opportunities for women’s entrepreneurship and decent employment and access to technologies
- influence budget processes to fund the implementation of gender-sensitive energy and climate solutions
Not ready, still waiting: Governments have a long way to go in preparing to address gender inequality and the SDGs
22 Sep 2016 04:37:01 GMT
Governments urgently need to improve their policy readiness if they want to have any chance of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on inequalities. Governments in developing countries do not yet have the laws and policies in place to allow them to achieve SDG 5 on gender equality and SDG 10 on reduced inequality within and among countries.
In ActionAid’s study, only three of ten developing countries had over 65% of key inequality-reducing policies in place.2 To make things worse, rich countries are not adequately supporting developing countries to achieve the SDGs, contrary to SDG 17’s aim to 2revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development". Indeed, some rich countries’ domestic and development policies deepen inequalities globally. Ultimately, governments' failure to address women’s inequalities may jeopardise achievement of all SDGs.
In this report, ActionAid looks at where governments are policy ready and where they are not, identifying where key policies, laws and supportive environments will allow governments to take the first step towards greater economic and gender equality.
To improve their policy readiness to achieve the SDGs, civil society and national governments should:
- from those who currently hold power and influence, including multilateral institutions, rich-country governments, elite groups, and multinational corporations, and towards developing country governments and their people
develop and hold governments accountable to redistributive national plans with policies that support the accomplishment of the SDGs. Such policies would aim to: recognise, redistribute and reduce women’s unpaid care work; improve opportunities for decent work and wages for women and young people; stop violence against women and girls; improve women’s mobility, and their capacity to organise and participate in decision- making at all levels; improve women’s access to education and health, and their access to and control over natural and economic resources
- put in place appropriate systems, governance, financial support, and monitoring and evaluation programmes so policies can be designed with a genuine “feminist lens” insisting that women’s development potential be at the centre of analysis and decisions. Those systems should be implemented with sufficient information, infrastructure and budget, and rigorously monitored by women and girls who are given the power to hold decision-makers accountable
Gender analysis in building climate resilience in Da Nang: challenges and solutions
22 Sep 2016 03:39:30 GMT
Climate resilience is more likely to be achieved when men and women fully participate in planning, decision making and implementation. This study looks at what roles men and women play in climate change planning and action, and to what extent women’s needs and capacity are fully taken into account. It focuses on Da Nang, Vietnam, a city extremely vulnerable to climate change.
The three core components of urban climate resilience - systems, institutions and agents - which have been used by the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) since 2012, were examined through the gender lens by conducting a series of stakeholder consultations and household interviews.
The results indicate that (i) Da Nang has paid increasing attention to gender equality and the empowerment of women in general administration, policy making and implementation; (ii) social norms and gender biases still exist but they are not thought to be especially serious; (iii) both male and female groups are engaged in the process of planning and approving policies, plans and strategies on climate change; and (iv) gender relations have recently been given a positive signal in the form of support from a robust legal system and the formation of women’s associations within the municipal administrative system.
Gender specific vulnerability in climate change and possible sustainable livelihoods of coastal people. a case from Bangladesh
22 Sep 2016 03:29:42 GMT
Gender differences in vulnerability to climate change related disaster is severe in Bangladesh. Like many other developing countries of the world, Bangladeshi women have limited access to resources and decision making power. They carry the major responsibility for household water supply, as well as, energy gathering for cooking and food security. As a result, women face multiple challenges in coastal area because their gendered labour roles are severely affected by climate change.
The paper addresses the gender specific vulnerability of coastal people in climatic hazards in Bangladesh. This study has been conducted by qualitative methods with some qualitative tools i.e. Key Informants Interview (KII) and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) to get the vivid and comprehensive views about gender specific susceptibility of climate induced hazards from social, gender, cultural and behavioral perspectives. The paper explores the gender specific vulnerability of climate change and possible sustainable livelihoods of coastal people in Bangladesh.
This paper finds that climate change is not gender neutral. It affects men and women differently for their roles and responsibilities in the society. Women’s roles are often confined to household labour such as looking after children and ailing people, as well as disaster specific roles such as saving properties from obliteration. These roles make women particularly vulnerable in natural hazards. By contrast, men’s roles often include working outside and so are more likely to escape natural hazards.
The paper also finds that woman’s dependency on natural resources is severely affected by climate change variability which causes vulnerability to women in natural hazards. This paper outlines key considerations of gender and climate change that can helps policy makers improve policy and implementation for the diminution of vulnerability of women in Bangladesh as well as developing countries of the world.
Understanding gender in community-based adaptation: practitioner brief
22 Sep 2016 02:41:28 GMT
Accessing weather forecasts, having control over land, being able to influence decision-making processes, being backed by a community group, or being literate and educated are examples of the human and material resources through which people can act on the consequences of climate change. They are also strongly influenced by what makes up people’s social and economic position in society – for example gender, age, ethnicity or religion. In other words, the degree to which a person, family or community suffers from – or thrives in – climatic shocks, weather extremes and uncertainty, or changes in the environment and economy, strongly depend on these and other social factors. People’s social and economic roles and positions in society shift and change over time and for many reasons – media and communication technologies, transportation and urbanisation trends, changing markets, and last but not least shifts in the climate and environment, etc. are all having impacts on them.
Gender is an important part of these shifting social factors, and as such continuously shapes vulnerability to climate change and people’s capacity to adapt. Gender inequality continues to be one of the most persistent and widespread forms of social inequality across the world. And yet, while its importance is increasingly recognised by policy makers and practitioners working to address climate change, its role in adapting to climate change is often poorly understood, or simply misunderstood.
Integrating gender into community-based adaptation:
- is essential for practitioners and communities to ground the adaptation process in a good understanding of the context, existing vulnerabilities and capacities
- is essential for communities to ensure the processes and actions they choose are relevant to both men and women in different social settings
- helps practitioners and communities understand why and how gender groups can be vulnerable to climate change in different ways, and how this changes over time
- helps to ensure decision-making power is more equally distributed between different social groups affected by climatic changes
- is required for community-based adaptation to contribute to the transformation of long-standing, deeply rooted barriers to developmen
Gender analysis in building climate resilience in Da Nang: challenges and solutions
08 Sep 2016 10:42:46 GMT
Although the legal framework for gender equality exists in Vietnam, gender mainstreaming in climate change planning and action have not yet been fully realised and addressed by local actors. In Da Nang, a gendered view to climate resilience building was also a new approach for the city and local authorities and vulnerable communities. This study examines the gender issue through the climate resilience lens within the context of Da Nang to see how gender and its link to climate change was locally perceived and at what level(s) gender equality and women's role were appreciated and incorporated into climate change planning and action.
The study applied the Resilience Framework provided by the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) to examine the linkages of gender and climate change resilience building. Three key components of this Framework, Agent , Institution and System , were then used to analyse the data collected from the stakeholder consultations and field survey.
The key research findings include:
- in Da Nang, gender relations have recently been given a positive signal
- the lack of specific instructions on gendered relations is likely to cause local actors to underestimate the importance of gendered interventions in practice; and
- the greater vulnerability of women is not merely due to social or gender biases but also because of their own physical weaknesses.
Three important policy implications generated from the study are:
- the necessity of improving womenâs capacity to address their vulnerability
- the necessity of having supportive mechanisms to enable full participation of women in planning and decision making
- the necessity of integrating gender-sensitive indicators into plans and strategies to guide gendered interventions in practice.
Supporting women farmers in a changing climate: five policy lessons
02 Sep 2016 12:52:05 GMT
Recent research presented at a seminar in Paris co-organized by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and Future Earth produced five key policy recommendations for supporting women farmers in a changing climate.
- new technologies and practices for climate change will be adopted more successfully when they are appropriate to womenâs interests, resources and demands
- extension and climate information services need to serve women and men
- institutions need to take into account womenâs priorities and support their adaptive capacity
- women's capacity as farmers and innovators needs to be recognized and supported; and
- climate policy processes should go beyond numerical representation of women to create active mechanisms to express opinions, take initiatives, and influence decisions
Gender-responsive climate policies and programmes include:
- a gender component as a qualifying criterion to access international funding
- design that is informed by needs assessments that distinguish women's and men's needs and priorities.
- monitoring and assessment indicators of real change in gender and social inclusion
Seeds of adaptation Climate change, crop diversification and the role of women farmers
02 Sep 2016 12:43:30 GMT
Farmers’ own seed systems are at the heart of food security. These systems are currently under stress due to political, social, economic and environmental changes. Women farmers play key roles in these systems. However, they are often overlooked by researchers and development personnel, policies and programshe examples of Bhutan and South Africa illustrate the key role of women farmers in local climate change adaptation efforts and how these efforts in turn are changing local agro-ecological and socioeconomic landscapes. Yet, research and development programs and projects pay insufficient attention to the successes and challenges of such farmers’ efforts.
The examples of Bhutan and South Africa illustrate the key role of women farmers in local climate change adaptation efforts and how these efforts in turn are changing local agro-ecological and socioeconomic landscapes. Yet, research and development programs and projects pay insufficient attention to the successes and challenges of such farmers’ efforts.
More attention and support is needed to:
- encourage the safeguarding and improvement of local plant species and varieties maintained by smallholder farmers and their communities, recognizing the central role of women
- value and reward farmers’ collective efforts to safeguard and improve agricultural biodiversity and associated cultural values and knowledge
- support farmers technically and financially to organize themselves and strengthen their organizational capacity, taking into consideration the leadership role of women
Interlinkages between climate change and sexual and reproductive health
02 Sep 2016 01:41:33 GMT
Reviewing the Nepalese government's climate change policy showed that the government do not have any policies addressing the linkages between climate change and sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR). There are separate policies on climate change which is looked after by the Ministry of Environment Sciences and Technologies, and the policies on sexual and reproductive health which are looked upon by the Ministry of health. As climate change and SRHR issues are interrelated, impacting women's health and livelihoods. Hence, it is important to have policy coordination and integrated response to the field realities from government's side.
The analysis of the data in this study showed that the women and girls are the ones mostly affected by adverse impact of climate change. The major reason behind this is increased frequency of natural disasters which increase the work burden on women, This increased physical and mental stress on women have directly impacted their sexual and reproductive health and the impact of climate change on agriculture has triggered the situation of food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition.
Voices from the field: using Photovoice to explore impacts of climate change on mental health in Nepal
02 Sep 2016 01:24:20 GMT
Photovoice is a participatory research method that uses photos as a tool for deconstructing problems and questions raised by community members, with the goal of generating actionable solutions. The method enhances and builds community by allowing members to identify, reflect on, and address their own needs.
“The photovoice method involves participants in the research process as much as possible and , as a result, is a very collaborative and community -enhancing process,” said Libby King MacFarlane, who used the technique in Nepal to address issues of climate change and mental health. “Using images as a point of contact to start discussing complex community topics allows people to unpack issues slowly and organically until they arrive at an actionable solution,” she explained.
It was evident in the exit interviews that the women recognised the benefits of sharing environmental best practices and the importance of building community capacity to adapt to and mitigate environmental issues in the community. They also reported feeling more confident and recognized the importance of sharing stories to ease pain. After the photovoice sessions , the women showed significant improvements in depression, anxiety, and resilience scores compared to before the sessions, further supporting the positive mental health outcomes reported by the women.
Gender and international climate policy: an analysis of progress in gender equality at COP21
02 Sep 2016 01:06:37 GMT
While women play an important role in agriculture, environmental and natural resource management, they have greater financial or resource constraints, and lower levels of access to information and extension services than men. Because of these gender inequalities, women appear to be less able to adapt to climate change.
- gender is not well integrated into climate change policy in relation to agriculture
- policy makers need to t ak e into account the differential vuln erabilities of men and women farmers to climate change
- in spite of their vulnerabilities to climate change, rural women can be important agents of change and innovators. This potential can be best tapped into by co-designing climate-smart technologies and practices with women
- gender receives attention in about 40% of the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) submitted ahead of COP21, none from Annex 1 countries
- gender references are confined mostly to impacts of climate change on women and women as "vulnerable populations", with less emphasis on supporting women to actively address and participate in adaptation and mitigation actions
- the use of the term "gender-responsive" in the Paris Agreement is a big step forward, however the Agreement fails to move beyond the attitude of women as victims of climate change in need of capacity building
- stronger steps need to be taken for real gender equality in climate policies, including better monitoring and evaluation of the progress
Gender approaches in climate compatible development: lessons from Kenya
30 Aug 2016 10:44:04 GMT
Gender is an important driver of vulnerability to climate risks, and a key factor to consider in developing effective policy responses to climate change and development challenges. In recent years, there have been a number of efforts to support gender equality as part of responses to climate change. However, gaps remain in drawing lessons from such efforts. This is especially true when it comes to understanding how gender relations affect people’s ability to adapt in urban settings. Given the impact that climate change and extreme weather events are having on urban populations around the world, there is a clear need to provide more evidence to inform climate change and development interventions.
This report examines gender and climate change in relation to efforts to support climate compatible development, a policy goal that aims to integrate and draw synergies between adaptation, mitigation and development. The report’s focus is a case study of Kisumu, Kenya, drawing lessons from the five-year project People’s Plans into Practice (PPP): Building Productive and Liveable Settlements with Slum Dwellers in Kisumu and Kitale.
Using the PPP project as a starting point, the study addressed four related questions.
- first, what does a gender-sensitive approach mean in Kisumu?
- second, what is the evidence for how integrating gender-sensitive approaches may help to promote people’s empowerment?
- third, what are the constraints and opportunities in promoting gender-sensitive approaches in interventions to support climate compatible development?
- finally, the report asks whether and how gender-sensitive approaches may support climate compatible development outcomes. The report is part of a global study, with case studies in India, Kenya and Peru
The study shows the complexities of gender relations and climate change in urban areas in Kisumu, highlighting the main lessons from the PPP project, and charting some of the key opportunities and challenges for integrating gender in interventions to support climate compatible development.
Responding to the Safety and Security Needs of LGBTI Communities and Organisations: A situational analysis of Malawi, South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe
24 Aug 2016 12:48:28 GMT
The Safety and Security Project within Hivos’s (Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries) LGBTI Programme aims to ensure that LGBTI persons are able to live and work within safe communities without the fear of persecution, physical or property harm or intimidation, and with the full enjoyment of their human rights. Hivos has for several years been supporting the work of LGBTI organisations and more recently has responded on an ad hoc basis to security issues faced by organisations and individuals. Given the nature, extent and on-going occurrence of safety and security threats to LGBTI individuals and organisations, Hivos saw the need to review its strategy in regard to LGBTI hate crimes in the region in order to develop a more coherent and sustainable strategy.
This review sets out to assess and address the follwing issues in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe:
- The extent and level of threats of homophobic violence experienced by LGBTI groups and individuals;
- To identify prevention, response and mitigation mechanisms employed by organisations;
- To identify safety and security tools and capacities in place;
- To look at the types and levels of support available to individuals and organisations that are targeted by homophobic violence and threats;
- To review safety and security programmes and strategies to prevent and respond to homophobic violence targeted at LGBTI communities;
- and To make recommendations to Hivos in regard to providing further support for LGBTI organisations and individuals in the region
Research Methods and Visualisation Tools for Online LGBT Communities
24 Aug 2016 12:34:42 GMT
Field research among geographically dispersed communities is time-consuming and costly. When people are stigmatised, field research has additional ethical and logistical problems. In many countries lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are both geographically dispersed and stigmatised. Online research methods and tools are therefore particularly interesting instruments for researchers and activists who work with LGBT communities. In countries where same-sex relations are criminal, such as in the Middle East and North Africa region, online communities can be the only way for LGBT people to relate to peers (ILGA 2014). Even in countries where access to social media and publishing on the internet is legally restricted, LGBT people have large online communities (Oosterhoff, Hoang and Quach 2014).
This methodology brief outlines the main steps and considerations for choosing research methods and data visualisation among LGBT individuals in resource-poor settings. Although this report focuses on LGBT, online data collection and data visualisation have broader relevance for thinktanks, whose targeted audiences increasingly function in complex digital environments.
Tools and tactics for the LGBTI community in the Middle-East and North Africa | security in-a-box
24 Aug 2016 12:14:42 GMT
Tactical Tech have created a guide: Tools and Tactics for the LGBTI community in the Middle-East and North Africa (MENA). This is the first in the series of Security in-a-box Community Focus guides, which aim to further integrate digital security into the context of particular communities and human rights defenders.
This guide was created specifically for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transexual and Intersex individuals and human rights defenders in the MENA region, and was written in collaboration with human rights defenders from the community. The guide was written and published in the context of continuous and determined legal, religious, social, economic and digital marginalisation and harassment of the LGBTI community in most of the region.
The guide explores common threats, such as entrapment, extortion, harassment, and unauthorised access to devices and then links to the tools and tactics which can help LGBTI persons in the MENA region to stay safe.
The guide includes all the existing chapters of the Security in-a-Box toolkit (created in collaboration with Frontline Defenders), as well as testimonies of human rights defenders from the community, examples and accounts of attacks, and additional chapters on Risk Analysis and Safer Use of Internet Cafes and LGBTI dating sites.
Supporting Lesbian Gay Bisexual Transgender and Intersex human rights defenders in the digital age
24 Aug 2016 02:55:58 GMT
The widespread diffusion of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) has empowered activists and minority communities to spread information, campaign, build communities and challenge injustice in new and powerful ways. The LGBTI activist community has been no exception to this, as the increased potential for communication beyond established social channels, less confined by social norms and geographic isolation has facilitated LGBTI people’s expression and development of identity and ability to join forces to challenge the dangers and injustices faced by the community.
However, the spread of ICTs have also created new opportunities for antagonists to subject human rights defenders’ to entrapment, control, intimidation and harassment. This has led to the need for an awarenessraising and capacity-building effort in order to strengthen Human Rights Defenders’ (HRDs) capacities to react against emerging threats to their wellbeing from the digital space. Over the past decade, Tactical Technology Collective (Tactical Tech) has been at the forefront of this movement. Working with actors in the field of Human Rights, including Front Line Defenders, Tactical Tech’s effort has spawned the development of a range of toolkits and guides, awareness-raising and training initiatives in order to build capacities among HRDs in terms of their wellbeing, the security of their communities and the safeguarding of their information and privacy.
This article details the development and content of the first such materials to be developed with this in mind – a digital security guide for the Arabic-speaking LGBTI community – the first version of which was launched in September of 2013
Inclusion and Security of LGBTI Workers
24 Aug 2016 02:38:17 GMT
RedR UK and EISF hosted a workshop on Friday 22nd January 2016, exploring current practices and issues that international development and humanitarian organisations’ encounter when approaching the inclusion and security of both international and national LGBTI aid workers. The need for this workshop arose from the lack of current discussion on these topics, as well as the wide-scale lack of adequate polices or best practices in ensuring the inclusion and security of workers within the humanitarian and development sectors. Related to this is the huge lack of available data on the experiences of LGBTI aid workers, including; regional and country data on the number of aid workers identifying as LGBTI, any correlation or trends between identifying as LGBTI and the type and frequency of security incidents, and documented incidents of labour discrimination related to LGBTI workers.
This report captures outcomes from the workshop along two broad aims: i) Explore the experiences of LBGTI humanitarian field workers and organisations, through expert speakers, participants’ experiences and case studies, in order to understand and capture the challenges faced in operating as an LGBTI aid worker. ii) Hear from international private sector firms, which have successfully integrated LGBTI inclusion into their organisational policies and practices, in order to look at ways the humanitarian and development sectors can adopted or adapt such practices in their work and organisational identities.
Men, masculinities & climate change
23 Aug 2016 12:48:03 GMT
The threats of climate change are not gender-neutral. Gender analysis on climate change over the past three decades has brought tolight the disproportionate effects of climate change and environmental degradation on women’s lives – particularly those of low-income women in global South settings. In countries where there is marked gender inequality, four times as many women as men die in floods. In some cases during natural disasters, women and children are 14 times more likely to die than men.16 This phenomenon will grow more frequent with global warming. Research has also shown that women often have a smaller carbon footprint than men, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.17 Therefore, a greater understanding of how gendered identities affect men and women’s roles, activities and subsequent contributions to carbon emissions is essential if mitigation politics and programs are to achieve their desired effect.
This discussion paper presents the need for a more nuanced analysis of boys’ and men’s multiple roles vis a vis climate change. The purpose of such an investigation is to contribute to a more complete understanding of the gendered root causes, impacts and solutions to climate change adaptation and resilience and to further strengthen the call for social, economic and environmental justice for all. Boys and men must be seen as part of the solution to achieve gender-informed climate justice, as they are in different capacities in the fields of gender-based violence prevention, unpaid care work, sexual and reproductive health and rights, and peace and security. This paper seeks to outline these multiple roles to identify possible ways forward to engage boys and men as agents of sustainable, positive change alongside girls and women.
Protecting women’s and children’s health from a changing climate
23 Aug 2016 12:34:52 GMT
Climate change increases challenges to women's and children's health. There is more likelihood of women and children suffering and dying from problems such as diarrhoea, undernutrition, malaria, and from the harmful effects of extreme weather events, including floods or drought. While women and children in developing countries have made comparatively small contributions to historical carbon emissions, they bear the brunt of the health effects of climate change, both now and in the future. Efforts to prevent, mitigate and address the effects of climate change should include integrated action across sectors to address these health inequities now and for future generations.
Climate change will have a substantial impact on the health and survival of future generations. Policies that act now to improve health can also reduce climate change. Such co-benefits can be achieved when coordinated action is taken across the health, transport, energy, education and agriculture sectors. Policies that address broader health and climate protection can also work to reduce the significant economic losses from damages to health and the environment.
Assessment of women’s livelihood needs in three eco-zones of Bangladesh
23 Aug 2016 01:06:10 GMT
Evidently women are more severely affected by climate change and natural disasters because of their social roles, discrimination and poverty. In rural Bangladesh they are specially vulnerable since they are highly dependent on local natural resources for their livelihood. A needs assessment survey was conducted between May and July of 2013, to identify viable livelihoods of women affected by climate change in ten climate vulnerable Upazilas of three eco-zones (flood prone, drought prone and cyclone prone) in Bangladesh.
The research was conducted to investigate viable recommendations for livelihood intervention activities, which can be carried out by other organisations, in an attempt to give women, who are most vulnerable to climate change and its impacts, solid and more resilient livelihood options. In the process, the study investigates the current situation women face and women’s views on their needs.
Strengthening gender considerations in adaptation planning and implementation in the least developed countries
19 Aug 2016 12:08:56 GMT
Adapting to climate change is about reducing vulnerability to current and projected climate risk while vulnerability to climate change is determined in large part by people's adaptive capacity. Climate hazards do not affect all people within a community or even the same household equally because some people have greater capacity than others to manage the crisis. The inequitable distribution of rights, resources, power and norms constrains many people's ability to take action on climate change. This is especially true for women and vulnerable groups. Therefore, gender is a critical factor in understanding vulnerability to climate change.
The main focus of this paper is to provide views and experiences on strengthening gender consideration in adaptation planning and implementation in the least developed countries (LDCs). It draws on the experiences gained from the national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs), and other initiatives, with a view to informing future adaptation efforts by LDCs and collaborating partners in the formulation and implementation of national adaptation plans (NAPs).
The paper discusses gender in the context of adaptation to climate change, presents sample tools in integrating gender into adaptation planning and implementation, provides experiences in the integration of gender into adaptation planning and implementation and addresses the integration of gender considerations in the process to formulate and implement NAPs.
Gender responsive national communications toolkit
19 Aug 2016 10:41:30 GMT
This toolkit is an initiative of the UNDP Gender Team and the UNDP-UNEP Global Support Programme. It is designed to strengthen the capacity of national government staff and assist them in integrating gender equality into the development of National Communications (NCs). It is recognized that NC reporting processes can be a meaningful entry point for training, awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts. Preparation of reports can also infl uence other, ongoing climate change planning and policymaking processes. As such, the toolkit can support Biennial Update Reports and planning documents such as National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), and inform the development and/or implementation of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), national and sectoral Gender and Climate Change Plans, and the strategic plans of individual government agencies 2 This toolkit can also inform sector policies related to both social and natural resource issues.
The toolkit presents rationales for gender-responsive NCs and approaches for integrating gender into NC reports. It also provides context and information on a range of issues; good practice examples; and lessons learned. Issues examined include:
- how climate change impacts men and women in sectors such as energy, agriculture and waste management, as well as their different vulnerabilities to climate risks and the ways in which they seek to adapt to climate change.=
- how women and men are differentially engaged in supporting or reducing greenhouse gases and how including gender analysis into greenhouse gas inventory reporting can contribute to reducing emissions.=
- how men and women are innovating and adopting both new and old technologies to mitigate climate change. Finally, the toolkit looks at steps required to ensure the sustainability of gender-responsive climate change reporting. This requires ensuring commitment, funding and integrated capacity development across sectors, and using gender indicators and sex-disaggregated data for monitoring
The pacific gender & climate change toolkit: tools for practioners
19 Aug 2016 10:32:31 GMT
Gender equality is central to achieving a sustainable and resilient future for Pacific islands.This toolkit is designed to support climate change practitioners working in national governments, non-governmental organisations, regional and international organisations, integrate gender into all aspects of policy, programming and project work.
The toolkit is divided into four modules, which can be read in conjunction or used as standalone documents for practitioners seeking guidance on a specific topic. The modules are also supported by checklists and tools (found at the end of the toolkit. The toolkit is comprised of the following modules:
- Module 1 - this introductory module explains why gender is a critical consideration in climate change programmes, projects and strategies, defines the key approaches and concepts, and clarifies some common misconceptions
- Module 2 - introduces the different phases of a typical climate change programme/project cycle, identifies potential entry-points for integrating gender perspectives in each phase and also includes a generic gender checklist that may be applied to programmes and projects
- Module 3 - focuses on the links between gender and climate change in specific sectors and uses sector relevant case studies to demonstrate how gender perspectives can be applied in the identification and assessment of climate change problems and solutions. Key gender indicators are also provided to support monitoring and evaluation
- Module 4 - this final module examines gender in relation to climate change governance. It discusses how to integrate gender considerations in institutional arrangements, policy coordination and negotiations, and climate change finance
Africa’s smallholders adapting to climate change: the need for national governments and international climate finance to support women producers
19 Aug 2016 01:49:20 GMT
The need for national governments and international climate finance to support women producers Climate change is undermining the ability of African nations to feed themselves. Women smallholder producers are on the front line of dealing with the impacts, but are not first in line for international climate finance. Wealthy countries have committed to helping countries in Africa to adapt to climate change, but few women producers are feeling the benefit. National governments are stepping up in spite of limited resources and multiple development priorities. New analysis shows that whilst international climate finance overall is on the rise, wealthy countries are still failing to deliver public finance for adaptation in Africa.
Does less engaged mean less empowered? Political participation lags among African youth, especially women
18 Aug 2016 03:34:19 GMT
The African Union (AU) Assembly declared 2009 - 2018 the "African Youth Decade" and released an action plan to promote youth empowerment and development throughout the continent, including by raising young citizens' representation and participation in political processes. The latest results from Afrobarometer surveys in 36 countries reveal a wide gap between the aspirations set forth in the AU policy framework and the reality of youth political engagement in Africa today. The data show that African governments and development partners have considerable work to do to achieve the goal of increased civic and political participation among youth, particularly young women. African youth (aged 18-35) report lower rates of political engagement than their elders across a variety of indicators, including voting in national elections. Young citizens are also less likely to engage in civic activities such as attending community meetings and joining others to raise an issue. While these findings are consistent with research on age differences in voter turnout in advanced democracies, the survey further finds that youth engagement levels have declined over time despite the introduction of regional and national youth empowerment policies. Key findings:political engagement is generally lower among African youth than among their elders, particularly in terms of voting. Two-thirds (65%) of 18- to 35–year-old respondents who were old enough to vote in the last national election say they did so, compared to 79% of citizens above age 35slightly more than half (53%) of African youth report being “very” or “somewhat” interested in public affairs, while two-thirds (67%) say they discuss politics with friends or family at least “occasionally.” Compared to their male counterparts, young women report significantly less interest (48% vs. 60%) and discussion (61% vs. 74%)attendance at campaign rallies is the most popular form of pre-electoral engagement among young Africans: One-third (33%) say they attended at least one in the previous year, compared to 37% of older citizens. The gender gap in participation in rallies averages 10 percentage points and is largest in East Africa (14 points) and West Africa (13 points)African youth are less likely than their elders to participate in civic activities: Less than half (47%) of 18- to 35–year-olds say they attended community meetings at least once during the previous year, while 40% joined others to raise an issue (vs. 57% and 47% for older citizens). Young women’s participation also lags behind that of their male peers on these measures of civic activism (by 9 percentage points, on average), particularly in West Africa and North Africa (both by 14 percentage points)not quite half (48%) of youth say they contacted political or community leaders during the previous yea[...]
Women, peace and security: implementing the Maputo Protocol in Africa
12 Aug 2016 04:42:32 GMT
Women’s rights are fundamental to human security and sustainable peace. the African Union’s Protocol to the African charter on human and Peoples’ rights on the rights of Women in Africa (Maputo Protocol) guarantees the rights and equality of women on the continent and complements the global women, peace and security agenda. But case studies of Malawi, South Sudan, Somalia and Mozambique reveal that the implementation of the Maputo Protocol is slow and patchy. the African Union needs to find innovative ways of working with national governments, civil society and grassroots organisations to realise the full potential of this crucial instrument.
The Maputo Protocol is a key continental instrument that recognises the links between gender equality, women’s empowerment and the achievement of sustainable peace in Africa. Its full and effective implementation is key. however, despite the fact that many African states have ratified the protocol, implementation has been severely restricted – if it has happened at all – by a lack of political will, an immense gap between high-level policy and awareness on the ground, where it matters most, and challenges in changing prevailing behaviours and attitudes that embrace patriarchy.
It is imperative that the Au finds new and innovative ways of working with national governments, civil society and grassroots organisations to realise the full potential of this crucial instrument.
How do gender approaches improve climate compatible development? Lessons from Peru
11 Aug 2016 11:31:41 GMT
This brief is based on a research project carried out by Practical Action Consulting with support from the Institute of Development Studies, commissioned by and supported by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), to provide evidence on the advantages and challenges of integrating a gender dimension into climate compatible development strategies in urban settings, with a focus on Peru, India and Kenya. Although considerable evidence exists pertaining to rural areas, significant knowledge gaps can be found in relation to climate compatible development and gender in urban areas.
The research attempts to respond to the following four questions:
- what does a ‘gender-sensitive’ approach to climate compatible development mean in the urban context?
- what is the evidence of the relevance of gender-sensitive programming in climate compatible development to promote and achieve people’s empowerment?
- does a gender-sensitive approach enable better climate compatible development outcomes and if so, in what way?
- What socioeconomic, political and cultural factors constrain or favour gender-sensitive approaches in the context of climate compatible development, and the ability of men and women to tackle climate-related risks in urban contexts?
- a research study looked at whether gender-sensitive approaches to climate compatible development are being adopted in urban areas of Peru and if so, whether these approaches influence development outcomes for men and women
- the study assessed gender awareness and action in two of Peru’s Risk Management and Climate Change Adaptation Networks (known locally as GRIDES), whose main achievement has been to integrate disaster risk and climate adaptation measures in local government plans
- the study found that where women played a leading role in the GRIDES, local government proposals include an implicit gender approach
- however, ‘gender’ issues tend to be regarded as ‘for women only’ and somewhat theoretical. The lack of a more explicit position or understanding of gender among the agencies concerned means that the interventions described in the local plans lack concrete measures for tackling gender inequality
- a very wide range of actions are recommended across society, including among central and local government agencies, civil society organisations and academia, to increase awareness and understanding, develop the potential of gender-sensitive approaches, and so improve development outcomes for urban women, men, girls and boys
How do gender approaches improve climate compatible development? Lessons from India
08 Aug 2016 03:48:16 GMT
Although evidence shows that women are both victims of climate change and important contributors of knowledge and skills in disaster risk, adaptation and mitigation strategies, the gender perspective is largely missing from the design and planning of climate change responses and policies. In addition, most research into gender and climate change has been exclusively conducted in rural contexts. There is strong scope for filling these knowledge gaps to improve the understanding of the relationship between gender and climate change in urban settings.
This policy brief explores the advantages and challenges of integrating a gender dimension into climate compatible development strategies in urban settings, with a focus on the Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) project in India. An initiative funded by The Rockefeller Foundation, the project was implemented in Gorakhpur, Uttar Pradesh by the Gorakhpur Environmental Action Group (GEAG).
- urban scenarios in India are highly complex, with many social dimensions in terms of caste, gender and class. As such, a gender-sensitive approach to climate compatible development is fundamentally different in cities, compared with one in rural areas
- urban residents demonstrate different vulnerabilities and capacities for facing the impacts of climate change than people living in rural areas, principally: weaker social cohesion, with the result that women and marginalised people are more dependent on external help in times of need; a higher likelihood of flooding and waterlogging due to poor infrastructure and basic services; and a higher likelihood of food insecurity
- project activities should be adapted to address these gender differences, for example, by working through community volunteers and arranging meetings to suit men and women’s availability
- popular participatory methods developed in the context of rural settings can be adapted to suit the urban setting. In the case of the ACCCRN project, this involved undertaking Participatory Urban Appraisals through several smaller meetings, so as to understand the diversity of factors and issues involved
Adolescent girls in Egypt
14 Jul 2016 02:09:20 GMT
Girls under age 20—around 19 million of them—make up one-fifth of Egypt’s population.1 In 2015, about 8 million of these girls were adolescents between ages 10 and 19. According to the latest projections from the United Nations (UN) Population Division, this group will grow to 11.5 million in 2030—a 44 percent increase in 15 years. Improving the lives of adolescent girls in Egypt requires a national response that cuts across development sectors and programs. Such a response is necessary because of the girls’ demographic significance, and more importantly because they are vulnerable to harmful practices such as female genital cutting (FGC) and early marriage that violate girls’ rights and hinder the country’s development.
This policy brief presents the latest data on girls’ education, early marriage, and FGC in Egypt, to illustrate improvements in the situation of adolescent girls as well as the gaps. It points to Egypt’s rapid population growth and wide socioeconomic inequalities as major challenges hindering efforts to improve girls’ lives. It calls for coordinated, national efforts to implement recently adopted policies to uphold girls’ rights and bring about change. Lifting girls up, by empowering them to reach their full potential, will also help lift the Egyptian nation.