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Journal of Applied Psychology - Vol 102, Iss 4



The Journal of Applied Psychology will emphasize the publication of original investigations that contribute new knowledge and understanding to fields of applied psychology.



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Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
 



A computational model of self-efficacy’s various effects on performance: Moving the debate forward.

2016-12-19

Self-efficacy, which is one’s belief in one’s capacity, has been found to both positively and negatively influence effort and performance. The reasons for these different effects have been a major topic of debate among social–cognitive and perceptual control theorists. In particular, the findings of various self-efficacy effects has been motivated by a perceptual control theory view of self-regulation that social–cognitive theorists’ question. To provide more clarity to the theoretical arguments, a computational model of the multiple processes presumed to create the positive, negative, and null effects for self-efficacy is presented. Building on an existing computational model of goal choice that produces a positive effect for self-efficacy, the current article adds a symbolic processing structure used during goal striving that explains the negative self-efficacy effect observed in recent studies. Moreover, the multiple processes, operating together, allow the model to recreate the various effects found in a published study of feedback ambiguity’s moderating role on the self-efficacy to performance relationship (Schmidt & DeShon, 2010). Discussion focuses on the implications of the model for the self-efficacy debate, alternative computational models, the overlap between control theory and social–cognitive theory explanations, the value of using computational models for resolving theoretical disputes, and future research and directions the model inspires. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The role of facial appearance on CEO selection after firm misconduct.

2016-12-19

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(4) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-10684-001). The wrong figure files were used. All versions of this article have been corrected.] We investigate a particular aspect of CEO successor trustworthiness that may be critically important after a firm has engaged in financial misconduct. Specifically, drawing on prior research that suggests that facial appearance is one critical way in which trustworthiness is signaled, we argue that leaders who convey integrity, a component of trustworthiness, will be more likely to be selected as successors after financial restatement. We predict that such appointments garner more positive reactions by external observers such as investment analysts and the media because these CEOs are perceived as having greater integrity. In an archival study of firms that have announced financial restatements, we find support for our predictions. These findings have implications for research on CEO succession, leadership selection, facial appearance, and firm misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



“The role of facial appearance on CEO selection after firm misconduct:" Correction to Gomulya et al. (2016).

2017-03-09

Reports an error in "The Role of Facial Appearance on CEO Selection After Firm Misconduct" by David Gomulya, Elaine M. Wong, Margaret E. Ormiston and Warren Boeker (Journal of Applied Psychology, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 19, 2016, np). The wrong figure files were used. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-60831-001.) We investigate a particular aspect of CEO successor trustworthiness that may be critically important after a firm has engaged in financial misconduct. Specifically, drawing on prior research that suggests that facial appearance is one critical way in which trustworthiness is signaled, we argue that leaders who convey integrity, a component of trustworthiness, will be more likely to be selected as successors after financial restatement. We predict that such appointments garner more positive reactions by external observers such as investment analysts and the media because these CEOs are perceived as having greater integrity. In an archival study of firms that have announced financial restatements, we find support for our predictions. These findings have implications for research on CEO succession, leadership selection, facial appearance, and firm misconduct. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Dynamic interplay between merger process justice and cognitive trust in top management: A longitudinal study.

2016-11-28

This study examines two fundamental concerns in the context of organizational change: employees’ perceptions of merger process justice and cognitive trust in the top management team. Our main purpose is to better understand the nature of reciprocal relations between these important constructs through a significant change event. Previous research, building mainly on social exchange theory, has framed trust as a consequence of justice perceptions. More recently, scholars have suggested that this view may be overly simplistic and that trust-related cognitions may also represent an important antecedent of justice perceptions. Using 3-wave longitudinal survey data (N = 622) gathered during a merger process, we tested reciprocal relations over time between cognitive trust in the top management team and perceptions of the merger process justice. In contrast to the conventional unidirectional notion of trust or trust-related cognitions as outcomes of perceived justice, our results show positive reciprocal relations over time between cognitive trust and justice. Our findings also revealed that the positive influence of cognitive trust on subsequent justice perceptions was slightly more robust than the opposite direction. By examining cross-lagged longitudinal relations between these critical psychological reactions, this study contributes across multiple domains of the management literature including trust, justice, and organizational mergers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Trust in direct leaders and top leaders: A trickle-up model.

2017-01-05

Low levels of employee trust in top leaders pose challenges to organizations with respect to retention, performance, and profits. This research examines how trust in top leaders can be fostered through the relationships individuals have with their direct leaders. We propose a trickle-up model whereby trust in direct leaders exerts an upward influence on trust in top leaders. Drawing on the group value model, we predict that direct leaders’ procedural justice serves as the key mechanism in facilitating the trickle-up process. Further, this process should be particularly strong for employees high on vertical collectivism, and the trickled-up trust in top leaders should exert a stronger impact on employees’ overall performance in the organization than trust in direct leaders. Multiphase and multisource data from 336 individuals support these hypotheses. The findings advance our understanding of trust and leadership by highlighting that trust in leaders at different levels does not form independently and that trust in leaders trickles up across hierarchical levels. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The dark side of transparency: How and when pay administration practices affect employee helping.

2016-12-19

This study examines a long-standing contention of practitioners and scholars alike, namely that pay transparency may adversely affect employees’ tendency to offer assistance to coworkers. Drawing from research on social comparison, information vividness, and envy, we develop and test a moderated-mediation model positing that transparency adversely affects the amount of help individuals afford to peers who, based on pay for performance, are paid more than them. Testing our hypotheses in the context of a multiround simulation-based laboratory experiment, we find that this adverse effect of pay transparency on helping is largely explained by transparency’s positive association with episodic envy, but only when individual differences grounded in differential social value orientations, specifically those regarding individualism beliefs and prosocial motivation, are taken into consideration. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The rich get richer and the poor get poorer: Country- and state-level income inequality moderates the job insecurity-burnout relationship.

2016-11-28

Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today’s society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one’s obtainment of object (i.e., material coping) and condition (i.e., nonmaterial coping) resources, thus serving as an environmental stressor exacerbating one’s burnout reactions to JI. The predicted cross-level interaction effect of income inequality was tested in 2 studies. Study 1 consisting of 23,778 individuals nested in 30 countries explored the moderating effect of country-level income inequality on the relationship between individual JI and exhaustion. Study 2 collected data from 402 employees residing in 48 states in the United States, and tested the moderating effect of state-level income inequality on the relationship between JI and burnout (i.e., emotional exhaustion and cynicism). Results of both studies converge to support the exacerbating role of higher-level income inequality on the JI -burnout relationship. Our findings contribute to the literature on psychological health disparities by exploring the contextual role of income inequality as a predictor of differential reactions to JI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



The relationship between sleep and work: A meta-analysis.

2016-11-28

Sleep has tremendous importance to organizations because of its relationship with employee performance, safety, health, and attitudes. Moreover, sleep is a malleable behavior that may be improved by individual and organizational changes. Despite the consequential and modifiable nature of sleep, little consensus exists regarding its conceptualization, and how the choice of conceptualization may impact relationships with organizational antecedents and outcomes. To offer a stronger foundation for future theory and research about employee sleep, this study calculated meta-analytic correlations of sleep quality and sleep quantity from 152 primary studies of sleep among workers in organizations. Analyses revealed that both sleep quality and sleep quantity associated negatively with workload and a number of health, attitudinal, and affective outcomes. Despite their conceptual similarity, notable differences existed in sleep quality and sleep quantity in terms of their relationships to many different correlates. Generally, the relationships between sleep quality and the examined correlates were stronger for variables that reflected perceptions. Moderator analyses showed that relationships between sleep quality and quantity may be affected by measurement method and the number of self-report items used, while there is little evidence of the effect of measurement time frame. Findings from this first meta-analytic investigation of the occupational sleep literature have implications for the development of theory about relationships between sleep and work, the measurement of sleep, the identification of organizational correlates of sleep, and the design of interventions intended to improve employee sleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

2016-11-28

Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16–17 predict unemployment over age 16–42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (−1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)