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Preview: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology - Vol 77, Iss 6

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology - Vol 85, Iss 9

The Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology publishes original contributions on the following topics: (a) the development, validity, and use of techniques of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disordered behavior; (b) studies of populations of

Last Build Date: Mon, 25 Sep 2017 04:00:48 GMT


Case complexity as a guide for psychological treatment selection.

Thu, 31 Aug 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Some cases are thought to be more complex and difficult to treat, although there is little consensus on how to define complexity in psychological care. This study proposes an actuarial, data-driven method of identifying complex cases based on their individual characteristics. Method: Clinical records for 1,512 patients accessing low- and high-intensity psychological treatments were partitioned in 2 random subsamples. Prognostic indices predicting post-treatment reliable and clinically significant improvement (RCSI) in depression (Patient Health Questionnaire-9; Kroenke, Spitzer, & Williams, 2001) and anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams, & Löwe, 2006) symptoms were estimated in 1 subsample using penalized (Lasso) regressions with optimal scaling. A PI-based algorithm was used to classify patients as standard (St) or complex (Cx) cases in the second (cross-validation) subsample. RCSI rates were compared between Cx cases that accessed treatments of different intensities using logistic regression. Results: St cases had significantly higher RCSI rates compared to Cx cases (OR = 1.81 to 2.81). Cx cases tended to attain better depression outcomes if they were initially assigned to high-intensity (vs. low intensity) interventions (OR = 2.23); a similar pattern was observed for anxiety but the odds ratio (1.74) was not statistically significant. Conclusions: Complex cases could be detected early and matched to high-intensity interventions to improve outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

“Psychiatric disorders in smokers seeking treatment for tobacco dependence: Relations with tobacco dependence and cessation”: Correction to Piper et al. (2010).

Thu, 31 Aug 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Reports an error in "Psychiatric disorders in smokers seeking treatment for tobacco dependence: Relations with tobacco dependence and cessation" by Megan E. Piper, Stevens S. Smith, Tanya R. Schlam, Michael F. Fleming, Amy A. Bittrich, Jennifer L. Brown, Cathlyn J. Leitzke, Mark E. Zehner, Michael C. Fiore and Timothy B. Baker (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2010[Feb], Vol 78[1], 13-23). There was an error in the Method section in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative version of the CIDI subsection. The authors characterized one of the anxiety conditions analyzed as “panic disorder”. However, this should have been labeled as “panic attacks”, consequently making the occurrence rates and relations the authors reported actually pertain to panic attacks, social phobia, and generalized anxiety disorder. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2010-00910-005.) Objective: The present research examined the relation of psychiatric disorders to tobacco dependence and cessation outcomes. Method: Data were collected from 1,504 smokers (58.2% women; 83.9% White; mean age = 44.67 years, SD = 11.08) making an aided smoking cessation attempt as part of a clinical trial. Psychiatric diagnoses were determined with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview structured clinical interview. Tobacco dependence was assessed with the Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Results: Diagnostic groups included those who were never diagnosed, those who had ever been diagnosed (at any time, including in the past year), and those with past-year diagnoses (with or without prior diagnosis). Some diagnostic groups had lower follow-up abstinence rates than did the never diagnosed group (ps < .05). At 8 weeks after quitting, strong associations were found between cessation outcome and both past-year mood disorder and ever diagnosed anxiety disorder. At 6 months after quitting, those ever diagnosed with an anxiety disorder (OR = .72, p = .02) and those ever diagnosed with more than one psychiatric diagnosis (OR = .74, p = .03) had lower abstinence rates. The diagnostic categories did not differ in smoking heaviness or the FTND, but they did differ in dependence motives assessed with the WISDM. Conclusion: Information on recent or lifetime psychiatric disorders may help clinicians gauge relapse risk and may suggest dependence motives that are particularly relevant to affected patients. These findings also illustrate the importance of using multidimensional tobacco dependence assessments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Effect of alcohol dose on deliberate self-harm in men and women.

Mon, 05 Jun 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Nonexperimental survey and field research support the notion that alcohol use may be associated with deliberate self-harm (DSH) across the spectrum of lethality, from nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) through suicide. Nonexperimental studies, however, provide limited information about potential causal relationships between alcohol consumption and DSH. Two previous experiments showed that a relatively high-dose of alcohol increases the likelihood of engaging in DSH in men, with DSH defined by the self-administration of a “painful” shock (the self-aggression paradigm [SAP]; Berman & Walley, 2003; McCloskey & Berman, 2003). In this study, we examined whether (a) lower doses of alcohol also elicit DSH, (b) this effect occurs for women as well as men, and (c) individual differences in past nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) moderate alcohol’s effects on DSH. Method: Nonalcohol dependent men and women (N = 210) were assigned either to .00%, .05%, .075%, or .100% blood alcohol concentration (BAC) drink conditions and completed a self-rating scale of NSSI (the Deliberate Self-Harm Inventory [DSHI]; Gratz, 2001). As in previous SAP studies, DSH was operationalized by shock setting behavior during a competitive reaction time (RT) game. Results: Overall, a greater proportion of participants in the .075% and .100% (but not .050%) alcohol conditions self-selected a “painful” shock to administer compared to participants in the placebo condition. NSSI predicted self-administration of painful shocks, but did not moderate the alcohol effect. Conclusions: Results provide experimental evidence to support the notion that interventions for self-harm should include processes to monitor and limit alcohol intake. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Concurrent varenicline and prolonged exposure for patients with nicotine dependence and PTSD: A randomized controlled trial.

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Background: Prevalence of smoking among individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is disproportionately high, and PTSD is associated with especially poor response to smoking cessation treatment. Objective: The current study examined whether integrating treatments for smoking cessation (varenicline plus smoking cessation counseling; VARCC) and PTSD (prolonged exposure therapy; PE) enhances smoking outcomes among smokers diagnosed with PTSD. Method: 142 adults with nicotine dependence (ND) and PTSD were randomized to a treatment program consisting of varenicline, smoking cessation counseling, and PE (VARCC + PE) or to VARCC only. Seven-day point prevalence abstinence (PPA) at posttreatment (3-months postquit day) and follow-up (6-months postquit day), verified by serum cotinine levels and exhaled carbon monoxide, was the primary smoking outcome. Psychological outcomes were PTSD and depression severity. Mixed effects models included baseline PTSD severity as a moderator of treatment condition effects. Results: Overall, VARCC + PE participants did not show greater PPA than VARCC participants. However, treatment effects were moderated by baseline PTSD severity. For participants with moderate and high PTSD severity, VARCC + PE led to significantly higher PPA than VARCC alone (ps<.05). No differences between treatment conditions emerged for participants with low baseline PTSD severity. Participants who received PE showed significantly greater reduction of PTSD and depression symptoms than those who did not receive PE. Conclusions: Integrating psychological treatment for PTSD and smoking cessation treatment enhances smoking cessation for participants with moderate or severe PTSD symptom severity, but does not enhance smoking cessation for participants with low baseline PTSD severity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Do changes in trauma-related beliefs predict PTSD symptom improvement in prolonged exposure and sertraline?

Mon, 15 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Negative trauma-related belief change has been found to predict subsequent improvement in symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in prolonged exposure (PE) and other therapies, consistent with several psychological theories of treatment change (e.g., Foa & Kozak, 1986). However, belief change has not been examined in selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as sertraline. We examined processes associated with symptom improvement in 2 treatments for PTSD, hypothesizing that belief change would robustly predict PTSD improvement in patients treated with PE but not those treated with sertraline, reflecting moderation by treatment. Method: Patients with chronic PTSD (N = 134; 78% women, 71.6% Caucasian, M = 38.1 years, SD = 11.8) received 10 weeks of PE or sertraline in a randomized, controlled trial. Patients reported PTSD and depression symptoms, and trauma-related beliefs (Post-Traumatic Cognitions Inventory; Foa, Ehlers, Clark, D Tolin, & Orsillo, 1999) at pretreatment, every treatment session, and posttreatment. Results: Using time-lagged mixed regression models, change in trauma-related beliefs predicted subsequent PTSD symptom improvement, an effect moderated by treatment and particularly strong in PE (d = 0.93) compared with sertraline (d = 0.35). Belief change also predicted depressive symptom improvement but more modestly and bidirectionally, with no difference by treatment modality. Conclusions: Trauma-related belief change precedes PTSD improvement more robustly in PE than in sertraline and with greater specificity compared with depressive symptoms. These findings highlight potentially divergent processes contributing to symptom change in these PTSD treatments, with belief change as a key mechanism of PE. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

“Meta-analysis of cognitive-behavioral treatments for adult ADHD”: Correction to Knouse, Teller, and Brooks (2017).

Thu, 31 Aug 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Reports an error in "Meta-analysis of cognitive–behavioral treatments for adult ADHD" by Laura E. Knouse, Jonathan Teller and Milan A. Brooks (Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 2017[Jul], Vol 85[7], 737-750). There were errors in Tables 1 and 2, Figures 2 and 3, and in related values reported in the abstract, Results, and Discussion section. These errors occurred because effect sizes from two studies comparing CBT to active control had been coded to represent better outcomes for the CBT group when, in these instances, outcomes for the control group were slightly better. However, because these effect sizes were not significantly different from zero, impact on calculated overall effect sizes for CBT treatment versus control was minimal. Calculations of pre-to-post effect sizes were not affected and the overall interpretation of the results remains unchanged. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-21394-001.) Objective: We conducted a meta-analysis of cognitive–behavioral treatment (CBT) studies for adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), examining effects versus control and effects pre-to-post treatment to maximize the clinical and research utility of findings from this growing literature. Method: Eligible studies tested adults meeting criteria for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders ADHD as determined by interview or using a standardized rating scale and measured ADHD symptoms or related impairment at baseline and posttreatment. We analyzed data from 32 studies from published and unpublished sources available through December 2015. Effect size calculations included up to 896 participants. Results: Using a random effects model, we found that CBTs had medium-to-large effects from pre- to posttreatment (self-reported ADHD symptoms: g = 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI: 0.84, 1.16]; self-reported functioning g = .73; 95% CI [0.46, 1.00]) and small-to-medium effects versus control (g = .65; 95% CI [0.44, 0.86] for symptoms, .51; 95% CI [0.23, 0.79] for functioning). Effect sizes were heterogeneous for most outcome measures. Studies with active control groups showed smaller effect sizes. Neither participant medication status nor treatment format moderated pre-to-post treatment effects, and longer treatments were not associated with better outcomes. Conclusions: Current CBTs for adult ADHD show comparable effect sizes to behavioral treatments for children with ADHD, which are considered well-established treatments. Future treatment development could focus on identifying empirically supported principles of treatment-related change for adults with ADHD. We encourage researchers to report future findings in a way that is amenable to meta-analytic review. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Clinician-led, peer-led, and internet-delivered dissonance-based eating disorder prevention programs: Acute effectiveness of these delivery modalities.

Thu, 20 Apr 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Because independent trials have provided evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of the dissonance-based Body Project eating disorder prevention program, the present trial tested whether clinicians produce the largest intervention effects, or whether delivery can be task-shifted to less expensive undergraduate peer educators or to Internet delivery without effect size attenuation, focusing on acute effects. Method: In this study, 680 young women (Mage = 22.2 years, SD = 7.1) recruited at colleges in 2 states were randomized to clinician-led Body Project groups, peer-led Body Project groups, the Internet-based eBody Project, or an educational video control condition. Results: Participants in all 3 variants of the Body Project intervention showed significantly greater reductions in eating disorder risk factors and symptoms than did educational video controls. Participants in clinician-led and peer-led Body Project groups showed significantly greater reductions in risk factors than did eBody Project participants, but effects for the 2 types of groups were similar. Eating disorder onset over 7-month follow-up was significantly lower for peer-led Body Project group participants versus eBody Project participants (2.2% vs. 8.4%) but did not differ significantly between other conditions. Conclusions: The evidence that all 3 dissonance-based prevention programs outperformed an educational video condition, that both group-based interventions outperformed the Internet-based intervention in risk factor reductions, and that the peer-led groups showed lower eating disorder onset over follow-up than did the Internet-based intervention is novel. These acute-effects data suggest that both group-based interventions produce superior eating disorder prevention effects than does the Internet-based intervention and that delivery can be task-shifted to peer leaders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Rapid response to intensive treatment for bulimia nervosa and purging disorder: A randomized controlled trial of a CBT intervention to facilitate early behavior change.

Thu, 01 Jun 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Rapid response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for eating disorders (i.e., rapid and substantial change to key eating disorder behaviors in the initial weeks of treatment) robustly predicts good outcome at end-of-treatment and in follow up. The objective of this study was to determine whether rapid response to day hospital (DH) eating disorder treatment could be facilitated using a brief adjunctive CBT intervention focused on early change. Method: 44 women (average age 27.3 [8.4]; 75% White, 6.3% Black, 6.9% Asian) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 4-session adjunctive interventions: CBT focused on early change, or motivational interviewing (MI). DH was administered as usual. Outcomes included binge/purge frequency, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were used. Results: The CBT group had a higher rate of rapid response (95.7%) compared to MI (71.4%; p = .04, V = .33). Those who received CBT also had fewer binge/purge episodes (p = .02) in the first 4 weeks of DH. By end-of-DH, CBT participants made greater improvements on overvaluation of weight and shape (p = .008), and emotion regulation (ps< .008). Across conditions, there were no significant baseline differences between rapid and nonrapid responders (ps >.05). Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrate that rapid response can be clinically facilitated using a CBT intervention that explicitly encourages early change. This provides the foundation for future research investigating whether enhancing rates of rapid response using such an intervention results in improved longer term outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Remotely delivering real-time parent training to the home: An initial randomized trial of Internet-delivered parent–child interaction therapy (I-PCIT).

Mon, 26 Jun 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Remote technologies are increasingly being leveraged to expand the reach of supported care, but applications to early child-behavior problems have been limited. This is the first controlled trial examining video-teleconferencing to remotely deliver behavioral parent training to the home setting with a live therapist. Method: Racially/ethnically diverse children ages 3–5 years with disruptive behavior disorders, and their caregiver(s), using webcams and parent-worn Bluetooth earpieces, participated in a randomized trial comparing Internet-delivered parent–child interaction therapy (I-PCIT) versus standard clinic-based PCIT (N = 40). Major assessments were conducted at baseline, midtreatment, posttreatment, and 6-month follow-up. Linear regressions and hierarchical linear modeling using maximum-likelihood estimation were used to analyze treatment satisfaction, diagnoses, symptoms, functioning, and burden to parents across conditions. Results: Intent-to-treat analyses found 70% and 55% of children treated with I-PCIT and clinic-based PCIT, respectively, showed “treatment response” after treatment, and 55% and 40% of children treated with I-PCIT and clinic-based PCIT, respectively, continued to show “treatment response” at 6-month follow-up. Both treatments had significant effects on children’s symptoms and burden to parents, and many effects were very large in magnitude. Most outcomes were comparable across conditions, except that the rate of posttreatment “excellent response” was significantly higher in I-PCIT than in clinic-based PCIT, and I-PCIT was associated with significantly fewer parent-perceived barriers to treatment than clinic-based PCIT. Both treatments were associated with positive engagement, treatment retention, and very high treatment satisfaction. Conclusion: Findings build on the small but growing literature supporting the promising role of new technologies for expanding the delivery of behavioral parent training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Effectiveness of cognitive–behavioral therapy on quality of life, anxiety, and depressive symptoms among patients with inflammatory bowel disease: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Thu, 31 Aug 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a low level of quality of life (QoL) and a high prevalence of anxiety and depression, especially in patients with poor QoL. We examined the effect of IBD-specific cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) on QoL, anxiety, and depression in IBD patients with poor mental QoL. Method: This study is a parallel-group multicenter randomized controlled trial. One hundred eighteen IBD patients with a low level of QoL (score ≤23 on the mental health subscale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 Health Survey [SF-36]) were included from 2 academic medical centers (Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, VU University Medical Centre Amsterdam) and 2 peripheral medical centers (Flevo Hospital, Slotervaart Hospital) in the Netherlands. Patients were randomized to an experimental group receiving CBT (n = 59) versus a wait-list control group (n = 59) receiving standard medical care for 3.5 months, followed by CBT. Both groups completed baseline and 3.5 months follow-up assessments. The primary outcome was a self-report questionnaire and disease-specific QoL (Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire [IBDQ]). Secondary outcomes were depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale–Depression Subscale [HADS-D], Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale [CES-D]), anxiety (HADS–Anxiety Subscale [HADS-A]) and generic QoL (SF-36). Results: Data were analyzed both on intention to treat as well as on per protocol analysis (completed ≥5 sessions). CBT had a positive effect on disease-specific-QoL (Cohen’s d = .64 for IBDQ total score), depression (Cohen’s d = .48 for HADS-D and .78 for CES-D), anxiety (Cohen’s d = .58 for HADS-A), and generic QoL (Cohen’s d = 1.08 for Mental Component Summary of the SF-36; all ps < .01). Conclusions: IBD-specific CBT is effective in improving QoL and in decreasing anxiety and depression in IBD patients with poor QoL. Clinicians should incorporate screening on poor mental QoL and consider offering CBT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)