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The Journal of Abnormal Psychology publishes articles on basic research and theory in the broad field of abnormal behavior, its determinants, and its correlates. The following general topics fall within its area of major focus: (a) psychopathology—it



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Introduction to the special section: Why we should highlight the outstanding contributions of young investigators in the field of eating disorders.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

This introduction presents the context in which the Journal of Abnormal Psychology created a special section to highlight outstanding contributions by young investigators in the field of eating disorders. The first motivating factor relates to our field’s approach to mentoring and supporting its next generation of researchers. The second motivating factor addresses a broader need to ensure that the Journal of Abnormal Psychology remains an outlet in which this and future generations share their innovative and important work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Eating disorder-specific risk factors moderate the relationship between negative urgency and binge eating: A behavioral genetic investigation.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Theoretical models of binge eating and eating disorders include both transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk factors. Negative urgency (i.e., the tendency to act impulsively when distressed) is a critical transdiagnostic risk factor for binge eating, but limited research has examined interactions between negative urgency and disorder-specific variables. Investigating these interactions can help identify the circumstances under which negative urgency is most strongly associated with binge eating. We examined whether prominent risk factors (i.e., appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint) specified in well-established etiologic models of eating disorders moderate negative urgency-binge eating associations. Further, we investigated whether phenotypic moderation effects were due to genetic and/or environmental associations between negative urgency and binge eating. Participants were 988 female twins aged 11–25 years from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Appearance pressures, thin-ideal internalization, and body dissatisfaction, but not dietary restraint, significantly moderated negative urgency-binge eating associations, with high levels of these risk factors and high negative urgency associated with the greatest binge eating. Twin moderation models revealed that genetic, but not environmental, sharing between negative urgency and binge eating was enhanced at higher levels of these eating disorder-specific variables. Future longitudinal research should investigate whether eating disorder risk factors shape genetic influences on negative urgency into manifesting as binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



“Neural reactivity to rewards and losses in offspring of mothers and fathers with histories of depressive and anxiety disorders”: Correction to Kujawa, Proudfit, and Klein (2014).

Mon, 22 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Reports an error in "Neural reactivity to rewards and losses in offspring of mothers and fathers with histories of depressive and anxiety disorders" by Autumn Kujawa, Greg Hajcak Proudfit and Daniel N. Klein (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2014[May], Vol 123[2], 287-297). In the article there was an error in the Measures section. The article stated that the EEG data were band-pass filtered with cutoffs of 0.1 and 30 Hz and baseline corrected using the 200 ms interval prior to feedback. Instead, the data were actually filtered with cutoffs of 0.01 and 30 Hz and baseline corrected using the 500 ms interval prior to feedback. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2014-22133-001.) Depression appears to be characterized by reduced neural reactivity to receipt of reward. Despite evidence of shared etiologies and high rates of comorbidity between depression and anxiety, this abnormality may be relatively specific to depression. However, it is unclear whether children at risk for depression also exhibit abnormal reward responding, and if so, whether risk for anxiety moderates this association. The feedback negativity (FN) is an event-related potential component sensitive to receipt of rewards versus losses that is reduced in depression. Using a large community sample (N = 407) of 9-year-old children who had never experienced a depressive episode, we examined whether histories of depression and anxiety in their parents were associated with the FN following monetary rewards and losses. Results indicated that maternal history of depression was associated with a blunted FN in offspring, but only when there was no maternal history of anxiety. In addition, greater severity of maternal depression was associated with greater blunting of the FN in children. No effects of paternal psychopathology were observed. Results suggest that blunted reactivity to rewards versus losses may be a vulnerability marker that is specific to pure depression, but is not evident when there is also familial risk for anxiety. In addition, these findings suggest that abnormal reward responding is evident as early as middle childhood, several years prior to the sharp increase in the prevalence of depression and rapid changes in neural reward circuitry in adolescence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Trajectories of higher- and lower-order dimensions of negative and positive affect relative to restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa.

Mon, 28 Nov 2016 05:00:00 GMT

Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Shared familial risk between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement during adolescence.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Twin studies show the established relation between bulimic symptoms and problematic alcohol involvement in adult females is partly due to shared familial factors, specifically shared genetic effects. However, it is unclear if similar shared etiological factors exist during adolescence or in males. We examined the familial overlap (i.e., genetic and common environmental correlations) between bulimic symptoms and various levels of alcohol involvement in 16- to 17-year-old female and male same-sex twin pairs using sex-specific biometrical twin modeling. Bulimic symptoms were assessed with the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Alcohol involvement included alcohol use in the last month, having ever been intoxicated, and alcohol intoxication frequency. Results revealed 3 distinct patterns. First, in general, phenotypic correlations indicated statistically similar associations between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in girls and boys. Second, common environmental overlap was significant for the bivariate associations including having ever been intoxicated. Third, moderate genetic correlations were observed between all bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in girls and moderate common environmental correlations were observed in boys for the more risky/deviant levels of involvement. Similar to adults, there is familial overlap between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement in adolescent girls and boys. These results could inform symptom- and sex-specific, developmentally targeted prevention and intervention programs for the comorbidity between bulimic symptoms and alcohol involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Response in taste circuitry is not modulated by hunger and satiety in women remitted from bulimia nervosa.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) engage in episodes of binge eating, marked by loss of control and eating despite fullness. Does altered reward and metabolic state contribute to BN pathophysiology? Normally, hunger increases (and satiety decreases) reward salience to regulate eating. We investigated whether BN is associated with an abnormal response in a neural circuit involved in translating taste signals into motivated behavior, when hungry and fed. Twenty-six women remitted from BN (RBN) and 22 control women (CW) were administered water and sucrose during 2 counterbalanced fMRI visits, following a 16-hr fast or a standardized breakfast. Significant Group × Condition interactions were found in the left putamen, insula, and amygdala. Post hoc analyses revealed CW were significantly more responsive to taste stimuli when hungry versus fed in the left putamen and amygdala. In contrast, RBN response did not differ between conditions. Further, RBN had greater activation in the left amygdala compared with CW when fed. Findings suggest that RBN neural response to rewarding stimuli may not be modulated by metabolic state. Data raise the possibility that disinhibited eating in BN could result from a failure to devalue food reward when fed, resulting in an exaggerated response. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



“A psychometric investigation of gender differences and common processes across borderline and antisocial personality disorders”: Correction to Chun et al. (2017).

Mon, 29 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Reports an error in "A psychometric investigation of gender differences and common processes across borderline and antisocial personality disorders" by Seokjoon Chun, Alexa Harris, Margely Carrion, Elizabeth Rojas, Stephen Stark, Carl Lejuez, William V. Lechner and Marina A. Bornovalova (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2017[Jan], Vol 126[1], 76-88). In the article, there were two errors in the article’s supplemental material. The supplemental material stated, “In each case, if the relaxed model fit significantly better than the baseline model (i.e., ΔX²> 3.84, Δdf =2), then the item under investigation was flagged as noninvariant; otherwise the item was marked as invariant.” The value for ΔX² should have been 5.99. The supplemental material also stated, “If there was no decrement in fit as a function of constraining a given item, the item in question was flagged as noninvariant.” It should have stated that these items were flagged as invariant. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-53090-001.) The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of common underlying processes, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single common factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its relationship with criterion variables previously reported to be associated with BPD and ASPD. The bifactor model provided the best fit and was invariant across sex. Overall, the general factor of the bifactor model significantly accounted for a large percentage of the variance in criterion variables, whereas the BPD and AAB specific factors added little to the models. The association of the general and specific factor with all criterion variables was equal for men and women. Our results suggest common underlying vulnerability accounts for both the comorbidity between BPD and AAB (across sex), and this common vulnerability drives the association with other psychopathology and maladaptive behavior. This in turn has implications for diagnostic classification systems and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Associations of borderline personality disorder traits with stressful events and emotional reactivity in women with bulimia nervosa.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits are common among those with bulimia nervosa (BN). However, how these traits impact the state experience of precipitants of BN behavior, such as stressful events and emotional reactivity, has not been determined. Thus, the purpose of this naturalistic study was to examine this trait–state association in BN. Women with DSM–IV BN (N = 133) completed a baseline measure of personality pathology traits, and subsequently recorded their affective state and the frequency and perception of 3 types of stressful events (interpersonal, work/environment, and daily hassles) several times per day for 2 weeks using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Pearson correlations assessed the associations between BPD traits (affective lability, identity problems, insecure attachment, and cognitive dysregulation) and (a) frequency of stressful events and (b) perception of stressful events. Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to evaluate the relationship between BPD traits and changes in negative affect following stressful events. Results revealed that while all traits were significantly associated with perceived stressfulness, certain BPD traits were significantly associated with the frequency of stressful events. Individuals with higher trait insecure attachment experienced larger increases in negative affect following interpersonal stressful events. These findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing stressful events and enhancing adaptive emotional responses to interpersonal events may be particularly useful for a subset of individuals with BN with BPD-related personality characteristics, including insecure attachment, affective lability, and identity problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



The impact of acute stress on the neural processing of food cues in bulimia nervosa: Replication in two samples.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

The impact of acute stress on the neural processing of food cues in bulimia nervosa (BN) is unknown, despite theory that acute stress decreases cognitive control over food and hence increases vulnerability to environmental triggers for binge eating. Thus, the goals of this manuscript were to explore the impact of acute stress on the neural processing of food cues in BN. In Study 1, 10 women with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM–5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) BN and 10 healthy controls participated in an fMRI paradigm examining the neural correlates of visual food cue processing pre and post an acute stress induction. Whole brain analysis indicated that women with BN exhibited significant decreases in activation in the precuneus, associated with self-referential processing, the paracingulate gyrus, and the anterior vermis of the cerebellum. Healthy controls exhibited increased activation in these regions in response to food cues poststress. In Study 2, 17 women with DSM–5 BN or otherwise specified feeding and eating disorder with BN symptoms participated in the same paradigm. A region of interest analysis replicated findings from Study 1. Replication of imaging findings in 2 different samples suggests the potential importance of these regions in relation to BN. Decreased activation in the precuneus, specifically, is consistent with models of BN that posit that binge eating serves as a concrete distraction from aversive internal stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Maternal eating disorders and perinatal outcomes: A three-generation study in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Previous studies of the relationship between maternal eating disorders and adverse perinatal outcomes have failed to control for familial transmission of perinatal phenotypes, which may confound the reported association. In a unique design afforded by the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and Medical Birth Registry of Norway, we linked three generations through birth register records and maternal-reported survey data to investigate whether maternal eating disorders increase risk after parsing out the contribution of familial transmission of perinatal phenotypes. The samples were 70,881 pregnancies in grandmother-mother-child triads for analyses concerning eating disorder exposure during pregnancy and 52,348 for analyses concerning lifetime maternal eating disorder exposure. As hypothesized, eating disorders predicted a higher incidence of perinatal complications even after adjusting for grandmaternal perinatal phenotypes. For example, anorexia nervosa immediately prior to pregnancy was associated with smaller birth length (relative risk = 1.62; 95% CI [1.20, 2.14]), bulimia nervosa with induced labor (relative risk = 1.21; 95% CI [1.07, 1.36]), and binge-eating disorder with several delivery complications, larger birth length (relative risk = 1.25; 95% CI [1.17, 1.34]), and large-for-gestational-age (relative risk = 1.04; 95% CI [1.01, 1.06]). Maternal pregravid body mass index and gestational weight mediated most associations. Our results support that exposure to eating disorders increases the risk for negative health outcomes in pregnant women and their babies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



A review of purging disorder through meta-analysis.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Although a growing body of research has examined Purging Disorder (PD), there remains a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the diagnostic validity of PD. This meta-analysis compared PD to DSM–5 eating disorders (i.e., Anorexia Nervosa [AN], Bulimia Nervosa [BN], and Binge Eating Disorder [BED]) and controls. A comprehensive literature search identified 38 eligible studies. Group differences on indicators of course of illness and both general and eating psychopathology were assessed using standardized effect sizes. Results supported the conceptualization of PD as a clinically significant eating disorder, but findings were less clear regarding its distinctiveness from other eating disorder diagnoses. More specifically, PD significantly differed from BN and BED in natural course of illness (g = .40–.54), and PD significantly differed from AN in treatment outcome (g = .27), with PD characterized by a better prognosis. Overall, PD was more similar to AN and BED on many dimensional measures of general and eating-related psychopathology, though PD was less severe than BN in most of these domains. PD, BN, and BED groups also evidenced similar frequencies of subjective binge episodes (SBEs), yet PD evidenced less frequent SBEs than AN. There is a clear need for future studies of PD to assess validators that have not been reported comprehensively in the literature, such as mortality, medical morbidity, and course of illness. Additionally, empirical classification studies are needed to inform future classifications of PD, particularly with regard to categorical differences between PD and other eating disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Expanding the developmental boundaries of etiologic effects: The role of adrenarche in genetic influences on disordered eating in males.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Genetic influences on disordered eating (DE) increase across age and puberty in girls, an effect that is at least partially due to ovarian hormone activation. However, development shifts in genetic effects have not been detected in boys; genetic influences have been found to be relatively constant from prepuberty to adulthood, suggesting that gonadal hormones may be less important. One caveat is that studies have examined males ages 10 or older. Genetic effects on DE may emerge earlier in boys, such as during adrenarche, when androgens begin to increase but the physical changes of puberty are not yet observable. The current study investigated this hypothesis in 1,212 male twins (ages 6–28) from the Michigan State University Twin Registry. Results supported a potential role of adrenarche, as genetic influences on DE increased during middle childhood, prior to the external physical changes of puberty. Specifically, genetic influences on DE were negligible (0%) in twins during pre- to early adrenarche, but increased incrementally across advancing adrenarche (17% to 44%) and into early puberty (57%). Genetic effects then remained stable into midpuberty and postpuberty (58%), suggesting that nearly all of the genetic effects on DE become prominent during adrenarche in males. Findings suggest that genetic effects on DE emerge sooner in boys than the midpubertal activation that is consistently found in girls. These data highlight a potentially important role for adrenarche in the genetic diathesis for DE in males and a need to examine younger ages in studies of developmental effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Contributions from outstanding young eating disorder investigators: What we are learning, how we are learning it, and where might we go next?

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

This is a time of striking progress in the field of eating disorders, and outstanding young psychological scientists are playing an important role in this progress. This special section provides a sample of this work, which is characterized by a diversity of research questions and methods. The importance of transdiagnostic processes that increase risk for both disordered eating and other dysfunction is reflected in articles that identify shared familial risk across disorders, integrate transdiagnostic and eating disorder-specific risk, and examine the impact of affective processing on restricting behavior. The importance of eating disorder-specific risk is reflected in an article on disorder-specific relations between hunger and taste. The importance of integrative risk models across levels of analysis is reflected in articles that investigate the heritable component of interactions between broad personality and disorder-specific risk factors, the momentary impact of personality traits on precipitants of binge-purge episodes, brain system function responses to environmental stressors, and cross-generational transmission of risk. The importance of further understanding the nature and scope of eating disorder pathology is reflected in a meta-analysis of purging disorder and an investigation of genetic effects on disordered eating in males. This commentary places these articles in the context of challenges facing the field and considers the future of eating disorders research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Hierarchical structure of emotional disorders: From individual symptoms to the spectrum.

Thu, 04 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Classification of emotional disorders faces challenges of within-disorder heterogeneity and between-disorder comorbidity. The current study addressed these issues by analyzing all emotional disorder symptoms to identify homogeneous dimensions that characterize this domain. These dimensions were, in turn, used to define coherent syndromes and higher order factors. All of the emotional disorder symptoms specified in diagnostic manuals were assessed by interview in 2 treatment-seeking samples (N = 426 and 305), alongside clinical diagnoses and functioning measures. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were employed to elucidate replicable lower and higher order structures. We found 31 homogenous symptom dimensions that clustered, at different levels of generality, into 8 syndromes (Vegetative Symptoms, Cognitive Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Panic, Social Anxiety, Phobia, Obsessive–Compulsive Disorder [OCD], and Mania), 3 subfactors (Distress, Fear, and OCD/Mania), and a single Internalizing spectrum. This structure replicated in both samples. Identified dimensions showed considerable convergence with categorical diagnoses, but provided more information about global functioning than diagnoses. Overall, current results propose a novel comprehensive description of the lower order structure of emotional disorders. The empirical syndromes generally paralleled disorders listed in diagnostic manuals, although several differences were notable. The higher order results also confirmed previously reported Distress, Fear, and Mania subfactors of the Internalizing spectrum using homogeneous dimensional markers. Taken together, results highlight a bottom-up approach to constructing an empirical nosology that does not rely on analysis of diagnostic categories. The resulting hierarchical system can be used clinically and to facilitate research on the pathophysiology of emotional disorders, which, in turn, can inform intervention and prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Time-varying and time-invariant dimensions of depression in children and adolescents: Implications for cross-informant agreement.

Thu, 20 Apr 2017 04:00:00 GMT

The longitudinal structure of depression in children and adolescents was examined by applying a Trait-State-Occasion structural equation model to 4 waves of self, teacher, peer, and parent reports in 2 age groups (9 to 13 and 13 to 16 years old). Analyses revealed that the depression latent variable consisted of 2 longitudinal factors: a time-invariant dimension that was completely stable over time and a time-varying dimension that was not perfectly stable over time. Different sources of information were differentially sensitive to these 2 dimensions. Among adolescents, self- and parent reports better reflected the time-invariant aspects. For children and adolescents, peer and teacher reports better reflected the time-varying aspects. Relatively high cross-informant agreement emerged for the time-invariant dimension in both children and adolescents. Cross-informant agreement for the time-varying dimension was high for adolescents but very low for children. Implications emerge for theoretical models of depression and for its measurement, especially when attempting to predict changes in depression in the context of longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Networks of loss: Relationships among symptoms of prolonged grief following spousal and parental loss.

Thu, 08 Jun 2017 04:00:00 GMT

The death of a loved one can trigger a range of emotional, behavioral, motivational and cognitive reactions collectively labeled as “grief.” There has been a recent resurgence of empirical interest in grief reactions, and there is now a general consensus that 7%-10% of bereaved individuals experience intense and chronic reactions termed Prolonged Grief (PG). However, there is ongoing debate about how best to conceptualize the construct. Recent studies have advanced this debate by applying a network, or causal systems approach. Whereas traditional views of psychopathology posit symptoms of disorders reflect the independent actions of latent entities, the network approach argues that the symptoms themselves interact to give rise to the disorder. A network conceptualization offers novel approaches to studying the mechanisms that contribute to PG. To date, however, research has focused only on spousal loss and only used a single archival data set. Therefore, in this paper we apply network analysis to examine relationships among PG symptoms in samples of individuals bereaved by loss of a spouse (Study 1, N = 193) and a parent (Study 2, N = 180). Participants completed the PG-13 and a measure of depression. A comparison test suggested the networks produced from each sample were not reliably different. The strongest link in both networks was between yearning and emotional pain. Meaninglessness was relatively central, whereas avoidance was peripheral in both networks. Findings are discussed with reference to theoretical models and the potential benefits a network approach may hold for understanding relationships between symptoms of PG. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Neural markers of emotional face perception across psychotic disorders and general population.

Mon, 29 May 2017 04:00:00 GMT

There is considerable variation in negative and positive symptoms of psychosis, global functioning, and emotional face perception (EFP), not only in schizophrenia but also in other psychotic disorders and healthy individuals. However, EFP impairment and its association with worse symptoms and global functioning have been examined largely in the domain of schizophrenia. The present study adopted a dimensional approach to examine the association of behavioral and neural measures of EFP with symptoms of psychosis and global functioning across individuals with schizophrenia spectrum (SZ; N = 28) and other psychotic (OP; N = 29) disorders, and never-psychotic participants (NP; N = 21). Behavioral and functional MRI data were recorded as participants matched emotional expressions of faces and geometrical shapes. Lower accuracy and increased activity in early visual regions, hippocampus, and amygdala during emotion versus shape matching were associated with higher negative, but not positive, symptoms and lower global functioning, across all participants. This association remained even after controlling for group-related (SZ, OP, and NP) variance, dysphoria, and antipsychotic medication status, except in amygdala. Furthermore, negative symptoms mediated the relationship between behavioral and brain EFP measures and global functioning. This study provides some of the first evidence supporting the specific relationship of EFP measures with negative symptoms and global functioning across psychotic and never-psychotic samples, and transdiagnostically across different psychotic disorders. Present findings help bridge the gap between basic EFP-related neuroscience research and clinical research in psychosis, and highlight EFP as a potential symptom-specific marker that tracks global functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Electrophysiological evidence for detrimental impact of a reappraisal emotion regulation strategy on subsequent cognitive control in schizophrenia.

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

In healthy individuals, there is evidence that effective implementation of an emotion regulation strategy has beneficial effects on temporally proximal cognitive control task performance. This effect occurs because both of these processes rely heavily on the prefrontal cortex. Individuals with schizophrenia (SZ) have impairments in both emotion regulation and cognitive control that are driven by structural and functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex; however, it is unknown whether emotion regulation attempts fail to benefit subsequently performed cognitive control tasks in people with SZ. The present study examined whether attempts to increase or decrease negative emotion via reappraisal have differential effects on subsequent cognitive control in a sample of outpatients diagnosed with SZ (n = 30) and demographically matched healthy controls (CN; n = 29). Participants completed a combined emotion regulation and cognitive control task in which numerical Stroop trials were presented immediately after unpleasant or neutral images that were either increased via reappraisal, decreased via reappraisal, or passively viewed. The electroencephalogram was recorded while participants performed the reappraisal-Stroop task and event related potentials (ERPs) were used to index emotion regulation effectiveness (late positive potential: LPP) and cognitive control (sustained potential: SP). Both CN and SZ evidenced higher LPP amplitude for unpleasant than neutral stimuli consistent with robust neural response to unpleasant stimuli. Although CN demonstrated neurophysiological evidence of effective use of reappraisal to increase and decrease negative emotion, SZ only showed an effective ability to increase negative emotion via reappraisal. CN displayed enhanced cognitive control following increase trials and impaired cognitive control following decrease trials, as indicated by modulation of SP amplitude. In SZ, increase instructions impaired cognitive control and decrease instructions had no effect on cognitive control. Findings suggest that emotion regulation abnormalities may play an underrecognized role in general cognitive control deficits that occur in SZ. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



“Default mode functional connectivity is associated with social functioning in schizophrenia”: Correction to Fox et al. (2017).

Mon, 10 Jul 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Reports an error in "Default mode functional connectivity is associated with social functioning in schizophrenia" by Jaclyn M. Fox, Samantha V. Abram, James L. Reilly, Shaun Eack, Morris B. Goldman, John G. Csernansky, Lei Wang and Matthew J. Smith (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 2017[May], Vol 126[4], 392-405). In the article, the email address of corresponding author Matthew J. Smith was set as matthewsmith@northwestern.edu. It should have been mattjsmi@umich.edu. The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2017-14073-001.) Individuals with schizophrenia display notable deficits in social functioning. Research indicates that neural connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) is related to social cognition and social functioning in healthy and clinical populations. However, the association between DMN connectivity, social cognition, and social functioning has not been studied in schizophrenia. For the present study, the authors used resting-state neuroimaging data to evaluate connectivity between the main DMN hubs (i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex [mPFC] and the posterior cingulate cortex-anterior precuneus [PPC]) in individuals with schizophrenia (n = 28) and controls (n = 32). The authors also examined whether DMN connectivity was associated with social functioning via social attainment (measured by the Specific Levels of Functioning Scale) and social competence (measured by the Social Skills Performance Assessment), and if social cognition mediates the association between DMN connectivity and these measures of social functioning. Results revealed that DMN connectivity did not differ between individuals with schizophrenia and controls. However, connectivity between the mPFC and PCC hubs was significantly associated with social competence and social attainment in individuals with schizophrenia but not in controls as reflected by a significant group-by-connectivity interaction. Social cognition did not mediate the association between DMN connectivity and social functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. The findings suggest that fronto-parietal DMN connectivity in particular may be differentially associated with social functioning in schizophrenia and controls. As a result, DMN connectivity may be used as a neuroimaging marker to monitor treatment response or as a potential target for interventions that aim to enhance social functioning in schizophrenia. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Explicit and implicit reinforcement learning across the psychosis spectrum.

Thu, 13 Apr 2017 04:00:00 GMT

Motivational and hedonic impairments are core features of a variety of types of psychopathology. An important aspect of motivational function is reinforcement learning (RL), including implicit (i.e., outside of conscious awareness) and explicit (i.e., including explicit representations about potential reward associations) learning, as well as both positive reinforcement (learning about actions that lead to reward) and punishment (learning to avoid actions that lead to loss). Here we present data from paradigms designed to assess both positive and negative components of both implicit and explicit RL, examine performance on each of these tasks among individuals with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder with psychosis, and examine their relative relationships to specific symptom domains transdiagnostically. None of the diagnostic groups differed significantly from controls on the implicit RL tasks in either bias toward a rewarded response or bias away from a punished response. However, on the explicit RL task, both the individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder performed significantly worse than controls, but the individuals with bipolar did not. Worse performance on the explicit RL task, but not the implicit RL task, was related to worse motivation and pleasure symptoms across all diagnostic categories. Performance on explicit RL, but not implicit RL, was related to working memory, which accounted for some of the diagnostic group differences. However, working memory did not account for the relationship of explicit RL to motivation and pleasure symptoms. These findings suggest transdiagnostic relationships across the spectrum of psychotic disorders between motivation and pleasure impairments and explicit RL. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)