Subscribe: Dreaming - Vol 19, Iss 4
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Preview: Dreaming - Vol 19, Iss 4

Dreaming - Vol 27, Iss 1

Dreaming is a multidisciplinary journal, the only professional journal devoted specifically to dreaming. The journal publishes scholarly articles related to dreaming from any discipline and viewpoint. This includes biological aspects of dreaming and sleep

Last Build Date: Tue, 23 May 2017 20:00:08 EST

Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association

Dreaming, reflective consciousness, and feelings in the preschool child.


LeDoux (2015) discriminates creature consciousness, in which an organism is awake and alert, processing currently available stimuli, from mental-state consciousness, which is characterized by the possibility of reflection about current or past events and the ability to imagine new situations or scenarios. He establishes criteria for distinguishing the two, and finds no other animal that can experience conscious emotional feelings, nor more generally exhibit mental-state consciousness. A plausible extrapolation of his argument to humans suggests that they share this inability until about age 5. Tulving’s (2005) analysis of the development of episodic memory leads him to characterize the preschooler as anoetic, since the child is unable to encode conscious mental imagery capable of later recollection. Dreaming is another instance of mentalstate consciousness (Nir & Tononi, 2010), and the gold standard of research on dreaming is achieved in the modern sleep laboratory protocol. Longitudinal sleep laboratory studies have shown that dreaming is basically absent at ages 3 and 4, conforming to the general anoetic pattern of waking research on preschoolers, and confirming that dreaming also is a mental-state phenomenon. Resistance to accepting the sleep-laboratory data at face value seems to rest on an assumption that children must be inhibited by the laboratory setting, but this assumption already was refuted by direct home-lab comparisons in the same longitudinal project. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

The invasion of the concept snatchers: The origins, distortions, and future of the continuity hypothesis.


This article explains the origins and development of the continuity hypothesis in work by cognitively oriented dream researchers. Using blind quantitative analyses of lengthy dream series from several individuals, in conjunction with inferences presented to the individual dreamers to corroborate or reject, these researchers discovered that the same conceptions and personal concerns that animate waking thought are very often enacted in dreams. Other types of studies later supported this finding. The article argues that the cognitive origins and definition of the continuity hypothesis have been distorted by those dream researchers who mistakenly claim that the concept is focused on dreaming as an incorporation of everyday experiences. A review of the literature on experiential and experimental influences on dreams, which includes studies of day residues, the experimental manipulation of presleep events, the incorporation of during-sleep stimuli, laboratory references in laboratory-collected dreams, and the influence of routine daily events, reveals that none of them is very influential and most are trivial. The article concludes that those who study experiential factors should adopt a phrase such as “incorporation hypothesis” to avoid confusion in the literature and make clear that the continuity hypothesis is a central one in an emerging neurocognitive theory of dreams. The intensity of personal concerns and interests, not the events of the day, shape central aspects of dream content. In particular, the frequency of characters or activities reveals the intensity of various concerns, and these concerns can be discovered for individuals through comparisons with normative findings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Inner ghosts: Encounters with threatening dream characters in lucid dreams.


Lucid dreamers may encounter not only friendly but also threatening dream figures in their lucid dreams. The present study of German-speaking lucid dreamers explored the frequency of threatening dream figures in lucid dreams and how lucid dreamers responded to them. An online questionnaire was completed by 528 respondents, of whom 386 had lucid dream experience. According to their reports, about half of the dream characters encountered in lucid dreams are friendly, but about a fifth of them are threatening. Threatening dream figures are encountered more by women and more frequent nightmare sufferers, but less by more frequent lucid dreamers. When dealing with threatening dream characters, lucid dreamers most often defend themselves by fighting, with flying away and working toward resolution as the next most likely responses. More frequent nightmare sufferers showed more avoidance behavior, whereas more frequent lucid dreamers worked toward resolution of the conflict. The findings lend some support to the idea that encounters with threatening dream characters may represent the interpsychic or psychosocial conflicts of the dreamer. Thus, when encountering a threatening dream figure, lucid dreamers could perhaps be advised not to avoid it, but rather to confront the figure and seek resolution. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Dream recall frequency, attitude toward dreams, and the Big Five personality factors.


Dream recall frequency showed high interindividual differences, and research has focused, among other variables, on personality traits for explaining these differences. The present study included 2,492 participants measuring the Big Five personality factors, dream recall frequency, and attitude toward dreams. The findings support the notion of dream recall and especially attitude toward dreaming is part of a bigger lifestyle characterized by openness to experience. Although the relationship between dream recall frequency and neuroticism is explained by nightmare frequency, the question as to why attitude toward dreams is related to neuroticism is still unanswered and warrants further studies. It is also not understood why conscientiousness was related to dream recall and attitude toward dreams. Overall, studying samples with diverse educational backgrounds and large age ranges seems necessary in order to validate the findings obtained from student samples in this field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Attachment styles and nightmares in adults.


A number of different causes have been discussed with respect to the etiology or treatment of nightmares. Among them, however, relatively little attention has been given to early developing emotional factors, like attachment. Previous results hint to a relationship between nightmare frequency and attachment style. The present study thus served to further substantiate this observation by investigating the relationship between attachment styles and nightmare frequency and nightmare distress. Results reveal that subjects with insecure attachment styles report more nightmares and more nightmare distress than those with a secure attachment style. In particular, among the insecure attachment styles, the fearful attachment style is most prone to higher nightmare frequency and nightmare distress. The results indicate that among personality factors and current stressors, attachment styles may also affect nightmares. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)

Exploring the role of need for cognition, field independence and locus of control on the incidence of lucid dreams during a 12-week induction study.


This article reports an investigation of 2 proposed theories, the predispositional and experiential, regarding the association of personality variables to lucid dreaming incidence during a 12-week lucid dreaming induction program. The study found no differences between those who did and did not report lucid dreams during the program on baseline measures of field independence, locus of control or need for cognition. There was an observed significant change toward a field independent orientation between baseline and posttests for those successful at inducing a lucid dream; with no statistically significant differences for either Locus of Control or Need for Cognition. Results suggest that field independence may not be a predispositional characteristic for the successful induction of lucid dreaming, but an experiential result of having lucid dream experiences. The authors conclude that experiences within a dream state may have appreciable effects on waking cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)(image)