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Preview: Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 12, Iss 3

Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology - Vol 23, Iss 3



Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology seeks to publish theoretical, conceptual, research and case study articles that promote the development of knowledge and understanding, application of psychological principles, and scholarly analysis of so



Last Build Date: Fri, 21 Jul 2017 04:00:46 GMT

 



Editorial.

Thu, 29 Jun 2017 04:00:00 GMT

As Editor of Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology (CDEMP), I have made the decision to adopt open science practices to ensure rigor, reproducibility, and transparency in its published research. CDEMP will now issue Open Science Badges at the request of authors whose manuscripts were accepted for publication. Authors will be able to request three badges to acknowledge Open Data, Open Materials, and Preregistration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Psychological predictors of cultural diversity support at work.

Thu, 02 Mar 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: As diversity management activities become more prominent worldwide it is important to understand psychological reactions to them to ensure success, but empirical evidence is lacking. This study investigated employees’ and managers’ intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work in a variety of organizations in the Netherlands, using Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior. Method: Predictors of intentions to promote cultural diversity at work (N = 670) and actual behavior after 6 months were assessed among managers and employees using self-reports in a 2-wave survey design. Participants’ average age at Time 1 was 38.26 years (SD = 11.86), 56% was female, and there were 78.1% Dutch ethnic majority and 21.9% ethnic minority participants. Results: Attitude to cultural diversity promotion at work and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related positively to both individuals’ intentions to promote cultural diversity at work, which in turn predicted behavior. The strongest driver, however, was attitude. Managers’ reported PBC and behavior were higher compared to employees. Conclusions: This study supported the applicability of the theory of planned behavior to predict intentions and behavior to promote cultural diversity at work. With an increasingly diverse workforce, this study aimed to advance our understanding of drivers of individual reactions and behavior to support cultural diversity at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Is gender more important and meaningful than race? An analysis of racial and gender identity among Black, White, and mixed-race children.

Thu, 13 Oct 2016 04:00:00 GMT

Objectives: Social categories shape children’s lives in subtle and powerful ways. Although research has assessed children’s knowledge of social groups, most prominently race and gender, few studies have examined children’s understanding of their own multiple social identities and how they intersect. This paper explores how children evaluate the importance and meaning of their racial and gender identities, and variation in these evaluations based on the child’s own age, gender, and race. Method: Participants were 222 Black, White, and Mixed-Race children (girls: n = 136; Mage = 9.94 years). Data were gathered in schools via 1-on-1 semistructured interviews. Analyses focused on specific measures of the importance and meaning of racial and gender identity for children. Results: We found that: (a) children rate gender as a more important identity than race; (b) the meanings children ascribe to gender identity emphasized inequality and group difference whereas the meaning of race emphasized physical appearance and humanism/equality; and (c) children’s assessments of importance and meaning varied as a function of child race and gender, but not age. Conclusion: The findings extend research on young children’s social identity development and the role of culture and context in children’s emerging racial and gender identities. Implications for identity theory and development and intergroup relations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Familial ethnic socialization, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity development in Mexican-origin early adolescents.

Thu, 23 Feb 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: This study examined the relations between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity development in 438 Mexican-origin (n = 242 boys and n = 196 girls) preadolescents. In addition, machismo and marianismo gender role attitudes were examined as potential mediators in this link. Method: Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the Familial Ethnic Socialization Scale (FES), Machismo Measure (MM), Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS), and the Ethnic Identity Brief Scale (EISB) were conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican-origin sample. Separate path analyses of analytic models were then performed on boys and girls. Results: Results of the CFAs for survey measures revealed that for the FES, a 1-factor version indicated acceptable fit; for the MM, the original 2-factor structure indicated acceptable model fit; for the MBS, a revised 3-factor version indicated acceptable model fit; and, for the EISB, the affirmation and resolution dimensions showed acceptable fit. Among boys, FES was significantly and positively linked to caballerismo, and EISB affirmation and resolution; furthermore, the links between FES and EISB affirmation and resolution were indirectly connected by caballerismo. In addition, traditional machismo was negatively linked to EISB affirmation, and caballerismo was positively linked to EISB affirmation and resolution. Among girls, FES was significantly and positively related to the MBS-virtuous/chaste pillar, and EISB affirmation and resolution. The MBS-subordinate to others pillar was negatively linked to EISB affirmation. Conclusions: This study underscores the importance of FES and positive gender role attitudes in the link to ethnic identity development among Mexican-origin preadolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Personal and cultural identity development in recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents: Links with psychosocial functioning.

Thu, 16 Feb 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: This study examined directionality between personal (i.e., coherence and confusion) and cultural identity (i.e., ethnic and U.S.) as well as their additive effects on psychosocial functioning in a sample of recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents. Method: The sample consisted of 302 recent (<5 years) immigrant Hispanic adolescents (53% boys; Mage = 14.51 years at baseline; SD = .88 years) from Miami and Los Angeles who participated in a longitudinal study. Results: Results indicated a bidirectional relationship between personal identity coherence and both ethnic and U.S. identity. Ethnic and U.S. affirmation/commitment (A/C) positively and indirectly predicted optimism and negatively predicted rule breaking and aggression through coherence. However, confusion predicted lower self-esteem and optimism and higher depressive symptoms, rule breaking, unprotected sex, and cigarette use. Results further indicated significant site differences. In Los Angeles (but not Miami), ethnic A/C also negatively predicted confusion. Conclusion: Given the direct effects of coherence and confusion on nearly every outcome, it may be beneficial for interventions to target personal identity. However, in contexts such as Los Angeles, which has at least some ambivalence toward recently immigrated Hispanic adolescents, it may be more beneficial for interventions to also target cultural identity to reduce confusion and thus promote positive development. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



An experimental test of the Bridges to High School intervention on harsh parenting and early age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents.

Mon, 05 Dec 2016 05:00:00 GMT

Objective: Can an intervention that contained no content on sex or contraception reduce rates of early-age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents? The current study examined whether the Bridges to High School intervention designed, in part, to decrease harsh parenting, had a longitudinal effect on decreasing rates of early-age intercourse in the treatment versus control groups, as well as the moderating role of gender and linguistic acculturation. Method: The sample consisted of 516 Mexican American adolescents (Mage = 12.31 years; 50.8% female) and their mothers who participated in a randomized, intervention trial. A series of longitudinal, meditational path models were used to examine the effects of the intervention on harsh parenting practices and early-age intercourse. Results: Our findings revealed that participation in the treatment versus control group was indirectly linked to a lower likelihood of early-age intercourse through decreased maternal harsh parenting. Tests of mediation were significant. These findings did not vary across gender and linguistic acculturation. Conclusion: Results suggest that the Bridges to High School intervention successfully decreased early-age intercourse among Mexican American adolescents through reduced harsh parenting among mothers. This finding is consistent with positive youth development programs that have been found to have broad, and sometimes nontargeted, effects on adolescent sexual behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Tests of escape theory of binge eating among Latinas.

Thu, 10 Nov 2016 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: Despite comparable prevalence of some eating disorders (e.g., binge eating disorder) among Latinas compared with Caucasians, eating disorders are still thought of as primarily afflicting Caucasian women. This has led to a lag in research on eating disorders among Latinas. Our objective was to test 3 escape theory models involving the culturally specific independent variables of acculturative stress, family disconnection, and discriminatory stress; the mediator of negative affect; and the dependent variable of binge eating frequency. Method: We recruited a female sample of 119 Latinas (78 who have suffered from an eating disorder, 41 who have never had an eating disorder). Results: Results indicated that all of the relationships between culturally specific factors and binge eating were mediated by negative affect, and that there was a significant direct pathway from discriminatory stress to binge eating. Conclusions: Findings from this study can be used to tailor interventions to Latinas who engage in binge eating, targeting culturally specific factors and their relationships with negative affect and binge eating. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Racial/ethnic differences in trauma exposure and mental health disorders in adolescents.

Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: Research has cited increased prevalence of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, and exposure to interpersonal violence for Hispanics and non-Hispanic Black adolescents, as well as ethnic differences in externalizing behavior (e.g., substance use, delinquency). The current study combined these areas by examining racial/ethnic differences in mental health correlates of trauma exposure. Method: Interviews were conducted to assess polyvictimization, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), substance use, and delinquency in a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 3,614; 15.4% non-Hispanic Black; 11.3% Hispanic; 64.9% non-Hispanic White). Results: Hispanic and non-Hispanic Black adolescents endorsed greater polyvictimization than non-Hispanic Whites; however, differences in MDD and PTSD were only significant when assessed with symptom counts. Non-Hispanic Black adolescents reported the least drug use. Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic adolescents endorsed more delinquency than non-Hispanic White adolescents. Polyvictimization only accounted for ethnic disparities in delinquency. Conclusion: Trauma-related disparities may differ across internalizing and externalizing concerns. Subsequent research should continue to examine other factors that may contribute to racial/ethnic differences in trauma sequelae. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Adult attachment as a moderator of the association between childhood traumatic experiences and depression symptoms among young Black gay and bisexual men.

Thu, 13 Oct 2016 04:00:00 GMT

Objective: The present study examined the moderating effect of adult attachment on the association between childhood traumatic experiences, (i.e., physical abuse, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and being bullied), age of childhood traumatic experience, and young adult depression symptoms among young Black gay and bisexual men (YBGBM). Method: Self-report measures of attachment, childhood traumatic experiences, and depression symptoms were collected from a community-based sample of YBGBM living in New York City (n = 228). Regression analyses were conducted to address the study goals. Results: Findings indicated that YBGBM who were more anxious in their adult attachment style and experienced being bullied or physically abused by a non-family member during childhood experienced greater depression in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less anxious in their adult attachment style. In addition, we found that being bullied later in childhood was associated with greater depression symptoms than being bullied earlier. Lastly, we found that YBGBM who were more avoidant and bullied later in adolescence reported more depression symptoms in young adulthood than YBGBM who were less avoidant in their attachment style. Discussion: The findings suggest that it may be important to utilize an attachment perspective that is sensitive to age of traumatic experience when creating mental health and trauma interventions for YBGBM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



The roles of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrant college students.

Mon, 26 Sep 2016 04:00:00 GMT

Objectives: Acculturative stress has been linked to psychological distress, but few studies have explored the moderating role of social constraints on this relationship. Social constraints are the perception that social networks are unsupportive to stressor-related discussions. In the present study, the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Hispanic/Latino and Asian immigrants and the moderating role of social constraints in this relationship were examined. Method: Participants were 306 college students (169 Hispanics/Latinos, 137 Asians; 33.9% first-generation immigrants, 66.1% second-generation immigrants) from two Texas universities. Results: Correlation results showed that acculturative stress and social constraints were significantly associated with higher levels of psychological distress in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. In addition, regression results indicated a significant three-way interaction effect among acculturative stress, social constraints, and racial/ethnic groups. Social constraints were found to moderate the relationship between acculturative stress and psychological distress in Asians but not in Hispanics/Latinos. Significant association between acculturative stress and psychological distress was found in Asians with higher levels of social constraints but not in Asians with lower levels of social constraints. Conclusions: These findings suggested that the interaction effect of acculturative stress and social constraints on psychological distress may be subject to cultural influences, and social constraints may have differential roles in Hispanics/Latinos and Asians. Potential implications on the development of culturally adaptive interventions for different racial/ethnic minority groups were discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Far from fairness: Prejudice, skin color, and psychological functioning in Asian Americans.

Mon, 07 Nov 2016 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: We explored the moderating role of observed skin color in the association between prejudice and concurrent and lagged psychological functioning (i.e., depression, ingroup/outgroup psychological connectedness). We further aimed to understand gender differences in these processes. Method: Data from 821 Asian American undergraduate students (57.5% female and 42.5% male) were drawn from the National Longitudinal Survey of Freshman. Cross-sectional and longitudinal regression-based moderation models were conducted with PROCESS 2.13 for SPSS. Results: Lighter skin color nullified the association between prejudice and recent depression for Asian American females. This moderating effect did not hold over time with regards to depression symptoms 1 year later. Additionally, prejudice predicted psychological distance to other Asian students 1 year later among females rated as lighter in skin color, whereas prejudice was tied to psychological closeness for females with darker skin ratings. Conclusions: Results highlight skin color as a pertinent factor relevant to the short-term and long-term mental health and social experiences of Asian American women in particular. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Racial discrimination and psychological health among Polynesians in the U.S.

Thu, 12 Jan 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: There is a dearth of research on the mental health of Polynesians residing in the United States. The aims of this study were to examine experiences of racial discrimination, self-esteem, trait anger, satisfaction with life, and psychological well-being among 628 Polynesians (e.g., Native Hawaiian, Tongan, Samoan, Fijian, Tahitian, Maori; 60% women (n = 378) and 40% men (n = 249); mean age = 28.7). Method: Measures were administered through an online survey to 628 Polynesians residing in the United States. Comparison analyses between men and women, correlations, and path analyses were analyzed for this Polynesian sample. Results: Polynesian women showed higher levels of self-esteem and lower levels of depression and anxiety. Racial discrimination was inversely correlated with self-esteem and satisfaction with life, and positively linked to trait anger, depression, anxiety, and stress. Self-esteem had an indirect effect on the relationship between racial discrimination and satisfaction with life. Conclusions: Mental health professionals need to be aware of racial discrimination on psychological health and incorporate the value of self-esteem in the psychological treatment of Polynesians. Additional results are provided and implications of these findings are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Not just sticks and stones: Indirect ethnic discrimination leads to greater physiological reactivity.

Thu, 12 Jan 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: We examined the effect of indirect ethnic discrimination on physiological reactivity (i.e., cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) in Latino emerging adults. Method: Participants (N = 32) were randomly assigned to be exposed to indirect ethnic discrimination (experimental condition) or not (control condition) while undergoing a cognitive stress task. Results: Greater total cortisol output was observed in participants in the experimental condition, relative to those in the control condition. No significant differences in heart rate or blood pressure were noted. Conclusions: Results suggest that witnessing ethnic discrimination affects cortisol recovery responses, but not cardiovascular reactivity. Words that are not intentionally hurtful or directed at a specific person may still “hurt”—affecting biological processes associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis and potentially leading to long-term health consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



Linking parental socialization about discrimination to intergroup attitudes: The role of social dominance orientation and cultural identification.

Thu, 26 Jan 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objectives: This study investigated the interaction of parental socialization about discrimination and social dominance orientation (SDO) in predicting the cultural identity and intergroup attitudes of the Minnanese, an ethnic group in Taiwan that faced systematic discrimination during the early decades of Chinese Nationalist rule. Because high SDO individuals tend to support group-based dominance, we hypothesized that under high preparation for bias, which may reinforce narratives that place the historically disadvantaged Taiwanese in a subordinate position, Minnanese high in SDO would identify less with Taiwanese and more with Chinese (the historically high-status outgroup) compared with their low SDO counterparts. Method: We examined our hypotheses using a sample of Minnanese (N = 365; 183 women, 182 men; average age = 44.35) who participated in a nationally representative survey of Taiwanese adults. Results: As predicted, among Minnanese exposed to high levels of preparation for bias, those with high SDO expressed greater levels of Chinese identification and more favorable attitudes toward Chinese than their low SDO counterparts (no difference was found in attitudes toward Taiwanese). Among Minnanese exposed to low levels of preparation for bias, SDO predicted neither Chinese nor Taiwanese identity. Moreover, the interaction effect of preparation for bias and SDO on attitudes toward Chinese was mediated by Chinese identity. Conclusion: Using a unique, non-Western sample, this study demonstrated the role that parental socialization about past discrimination, in combination with belief in group-based dominance, plays in the construction of group identity and intergroup attitudes among members of historically disadvantaged ethnic groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)



The role of minority stress in second-generation Black emerging adult college students’ high-risk drinking behaviors.

Thu, 16 Feb 2017 05:00:00 GMT

Objective: This study used a minority stress framework to investigate the relationships between multiple stressors (e.g., general life stress, race related stress, and acculturative stress) and high-risk drinking behaviors in a sample of second-generation Black emerging adult college students across the United States. Method: Participants (n = 148) were recruited from U.S. colleges and universities as part of a large, multiwave cross-sectional study. Results: Findings from this study mirrored those in the extant literature: the positive relationship between race-related stress and high-risk drinking behaviors found in other marginalized groups. However, when all stressors were entered into the model, acculturative stress accounted for significant variance in high-risk drinking behaviors above and beyond general life and race-related stressors in second generation Black emerging adult college students. Conclusion: Findings underscore the need to better understand the influence of acculturative stress on high-risk drinking behaviors among second-generation Black emerging adult college students: an understudied population in both the acculturation and alcohol use literatures. Implications for future research and clinical practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)