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Preview: Dreaming - Vol 19, Iss 4

Dreaming - Vol 26, Iss 4



Dreaming is a multidisciplinary journal, the only professional journal devoted specifically to dreaming. The journal publishes scholarly articles related to dreaming from any discipline and viewpoint. This includes biological aspects of dreaming and sleep



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Copyright: Copyright 2017 American Psychological Association
 



Violence, sex, and dreams: Violent and sexual media content infiltrate our dreams at night.

2016-11-10

[Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 26(4) of Dreaming (see record 2016-60837-001). In the article, there is a typo in the first column, second row of Table 1. The text should appear as Violent media use. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Many people today are immersed in media similar to fish in water. Electronic devices provide virtually unlimited access to media. Although people consume media during their waking hours, the media they consume might also affect their dreams during sleeping hours. The media often contain violence and sex. On the basis of cognitive neoassociation theory, we predicted that violent and sexual media content would prime related thoughts in semantic memory. In this study, 1,287 Turkish participants completed a survey about their media consumption and their dreams the previous night. We measured the frequency of their media consumption and the violent and sexual content of the media they consumed on a regular basis and on the day before the survey. We also measured whether they had a dream the night before they completed the survey and dream content if they dreamed (51.5% dreamed). We measured whether participants had dreams with violent and sexual content. Similar results were obtained for regular media consumption and for media consumption on the day before the survey. For both measures, media consumption was positively related to dreaming frequency. Media content also influenced dream content. Specifically, participants who consumed violent media tended to have violent dreams, and participants who consumed sexual media tended to have sexual dreams. These results are consistent with cognitive neoassociation theory and extend the theory by showing that it also applies to sleeping hours as well as waking hours. The results also have practical implications. Media can influence our thoughts, even when we are asleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Nightmare prevalence, distress, and anxiety among young children.

2016-10-17

This study investigated the relationship between nightmares and anxiety in young children. A sample of 45 parent–child pairs completed a demographic questionnaire, parent- and child-reported nightmare questionnaires, and a parent-reported anxiety scale. Results indicated that children reported significantly more nightmares and a higher level of nightmare distress compared to their parents. A positive relationship was found between parent- and child-reported nightmare frequency but not nightmare distress. Children who reported to have more frequent nightmares were also rated by their parent to have higher anxiety. No gender differences were found. Implications and future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



"Violence, sex, and dreams: Violent and sexual media content infiltrate our dreams at night": Correction to Van den Bulck et al. (2016).

2016-12-22

Reports an error in "Violence, Sex, and Dreams: Violent and Sexual Media Content Infiltrate Our Dreams at Night" by Jan Van den Bulck, Yakup Çetin, Ömer Terzi and Brad J. Bushman (Dreaming, Advanced Online Publication, Nov 10, 2016, np). In the article, there is a typo in the first column, second row of Table 1. The text should appear as Violent media use. All versions of this article have been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2016-54555-001.) Many people today are immersed in media similar to fish in water. Electronic devices provide virtually unlimited access to media. Although people consume media during their waking hours, the media they consume might also affect their dreams during sleeping hours. The media often contain violence and sex. On the basis of cognitive neoassociation theory, we predicted that violent and sexual media content would prime related thoughts in semantic memory. In this study, 1,287 Turkish participants completed a survey about their media consumption and their dreams the previous night. We measured the frequency of their media consumption and the violent and sexual content of the media they consumed on a regular basis and on the day before the survey. We also measured whether they had a dream the night before they completed the survey and dream content if they dreamed (51.5% dreamed). We measured whether participants had dreams with violent and sexual content. Similar results were obtained for regular media consumption and for media consumption on the day before the survey. For both measures, media consumption was positively related to dreaming frequency. Media content also influenced dream content. Specifically, participants who consumed violent media tended to have violent dreams, and participants who consumed sexual media tended to have sexual dreams. These results are consistent with cognitive neoassociation theory and extend the theory by showing that it also applies to sleeping hours as well as waking hours. The results also have practical implications. Media can influence our thoughts, even when we are asleep. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Physical self-concept and the frequency of lucid dreams and nightmares.

2016-11-10

This study investigated the association of physical self-concept with dream recall frequency, lucid dream frequency, and nightmare frequency. Previous research reported negative associations between physical self-concept and dreaming behavior among sport students. Using a large sample from the general population (N = 2,904), we found no associations of physical self-concept with dream recall frequency and lucid dream frequency. Associations with nightmare frequency were negative and significant, yet practically irrelevant. We conclude that previously reported negative associations of physical self-concept with dream behavior are confined to athletes and persons with above-average physical exercise behavior but do not generalize to the general population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Continuity: Knowing each other, emotional closeness, and appearing together in dreams.

2016-12-22

Continuity between entities in dreams and those in waking life arises from memory. In broad terms, the people a dreamer knows are associated in the dreamer’s memory, and during dreaming people associated in memory tend to occur together in dreams. To obtain details, we gave a dreamer a questionnaire about whether pairs of major people know each other in waking life, and if so, how emotionally close they are. The greater the emotional closeness of a pair, the more likely the pair was to occur in a dream together. The more often a pair co-occurred in a dream, the more likely the pair was to know each other in waking life. In waking life, relationships with kin decay more slowly than relationships with others. A consequence would be that over time, as new friends replace the old, kin tend to become associated with many people. We found that in waking life, those who knew the most others were family members. People who occurred with the most other people in dreams were also family members. As relationships decay over time, memory for the relationships degrades as well. To maintain memories, we propose that associations between people in memory are refreshed when people are dreamed about together. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



Nightmare distress as a mediator between nightmare frequency and suicidal ideation.

2016-12-22

Previous studies investigating the relationship between nightmares and suicidal ideation have been equivocal. In this study, we investigated the role of nightmare distress in the relationship between nightmare frequency and suicidal ideation. Study participants were 280 undergraduate students (Mage = 21.84, ±2.14 SD, 77.9% women), who answered “yes” to experiencing nightmares in the past year. All participants completed questionnaires on nightmare frequency (Nightmare Frequency Questionnaire), nightmare distress (Nightmare Distress Questionnaire), suicidal ideation (Depressive Symptom Inventory—Suicidality Subscale), and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index). Mediation analyses determined that nightmare distress fully mediated the relationship between nightmare frequency and suicidal ideation after controlling for insomnia. Although the total effect on the relationship between nightmare frequency and suicidal ideation (B = .21, SE = .08, p = .009), the direct effects of nightmare frequency on suicidal ideation were not significant after accounting for the effects of nightmare distress and insomnia (B = .12, SE = .08, p = .16). Additionally, the indirect effect of nightmare distress on the relationship between nightmare frequency and suicidal ideation was significant bootstrapped 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.0306, 0.1946]. Finally, gender moderated the mediated effect of nightmare distress between nightmare frequency and suicidal ideation. Our results support that both nightmare frequency and nightmare distress should be evaluated in clinical and research settings, especially for women, in the context of suicidal risk assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)



We dream typical themes every single night.

2016-11-21

In light of the previous retrospective and diary-based evidence for the marked prevalence and recurrence of typical dream themes, this study investigated whether typical dream themes would occur across all successive REM epochs of the night. The sample contained 7 subjects, whose sleep was monitored by a high-density electroencephalographic system. REM awakenings were performed in accordance with the progressive-interval protocol. Besides free-recall reports collected via the REM interviews, the subjects were asked next morning to recognize any typical themes occurring in each episode of REM mentation using a provided list of dream themes. Approximately 80% of dream reports retrieved from REM sleep displayed at least 1 typical theme, the greatest number of typical themes in 1 dream being 11. A more conservative estimate of the incidence of typical REM dreams still exceeded 60%. In addition, typical dream themes could be observed across all REM cycles over the night, even in those early, ephemeral REM dreams. These findings suggest that the majority of REM dreams are typical dreams. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)(image)