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Preview: Journal of Applied Psychology - Vol 95, Iss 1

Journal of Applied Psychology - Vol 101, Iss 10

The Journal of Applied Psychology will emphasize the publication of original investigations that contribute new knowledge and understanding to fields of applied psychology.

Last Build Date: Tue, 25 Oct 2016 15:00:32 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2016 American Psychological Association

The dynamics of team cognition: A process-oriented theory of knowledge emergence in teams.


Team cognition has been identified as a critical component of team performance and decision-making. However, theory and research in this domain continues to remain largely static; articulation and examination of the dynamic processes through which collectively held knowledge emerges from the individual- to the team-level is lacking. To address this gap, we advance and systematically evaluate a process-oriented theory of team knowledge emergence. First, we summarize the core concepts and dynamic mechanisms that underlie team knowledge-building and represent our theory of team knowledge emergence (Step 1). We then translate this narrative theory into a formal computational model that provides an explicit specification of how these core concepts and mechanisms interact to produce emergent team knowledge (Step 2). The computational model is next instantiated into an agent-based simulation to explore how the key generative process mechanisms described in our theory contribute to improved knowledge emergence in teams (Step 3). Results from the simulations demonstrate that agent teams generate collectively shared knowledge more effectively when members are capable of processing information more efficiently and when teams follow communication strategies that promote equal rates of information sharing across members. Lastly, we conduct an empirical experiment with real teams participating in a collective knowledge-building task to verify that promoting these processes in human teams also leads to improved team knowledge emergence (Step 4). Discussion focuses on implications of the theory for examining team cognition processes and dynamics as well as directions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Saying goodbye: The nature, causes, and consequences of employee resignation styles.


Although much is known about why employees decide to resign from their jobs, scant research has examined what occurs after employees decide to leave their jobs but before they exit their organizations. As such, employee resignations are not well understood. This is unfortunate, because the manner in which employees resign from their jobs may have important implications for both individuals and organizations. In this paper, we use social exchange theory to argue that exchange-based correlates of employee turnover influence the manner in which employees resign, and that resignation styles affect managers’ emotional reactions to employee resignation. We test our hypotheses in 4 studies. In Study 1, we inductively identify a taxonomy of resignation styles among full-time MBA students who have recently resigned from a job. In Study 2, we qualitatively examine the extent to which this taxonomy of resignation styles is represented in the accounts of supervisors of recently resigned employees. In Study 3, using a sample of recently resigned professionals, we demonstrate that employees’ exchange relationships with their organizations and their supervisors influence their resignation styles. Finally, in Study 4, we provide evidence that resignation styles affect supervisors’ emotional reactions in a sample of managers. Directions for future research on resignation and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Personality similarity in negotiations: Testing the dyadic effects of similarity in interpersonal traits and the use of emotional displays on negotiation outcomes.


We build on the small but growing literature documenting personality influences on negotiation by examining how the joint disposition of both negotiators with respect to the interpersonal traits of agreeableness and extraversion influences important negotiation processes and outcomes. Building on similarity-attraction theory, we articulate and demonstrate how being similarly high or similarly low on agreeableness and extraversion leads dyad members to express more positive emotional displays during negotiation. Moreover, because of increased positive emotional displays, we show that dyads with such compositions also tend to reach agreements faster, perceive less relationship conflict, and have more positive impressions of their negotiation partner. Interestingly, these results hold regardless of whether negotiating dyads are similar in normatively positive (i.e., similarly agreeable and similarly extraverted) or normatively negative (i.e., similarly disagreeable and similarly introverted) ways. Overall, these findings demonstrate the importance of considering the dyad’s personality configuration when attempting to understand the affective experience as well as the downstream outcomes of a negotiation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Are organizational justice rules gendered? Reactions to men’s and women’s justice violations.


Research has shown that gender role prescriptions can bias reactions to men’s and women’s work behaviors. The current work draws upon this idea and extends it to consider violations of procedural and interactional justice rules. The results of four experimental studies demonstrate that men and women receive differential performance evaluation ratings and reward recommendations when they violate those organizational justice rules that coincide with the content of prescriptive gender stereotypes. Specifically, women were rated less favorably than men when they exhibited interactional injustice (Study 1 and Study 4), but not when they engaged in procedural injustice (Study 2). Findings also indicate that interactional justice violations (e.g., being impolite, not caring about the well-being of subordinates), but not procedural justice violations, are deemed less acceptable for female managers than male managers (Study 3). Overall, the findings suggest that reactions to injustice can be influenced by expectations of how men and women should behave. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

The effects of proximal withdrawal states on job attitudes, job searching, intent to leave, and employee turnover.


We present the first major test of proximal withdrawal states theory (PWST; Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2012). In addition, we develop and test new ideas to demonstrate how PWST improves our understanding and prediction of employee turnover. Across 2 studies, we corroborate that reluctant stayers (those who want to leave but have to stay) are similar to enthusiastic leavers (those who want to leave and can leave) in affective commitment, job satisfaction, and job embeddedness, and that reluctant leavers (those who want to stay but have to leave) are similar to enthusiastic stayers (those who want to stay and can stay) on these dimensions. We find that job satisfaction and job embeddedness more strongly influence the intent to leave and job search behavior for enthusiastic stayers and leavers than for reluctant stayers and leavers. More important, we show that for those experiencing low control over their preference for leaving or staying (i.e., reluctant stayers and leavers), traditional variables such as job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave are poor predictors of their turnover behavior. We further demonstrate that focusing on enthusiastic stayers and leavers can significantly enhance the accuracy of job satisfaction, job embeddedness, and intent to leave for predicting actual employee turnover. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

The problem of effect size heterogeneity in meta-analytic structural equation modeling.


Scholars increasingly recognize the potential of meta-analytic structural equation modeling (MASEM) as a way to build and test theory (Bergh et al., 2016). Yet, 1 of the greatest challenges facing MASEM researchers is how to incorporate and model meaningful effect size heterogeneity identified in the bivariate meta-analysis into MASEM. Unfortunately, common MASEM approaches in applied psychology (i.e., Viswesvaran & Ones, 1995) fail to account for effect size heterogeneity. This means that MASEM effect sizes, path estimates, and overall fit values may only generalize to a small segment of the population. In this research, we quantify this problem and introduce a set of techniques that retain both the true score relationships and the variability surrounding those relationships in estimating model parameters and fit indices. We report our findings from simulated data as well as from a reanalysis of published MASEM studies. Results demonstrate that both path estimates and overall model fit indices are less representative of the population than existing MASEM research would suggest. We suggest 2 extension MASEM techniques that can be conducted using online software or in R, to quantify the stability of model estimates across the population and allow researchers to better build and test theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Leadership emergence over time in short-lived groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.


Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in short-lived groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants’ abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were “leaders.” We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers’ own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Impressed by impression management: Newcomer reactions to ingratiated supervisors.


Organizational newcomers are unfamiliar with many aspects of their workplace and look for information to help them reduce uncertainty and better understand their new environment. One aspect critical to newcomers is the disposition of their supervisor—the person who arguably can impact the newcomer’s career the most. To form an impression of their new supervisor, newcomers look to social cues from coworkers who have interpersonal contact with the supervisor. In the present research, we investigate the ways newcomers use observed ingratiation—a common impression management strategy whereby coworkers try to appear likable (Schlenker, 1980)—to form impressions of a supervisor’s warmth. Research on social influence cannot easily account for how third parties will interpret ingratiation, as the behaviors linked to ingratiation suggest something positive about the target, yet the unsavory aspects of the behavior imply it may not have the same effects as other positive behaviors. Our findings suggest that newcomers are unique in that they are motivated to learn about their new supervisor, and are prone to ignore those unsavory aspects and infer something positive about a supervisor targeted with ingratiation. Our findings also suggest that this effect can be weakened based on the supervisor’s response. In other words, newcomers rely less on evidence from a coworker’s ingratiation in the presence of direct behaviors from the supervisor. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

When do high-context communicators speak up? Exploring contextual communication orientation and employee voice.


Past research suggests that individuals oriented toward high-context communication are less likely than are others to voice (i.e., speak up) at work. In the current article, we rely on high-/low-context theory to explore potential boundary conditions of this relationship. We conducted 2 studies exploring the relationship between contextual communication orientation and 2 distinct types of voice (prohibitive and promotive). As hypothesized, both studies showed that the negative relationship between contextual communication orientation and voice was weaker for prohibitive (compared with promotive) voice. Results of Study 1 showed that, as hypothesized, leader–member exchange (LMX) moderated the relationship between contextual communication orientation and promotive voice, such that the relationship was negative when LMX was low but not significant when high. The interaction was not significant in predicting prohibitive voice in Study 1 or in predicting either voice type in Study 2. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)