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The Journal of Counseling Psychology publishes empirical research in the areas of (a) counseling activities (including assessment, interventions, consultation, supervision, training, prevention, and psychological education), (b) career development and voc



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Acculturation and enculturation as predictors of psychological help-seeking attitudes (HSAs) among racial and ethnic minorities: A meta-analytic investigation.

2016-09-05

Psychological services are culturally encapsulated for dominant cultural groups, and racial minorities underutilize treatment even though they suffer from more severe psychological distress. Sociocultural factors such as acculturation (one’s adaptation into mainstream group) and enculturation (one’s adherence to culture of heritage) are hypothesized to affect minorities’ attitudes toward seeking psychological services. This meta-analysis examined 3 methods to assess acculturation/enculturation—unidimensional acculturation, bidimensional acculturation, and bidimensional enculturation as predictors of help-seeking attitudes (HSAs)—both positive and negative attitudes—among racial and ethnic minorities in 207 samples drawn from 111 research reports. The omnibus correlations between acculturation/enculturation variables and HSAs were quite small, but in the predicted direction. Moderator analyses suggested a more nuanced understanding of the association between bidimensional enculturation and positive HSAs: This association was significant (r = −.14 95% CI[–.18, −.09]) for Asians and Asian Americans, but very close to zero and nonsignificant for other racial minority groups (African Americans, Latino Americans, and others). In addition, the domain of acculturation/enculturation assessed was predictive of effect size, with enculturation measures containing a higher proportion of cognitive items (e.g., items that assess cultural values and beliefs) showing stronger (more negative) associations with positive HSAs. Post hoc analyses indicated that certain Asian cultural values, including emotional self-control, conformity to social norms, and collectivism, showed especially high negative associations with positive HSAs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Finding benefits from acculturative stress among Asian Americans: Self-reflection moderating the mediating effects of ethnocultural empathy on positive outcomes.

2016-11-14

This study examined a moderated mediation model to see whether self-reflection moderated (a) the association between acculturative stress and ethnocultural empathy and (b) the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes (i.e., bicultural competence and making positive sense of adversity) through ethnocultural empathy. A total of 330 Asian American college students from a West coast university participated in an online survey. Results from PROCESS supported hypotheses. First, self-reflection significantly moderated the effects of acculturative stress on ethnocultural empathy. Specifically, the effect of acculturative stress on ethnocultural empathy was significantly positive for those with lower self-reflection. Conversely, this effect was not significant for those with higher self-reflection, but ethnocultural empathy was consistently high across all levels of acculturative stress for those with higher self-reflection. Post hoc exploratory analyses examined the moderated mediation model using each of the 5 domains of acculturative stress as predictors; results supported the moderated mediation hypotheses for 2 domains, discrimination and cultural isolation. Second, self-reflection significantly moderated the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes through ethnocultural empathy. Results from conditional indirect effects suggested that the indirect effects of acculturative stress on 2 positive outcomes through ethnocultural empathy were significantly positive for those with lower self-reflection. Conversely, the indirect effects were not significant for those with higher self-reflection, but the 2 positive outcomes stayed high at all levels of acculturative stress. Post hoc analyses found that 5 of 6 components of bicultural competence used as outcome variables supported the moderation mediation hypotheses. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Adult attachment, perceived social support, cultural orientation, and depressive symptoms: A moderated mediation model.

2016-09-01

In the current study, we tested a moderated mediation model in which cultural orientation moderated the mediation model of adult attachment-perceived social support-depressive symptoms, using 2 comparable cross-cultural samples of college students recruited from China and the U.S. (n = 363 for each group). Results indicated that perceived social support mediated the effect of attachment anxiety on depressive symptoms as well as the link between attachment avoidance and depression in both samples. Moderated mediation analyses using PROCESS revealed that interdependent self-construal significantly buffered the indirect effect of attachment avoidance (via perceived social support) on depressive symptoms. The findings indicated significant differences in the mediation models between the U.S. and China groups and interdependent self-construal accounted for the between-country differences. Limitations, implications of the findings, and future research directions are discussed from the perspectives of cross-cultural variation of adult attachment functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The influence of multiple oppressions on women of color’s experiences with insidious trauma.

2016-08-08

In this study, we examined the relations between multiple forms of oppressive experiences (i.e., racism, sexism, and sexual objectification) and trauma symptoms among Women of Color (WOC). In addition, self-esteem was explored as a partial mediating variable in these links, and ethnic identity strength was proposed to buffer the negative relationship between multiple forms of oppression and self-esteem, and the positive relationship between oppressive experiences and trauma symptoms. Results suggested that self-esteem partially mediated the positive relationship between racist experiences and trauma symptoms, such that racism was related to lower self-esteem, which was then related to more trauma symptoms. Sexism and sexual objectification were directly linked with trauma symptoms. Moreover, average and high levels of ethnic identity strength buffered the positive link between racism and trauma symptoms. Consistent with an additive intersectionality framework, results demonstrate the importance of attending to multiple forms of oppression as they relate to trauma symptoms among WOC. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The associations of sexual and ethnic–racial identity commitment, conflicts in allegiances, and mental health among lesbian, gay, and bisexual racial and ethnic minority adults.

2016-11-14

We present results from a study exploring the associations of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) identity commitment and ethnic–racial identity commitment, conflicts in allegiances (CIA) between these 2 identities, and depression among LGB racial and ethnic minority people. LGB racial and ethnic minority adults (N = 208; Mage = 27.52, SD = 8.76), including 104 (50%) men, 93 (44.7%) women, and 11 (5.3%) other gender/ungendered, participated in an online survey. In terms of sexual orientation, 44 (21.2%) identified as lesbian, 90 (43.3%) identified as gay, 51 (24.5%) identified as bisexual women, 16 (7.7%) identified as bisexual men, and seven (3.4%) identified as bisexual gender/ungendered. In terms of race and ethnicity, 46 (22.1%) identified as African American, 49 (23.6%) identified as Asian American, 65 (31.3%) identified as Latinx, 6 (2.9%) identified as Native American, and 42 (20.2%) identified as being of other race/ethnicity or of mixed race. LGB identity commitment was associated with lower levels of depression, and CIA was associated with higher levels of depression. LGB identity commitment moderated the association between CIA and depression such that CIA was associated positively with depression among participants who reported low levels of LGB identity commitment, but this relation was nonsignificant among participants who reported high levels of LGB identity commitment. Implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The relationship of perceived campus culture to mental health help-seeking intentions.

2015-06-08

Despite mental health issues being widespread on college campuses, the majority of college students do not seek help. Prior research suggests several individual factors that may be related to mental health help-seeking including age, gender, and prior treatment experience. However, there has been little work considering the broader role of the college environment on person-level predictors of mental health help-seeking, specifically the relationship with perceived campus culture. Thus, informed by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), the purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived campus cultural perspectives on different personal processes, such as attitudes toward treatment, stigma, and treatment barriers that are believed to relate to mental health help-seeking intentions. Participants were 212 undergraduate students from a large university in the southeastern United States. As hypothesized, we found a significant mediation relationship for personal attitudes in the relationship between perceived campus attitudes and help-seeking intentions. In contrast, analyses did not support mediation relationships for personal barriers or personal stigma. These findings suggest that perceived campus culture may serve an important role in personal mental health treatment beliefs. Campus mental health policies and prevention programming may consider targeting perceived campus culture as an important means for increasing personal positive beliefs toward mental health treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Sexual victimization history predicts academic performance in college women.

2016-02-25

College women frequently report having experienced sexual victimization (SV) in their lifetime, including child sexual abuse and adolescent/adult sexual assault. Although the harmful mental health sequelae of SV have been extensively studied, recent research suggests that SV is also a risk factor for poorer college academic performance. The current studies examined whether exposure to SV uniquely predicted poorer college academic performance, even beyond contributions from three well-established predictors of academic performance: high school rank, composite standardized test scores (i.e., American College Testing [ACT]), and conscientiousness. Study 1 analyzed longitudinal data from a sample of female college students (N = 192) who were assessed at the beginning and end of one semester. SV predicted poorer cumulative end-of-semester grade point average (GPA) while controlling for well-established predictors of academic performance. Study 2 replicated these findings in a second longitudinal study of female college students (N = 390) and extended the analyses to include follow-up data on the freshmen and sophomore students (n = 206) 4 years later. SV predicted students’ GPA in their final term at the university above the contributions of well-established academic predictors, and it was the only factor related to leaving college. These findings highlight the importance of expanding the scope of outcomes of SV to include academic performance, and they underscore the need to assess SV and other adverse experiences on college campuses to target students who may be at risk of poor performance or leaving college. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



When is therapist metacommunication followed by more client collaboration? The moderation effects of timing and contexts.

2016-07-21

Objective: Using propositions from Kiesler (1988)’s model of therapeutic metacommunication, this study investigated the relationship between therapist metacommunication and subsequent client collaboration and how this relationship was moderated by timing, therapist control, and affiliation. Building on Curran and Bauer (2011)’s data disaggregation approach, we examined the interaction of timing, between-session therapist control and affiliation, and within-session (between speaking-turn) therapist metacommunication. Method: The first 4 sessions from counseling dyads for 2 advanced students in an APA-accredited counseling psychology doctoral program and 1 licensed psychologist were recorded, transcribed, and coded for analysis. Client statements were coded for collaboration and therapist statements were coded for metacommunication, approach-avoidance (level of affiliation), and dominance-submission (level of control). Results: (a) There was a significant 3-way interaction of metacommunication, time, and between-session dominance-submission, such that metacommunication significantly predicted subsequent client collaboration in later speaking turns within a session, and when the therapist generally showed low dominance in that session. (b) There was a significant 3-way interaction of metacommunication, time, and between-session approach-avoidance. Specifically, early in sessions therapist approach buffered the negative effect of metacommunication on collaboration, and later in sessions therapist neutrality (less approaching) facilitated a positive effect of metacommunication on client collaboration. (c) There was a significant 2-way interaction of between-speaking-turn metacommunication and within-session time in predicting subsequent client collaboration, such that early in sessions metacommunication did not predict collaboration, whereas later in sessions more metacommunication was associated with higher collaboration. These results were discussed in relation to the therapeutic metacommunication model proposed by Kiesler (1988). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



A dismantling study of the Partners for Change Outcome Management System.

2016-08-11

The current study used a dismantling design to investigate the relative efficacy of components of the Partners for Change Outcome Management System (PCOMS; Duncan, 2012). Clients (n = 94) from a university counseling center were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: PCOMS Full, Outcome Rating Scale (ORS)-only, or Session Rating Scale (SRS)-only and nested within therapists (n = 12). Results from hierarchical linear modeling and a 2-way analysis of variance indicated no statistically significant differences in outcome or rate of change on the Behavior Symptom Checklist–18 (BSI-18; Derogatis, 2001) across all 3 conditions. These findings suggest that using either the ORS or SRS component of the PCOMS may yield equivalent outcomes to that of the full PCOMS. Additional dismantling studies with various populations and settings are needed to further clarify the relative influence of the ORS, SRS, and full PCOMS on client outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



An exploratory analysis of the impact of specific interventions: Some clients reveal more than others.

2016-10-06

Recent work has highlighted that process–outcome relationships are likely to vary depending on the client, yet there is little direct evidence regarding specific intervention effects in individual clients. This study attempted to address the hypothesis that some clients reveal more than others regarding the impact of specific interventions. Intensive case study analyses were applied to 2 clients with principal major depressive disorder and comorbid anxiety disorders receiving transdiagnostic psychotherapy. Clients completed a battery of symptom and psychological assessments of mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal use, and emotion avoidance on many occasions throughout treatment. Time series analyses were applied to symptom and change construct data. Results included: (a) significant decreases in depression, anxiety, and emotion avoidance from baseline to posttreatment were observed, as well as significant increases in mindfulness and reappraisal; and (b) in one case, intervention strategies exerted little influence on changes in key variables; in the other, emotion exposure strategies had the strongest influence on increases in mindfulness and present-focused awareness strategies had the strongest influence on reductions in emotion avoidance. Even when different clients appear to similarly benefit from the same treatment, specific intervention effects on putative change factors may be more prevalent for some clients and less prevalent for others. Regular assessment is needed to determine if a client requires an alternative set of specific intervention strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



How do depressive symptoms in husbands and wives relate to the interpersonal dynamics of marital interactions?

2016-08-08

We investigated how depressive symptoms in husbands and wives may affect patterns of interpersonal behavior during marital conflict discussions. Using the Continuous Assessment of Interpersonal Dynamics (CAID) approach, observers rated moment-to-moment levels of dominance and affiliation for each partner, from which dynamic indices were derived, including the slopes for each partner and the degree of rhythmic entrainment between partners. Results supported predictions that the wife’s depressive symptoms would be related to alterations in the dynamics of dominance, whereas the husband’s depressive symptoms would be related to alterations in the dynamics of affiliation. For example, the higher the husband’s depressive symptoms, the less affiliative both the wife and husband became over the interaction and the less entrained the partners were on affiliation. The results shed new light on gender differences in the impact of depressive symptoms on the management of marital disagreements. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Authenticity in relationships: Predicting caregiving and attachment in adult romantic relationships.

2015-12-14

The primary purpose of this research was to examine associations between authenticity in relationships and romantic attachment and caregiving. Authenticity is approached as a relational phenomenon that is facilitated when individuals assume that truthful and open communication with one’s partner will be reciprocally valued despite prospective risks. Items from the Authenticity in Relationship Scale (AIRS; Lopez & Rice, 2006) were translated to Portuguese, back-translated by a bilingual expert, and then reviewed by other researchers. Four hundred Portuguese participants (23–71 years old) in long-term intimate relationships completed the Portuguese version of the scale (AIRS-P) as well as the Romantic Attachment Questionnaire (Matos, Cabral, & Costa, 2008) and the Caregiving Questionnaire (Torres & Oliveira, 2010). A few items from the original AIRS loaded poorly in the Portuguese sample. However, confirmatory factor analysis of the AIRS-P established the presence of the 2 original underlying factors: unacceptability of deception and intimate risk taking. Structural equation modeling results indicated that authenticity in relationships is linked in expected ways to romantic attachment and caregiving to a partner. The correlates found in this Portuguese sample are similar to those found in previous research with American samples, suggesting cross-cultural consistency in the nature of authenticity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)