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Journal of Applied Psychology - Vol 101, Iss 12



The Journal of Applied Psychology will emphasize the publication of original investigations that contribute new knowledge and understanding to fields of applied psychology.



Last Build Date: Tue, 06 Dec 2016 10:00:32 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association
 



Better together? Examining profiles of employee recovery experiences.

2016-09-12

Employees are exposed to a wide variety of job demands that deplete personal resources and necessitate recovery. In light of this need, research on work recovery has focused on how distinct recovery experiences during postwork time relate to employee well-being. However, investigators have largely tested the effects of these experiences in isolation, neglecting the possibility that profiles of recovery experiences may exist and influence the recovery process. The current set of studies adopted a person-centered approach using latent profile analysis to understand whether unique constellations of recovery experiences—psychological detachment, relaxation, mastery, control, and problem-solving pondering—emerged for 2 samples of full-time employees. In Study 1, which involved a single-time-point assessment, we identified 4 unique profiles of recovery experiences, tested whether job demands (i.e., time pressure, role ambiguity) and job resources (i.e., job control) differentiated profile membership, and evaluated whether each profile uniquely related to employee well-being outcomes (i.e., emotional exhaustion, engagement, somatic complaints). In Study 2, which involved 2 time points, we replicated 3 of the 4 profiles observed in Study 1, and tested 2 additional antecedents rated by employees’ supervisors: leader–member exchange and supervisor support for recovery. Across both studies, unique differences emerged in regard to antecedents and outcomes tied to recovery experience profile membership. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Understanding role stressors and job satisfaction over time using adaptation theory.

2016-08-18

In this study, we seek to highlight a potentially fundamental shift in how dynamic stressor-strain relationships should be conceptualized over time. Specifically, we provide an integrated empirical test of adaptation and role theory within a longitudinal framework. Data were collected at 3 time points, with a 6-week lag between time points, from 534 respondents. Using latent change modeling, results supported within-person adaptation to changes in job satisfaction and role conflict. Specifically, over the 12-week course of the study, changes in role clarity tended to be maintained, whereas changes in job satisfaction and role conflict tended to be fleeting and reverse themselves. Theoretical implications and future directions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



When “embedded” means “stuck”: Moderating effects of job embeddedness in adverse work environments.

2016-08-25

Job embeddedness is predominately assumed to benefit employees, work groups, and organizations (e.g., higher performance, social cohesion, and lower voluntary turnover). Challenging this assumption, we examined the potentially negative outcomes that may occur if employees are embedded in an adverse work environment—feeling “stuck,” yet unable to exit a negative situation. More specifically, we considered two factors representing adverse work conditions: abusive supervision and job insecurity. Drawing from conservation of resources theory, we hypothesized that job embeddedness would moderate the relationship between these conditions and outcomes of voluntary turnover, physical health, emotional exhaustion, and sleep quality/quantity, such that employees embedded in more adverse environments would be less likely to quit, but would experience more negative personal outcomes. Results from two independent samples, one in Japan (N = 597) and one in the United States (N = 283), provide support for the hypothesized pattern of interaction effects, thereby highlighting a largely neglected “dark side” of job embeddedness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Subtle perceptions of male sexual orientation influence occupational opportunities.

2016-08-25

Theories linking the literatures on stereotyping and human resource management have proposed that individuals may enjoy greater success obtaining jobs congruent with stereotypes about their social categories or traits. Here, we explored such effects for a detectable, but not obvious, social group distinction: male sexual orientation. Bridging previous work on prejudice and occupational success with that on social perception, we found that perceivers rated gay and straight men as more suited to professions consistent with stereotypes about their groups (nurses, pediatricians, and English teachers vs. engineers, managers, surgeons, and math teachers) from mere photos of their faces. Notably, distinct evaluations of the gay and straight men emerged based on perceptions of their faces with no explicit indication of sexual orientation. Neither perceivers’ expertise with hiring decisions nor diagnostic information about the targets eliminated these biases, but encouraging fair decisions did contribute to partly ameliorating the differences. Mediation analysis further showed that perceptions of the targets’ sexual orientations and facial affect accounted for these effects. Individuals may therefore infer characteristics about individuals’ group memberships from their faces and use this information in a way that meaningfully influences evaluations of their suitability for particular jobs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability.

2016-09-12

The present study was designed to produce novel theoretical insight regarding how leader humility and team member characteristics foster the conditions that promote shared leadership and when shared leadership relates to team effectiveness. Drawing on social information processing theory and adaptive leadership theory, we propose that leader humility facilitates shared leadership by promoting leadership-claiming and leadership-granting interactions among team members. We also apply dominance complementary theory to propose that team proactive personality strengthens the impact of leader humility on shared leadership. Finally, we predict that shared leadership will be most strongly related to team performance when team members have high levels of task-related competence. Using a sample composed of 62 Taiwanese professional work teams, we find support for our proposed hypothesized model. The theoretical and practical implications of these results for team leadership, humility, team composition, and shared leadership are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Beware of those left behind: Counterproductive work behaviors among nonpromoted employees and the moderating effect of integrity.

2016-08-18

Promotion decisions focus primarily on the successes of those selected, with surprisingly little attention given to the outcomes of those rejected. Negative emotional reactions among rejected candidates, for example, may motivate retaliations against the organization in the form of counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Indeed, in a sample of 568 military officer training candidates, we found a greater incidence of CWB among rejected versus accepted candidates, which peaked within 6 months after promotion decisions were made (d = .44) and gradually decreased thereafter. We also found that overt integrity moderated the relationship between promotion decisions and CWB, whereby rejected candidates with high levels of integrity engaged in less CWB than did rejected candidates with low integrity. Practical implications for mitigating CWB in cases of nonpromotion and considerations for more accurately evaluating the utility of promotion decisions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Not even the past: The joint influence of former leader and new leader during leader succession in the midst of organizational change.

2016-08-18

Leader succession often occurs during organizational change processes, but the implications of leader succession, in terms of reactions to the change, rarely have been investigated. Employee attitudes and behaviors during organizational change may be influenced jointly by a former leader who recently has transitioned out of the team and the new leader who recently has transitioned into it. We predict an interaction between former and new leaders’ transformational leadership on employees’ behavioral resistance to and support for change. On the basis of contrast effect theory, a highly transformational former leader constrains the potential effectiveness of the new leader, but a former leader low in transformational leadership enhances this potential effectiveness. We also propose conditional indirect effects transmitted through commitment to the changing organization. Our research was conducted in a large Chinese hospitality organization that was implementing radical organizational change, during which virtually all aspects of processes and products are changed. We collected a 2-wave multisource data from employees who had recently experienced a leader succession and their newly assigned leaders. On the basis of a final sample of 203 employees from 22 teams, we found empirical support for the proposed interaction effects. The conditional indirect effects were also consistent with our expectations, but the effect on behavioral resistance to change was stronger than the effect on behavioral support for change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)