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analysis  cognitive  deception  elbw  emotion regulation  emotion  mental health  meta analysis  meta  regulation  sleep  strategies 
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Preview: Psychological Bulletin - Vol 134, Iss 3

Psychological Bulletin - Vol 143, Iss 4



Psychological Bulletin publishes evaluative and integrative research reviews and interpretations of issues in scientific psychology. Primary research is reported only for illustrative purposes. Integrative reviews or research syntheses focus on empirical



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Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
 



Mental health of extremely low birth weight survivors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

2017-02-13

Although individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; < 1,000 g) are the most vulnerable of all preterm survivors, their risk for mental health problems across the life span has not been systematically reviewed. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to ascertain whether the risk for mental health problems is greater for ELBW survivors than their normal birth weight (NBW) peers in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Forty-one studies assessing 2,712 ELBW children, adolescents, and adults and 11,127 NBW controls were reviewed. Group differences in mental health outcomes were assessed using random effects meta-analyses. The impacts of birthplace, birth era, and neurosensory impairment on mental health outcomes were assessed in subgroup analyses. Children born at ELBW were reported by parents and teachers to be at significantly greater risk than NBW controls for inattention and hyperactivity, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms. ELBW children were also at greater risk for conduct and oppositional disorders, autistic symptoms, and social difficulties. Risks for parent-reported inattention and hyperactivity, internalizing, and social problems were greater in adolescents born at ELBW. In contrast, ELBW teens self-reported lower inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositional behavior levels than their NBW peers. Depression, anxiety, and social difficulties were elevated in ELBW survivors in adulthood. Group differences were robust to region of birth, era of birth, and the presence of neurosensory impairments. The complex needs faced by children born at ELBW continue throughout development, with long-term consequences for psychological and social well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The structure of common emotion regulation strategies: A meta-analytic examination.

2017-03-16

Emotion regulation has been examined extensively with regard to important outcomes, including psychological and physical health. However, the literature includes many different emotion regulation strategies but little examination of how they relate to one another, making it difficult to interpret and synthesize findings. The goal of this meta-analysis was to examine the underlying structure of common emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, behavioral avoidance, distraction, experiential avoidance, expressive suppression, mindfulness, problem solving, reappraisal, rumination, worry), and to evaluate this structure in light of theoretical models of emotion regulation. We also examined how distress tolerance—an important emotion regulation ability —relates to strategy use. We conducted meta-analyses estimating the correlations between emotion regulation strategies (based on 331 samples and 670 effect sizes), as well as between distress tolerance and strategies. The resulting meta-analytic correlation matrix was submitted to confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. None of the confirmatory models, based on prior theory, was an acceptable fit to the data. Exploratory factor analysis suggested that 3 underlying factors best characterized these data. Two factors—labeled Disengagement and Aversive Cognitive Perseveration—emerged as strongly correlated but distinct factors, with the latter consisting of putatively maladaptive strategies. The third factor, Adaptive Engagement, was a less unified factor and weakly related to the other 2 factors. Distress tolerance was most closely associated with low levels of repetitive negative thought and experiential avoidance, and high levels of acceptance and mindfulness. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings and applications to emotion regulation assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Lying takes time: A meta-analysis on reaction time measures of deception.

2017-02-09

Lie detection techniques are frequently used, but most of them have been criticized for the lack of empirical support for their predictive validity and presumed underlying mechanisms. This situation has led to increased efforts to unravel the cognitive mechanisms underlying deception and to develop a comprehensive theory of deception. A cognitive approach to deception has reinvigorated interest in reaction time (RT) measures to differentiate lies from truths and to investigate whether lying is more cognitively demanding than truth telling. Here, we provide the results of a meta-analysis of 114 studies (n = 3307) using computerized RT paradigms to assess the cognitive cost of lying. Results revealed a large standardized RT difference, even after correction for publication bias (d = 1.049; 95% CI [0.930; 1.169]), with a large heterogeneity amongst effect sizes. Moderator analyses revealed that the RT deception effect was smaller, yet still large, in studies in which participants received instructions to avoid detection. The autobiographical Implicit Association Test produced smaller effects than the Concealed Information Test, the Sheffield Lie Test, and the Differentiation of Deception paradigm. An additional meta-analysis (17 studies, n = 348) showed that, like other deception measures, RT deception measures are susceptible to countermeasures. Whereas our meta-analysis corroborates current cognitive approaches to deception, the observed heterogeneity calls for further research on the boundary conditions of the cognitive cost of deception. RT-based measures of deception may have potential in applied settings, but countermeasures remain an important challenge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Time for considering the possibility that sleep plays no unique role in motor memory consolidation: Reply to Adi-Japha and Karni (2016).

2017-03-16

The hypothesis that sleep makes a unique contribution to motor memory consolidation has been debated in recent years. In the target article (Pan & Rickard, 2015), we reported results of a comprehensive meta-analysis of the explicit motor sequence learning literature in which evidence was evaluated for both enhanced performance after sleep and stabilization after sleep. After accounting for confounding variables, we found no compelling evidence for either empirical phenomenon, and hence no compelling evidence for sleep-specific consolidation. In their comment, Adi-Japha and Karni (2016) critiqued the target article on three primary grounds: (a) our unrealistic (in their view) assumption that, if sleep-specific consolidation occurs, it is mechanistically unitary across all variants of the motor sequence experiments included in the meta-analysis, (b) our inclusion of child groups, which they believe may have resulted in an underestimation of sleep effects among adult groups, and (c) our inclusion of several experiments with atypical experimental designs, which may have introduced unaccounted for heterogeneity. In this reply we address each of those potentially legitimate concerns. We show that the metaregression allowed for tests of multiple candidate variables that could engender separate consolidation mechanisms, yielding no behavioral evidence for it. We also show through reanalysis that the inclusion of child groups had virtually no impact on the parameter estimates among adults, and that the inclusion of experiments with atypical designs did not materially influence parameter estimates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)