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The Journal of Counseling Psychology publishes empirical research in the areas of (a) counseling activities (including assessment, interventions, consultation, supervision, training, prevention, and psychological education), (b) career development and voc



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A meta-analysis of indicated mental health prevention programs for at-risk higher education students.

2017-03-09

This meta-analysis found empirical support for the effectiveness of indicated prevention programs for higher education students at risk for subsequent mental health difficulties based on their current subclinical levels of various presenting problems, such as depression, anxiety, or interpersonal difficulties. A systematic literature search identified 79 controlled published and unpublished interventions involving 4,470 college, graduate, or professional students. Programs were effective at post-intervention overall (ES = 0.49, CI [0.43, 0.55]), and for both targeted outcomes (ES = 0.58, CI [0.51, 0.64]) as well as additional nontargeted outcomes assessed in the studies (ES = 0.32, CI [0.25, 0.39]). Interventions compared with a no-intervention or a wait-list control (ES = 0.64, CI [0.57, 0.71], k = 68) demonstrated significantly larger effects overall than did interventions compared with an attention-placebo control (ES = 0.27, CI [0.11, 0.43], k = 11), although both were significant. Among the former group, modality and presenting problem emerged as significant moderators of intervention effectiveness, and among the 43 of these that assessed effectiveness at an average follow-up period of 35 weeks, the positive effects from intervention remained strong (ES = 0.59, CI [0.50, 0.68]). Overall, programs were fairly brief, attracted and retained students, were positively rated by students, and effective when administered by paraprofessionals as well as professionals. Current findings are promising and stimulate recommendations for improving future research, such as expanding the range of outcomes assessed, and clarifying moderators and mediators of intervention impact. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Impostor feelings as a moderator and mediator of the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health among racial/ethnic minority college students.

2017-03-09

This study investigated whether impostor feelings would both moderate and mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and mental health in a sample of diverse ethnic minority college students (106 African Americans, 102 Asian Americans, 108 Latino/a Americans) at an urban public university. African American students reported higher perceived discrimination than Asian American and Latino/a American students, while no racial/ethnic group differences were reported for impostor feelings. Analyses revealed that among African American students, high levels of impostor feelings moderated the perceived discrimination and depression relationship and mediated the perceived discrimination and anxiety relationship. Among Asian American students, impostor feelings mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety. Among Latino/a American students low levels of impostor feelings moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and both depression and anxiety, and partially mediated the relationship between perceived discrimination and anxiety. Multigroup path analyses revealed a significantly stronger impact of impostor feelings on depression among African American students and a stronger impact of perceived discrimination on impostor feelings among African American and Latino/a American students. Clinical implications and future research directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Impostor phenomenon and mental health: The influence of racial discrimination and gender.

2017-02-09

The impostor phenomenon (IP), or feelings of intellectual incompetence, reflects a maladaptive set of cognitions, which pose a significant psychological risk for African American emerging adults. In light of recent evidence suggesting that personal and sociocultural factors may influence the association between IP and psychological adjustment, this study used 2 waves of data to examine the extent to which gender and racial discrimination moderated the association between IP and indices of mental health among 157 African American college students (69% women; mean age = 18.30) attending a predominantly White institution. Analyses revealed that young African American women reporting higher frequencies of racial discrimination and women reporting lower levels of distress resulting from racial discrimination were most vulnerable to negative mental health outcomes, particularly at higher levels of IP. These findings suggest that IP may interact with gender and racial discrimination experiences to influence mental health outcomes. We discuss how these findings can be utilized to inform treatment of African American emerging adults experiencing IP and the importance of considering how gender and discrimination may intersect to exacerbate feelings of intellectual incompetence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Perceptions of legal status: Associations with psychosocial experiences among undocumented Latino/a immigrants.

2017-02-09

In the present study we used a mixed-method design to examine perceptions of legal status and their association with psychosocial experiences among undocumented Latino/a immigrants in the United States. Participants were asked to compare their perceived social experiences with those of documented Latinos/as in order to determine whether differences in such perceptions might emerge and whether such perceptions might differentially impact well-being. A community sample of 140 self-reported undocumented Latino/a immigrants completed questionnaires measuring perceptions of legal status, well-being (global and psychological), perceived context of reception, and experiences of discrimination. Results indicated that individuals who perceived their experiences as different from those of documented Latinos/as due to an unauthorized legal status reported less social equality as evidenced by lower well-being, increased experiences of discrimination, and a more adverse context of reception. Moreover, individuals who perceived their social experiences as different from those of documented Latinos/as due to their legal status reported issues centering on 2 domains: limited opportunity/restricted social mobility and discrimination/unfair treatment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in terms of advancing theory and from a multicultural counseling perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Disordered eating among Asian American college women: A racially expanded model of objectification theory.

2017-03-09

Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color’s objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women’s (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The complexities of power in feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervision.

2016-12-05

The goal of the present study was to understand how current feminist multicultural supervisors understand and implement their feminist multicultural principles into clinical supervision. We addressed this aim by answering the following research question: How do self-identified feminist multicultural psychotherapy supervisors conceptualize and practice feminist supervision that is explicitly multicultural? The perspectives of 14 participant supervisors were obtained by using semistructured initial interviews, follow-up interviews, and feedback interviews and were investigated via a feminist constructivist grounded theory design and analysis. Most participants identified as counseling psychologists (n = 12), women (n = 11) and temporarily able-bodied (n = 11); but they identified with diverse racial/ethnic, sexual, spiritual/religious, generational, and nationality statuses. A 7-category empirical framework emerged that explained how the participants anticipated and managed power in supervision. The core category, the complexities of power in supervision, explained how participants conceptualized power in supervisory relationships. The 6 remaining categories were bringing history into the supervision room, creating trust through openness and honesty, using a collaborative process, meeting shifting developmental (a)symmetries, cultivating critical reflexivity, and looking at and counterbalancing the impact of context. Limitations of the study, implications for research, and suggestions to use the theoretical framework to transform supervisory practice and training are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The development and initial validation of the Decent Work Scale.

2017-02-06

Decent work is positioned as the centerpiece of the recently developed Psychology of Working Theory (PWT; Duffy, Blustein, Diemer, & Autin, 2016). However, to date, no instrument exists which assesses all 5 components of decent work from a psychological perspective. In the current study, we developed the Decent Work Scale (DWS) and demonstrated several aspects of validity with 2 samples of working adults. In Study 1 (N = 275), a large pool of items were developed and exploratory factor analysis was conducted resulting in a final 15-item scale with 5 factors/subscales corresponding to the 5 components of decent work: (a) physically and interpersonally safe working conditions, (b) access to health care, (c) adequate compensation, (d) hours that allow for free time and rest, and (e) organizational values that complement family and social values. In Study 2 (N = 589), confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that a 5-factor, bifactor model offered the strongest and most parsimonious fit to the data. Configural, metric, and scalar invariance models were tested demonstrating that the structure of the instrument did not differ across gender, income, social class, and majority/minority racial/ethnic groups. Finally, the overall scale score and 5 subscale scores correlated in the expected directions with similar constructs supporting convergent and discriminant evidence of validity, and subscale scores evidenced predictive validity in the prediction of job satisfaction, work meaning, and withdrawal intentions. The development of this scale provides a useful tool for researchers and practitioners seeking to assess the attainment of decent work among employed adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Development of an abbreviated Career Indecision Profile-65 using item response theory: The CIP-Short.

2016-12-08

The current study developed an abbreviated version of the Career Indecision Profile-65 (CIP-65; Hacker, Carr, Abrams, & Brown, 2013) by using item response theory. In order to improve the efficiency of the CIP-65 in measuring career indecision, the individual item performance of the CIP-65 was examined with respect to the ordering of response occurrence and gender differential item functioning. The best 5 items of each scale of the CIP-65 (i.e., neuroticism/negative affectivity, choice/commitment anxiety, lack of readiness, and interpersonal conflicts) were retained in the CIP-Short using a sample of 588 college students. A validation sample (N = 174) supported the reliability and structural validity of the CIP-Short. The convergent and divergent validity of the CIP-Short was additionally supported in the findings of a hypothesized differential relational pattern in a separate sample (N = 360). While the current study supported the CIP-Short being a sound brief measure of career indecision, the limitations of this study and suggestions for future research were discussed as well. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



“Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity”: Correction to Mandel et al. (2015).

2017-01-16

Reports an error in "Self-critical perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over 4 years: The mediating role of daily stress reactivity" by Tobey Mandel, David M. Dunkley and Molly Moroz (Journal of Counseling Psychology, 2015[Oct], Vol 62[4], 703-717). In the article, there were errors in Table 1. The corrected version of Table 1 appears in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-32534-001.) This study of 150 community adults examined heightened emotional reactivity to daily stress as a mediator in the relationships between self-critical (SC) perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms over a period of 4 years. Participants completed questionnaires assessing: perfectionism dimensions, general depressive symptoms (i.e., shared with anxiety), specific depressive symptoms (i.e., anhedonia), general anxious symptoms (i.e., shared with depression), and specific anxious symptoms (i.e., somatic anxious arousal) at Time 1; daily stress and affect (e.g., sadness, negative affect) for 14 consecutive days at Month 6 and Year 3; and depressive and anxious symptoms at Year 4. Path analyses indicated that SC perfectionism predicted daily stress–sadness reactivity (i.e., greater increases in sadness in response to increases in stress) across Month 6 and Year 3, which in turn explained why individuals with higher SC perfectionism had more general depressive symptoms, anhedonic depressive symptoms, and general anxious symptoms, respectively, 4 years later. In contrast, daily reactivity to stress with negative affect did not mediate the prospective relation between SC perfectionism and anhedonic depressive symptoms. Findings also demonstrated that higher mean levels of daily stress did not mediate the relationship between SC perfectionism and depressive and anxious symptoms 4 years later. These findings highlight the importance of targeting enduring heightened stress reactivity in order to reduce SC perfectionists’ vulnerability to depressive and anxious symptoms over the long term. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Factor structure, factorial invariance, and validity of the Multidimensional Shame-Related Response Inventory-21 (MSRI-21).

2017-02-09

We describe 2 studies designed to evaluate scores on the Multidimensional Shame-related Response Inventory-21 (MSRI-21), a recently developed instrument that measures affective and behavioral responses to shame. The inventory assesses shame-related responses in 3 categories: negative self-evaluation, fear of social consequences, and maladaptive behavior tendency. For Study 1, (N = 743) undergraduates completed the MSRI-21. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the validity of the MSRI-21 3-factor structure. Latent variable modeling of coefficient-α provided strong evidence for the internal consistency of scores on each scale. In Study 2, (N = 540) undergraduates completed the instrument along with 5 concurrent measures chosen for clinical significance. Achievement of factorial invariance supported the use of MSRI-21 scale scores to make valid mean comparisons across gender. In addition, MSRI-21 scale scores were associated as expected with scores on measures of self-harm, suicide, and other risk factors. Taken together, results of 2 studies support the internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, factorial invariance, and convergent validity of scores on the MSRI-21. Further work is needed to assess the temporal stability of the MSRI-21 scale scores, invariance across clinical status and other groupings, item-level measurement properties, and viability in highly symptomatic samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)