14 Oct 2016 03:12:58 GMT
This report synthesises insights on children and young people (CYP) from research funded by the Economic and Social Research Council (ESRC) and the UK Department for International Development (DFID) Joint Fund for Poverty Alleviation Research. It identifies the major contributions the scheme has made to knowledge on CYP in low- and middle-income countries and on effective policies for promoting CYP wellbeing. It situates learning from scheme-funded research within the wider field of CYP-oriented international development research and reflects on the ways in which findings relate to contemporary
development policy agendas for CYP. The report is based on a thorough review of all available documentation and outputs related to the 126 grants funded at the start of the review period and on conversations and interviews with current grant-holders.
11 Oct 2016 10:21:25 GMT
More than 700 million women in the world today were married before their 18th birthday and one in three of those women was married before age 15. Child marriage can trigger a cycle of disadvantage across every part of a girl’s life.
Maternal mortality is the second leading cause of death for adolescent girls aged 15–19 years old (after suicide). An estimated 70,000 adolescent girls die each year from complications during pregnancy or childbirth. Every year 2.5 million girls under 16 give birth.
Aside from child marriage and inadequate sexual and reproductive helath care, this report highlights further barriers to girls' equality, including gender-based violence, trafficking, economic exclusion when household resources are limited and boys are prioritised, education and learning gaps, and gender issues arising from conflict and disasters.
This report identifies the three specific Guarantees to Girls that governments must make - fair finance, equal treatment and accountability - that governments must make to reach excluded children.
07 Oct 2016 02:29:01 GMTGender, climate change and adaptive capacity are intricately linked. Poor and marginalised women and men face multiple and complex challenges. Climate change further exacerbates these challenges and threatens to erode development gains made to date. Unequal distribution of resources and power imbalances are both the root cause of poverty and also impact on a person’s capacity to adapt. Adaptation interventions are often based on the belief that women’s role in the home makes them critical agents of change and, thus, a focus for adaptation interventions. But many women do not have decision-making power within the home or over all household resources, let alone over valued livelihood resources and may not be able to keep or manage their own earnings. Even in some female-headed households, social stigma may prevent many women from being treated as economic or social equals, despite their sole management of their livelihoods. These barriers tend not to be addressed by climate change adaptation programmes, which can inadvertently entrench gender inequality and even increase women’s workloads. This learning brief synthesises lessons drawn from CARE’s Adaptation Learning Programme for Africa (ALP), which has been supporting vulnerable communities in sub-Saharan Africa to adapt to the impacts of climate change since 2010. It is based on evidence and practical experience in implementing community based adaptation (CBA), about gender dynamics and the ways in which CBA can increase adaptive capacity and promote gender equality. It identifies the factors shaping gender dynamics and adaptive capacity and gives examples of how to integrate gender into CBA approaches as well as outlining knowledge gaps and recommendations for policy and practice. Recommendations for policy and practice include:tackle the gender dimensions of livelihoods: they are context-specific and addressing them in appropriate ways demands context-specific action. Gender-sensitive analysis, policy and planning is critical to thisinclude gender equality in climate change policy goals and strategiesnational and sub-national adaptation planning needs to be led by affected communities, and be based on an understanding of the gendered nature of climate change impacts as well as adaptation initiatives themselves so as not to further entrench inequality. Gender-equitable participatory actions will bring more gender balance into initiativesstrengthen interdepartmental work between women’s departments and climate change departmentspower imbalance and access to decision-making in the home, community and country must be recognised and addressed in the global responseapproach efforts to address adaptive capacity and gender equality not as an issue for women alone, but as an issue that is critical for the advancement of everyone in society; it is an indispensable part of achieving social justiceinvest in improving women’s economic empowerment in the face of climate change to address the way resources and labour are distributed and valued in the economyprogrammes need appropriate timeframes and adequate resources in order to influence social changeCBA programme designs should be required to produce gender disaggregated monitoring and to establish monitoring and evaluation of changes in gender dynamicsinvesting in understanding and measuring the gendered impacts of climate change beyond economic loss is important for making all types of loss and damage visible and to ensure it is accounted for, so as to build an evidence base of the human impact of climate change[...]
04 Oct 2016 04:22:19 GMT
04 Oct 2016 04:13:46 GMT
29 Sep 2016 10:19:14 GMT
29 Sep 2016 09:58:54 GMT
In recent years, there has been an increasing focus on adolescence as a key transition to adulthood. Young people are navigating puberty and making life choices around schooling, work, and intimate and family relationships. However, much of the attention has been on girls. This has led to a lack of gendered analysis and has also meant that adolescent boys have been largely left out of the picture.
This paper uses Young Lives research in Ethiopia, carried out over multiple years, to look at boys and young men’s lives, their aspirations, and the obstacles they face as they grow into adults. It examines the diverse strategies they employ to overcome these challenges, and compares their experiences with those of girls and young women of the same age.
The paper concludes by drawing out the policy implications of our findings. It calls for stronger gendered evidence on the relationship between gender inequality and childhood poverty, and an approach to gender justice that include boys and young men, as well as girls and young women, so that none are left trapped between hope and a hard place.
[Summary from Younf Lives]
23 Sep 2016 01:34:21 GMT
Renewable, clean energy and gender equality are preconditions for sustainable development and for tackling climate change, as envisioned by the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030. Women’s knowledge, empowerment and collective action are central to finding and building more environmentally sustainable pathways to manage our environment; adapt to climate change; and secure access to sustainable energy.
22 Sep 2016 04:37:01 GMT
Governments urgently need to improve their policy readiness if they want to have any chance of achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on inequalities. Governments in developing countries do not yet have the laws and policies in place to allow them to achieve SDG 5 on gender equality and SDG 10 on reduced inequality within and among countries.
In ActionAid’s study, only three of ten developing countries had over 65% of key inequality-reducing policies in place.2 To make things worse, rich countries are not adequately supporting developing countries to achieve the SDGs, contrary to SDG 17’s aim to 2revitalize the global partnership for sustainable development". Indeed, some rich countries’ domestic and development policies deepen inequalities globally. Ultimately, governments' failure to address women’s inequalities may jeopardise achievement of all SDGs.
In this report, ActionAid looks at where governments are policy ready and where they are not, identifying where key policies, laws and supportive environments will allow governments to take the first step towards greater economic and gender equality.
To improve their policy readiness to achieve the SDGs, civil society and national governments should:
develop and hold governments accountable to redistributive national plans with policies that support the accomplishment of the SDGs. Such policies would aim to: recognise, redistribute and reduce women’s unpaid care work; improve opportunities for decent work and wages for women and young people; stop violence against women and girls; improve women’s mobility, and their capacity to organise and participate in decision- making at all levels; improve women’s access to education and health, and their access to and control over natural and economic resources
22 Sep 2016 03:39:30 GMT
22 Sep 2016 03:29:42 GMT
22 Sep 2016 02:41:28 GMT
08 Sep 2016 10:42:46 GMT
Although the legal framework for gender equality exists in Vietnam, gender mainstreaming in climate change planning and action have not yet been fully realised and addressed by local actors. In Da Nang, a gendered view to climate resilience building was also a new approach for the city and local authorities and vulnerable communities. This study examines the gender issue through the climate resilience lens within the context of Da Nang to see how gender and its link to climate change was locally perceived and at what level(s) gender equality and women's role were appreciated and incorporated into climate change planning and action.
The study applied the Resilience Framework provided by the Institute for Social and Environmental Transition (ISET) to examine the linkages of gender and climate change resilience building. Three key components of this Framework, Agent , Institution and System , were then used to analyse the data collected from the stakeholder consultations and field survey.
The key research findings include:
Three important policy implications generated from the study are:
02 Sep 2016 12:52:05 GMT
Recent research presented at a seminar in Paris co-organized by the CGIAR Research Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS), the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and Future Earth produced five key policy recommendations for supporting women farmers in a changing climate.
Gender-responsive climate policies and programmes include:
02 Sep 2016 12:43:30 GMT
02 Sep 2016 01:41:33 GMT
Reviewing the Nepalese government's climate change policy showed that the government do not have any policies addressing the linkages between climate change and sexual and reproductive health rights (SRHR). There are separate policies on climate change which is looked after by the Ministry of Environment Sciences and Technologies, and the policies on sexual and reproductive health which are looked upon by the Ministry of health. As climate change and SRHR issues are interrelated, impacting women's health and livelihoods. Hence, it is important to have policy coordination and integrated response to the field realities from government's side.
The analysis of the data in this study showed that the women and girls are the ones mostly affected by adverse impact of climate change. The major reason behind this is increased frequency of natural disasters which increase the work burden on women, This increased physical and mental stress on women have directly impacted their sexual and reproductive health and the impact of climate change on agriculture has triggered the situation of food insecurity, hunger and malnutrition.
02 Sep 2016 01:24:20 GMT
02 Sep 2016 01:06:37 GMT
30 Aug 2016 10:44:04 GMT
24 Aug 2016 12:48:28 GMT
The Safety and Security Project within Hivos’s (Humanist Institute for Cooperation with Developing Countries) LGBTI Programme aims to ensure that LGBTI persons are able to live and work within safe communities without the fear of persecution, physical or property harm or intimidation, and with the full enjoyment of their human rights. Hivos has for several years been supporting the work of LGBTI organisations and more recently has responded on an ad hoc basis to security issues faced by organisations and individuals. Given the nature, extent and on-going occurrence of safety and security threats to LGBTI individuals and organisations, Hivos saw the need to review its strategy in regard to LGBTI hate crimes in the region in order to develop a more coherent and sustainable strategy.
This review sets out to assess and address the follwing issues in South Africa, Zambia and Zimbabwe:
24 Aug 2016 12:34:42 GMT
Field research among geographically dispersed communities is time-consuming and costly. When people are stigmatised, field research has additional ethical and logistical problems. In many countries lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) people are both geographically dispersed and stigmatised. Online research methods and tools are therefore particularly interesting instruments for researchers and activists who work with LGBT communities. In countries where same-sex relations are criminal, such as in the Middle East and North Africa region, online communities can be the only way for LGBT people to relate to peers (ILGA 2014). Even in countries where access to social media and publishing on the internet is legally restricted, LGBT people have large online communities (Oosterhoff, Hoang and Quach 2014).
This methodology brief outlines the main steps and considerations for choosing research methods and data visualisation among LGBT individuals in resource-poor settings. Although this report focuses on LGBT, online data collection and data visualisation have broader relevance for thinktanks, whose targeted audiences increasingly function in complex digital environments.
24 Aug 2016 12:14:42 GMT
Tactical Tech have created a guide: Tools and Tactics for the LGBTI community in the Middle-East and North Africa (MENA). This is the first in the series of Security in-a-box Community Focus guides, which aim to further integrate digital security into the context of particular communities and human rights defenders.
This guide was created specifically for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transexual and Intersex individuals and human rights defenders in the MENA region, and was written in collaboration with human rights defenders from the community. The guide was written and published in the context of continuous and determined legal, religious, social, economic and digital marginalisation and harassment of the LGBTI community in most of the region.
The guide explores common threats, such as entrapment, extortion, harassment, and unauthorised access to devices and then links to the tools and tactics which can help LGBTI persons in the MENA region to stay safe.
The guide includes all the existing chapters of the Security in-a-Box toolkit (created in collaboration with Frontline Defenders), as well as testimonies of human rights defenders from the community, examples and accounts of attacks, and additional chapters on Risk Analysis and Safer Use of Internet Cafes and LGBTI dating sites.
24 Aug 2016 02:55:58 GMT
The widespread diffusion of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) has empowered activists and minority communities to spread information, campaign, build communities and challenge injustice in new and powerful ways. The LGBTI activist community has been no exception to this, as the increased potential for communication beyond established social channels, less confined by social norms and geographic isolation has facilitated LGBTI people’s expression and development of identity and ability to join forces to challenge the dangers and injustices faced by the community.
24 Aug 2016 02:38:17 GMT
RedR UK and EISF hosted a workshop on Friday 22nd January 2016, exploring current practices and issues that international development and humanitarian organisations’ encounter when approaching the inclusion and security of both international and national LGBTI aid workers. The need for this workshop arose from the lack of current discussion on these topics, as well as the wide-scale lack of adequate polices or best practices in ensuring the inclusion and security of workers within the humanitarian and development sectors. Related to this is the huge lack of available data on the experiences of LGBTI aid workers, including; regional and country data on the number of aid workers identifying as LGBTI, any correlation or trends between identifying as LGBTI and the type and frequency of security incidents, and documented incidents of labour discrimination related to LGBTI workers.
23 Aug 2016 12:48:03 GMT
The threats of climate change are not gender-neutral. Gender analysis on climate change over the past three decades has brought tolight the disproportionate effects of climate change and environmental degradation on women’s lives – particularly those of low-income women in global South settings. In countries where there is marked gender inequality, four times as many women as men die in floods. In some cases during natural disasters, women and children are 14 times more likely to die than men.16 This phenomenon will grow more frequent with global warming. Research has also shown that women often have a smaller carbon footprint than men, regardless of whether they are rich or poor.17 Therefore, a greater understanding of how gendered identities affect men and women’s roles, activities and subsequent contributions to carbon emissions is essential if mitigation politics and programs are to achieve their desired effect.
23 Aug 2016 12:34:52 GMT
Climate change increases challenges to women's and children's health. There is more likelihood of women and children suffering and dying from problems such as diarrhoea, undernutrition, malaria, and from the harmful effects of extreme weather events, including floods or drought. While women and children in developing countries have made comparatively small contributions to historical carbon emissions, they bear the brunt of the health effects of climate change, both now and in the future. Efforts to prevent, mitigate and address the effects of climate change should include integrated action across sectors to address these health inequities now and for future generations.
23 Aug 2016 01:06:10 GMT
Evidently women are more severely affected by climate change and natural disasters because of their social roles, discrimination and poverty. In rural Bangladesh they are specially vulnerable since they are highly dependent on local natural resources for their livelihood. A needs assessment survey was conducted between May and July of 2013, to identify viable livelihoods of women affected by climate change in ten climate vulnerable Upazilas of three eco-zones (flood prone, drought prone and cyclone prone) in Bangladesh.
19 Aug 2016 12:08:56 GMT
Adapting to climate change is about reducing vulnerability to current and projected climate risk while vulnerability to climate change is determined in large part by people's adaptive capacity. Climate hazards do not affect all people within a community or even the same household equally because some people have greater capacity than others to manage the crisis. The inequitable distribution of rights, resources, power and norms constrains many people's ability to take action on climate change. This is especially true for women and vulnerable groups. Therefore, gender is a critical factor in understanding vulnerability to climate change.
The main focus of this paper is to provide views and experiences on strengthening gender consideration in adaptation planning and implementation in the least developed countries (LDCs). It draws on the experiences gained from the national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs), and other initiatives, with a view to informing future adaptation efforts by LDCs and collaborating partners in the formulation and implementation of national adaptation plans (NAPs).
The paper discusses gender in the context of adaptation to climate change, presents sample tools in integrating gender into adaptation planning and implementation, provides experiences in the integration of gender into adaptation planning and implementation and addresses the integration of gender considerations in the process to formulate and implement NAPs.
19 Aug 2016 10:41:30 GMT
This toolkit is an initiative of the UNDP Gender Team and the UNDP-UNEP Global Support Programme. It is designed to strengthen the capacity of national government staff and assist them in integrating gender equality into the development of National Communications (NCs). It is recognized that NC reporting processes can be a meaningful entry point for training, awareness-raising and capacity-building efforts. Preparation of reports can also infl uence other, ongoing climate change planning and policymaking processes. As such, the toolkit can support Biennial Update Reports and planning documents such as National Adaptation Plans (NAPs), and inform the development and/or implementation of Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs), national and sectoral Gender and Climate Change Plans, and the strategic plans of individual government agencies 2 This toolkit can also inform sector policies related to both social and natural resource issues.
19 Aug 2016 10:32:31 GMT
19 Aug 2016 01:49:20 GMT
The need for national governments and international climate finance to support women producers Climate change is undermining the ability of African nations to feed themselves. Women smallholder producers are on the front line of dealing with the impacts, but are not first in line for international climate finance. Wealthy countries have committed to helping countries in Africa to adapt to climate change, but few women producers are feeling the benefit. National governments are stepping up in spite of limited resources and multiple development priorities. New analysis shows that whilst international climate finance overall is on the rise, wealthy countries are still failing to deliver public finance for adaptation in Africa.
18 Aug 2016 03:34:19 GMTThe African Union (AU) Assembly declared 2009 - 2018 the "African Youth Decade" and released an action plan to promote youth empowerment and development throughout the continent, including by raising young citizens' representation and participation in political processes. The latest results from Afrobarometer surveys in 36 countries reveal a wide gap between the aspirations set forth in the AU policy framework and the reality of youth political engagement in Africa today. The data show that African governments and development partners have considerable work to do to achieve the goal of increased civic and political participation among youth, particularly young women. African youth (aged 18-35) report lower rates of political engagement than their elders across a variety of indicators, including voting in national elections. Young citizens are also less likely to engage in civic activities such as attending community meetings and joining others to raise an issue. While these findings are consistent with research on age differences in voter turnout in advanced democracies, the survey further finds that youth engagement levels have declined over time despite the introduction of regional and national youth empowerment policies. Key findings:political engagement is generally lower among African youth than among their elders, particularly in terms of voting. Two-thirds (65%) of 18- to 35–year-old respondents who were old enough to vote in the last national election say they did so, compared to 79% of citizens above age 35slightly more than half (53%) of African youth report being “very” or “somewhat” interested in public affairs, while two-thirds (67%) say they discuss politics with friends or family at least “occasionally.” Compared to their male counterparts, young women report significantly less interest (48% vs. 60%) and discussion (61% vs. 74%)attendance at campaign rallies is the most popular form of pre-electoral engagement among young Africans: One-third (33%) say they attended at least one in the previous year, compared to 37% of older citizens. The gender gap in participation in rallies averages 10 percentage points and is largest in East Africa (14 points) and West Africa (13 points)African youth are less likely than their elders to participate in civic activities: Less than half (47%) of 18- to 35–year-olds say they attended community meetings at least once during the previous year, while 40% joined others to raise an issue (vs. 57% and 47% for older citizens). Young women’s participation also lags behind that of their male peers on these measures of civic activism (by 9 percentage points, on average), particularly in West Africa and North Africa (both by 14 percentage points)not quite half (48%) of youth say they contacted political or community leaders during the previous year to discuss an important issue, with lower reported engagement levels among young women than men (43% vs. 53%)youth participation in demonstrations and protest marches is lower than in more conventional forms of civic and political engagement, but higher than among their elders: 11% of young survey respondents say they attended at least one protest in the previous year (vs. 8% o[...]
12 Aug 2016 04:42:32 GMT
11 Aug 2016 11:31:41 GMT
This brief is based on a research project carried out by Practical Action Consulting with support from the Institute of Development Studies, commissioned by and supported by the Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN), to provide evidence on the advantages and challenges of integrating a gender dimension into climate compatible development strategies in urban settings, with a focus on Peru, India and Kenya. Although considerable evidence exists pertaining to rural areas, significant knowledge gaps can be found in relation to climate compatible development and gender in urban areas.
The research attempts to respond to the following four questions:
08 Aug 2016 03:48:16 GMT
14 Jul 2016 02:09:20 GMT
Girls under age 20—around 19 million of them—make up one-fifth of Egypt’s population.1 In 2015, about 8 million of these girls were adolescents between ages 10 and 19. According to the latest projections from the United Nations (UN) Population Division, this group will grow to 11.5 million in 2030—a 44 percent increase in 15 years. Improving the lives of adolescent girls in Egypt requires a national response that cuts across development sectors and programs. Such a response is necessary because of the girls’ demographic significance, and more importantly because they are vulnerable to harmful practices such as female genital cutting (FGC) and early marriage that violate girls’ rights and hinder the country’s development.
This policy brief presents the latest data on girls’ education, early marriage, and FGC in Egypt, to illustrate improvements in the situation of adolescent girls as well as the gaps. It points to Egypt’s rapid population growth and wide socioeconomic inequalities as major challenges hindering efforts to improve girls’ lives. It calls for coordinated, national efforts to implement recently adopted policies to uphold girls’ rights and bring about change. Lifting girls up, by empowering them to reach their full potential, will also help lift the Egyptian nation.
12 Jul 2016 03:42:33 GMT
06 Jul 2016 03:25:32 GMT
Differences in the way Nigerian men and women are socialised and valued – and disparities in their abilities to access power, resources and key roles in society - create an imbalance of power within relationships between the two sexes. These differences also fuel personal struggles as well as conflict and violence in the home and the wider community and further deepen gender inequality.
This study examine masculinities, conflict and violence in four states in Nigeria: Borno; Kaduna; Lagos; and Rivers. It explores what it means to be a man and what it means to be a woman because the two sets of notions are fundamentally linked. The study was conducted using focus group discussions and key informant interviews and reveals important insights which have relevance across the research states.
Research findings offer compelling evidence for policies and programmes which are adapted around development, gender equality, peace and security. The study found many significant ways in which perceived ideas around masculinities drive conflict and violence and, conversely, highlighted the impact that deviation from these norms and behaviour can have on peace. This opens up opportunities for positive change where interventions avoid reinforcing inequitable masculinities or adding to the pressure that men experience in trying to live up to often impossible ideals.
28 Jun 2016 04:34:24 GMT
28 Jun 2016 03:17:09 GMT
Every child has the right to health, education and protection, and every society has a stake in expanding children’s opportunities in life. Yet, around the world, millions of children are denied a fair chance for no reason other than the country, gender or circumstances into which they are born. The State of the World’s Children 2016 argues that progress for the most disadvantaged children is not only a moral, but also a strategic imperative. Stakeholders have a clear choice to make: invest in accelerated progress for the children being left behind, or face the consequences of a far more divided world by 2030.
The report begins with the most glaring inequity of all – disparities in child survival – and goes on to explore the underlying determinants of preventable child mortality. It argues that to meet the 2030 child survival target, we must urgently address persistent disparities in maternal health, the availability of skilled birth attendants, adequate nutrition and access to basic services, as well as other factors such as discrimination, exclusion and a lack of knowledge about child feeding and the role of safe water, adequate sanitation and hygiene in preventing childhood disease.
The discussion continues with a look at one of the most effective drivers of development and the greatest equalizer of opportunity: education. Without quality education, disadvantaged children are far more likely to be trapped as adults in low-skilled, poorly paid and insecure employment, preventing them from breaking intergenerational cycles of disadvantage. But a greater focus on early childhood development, on increasing education access and quality, and on providing education in emergencies will yield cascading benefits for both this generation and the next.
Having discussed two of the most glaring deprivations children face, this report then examines child poverty in all its dimensions – and the role social protection programmes play in reducing it. Arguing that child poverty is about more than income, it presents a case for combining measures to reduce income poverty with integrated solutions to the many deprivations experienced by children living in poverty.
Finally, as a call to action, the report concludes with a set of principles to guide more equity-focused policy, planning and public spending. These broad principles include expanding information about who is being left behind and why; improving integration to tackle the multiple dimensions of deprivation; fostering and fuelling Innovation to reach the hardest-to-reach children; increasing investment in equity-focused programmes; and driving involvement by communities and citizens around the world.
27 Jun 2016 03:38:32 GMT
The brief is the third in a series of practitioner briefs which document ALP learning on community based adaptation approaches in ways that are useful to practitioners, development actors and decision-makers. This brief will be of particular value for project or programme teams, local and national government staff and civil society practitioners who are designing or starting up programmes which aim for adaptation and resilience to climate change and sustainable outcomes by climate vulnerable men and women in Africa. The brief is useful across a wide range of programmes and sectors where gender equality is a critical outcome, for example in â adaptation, community economic development, development planning, sector based development, climate smart agriculture, womenâs empowerment, disaster risk reduction and social protection.
24 Jun 2016 12:30:51 GMT
Studies indicate that harmful gender norms and practices, cultural perceptions and beliefs surrounding pregnancy and childbirth, and a distrust of health-care services all can pose barriers to HIV prevention and treatment. In particular, women face difficulties related to unequal gender power relations and stigma.
This Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) document presents evidence that timely and continued access to antiretroviral medicines would reduce new infections in children and give HIV-infected women access to HIV treatment and care for their own health and well-being. Because 1) women's lack of autonomy, 2) mistrust of health services, particularly due to a lack of cultural sensitivity and confidentiality among health-service providers, and 3) fear of stigma and related abuse can affect women's access to treatment, key gender-related barriers stand in the way of preventing new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive.
The following recommendations, based upon discussions in Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Uganda, are proposed to overcome gender-related and cultural barriers to services.
24 Jun 2016 01:23:12 GMT
This toolkit has been developed by the ZAZI campaign for use by peer educators, community outreach workers, faith-based organisations, and traditional health practitioners to help facilitate participatory discussions on sexual and reproductive health with women aged between 20 and 49 years of age. ZAZI is a campaign developed by women for women in South Africa, which celebrates the strength of South African women. It promotes self confidence amongst women so that they can draw upon their own strength to make positive choices for their future, and "encourages young women to resist peer pressure and define their own values so that they can prevent unwanted pregnancies, HIV, have a safe pregnancy and healthy baby when they choose to fall pregnant."(See Related Summary below for more information)
The toolkit can be used for one hour-long, half-day, full-day, or longer workshops, and facilitators are encouraged to adapt sessions to meet the needs of the participating group. There are also suggestions for adapting the workshops for teenage girls aged 16-19.
The toolkit is divided into the following 10 content sections:
Each section is made up of the following:
23 Jun 2016 12:04:44 GMT"To be effective, any health and development agenda needs to focus on the root causes of the gender gap, and the AIDS response is no different."This report was produced to guide regional and global advocacy and inform political dialogue, particularly within discussions and planning being shaped as part of the African Union Agenda 2063 and the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, in order to consider actions needed to achieve the goal of ending the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. The report centres on the understanding that this requires taking action to target the root causes of young women and girls' vulnerability, largely arising from harmful gender norms and inequality.The report offers five key recommendations:Women's agency, participation and leadership: By empowering women as political and social actors, institutions and policies can become more representative of diverse voices, including those young women and girls. This should include young women living with and affected by HIV being part of policy and decision-making bodies and ensuring women's participation in humanitarian situations.Strategies to reduce intimate partner violence and reduce vulnerability to HIV: "Strategies and action implemented at the community level to address intimate partner violence are critical to reducing young women's and adolescent girls' vulnerability to HIV." One example given is the Raising Voices SASA! kit, which was designed to inspire and guide community mobilisation to prevent violence against women and HIV. "Community activists spearheaded a wide range of activities in their own neighbourhoods designed to decrease the social acceptability of violence by influencing knowledge, attitudes, skills and behaviours on gender, power and violence."Scaling up social protection and cash transfers to reduce poverty and girls' vulnerability to HIV: According to the report, in the context of comprehensive social policies and programmes, "households affected by HIV are an appropriate target for cash transfer programmes that aim to alleviate poverty. Cash transfers can achieve multiple simultaneous outcomes, including declines in early marriage and teenage pregnancy."Strategies to keep girls in school and comprehensive sexuality education: Evidence shows that education contributes to a higher level of knowledge about HIV and sexual and reproductive health and rights, lowers exposure to gender-based violence, and increases women's and girls' chances of being financially secure and independent. As well, "when young women and adolescent girls have access to comprehensive age-appropriate sexuality education before becoming sexually active, they are more likely to make informed decisions about their sexuality and approach relationships with more self-confidence."Scaling up and integrating HIV with sexual and reproductive health services: "A massive scale-up of comprehensive[...]
23 Jun 2016 11:06:58 GMT
This guidebook intends to provide a basic framework, examples, resources, and contact information for health providers and managers who coordinate service provision for child victims of sexual violence and who ultimately work to ensure that children and adolescents receive the services they need. The resource is premised on the observation that such violence is a global human rights violation with severe immediate and long-term health and social consequences. It serves as a companion guide to the 2012 Clinical Management of Children and Adolescents Who Have Experienced Sexual Violence: Technical Considerations for PEPFAR Programs, which provides step-by-step guidance on the appropriate clinical/forensic care for children and adolescents who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation. The companion guide helps health providers and managers to better understand and facilitate linkages with critical social and community services for comprehensive care of children and adolescents who have experienced sexual violence and exploitation beyond the clinical exam, take additional steps to help children and adolescents receive information and support their needs, and contribute to changes in sociocultural norms that perpetuate a culture of violence and silence that can also increase HIV risk and vulnerability.
For example, the role of communication is an integrated, multisectoral response is highlighted in a box within the document that characterises children and adolescents with disabilities as among the most vulnerable, because they "are systematically denied basic information about sexual health and relationships, including sexual violence. They may be in isolated settings away from neighbors, extended family, or local community members who could play a role in identifying abuse. Staff at disability-specific organizations may lack training in recognizing ACEs [adverse childhood experiences], including sexual violence, and thus miss signs of abuse of their clients. Those services that do exist are likely not able to provide disability-specific services, due to physical barriers to access or lack of providers who are trained to work with children/adolescents with disabilities. Access to justice is routinely denied....(they are not considered credible witnesses, and/or their cases are not taken seriously, and/or the court system lacks appropriate services)."
23 Jun 2016 10:39:14 GMT
South Africa has amongst the highest levels of domestic violence and rape of any country in the world. Research conducted by the Medical Research Council in 2004 shows that every six hours, a woman is killed by her intimate partner. This is the highest rate recorded anywhere in the world.
This Manual is intended to be a resource for those working with youth on issues of citizenship, human rights, gender, health, sexuality and violence. The content is informed by a commitment to social justice, gender equality and engaged citizen activism. The activities encourage all youth to reflect on their own experiences, attitudes and values regarding sexuality; gender; what it means to be a boy/man or girl/woman; domestic and sexual violence; HIV/AIDS, democracy and human rights. They encourage all youth to take action to help prevent domestic and sexual violence, reduce the spread and impact of HIV and AIDS, and promote gender equality.
There is an accompanying Participants' Manual.
23 Jun 2016 10:25:49 GMT
Specifically aimed at females between the ages of 18-24 years-old, this training manual was produced to guide a series of training sessions which were designed to empower young women. Part of a Sonke Gender Justice project implemented in South Africa, the four one-day long training sessions, are meant to:
Hosted over the course of a month, each training day consists of a morning classroom-based session where young women engage in both informative learning and interactive exercises, and then an afternoon session where they participate in a field trip. These morning sessions "are designed to be engaging, interactive, and make use of best practice young adult learning principles - that is games, small group work, etc., while focusing on pertinent topics to the lives of the young women." The afternoon sessions build on information learned in the morning and give the young women a chance to visit a local resource in the community, such as a clinic.
This manual is divided into four modules:
According to Sonke Gender Justice, "young, rural, South African women are faced with many challenges that can impede a healthy transition from young person to adult. These include age-specific social pressures, lack of correct health knowledge, and lack of safe, economic opportunity." Tiyani Vavasati aims to intervene on some of these root issues, instilling useable assets into the young women. This manual was adapted, in part, from the 2013 Adolescent Girls Empowerment Program, Health and Life Skills and Financial Education Curricula published by Zambia YMCA, UKAID, and Population Council. Additional materials come from Sonke Gender Justice, South Africa.
23 Jun 2016 10:15:33 GMT
"As a result of the campaign, couples were motivated to communicate about health, and men and women were more likely to seek reproductive health services together."
This was one of the key results of the Vunja Ukimya. Zungumza na Mwenzio (Break the Silence. Talk to your partner) campaign in Tanzania. The campaign was launched in 2010 as part of the CHAMPION project, a six-year initiative (2008-2014) to increase men's positive involvement in preventing the spread of HIV in Tanzania. The 5-month national social and behaviour change communication (SBCC) campaign was designed to encourage couples to communicate more effectively for healthier, more equitable relationships and to prevent the spread of HIV. "Campaign messages focused on the role of gender equity in ensuring health, and targeted individuals, couples, and communities in promoting dialogue around HIV, gender equality, and positive health-seeking behavior." The brief forms part of a series of CHAMPION briefs to highlight some of the project's achievements.
The brief explains the campaign approach, which used radio, television, national newspapers, billboards, and outreach events and activities to reach audiences of adult men and women over the age of 25 and in established, longer-term relationships. The roll-out occurred in phases, beginning with a teaser phase, followed by a two month "problem phase" that also incorporated a World Cup sub-campaign, and then a "how to" phase, highlighting and demonstrating the health benefits of effective communication between partners. The messages focused on positive couple communication and used food as a metaphor for relationships, "indicating that both (dinner and happiness) require preparation and care to achieve the desired results."
The following are a selection of lessons learned:
Overall, the assessment of the Vunja Ukimya campaign was that it was widely well received, with community members responding positively to the promotion of couples being close and the concept of "transparency" within relationships.
23 Jun 2016 04:03:39 GMT
The need for HIV prevention efforts to more explicitly incorporate program elements to address gender inequality and violence has been repeatedly articulated, and the elimination of sexual and gender-based violence has been identified by the Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) as being one of the core pillars of HIV prevention.
Recognising that intimate partner violence (IPV) is an independent risk factor for HIV infection, researchers in this SASA! study sought to assess the community-level impact of SASA!, a community mobilisation intervention to prevent violence and reduce HIV-risk behaviors.
23 Jun 2016 02:51:22 GMT
When HIV prevention programs are shaped by evidence and designed for replication and scale-up, they can reach large numbers of the girls and young women at greatest risk and increase their ability to avoid infection.
In Eastern and Southern Africa, HIV is the leading cause of death among girls aged 15–19. Despite decades of investment and substantial progress against HIV, adolescent girls remain at disproportionate risk of infection.
Few programs have sought to take a “whole girl” approach to addressing the multiple vulnerabilities to HIV infection—social isolation, economic insecurity, lack of access to services, and sexual and gender-based violence—experienced by the most marginalized adolescent girls in the poorest communities in Africa.
Building the Assets to Thrive: Addressing the HIV-related Vulnerabilities of Adolescent Girls in Ethiopia is a comprehensive review of three programs implemented and evaluated by the Population Council and the Ethiopian government beginning in 2007: Biruh Tesfa, Meseret Hiwott, and Addis Birhan. These
programs seek to reduce Ethiopian girls’ HIV risk by using similar methods to engage girls—and, in the case of one program, the males who play a role in their health and well-being.
This policy brief summarizes Building the Assets to Thrive to provide policymakers and program planners with a road map for creating and supporting evidence-based, locally responsive, simple, effective, scalable, and sustainable programs that produce positive outcomes for girls and their communities.