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Preview: Journal of Applied Psychology - Vol 95, Iss 1

Journal of Applied Psychology - Vol 102, Iss 3



The Journal of Applied Psychology will emphasize the publication of original investigations that contribute new knowledge and understanding to fields of applied psychology.



Last Build Date: Fri, 24 Mar 2017 13:00:39 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
 



One hundred years of the Journal of Applied Psychology: Background, evolution, and scientific trends.

2017-02-16

To launch this Special Issue of the Journal of Applied Psychology celebrating the 1st century of the journal we conducted a review encompassing the background of the founding of the journal; a quantitative assessment of its evolution across the century; and an examination of trends examining article type, article length, authorship patterns, supplemental materials, and research support. The journal was founded in March of 1917 with hopeful optimism about the potential of psychology being applied to practical problems could enhance human happiness, well-being, and effectiveness. Our quantitative content assessment using both keyword frequencies and latent semantic analyses of raw content, in both bottom-up (corpus driven) and top-down modes (analyst driven), converged to document an evolution ranging from a broad and exploratory applied psychology to a more focused industrial psychology to an industrial and organizational psychology to an organizational psychology. With respect to other trends, during the first 4 decades 20 to 30% of journal items were book reviews, which then abruptly ceased in the mid-1950s. Articles have grown increasingly longer over time. Author teams are increasingly larger, and sole authored articles are vanishingly small in frequency. The use of supplemental materials and articles reporting research support have surged dramatically in the most recent period. Across the various foci we examined, our review portrays the evolution of the journal as reflecting the development of a mature, focused, and cumulative scientific discipline addressing psychological science applied to work and organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Individual differences and their measurement: A review of 100 years of research.

2017-02-02

This article reviews 100 years of research on individual differences and their measurement, with a focus on research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. We focus on 3 major individual differences domains: (a) knowledge, skill, and ability, including both the cognitive and physical domains; (b) personality, including integrity, emotional intelligence, stable motivational attributes (e.g., achievement motivation, core self-evaluations), and creativity; and (c) vocational interests. For each domain, we describe the evolution of the domain across the years and highlight major theoretical, empirical, and methodological developments, including relationships between individual differences and variables such as job performance, job satisfaction, and career development. We conclude by discussing future directions for individual differences research. Trends in the literature include a growing focus on substantive issues rather than on the measurement of individual differences, a differentiation between constructs and measurement methods, and the use of innovative ways of assessing individual differences, such as simulations, other-reports, and implicit measures. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Twilight of dawn or of evening? A century of research methods in the Journal of Applied Psychology.

2017-02-02

We offer a critical review and synthesis of research methods in the first century of the Journal of Applied Psychology. We divide the chronology into 6 periods. The first emphasizes the first few issues of the journal, which, in many ways, set us on a methodological course that we sail to this day, and then takes us through the mid-1920s. The second is the period through World War II, in which we see the roots of modern methodological concepts and techniques, including a transition from a discovery orientation to a hypotheticodeductive model orientation. The third takes us through roughly 1970, a period in which many of our modern-day practices were formed, such as reliance on null hypothesis significance testing. The fourth, from 1970 through 1989, sees an emphasis on the development of measures of critical constructs. The fifth takes us into the present, which is marked by greater plurality regarding data-analytic approaches. Finally, we offer a glimpse of possible and, from our perspective, desirable futures regarding research methods. Specifically, we highlight the need to conduct replications; study the exceptional and not just the average; improve the quality of the review process, particularly regarding methodological issues; emphasize design and measurement issues; and build and test more specific theories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Solving the Supreme Problem: 100 years of selection and recruitment at the Journal of Applied Psychology.

2017-01-26

This article reviews 100 years of research on recruitment and selection published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Recruitment and selection research has been present in the Journal from the very first issue, where Hall (1917) suggested that the challenge of recruitment and selection was the Supreme Problem facing the field of applied psychology. As this article shows, the various topics related to recruitment and selection have ebbed and flowed over the years in response to business, legal, and societal changes, but this Supreme Problem has captivated the attention of scientist–practitioners for a century. Our review starts by identifying the practical challenges and macro forces that shaped the sciences of recruitment and selection and helped to define the research questions the field has addressed. We then describe the evolution of recruitment and selection research and the ways the resulting scientific advancements have contributed to staffing practices. We conclude with speculations on how recruitment and selection research may proceed in the future. Supplemental material posted online provides additional depth by including a summary of practice challenges and scientific advancements that affected the direction of selection and recruitment research and an outline of seminal articles published in the Journal and corresponding time line. The 100-year anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology is very much the celebration of recruitment and selection research, although predictions about the future suggest there is still much exciting work to be done. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



100 years of training and development research: What we know and where we should go.

2017-01-26

Training and development research has a long tradition within applied psychology dating back to the early 1900s. Over the years, not only has interest in the topic grown but there have been dramatic changes in both the science and practice of training and development. In the current article, we examine the evolution of training and development research using articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) as a primary lens to analyze what we have learned and to identify where future research is needed. We begin by reviewing the timeline of training and development research in JAP from 1918 to the present in order to elucidate the critical trends and advances that define each decade. These trends include the emergence of more theory-driven training research, greater consideration of the role of the trainee and training context, examination of learning that occurs outside the classroom, and understanding training’s impact across different levels of analysis. We then examine in greater detail the evolution of 4 key research themes: training criteria, trainee characteristics, training design and delivery, and the training context. In each area, we describe how the focus of research has shifted over time and highlight important developments. We conclude by offering several ideas for future training and development research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Taking stock of two relational aspects of organizational life: Tracing the history and shaping the future of socialization and mentoring research.

2017-01-26

As part of the centennial celebration for the Journal of Applied Psychology, this article reviews the literature on organizational socialization and mentoring. Our review includes a comparison of organizational socialization and mentoring as processes for employee adjustment and development, the historical context that fueled the emergence of these two areas of study, and a chronological mapping of key foundations, trends, themes that emerged across time, and major milestones. Along the way, a special emphasis is placed on research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology and high impact work is highlighted. We conclude with a discussion of five areas for future research. Specifically, we outline ideas for bridging the socialization and mentoring literatures, better understanding and capturing dynamic processes across time, the development of multilevel theories and models, addressing causality, and considering the implications for organizational socialization and mentoring research based on how technology is changing the way we work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Motivation related to work: A century of progress.

2017-02-02

Work motivation is a topic of crucial importance to the success of organizations and societies and the well-being of individuals. We organize the work motivation literature over the last century using a meta-framework that clusters theories, findings, and advances in the field according to their primary focus on (a) motives, traits, and motivation orientations (content); (b) features of the job, work role, and broader environment (context); or (c) the mechanisms and processes involved in choice and striving (process). Our integrative review reveals major achievements in the field, including more precise mapping of the psychological inputs and operations involved in motivation and broadened conceptions of the work environment. Cross-cutting trends over the last century include the primacy of goals, the importance of goal striving processes, and a more nuanced conceptualization of work motivation as a dynamic, goal-directed, resource allocation process that unfolds over the related variables of time, experience, and place. Across the field, advances in methodology and measurement have improved the match between theory and research. Ten promising directions for future research are described and field experiments are suggested as a useful means of bridging the research–practice gap. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Job attitudes, job satisfaction, and job affect: A century of continuity and of change.

2017-01-26

Over the past 100 years, research on job attitudes has improved in the sophistication of methods and in the productive use of theory as a basis for fundamental research into questions of work psychology. Early research incorporated a diversity of methods for measuring potential predictors and outcomes of job attitudes. Over time, methods for statistically assessing these relationships became more rigorous, but the field also became narrower. In recent years, developments in theory and methodology have reinvigorated research, which now addresses a rich panoply of topics related to the daily flow of affect, the complexity of personal motives and dispositions, and the complex interplay of attitude objects and motivation in shaping behavior. Despite these apparent changes, a review of the concepts and substantive arguments that underpin this literature have remained remarkably consistent. We conclude by discussing how we expect that these major themes will be addressed in the future, emphasizing topics that have proven to be enduring guides for understanding the ways that people construe and react to their appraisals of their work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



100 years of occupational safety research: From basic protections and work analysis to a multilevel view of workplace safety and risk.

2017-01-26

Starting with initiatives dating back to the mid-1800s, we provide a high-level review of the key trends and developments in the application of applied psychology to the field of occupational safety. Factory laws, basic worker compensation, and research on accident proneness comprised much of the early work. Thus, early research and practice very much focused on the individual worker, the design of their work, and their basic protection. Gradually and over time, the focus began to navigate further into the organizational context. One of the early efforts to broaden beyond the individual worker was a significant focus on safety-related training during the middle of the 20th century. Toward the latter years of the 20th century and continuing the move from the individual worker to the broader organizational context, there was a significant increase in leadership and organizational climate (safety climate) research. Ultimately, this resulted in the development of a multilevel model of safety culture/climate. After discussing these trends, we identify key conclusions and opportunities for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Stress and well-being at work: A century of empirical trends reflecting theoretical and societal influences.

2017-01-26

In various forms, research on stress and well-being has been a part of the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since its inception. In this review, we examine the history of stress research in JAP by tracking word frequencies from 606 abstracts of published articles in the journal. From these abstracts, we define 3 eras: a 50 year-era from 1917 to 1966, a 30-year era from 1967 to 1996, and a 20-year era from 1997 to the present. Each era is distinct in terms of the number of articles published and the general themes of the topic areas examined. We show that advances in theory are a major impetus underlying research topics and the number of publications. Our review also suggests that articles have increasingly tended to reflect broader events occurring in society such as recessions and workforce changes. We conclude by offering ideas about the future of stress and well-being research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



One hundred years of work design research: Looking back and looking forward.

2017-02-09

In this article we take a big picture perspective on work design research. In the first section of the paper we identify influential work design articles and use scientific mapping to identify distinct clusters of research. Pulling this material together, we identify five key work design perspectives that map onto distinct historical developments: (a) sociotechnical systems and autonomous work groups, (b) job characteristics model, (c) job demands-control model, (d) job demands-resources model, and (e) role theory. The grounding of these perspectives in the past is understandable, but we suggest that some of the distinction between clusters is convenient rather than substantive. Thus we also identify contemporary integrative perspectives on work design that build connections across the clusters and we argue that there is scope for further integration. In the second section of the paper, we review the role of Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) in shaping work design research. We conclude that JAP has played a vital role in the advancement of this topic over the last 100 years. Nevertheless, we suspect that to continue to play a leading role in advancing the science and practice of work design, the journal might need to publish research that is broader, more contextualized, and team-oriented. In the third section, we address the impact of work design research on: applied psychology and management, disciplines beyond our own, management thinking, work practice, and national policy agendas. Finally, we draw together observations from our analysis and identify key future directions for the field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress?

2017-01-26

We review 100 years of research on performance appraisal and performance management, highlighting the articles published in JAP, but including significant work from other journals as well. We discuss trends in eight substantive areas: (1) scale formats, (2) criteria for evaluating ratings, (3) training, (4) reactions to appraisal, (5) purpose of rating, (6) rating sources, (7) demographic differences in ratings, and (8) cognitive processes, and discuss what we have learned from research in each area. We also focus on trends during the heyday of performance appraisal research in JAP (1970-2000), noting which were more productive and which potentially hampered progress. Our overall conclusion is that JAP’s role in this literature has not been to propose models and new ideas, but has been primarily to test ideas and models proposed elsewhere. Nonetheless, we conclude that the papers published in JAP made important contribution to the filed by addressing many of the critical questions raised by others. We also suggest several areas for future research, especially research focusing on performance management. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Leadership in applied psychology: Three waves of theory and research.

2017-01-26

Although in the early years of the Journal leadership research was rare and focused primarily on traits differentiating leaders from nonleaders, subsequent to World War II the research area developed in 3 major waves of conceptual, empirical, and methodological advances: (a) behavioral and attitude research; (b) behavioral, social-cognitive, and contingency research; and (c) transformational, social exchange, team, and gender-related research. Our review of this work shows dramatic increases in sophistication from early research focusing on personnel issues associated with World War I to contemporary multilevel models and meta-analyses on teams, shared leadership, leader-member exchange, gender, ethical, abusive, charismatic, and transformational leadership. Yet, many of the themes that characterize contemporary leadership research were also present in earlier research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



A century of work teams in the Journal of Applied Psychology.

2017-02-02

Work groups are a vital link between individuals and organizations. Systematic psychological research on the nature and effects of work groups dates back at least to the Hawthorne studies of the 1920s and 1930s. Yet little to none of this work appeared in the Journal of Applied Psychology until the 1950s when groups were treated primarily as foils against which to compare the performance of individuals. From the 1990s to the present, the volume of research and the nature of topics addressing work group/teams expanded significantly. The authors review the evolution of team research over the past century with a particular focus on that which has appeared in this journal. They chronicle the shift from a focus on individuals within teams, or on individual versus team comparisons, to a focus on the team itself and larger systems of teams. They describe the major outcomes studied within this literature, and how they relate to the nature of team tasks and structures. Further, the authors consider the roles of team members’ characteristics and composition, and team dynamics in terms of processes and emergent states. They close with a call for future research that models dynamic team relationships in context and as they operate in complex systems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Organizational climate and culture: Reflections on the history of the constructs in the Journal of Applied Psychology.

2017-01-26

We review the literature on organizational climate and culture paying specific attention to articles published in the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP) since its first volume in 1917. The article traces the history of the 2 constructs though JAP has been far more important for climate than culture research. We distinguish 4 main periods: the pre-1971 era, with pioneering work on exploring conceptualization and operationalizations of the climate construct; the 1971–1985 era, with foundational work on aggregation issues, outcome-focused climates (on safety and service) and early writings on culture; the 1986–1999 era, characterized by solidification of a focused climate approach to understanding organizational processes (justice, discrimination) and outcomes (safety, service) and the beginnings of survey approaches to culture; and the 2000–2014 era, characterized by multilevel work on climate, climate strength, demonstrated validity for a climate approach to outcomes and processes, and the relationship between leadership and climate and culture. We summarize and comment on the major theory and research achievements in each period, showing trends observed in the literature and how JAP has contributed greatly to moving research on these constructs, especially climate, forward. We also recommend directions for future research given the current state of knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The evolution and future of diversity at work.

2017-01-26

This article examines the evolution of diversity in the Journal of Applied Psychology. To begin, we explore foundations of the concept of diversity, including its appearance in both applied contexts and the scholarly literature. We then review the literature on diversity, including the development of its conceptualization and operationalizations over time, in the Journal and in the field of applied psychological science at large. We also examine the processes underlying the effects of diversity, and specific outcomes of diversity in organizations. To conclude, we offer a future research agenda that highlights diversity-related topics and issues important for advancing an understanding of diversity and moving the field forward, especially within the Journal. This work makes several contributions to research on diversity in organizations. First, we provide a lens for examining change in the study of diversity over time as well as a critical examination of the benefits and challenges associated with these changes. Second, we review the underlying mechanisms and key contextual influences on diversity effects in organizations. Third, our review examines the explanatory power of current diversity research and then uses this to develop a research agenda. By organizing the broad body of literature that exists on diversity, our article offers a sharp picture of what gaps in knowledge exist and where future research should focus. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



One hundred years of discrimination research in the Journal of Applied Psychology: A sobering synopsis.

2017-01-26

Employment discrimination—a legal, social, moral, and practical problem—has been a persistent focus of narrow scholarship in the Journal of Applied Psychology since its inception. Indeed, this article identifies the environmental characteristics, conceptual underpinnings, dominant methodologies, research questions and findings across 508 articles published on discrimination in the journal over the last 100 years. Emergent themes document signs of stability and change in 3 eras: an era wherein discrimination research was itself discriminatory (1917–1969), the heyday of discrimination research (1970–1989), and an era of unsteady progress (1990–2014). This synthesis suggests that, although increasingly sophisticated methodological approaches have been applied to this topic, the targets of focus and theories driving research have largely been static. Additionally, research published on discrimination in the Journal of Applied Psychology has often trailed too far behind the times. Specific recommendations for advancing the psychological study of employment discrimination in applied contexts are provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey.

2017-02-16

In celebration of the anniversary of the Journal of Applied Psychology (JAP), we take a hundred-year journey to examine how the science of cross-cultural industrial/organizational psychology and organizational behavior (CCIO/OB) has evolved, both in JAP and in the larger field. We review broad trends and provide illustrative examples in the theoretical, methodological, and analytic advances in CCIO/OB during 4 main periods: the early years (1917–1949), the middle 20th century (1950–1979), the later 20th century (1980–2000), and the 21st century (2000 to the present). Within each period, we discuss key historical and societal events that influenced the development of the science of CCIO/OB, major trends in research on CCIO/OB in the field in general and JAP in particular, and important milestones and breakthroughs achieved. We highlight pitfalls in research on CCIO/OB and opportunities for growth. We conclude with recommendations for the next 100 years of CC IO/OB research in JAP and beyond. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



One hundred years of employee turnover theory and research.

2017-01-26

We review seminal publications on employee turnover during the 100-year existence of the Journal of Applied Psychology. Along with classic articles from this journal, we expand our review to include other publications that yielded key theoretical and methodological contributions to the turnover literature. We first describe how the earliest papers examined practical methods for turnover reduction or control and then explain how theory development and testing began in the mid-20th century and dominated the academic literature until the turn of the century. We then track 21st century interest in the psychology of staying (rather than leaving) and attitudinal trajectories in predicting turnover. Finally, we discuss the rising scholarship on collective turnover given the centrality of human capital flight to practitioners and to the field of human resource management strategy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



100 years of applied psychology research on individual careers: From career management to retirement.

2017-02-02

This article surveys 100 years of research on career management and retirement, with a primary focus on work published in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Research on career management took off in the 1920s, with most attention devoted to the development and validation of career interest inventories. Over time, research expanded to attend to broader issues such as the predictors and outcomes of career interests and choice; the nature of career success and who achieves it; career transitions and adaptability to change; retirement decision making and adjustment; and bridge employment. In this article, we provide a timeline for the evolution of the career management and retirement literature, review major theoretical perspectives and findings on career management and retirement, and discuss important future research directions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Reflections on the Journal of Applied Psychology for 1989 to 1994: Changes in major research themes and practices over 25 years.

2017-02-09

Informal observations concerning journal content indicates that research investigating organizational behavior topics, including work on the structure of groups and determinants and consequences of group process along with the role of leadership in groups, has increased. Some topics have disappeared (e.g., job analysis, human factors, union-related work, consumer behavior) and others are declining (e.g., research methods, psychometrics). Perhaps the biggest change is in the length of articles, which is mostly a function of the inclusion of greater numbers of references and appendix material. Publishing some of this material in supplementary online materials is now current practice in the Journal of Applied Psychology. Concerns about use of journal space may also be entirely moot, if electronic publishing as opposed to print publishing becomes the norm. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Reflections on the Journal of Applied Psychology for 1997 to 2002.

2017-02-09

Major trends in articles published during my term as Editor (1997–2000) are reviewed, including the number of articles received (approximately 500–600 per year) and the types of articles published. More than half of the articles published during this period fell into six broad categories: job attitudes and affect (82 articles); individual differences and measurement (52 articles); forensic psychology (50 articles); diversity and discrimination (46 articles); research methods, design, and analysis (41 articles); and performance appraisal and performance management (41 articles). Notable articles and advances within each of these areas are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Reflections on the Journal of Applied Psychology for 2003 to 2008.

2017-02-09

The topic and theme content of the articles published during my term as editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology (2003–2008) are presented and discussed. The analysis of the content and trends is discussed in the context of attempts by my editorial team to influence what content was to be considered for publication as well as to engage in special efforts to generate more “theory” as well as alternative methodological approaches (e.g., qualitative data, content analysis, and the like) into the journal. The bigger issue for the perspective is whether the editorial team can influence what is published (yes) as opposed to what is researched (unlikely). The bottom line of the analysis is a call for future research that takes an interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary approach to the study of applied problems in a work setting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Reflections on the Journal of Applied Psychology for 2009 to 2014: Infrastructure, operations, innovations, impact, evolution, and desirable directions.

2017-02-09

In this reflection on my experiences as editor of the Journal of Applied Psychology, I consider 6 foci including (a) information on the background, infrastructure, and mechanics of running this top-tier journal; (b) statistics on journal operations across the 7 years of editorial activity (i.e., incoming plus 6 years on the masthead); (c) innovations that my senior editorial team introduced (i.e., transparency via supplemental materials, revival of monographs, initiation of integrative conceptual reviews); (d) impact and influence with respect to articles, authors, and institutions; (e) latent sematic analysis findings to illustrate the evolution and change of journal content over a 33-year comparison period (i.e., it has evolved substantially); and desirable directions for future evolution of the journal (i.e., strengthen our scientific foundation, increase multidisciplinary linkages, focus on multilevel system dynamics as core capabilities, and improve the translation of industrial and organizational science to evidence-based practice and vice versa). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



A century of progress in industrial and organizational psychology: Discoveries and the next century.

2017-02-16

In a century of research published in the Journal of Applied Psychology, we have seen significant advances in our science. The results of this science have broad applications to the workplace and implications for improving organizational effectiveness through a variety of avenues. Research has focused on understanding constructs, relationships, and processes at multiple levels, including individual, team, and organizational. A plethora of research methods and questions have driven this work, resulting in a nuanced understanding of what matters in the workplace. In this paper, we synthesize the most salient discoveries, findings, and/or conclusions in 19 domains. We seek to summarize the progress that has been made and highlight the most salient directions for future work such that the next century of research in industrial and organizational psychological science can be as impactful as the first century has been. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)