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The Practical Nomad

Edward Hasbrouck's blog

Published: 2018-04-20T12:34:29-08:00

Last Build Date: 2018-04-06T15:35:07-08:00


Hearing on the draft & draft registration, Thursday, April 19th in Denver


[Poster by James Groleau, 1981. More draft resistance graphics.] The "National Commission on Military, National, and Public Service" has announced that the second of its open-mike public hearings throughout the US on whether registration for a military draft should be ended or extended will be in Denver, Colorado, on Thursday, April 19th, from 3-5 p.m.: Open-Mike Public Hearing National Commission on Military, National, and Public Service Thursday, April 19, 2018, 3-5 p.m. (doors open at 2:30; members of the War Resisters League and other witnesses will be available for interviews outside the City Park entrance to the Museum at 2 p.m.) Denver Museum of Nature and Science Schlessman Lobby, Entrance 5 (West side of the Museum facing City Park) 2001 Colorado Blvd., Denver, CO Matt Nicodemus (phone 720-979-9967) in Boulder is organizing local folks to attend the Denver hearing. Please let Matt know if you plan to attend or can help with local activities. Some readers of this blog will remember Matt's public refusal to register for the draft in 1980, and his work as an organizer with the National Resistance Committee and as co-editor of Resistance News. At the Commission's first hearing, in Harrisburg, PA, on February 23rd, each witness was allowed 2 minutes to speak. Time limits weren't strictly enforced, but might be reduced depending on how many people show up. If you want to say more, or you can't make it to Denver on April 19th, you can submit written comments to the Commission through April 19th, or possibly later. [Update: The Commission has extended the deadline for submission of written comments through 30 September 2018.] The Commission has said it plans to hold more hearings including at least one in in each of the nine US Census regions. [Update: See the schedule of approximate dates and locations through September 2018. Look for any announcements by the Commission of details of hearings here on the Commission's Web site. Background on this Commission and why it is holding these hearings Podcast overview of what's happening with the draft, and why Web form for short written submissions Longer written submissions can be sent to either or, mentioning "Docket No. 05-2018-0" in the subject line of the e-mail message. This is your chance to tell the Commission what you think about the draft, draft registration, and/or compulsory national "service". Denver is an apt site for one of the Commission's first hearings. As recently as 2016, the Denver Post editorialized, "It's time to abolish the Selective Service and end the draft". Two Denver-area members of Congress, Jared Polis (D-Boulder) and Mike Coffman (R-Aurora), sponsored a bill to end draft registration and abolish the Selective Service System. That bill never made it to a floor vote, and died at the end of the 2015-2016 session of Congress. But this bill, or a similar one, could and should be reintroduced, and the Commission could and should recommend that legislation along these lines be enacted.[...]

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 8


Chiang Mai (Thailand) - Hong Kong SAR (China) - San Francisco, CA (USA) - Alameda, CA (USA) Comments to the U.S. DOT on airline deregulation I was on an overnight flight to Europe on an airline that doesn't have live TV available as part of its in-flight entertainment when this episode of The Amazing Race 30 was first broadcast. CBS tries to block streaming from its Web site to IP addresses outside the U.S. So I won't be able to watch this episode until I get back to the USA. But there are more important things for world travellers to think about this week. As this season of "reality" television travel makes its way to the finish line with a final series of long-haul flights, it's a good time for travellers to turn their attention to real-world developments in U.S. government policy that could significantly affect air travel in the future. As I've noted before, deregulation of private businesses, including airlines, is a high priority for President Trump as a business person and the former owner of a (failed and bankrupt) airline. So is repeal or nonenforcement of antitrust laws. Whatever you think of deregulation in general, the combination of deregulation, government-tolerated oligopoly, and government subsidies and grants of special privileges is a recipe for windfall profits to the owners of major airlines, and higher air travel costs to taxpayers and consumers alike. Businesses that accept government subsidies and special privileges must accept the obligation to serve the public, enforced by government oversight. For an airline, like any other transportation company, those obligations take the form of the legal duty to operate as a "common carrier". This is one of the conditions for the issuance of an operating permit. The Trump Administration signaled its attitude toward airline consumer protection when it aborted its review of airline truth-in-advertsing rules in late 2017. According to a report by Scott McCartney in the Wall Street Journal, "The agency has also signaled to airlines [that] enforcement is changing by inviting suggestions on rules to quash." Airlines got the message, and seized their next chance to propose a sweeping rollback of Federal regulations protecting air travellers. When the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) issued a routine request for comments on its regulatory agenda, airlines and their U.S. and international trade associations responded with an astonishingly brazen "wish list" of consumer protection rules they want repealed, including some of the most basic elements of what it means to be licensed as a common carrier: non-discriminatory adherence to a published tariff of fares offered equally to all would-be passengers: Proposals from the International Air Transport Association Proposals from Airlines for America, Part 1 of 2 Proposals from Airlines for America, Part 2 of 2 Numerous individual airlines endorsed these calls for deregulation, and added their own pet peeves at having even minimal obligations to treat consumers and air travellers fairly. I've joined a coalition of leading airline consumer advocacy oerganizationas and individuals led by Travelers United who submitted a response to the DOT. Given the length and breadth of the airlines' wish list for "freedom" to defraud, discriminate against, and mistreat travellers, it was impossible for consumer advocates to respond immediately or in detail to all of their proposals. But our submission to the DOT provides an overview of why continued and enhanced Federal regulations, and enforcement of those regulations, are essential to protect consumers and travellers and ensure that airlines continue to justify their use of public resources by serving the public as common carriers. Some of the airlines' proposals, such as their long-standing desire to replace publicly-disclosed tariffs of ticket prices with personalized pricing, go beyond the DOT's regulatory authority and would require changes by Congress to Federal laws. As of now, this is all just preliminary jockeying for position. T[...]

Public hearings and written comments on draft registration


Podcast (35 min.): The Future of Draft Registration in the U.S.

Schedule of locations and dates of hearings through September 2018

For the first time in decades, a Federal commission is holding open-mike public hearings throughout the USA (starting next Friday, 23 February 2018, in Harrisburg, PA) and taking written testimony (through 19 April 2018, Patriots' Day) on whether draft registration should be ended or extended to women as well as men; whether there should be a draft of people with medical or other special skills regardless of age or gender; whether a draft would be "feasible" (it wouldn't, because so many people haven't registered with the Selective Service System, have moved without notifying the SSS, and/or would resist if drafted); and related issues.

Despite some problems, this is by far your best and most open opportunity in decades to tell the Federal government to end draft registration. Read more for background and an update with the schedule of dates and locations of hearings through September 2018.

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 7


Harare (Zimbabwe) - Manama (Bahrain) - Chiang Mai (Thailand) This week The Amazing Race passed through Bahrain. Bahrain is a small desert island city-state, but the teams of travellers faced unexpected difficulties finding their way around, both driving and on foot. I've had some of these same problems finding my way around in places like this, and have written about them when previous seasons of The Amazing Race have passed through similar nearby countries. What was new, as the voiceover narration pointed out, was that this was the first time The Amazing Race had visited Bahrain, despite multiple previous visits to other countries of the Arabian peninsula and the Arabian/Persian Gulf: the United Arab Emirates, Oman, and Kuwait. That's typical, as is the fact that the racers flew in and out of Bahrain via Dubai even though there are direct flights from Addis Ababa (the foremost African air hub) to Bahrain, and Bahrain to Bangkok, which would have spared the racers a change of planes on each leg. Today, Bahrain is both less visited by tourists from outside the region and less well-known as an air transport hub than several of its neighbors. Despite the glitzy technopolitan skyline that provided the backdrop to this TV episode, the reality is that Bahrain is playing catchup to its neighbors for airline transit traffic and destination or stopover tourism. It hasn't always been that way. Bahrain was the first international airport in the region and an important refueling stop between Europe and India as early as the 1930s, and grew in facilities and importance as a military transport hub during World War II. The story of post-World War II civil avation in the Gult and the founding in Bahrain in 1950 of the airline that eventually became Gulf Air is told in fictionalized form (and with an overlay of pure fantasy) in Nevil Shute's best-selling 1951 novel, Round the Bend. Nevil Shute is best known as the author of On the Beach and other novels, but his first career was an an aeronautical engineer and aircraft designer, as chronicled in his non-fiction memoir, Slide Rule: The Autobiography of an Engineer. Many of his novels were set in the milieu of aviation and engineering. Gulf Air was the first, and for decades remained by far the largest, passenger airline in the region. By the 1980s, it was the jointly-owned national "flag carrier" of the U.A.E., Muscat and Oman, and Qatar. While the headquarters remained in Bahrain (BAH), it was also the dominant airline for both regional and long-haul services to and from Dubai (DXB), Abu Dhabi (AUH), Muscat (MCT), Doha (DOH), and Sharjah (SHJ). The consortium of hereditary monarchs and ruling families that owned Gulf Air began to break up when the emir of Dubai decided to start his own airline in 1985, and sold back his share of Gulf Air. Emirates was followed by Oman Air and Qatar Airways in 1993, and Etihad (based in Abu Dhabi) and Air Arabia (based in Sharjah, where the airport is primarily a cargo rather than a passenger hub) in 2003. That left the government of Bahrain holding the bag as the sole owner of Gulf Air, saddled with an older and less-efficient fleet than any of its newer competitors. Unlike Emirates, Etihad, and Qatar Airways, Gulf Air never extended its route system to the Americas, although it has flights to places in Australia as far from Bahrain as the US West Coast would be. Not trying to compete on trans-Atlantic routes may be a sound business decision, but it has left Gulf Air and Bahrain even further behind in American mindshare than airlines and cities promoting direct flights to and from the US, Canada, and Latin America. Bahrain's efforts to attract a larger share of tourism from outside the region isn't helped by its geography. Bahrain is a small cluster of connected islands -- the smallest of the Gulf micro-states -- linked to Saudi Arabia by a 25 kilometer (16 mile) chain of bridges and causeways. Saudia Arabia is of course the big visitor draw in the region, but m[...]

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 6


Prague (Czech Republic) - Harare (Zimbabwe) - Marondera (Zimbabwe) - Harare (Zimbabwe) There was a new twist on this week's episode of the The Amazing Race. For part of the episode, the teams had to swap partners, so that each of the racers had to complete one of their assigned tasks with someone other than their regular travelling companion. That led to complications for some of the racers who had counted on one member of the pair being able to handle certain tasks, such as driving a stick-shift car, for which their partner didn't have the knowledge, skill, and/or confidence. In a race, or in a real-world travel situation where accomplishing some task quickly or getting it right the first time is of the essence, it's important to have an accurate shared understanding of which travel companion is better at, or will take the lead at, which tasks. Even when you aren't in a hurry, dividing up tasks makes sense, and can make preparing for a trip with a companion or a group a lot easier. Perhaps one of you has been studying maps and planning transportation, while the other has been studying the local language(s) of your destination(s). While there are times to double-check your travelling companion, there are also times to trust their judgment in areas where you know they have more expertise. Sometimes you have to go along, even if you are uncertain about the best course, recognizing that uncertainty is inherent in travel decision-making and trusting that mistakes are more likely to lead to annoyances or adventures than to catastrophes. But there's a catch, as the racers found out in this episode. Your partner may not always be available to do things for you both. I've arrived in the middle of the night in a country where I didn't speak the language, expecting to be met by someone who had been studying that language, and discovered that my companion had been hospitalized and couldn't meet me. I've had to come back to the U.S. unexpectedly in the middle of a trip, leaving my travelling companion by themself on another continent. Medical and family emergencies at home and on the road make this sort of unplanned separation more common than most travellers predict. I've gotten separated in a crowd without a cellphone. And that's without even considering the relationships between travelling companions that break up on the road (not always a bad thing), or the times that you and your travelling companion(s) want to do different things for a day, or one of you wants to take an overnight side trip. There's a tricky balance between trusting and being willing to rely on your partner's ability (good), and being dependent on someone else to the point where you can't cope, or don't have the self-confidence to try to cope, on your own (bad). How can you prepare for the possibility that you might get split up, one of you might get sick or hit by a car or break a leg, or you might want to separate for some reason? Here are some things you can do before you find yourself travelling on your own or with a stranger or strangers rather than your expected companion: Take turns. Practice when the stakes are low. Let the partner who is less fluent in the language do the talking for both of you some of the time. They will learn a little more of the language, and -- perhaps more importantly -- they will gain confidence that they can manage on their own if they have to. Let the person with no sense of direction lead sometimes, when you can afford to enjoy getting lost. Split up sometimes, for an hour or a day. Get some practice doing things on your own. It might be scary at first, but if you are like most people, a little experience by yourself will do wonders for your self-confidence. Getting to spend more time with your travelling companion can be one of the joys of travel, if you don't get enough time together at home. It's easy to take that too far, though, if one (or both) of you lacks the confidence to go out alone. Y[...]

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 5


Les Baux (France) - Marseille (France) - Prague (Czech Republic) Product placements on The Amazing Race are usually just extra advertisements for whichever brand of car the racers have been provided to drive from Point A to Point B, or the prize for the pair of racers that finishes first in the episode. However, one of this week's product placements on The Amazing Race 30 might give real-world travellers a bad idea: the racers were required to use the Travelocity app to choose and reserve flights from Marseille to Prague. Marseille is one of the places on the short list of favorites from my most recent trip around the world. One reason it remains underappreciated and under-visited by foreign tourists, despite its many attractions and despite being a hub for surface transportation and flights across the Mediterranean to and from the Maghreb, is a paucity of long-haul flights (none to or from the USA, although Air Canada and Air Transat have seasonal summer services to and from Montréal) or even short-haul flights to or from many places in Europe. Most of the racers ended up making connections through Brussels, one of the small number of major European hubs served from Marseille. The venerable Belgian national airline Sabena was one of those that went bankrupt after 11 September 2001. Brussels Airlines, which inherited Sabena's "SN" code, has only a handful of long-haul flights. But Brussels' role as the de facto capital of the European Union supports flights between Brussels and more other cities in Europe than one might expect for a city its size. Travelocity won't find the cheapest or any of the direct flights from Marseille to Prague. If you rely exclusively on Travelocity, you won't know they exist, and you will pay more for less convenient connecting flights than you could have paid for a nonstop flight. The same thing is true for many city pairs within Europe. Travelocity is an online travel agency that is based in the USA and was founded by the Sabre computerized reservation system (CRS). Travelocity is now a division of Expedia (it's generally a waste of time to "comparison shop" between Expedia, Travelocity, or other brands owned by the same parent company, although for marketing reasons they sometimes offer different prices on their different Web sites), no longer part of Sabre, and has built direct connections to some airlines that bypass the CRSs. But Travelocity still relies primarily on CRSs as information intermediaries between it and airlines. Travelocity's priority for negotiating direct connections or agency appointments to sell tickets for flights on airlines that don't participate in the major CRSs like Sabre is Travelocity's customer base in the USA. Online travel agencies and Web sites with more customers in Europe have more of an interest than do their U.S. competitors in finding ways to include information about airlines that operate only within Europe and not to the USA. Almost anywhere in the world, you are better off starting with whatever Web site, app, online travel agency, or aggregator of travel information has the largest local user base and scope of information, rather than relying on U.S.-based sources. For flights within Europe, you'd be better off starting with the Europe-centric Skyscanner Web site or app than with U.S.-centric sites or apps like Travelocity or Kayak. No online travel agency offers tickets on every European airline, however. Many new airlines, including many within Europe, only sell tickets directly and not through any third parties. For the cast of The Amazing Race, price is no object when it comes to airline tickets. The TV producers pay for their tickets at any coach fare. For real-world travellers, self-described "low-fare" airlines aren't necessarily any cheaper than "legacy" airlines. But within Europe, as with Southwest in the USA, they offer direct point-to-point flights on many routes between secondary cities [...]

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 4


Tangiers (Morocco) - Nice (France) - St. Tropez (France) - Les Baux (France) - Arles (France) - Les Baux (France)

[Looking back toward the Mediterranean coast from the Isles du Frioul, near Marseilles, Provence.]

The Amazing Race 30 spent this double episode exploring Provence, in the south of France. The racers saw some of the expensive glitz of the Côte d'Azure ("Blue Coast"), the part of this area best known to tourists. But Provence isn't entirely taken over by the beautiful people and the jet set, even in the summer. The racers also saw (although not the extremes) of its geographic and economic diversity and down-home diversions including pétanque, a lawn game similar to its better-known (in the USA) Italian cousin "bocce" or to English lawn bowling, and more distantly but conceptually related to shuffleboard and curling.

What we see on "reality" television is entertainment, but sometimes it's more "real" than what we read in the New York Times.

I spent much of this week writing letters to the editor and requests for corrections in response to the latest disinformation campaign by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security about the REAL-ID Act of 2005 (which is real, although it doesn't mean what the DHS says it means) and supposed new requirements for drivers licenses and ID to fly (which are fake news made up by the DHS). Some of you may have seen a sound-bite from me about this on ABC7 News in San Francisco.

If you just want to know whether you need to get a new drivers licesne or ID if you want to continue to travel by air (you don't), or which of the things you may have seen in the news about this to believe, I have some debunkinhg of the fake news and answers to frequently-asked questions about the REAl-ID Act on the Identity Project Web site. If you want more of the political and journalistic back story, and its implications, read on.

"A demonstration's been announced... Against the draft, war taxes, the rise in food prices..."


"It was good to be outside, after the rooms with locked doors, the hiding places. It was good to be walking, swinging his arms, breathing in the clear air.... To be among so many people, so immense a crowd, thousands marching together, filling all the side streets as well as the broad thoroughfare down which they marched, was frightening, but it was exhilarating too.... The singing at the front of the march, far away up the street, and of the endless crowds coming on behind, was put out of phase by the distance the sound must travel, so that the melody always seemed to be lagging and catching up with itself, like a canon, and all the parts of the song were being sung at one time, in the same moment, though each singer sang the tune as a line from beginning to end....

"There might have been a hundred thousand human beings in Capitol Square, or twice that many. The individuals, like the particles of atomic physics, could not be counted, nor their positions ascertained, nor their behavior predicted. And yet, as a mass, that enormous mass did what it had been expected to do by the organizers of the strike: it gathered, marched in order, sang, filled Capitol Square and all the streets around, stood in its numberlessness restless yet patient in the bright noon listening to the speakers, whose single voices, erratically amplified, clapped and echoed off the sunlit façades..., rattled and hissed over the continuous, soft, vast murmur of the crowd itself....

"When he spoke, speaking was little different from listening. No conscious will of his own moved him, no self-consciousness was in him. The multiple echoes of his voice from distant loudspeakers and the stone fronts of the massive buildings, however, distracted him a little, making him hesitate at times and speak very slowly. But he never hesitated for words. He spoke their mind, their being, in their language...

It is our suffering that brings us together. It is not love. Love does not obey the mind, and turns to hate when forced. The bond that binds us is beyond choice. We are brothers. We are brothers in what we share. In pain, which each of us must suffer alone, in hunger, in poverty, in hope, we know our brotherhood..... We know that there is no help for us but one another, that no hand will save us if we do not reach out our hand. And the hand that you reach out is empty, as mine is. You have nothing. You own nothing. You are free. All that you have is what you are, and what you give...

We have nothing but our freedom. We have nothing to give you but your own freedom. We have no law but the single principle of mutual aid between individuals. We have no government but the single principle of free association. We have no states, no nations, no presidents, no premiers, no chiefs, no generals, no bosses, no bankers, no landlords, no wages, no charity, no police, no soldiers, no wars. Nor do we have much else. We are sharers, not owners. We are not prosperous. None of us is rich. None of us is powerful. If it is [this] you want, if it is the future you seek, then I tell you that you must come to it with empty hands.... You cannot take what you have not given, and you must give yourself. You cannot buy the Revolution. You cannot make the Revolution. You can only be the Revolution. It is in your spirit, or it is nowhere.

"As he finished speaking the clattering racket of police helicopters drawing near began to drown out his voice...."

-- from The Dispossessed, by Ursula K. Le Guin, 21 October 1929 - 22 January 2018

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 3


Antwerp (Belgium) - Amsterdam (Netherlands) - Tangiers (Morocco) This week's episode of The Amazing Race 30 gave the contestants on the reality-TV show a test of their dead reckoning ability in a souk in Tangiers. After having a destination pointed out to them from one rooftop to another, how quickly could they find their way there on the ground down below, without a smartphone or GPS? Completing the task required mentally integrating how far they had gone, in which twisting and turning directions, to keep track of their position and orientation (which way am I facing now, and which way am I trying to go?) relative to their starting point and destination. Some people have more natural aptitude than others at dead reckoning, but it's a skill that can be improved by practice. In "The Practical Nomad: How to Travel Around the World", I recommend taking a day trip to a city or town you don't know well, preferably one with a dense and complicated network of streets, alleys, and paths, and ideally one with streets that aren't in a grid. Pick a destination, or have an accomplice pick one for you and tell you its position relative to yours: "You are facing east, and your destination looks like [visual description not name, so you can't rely on signs] and is six-tenths of a mile north and three-tenths of a mile west from here." Try to find your way to the specified landmark without using a smartphone, GPS, or map, or asking for directions, and while trying to avoid reading any street signs. Different people use different mental methods for dead reckoning. I visualize my position as a point, moving as I move, on a mental map of my course that I can visualize in my mind's eye. If I close my eyes, it's as though I were looking down from above in an out-of-body experience. My partner, who grew up near the seacoast, has a subconscious compass that keeps track of "Which direction is the water?" and "Which direction is the North Pole?" That can break down when there is no large body of water nearby, or when crossing between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Hotels in Muslim-majority places often have a more or less discreet arrow or pointer on the ceiling of each room to indicate the (great circle) direction of Mecca, so that you can tell which way to face when you pray. That doesn't help when you are on the street, but checking the "Qibla" (Mecca-pointer) in your room before you go out may help you start out oriented with respect to the cardinal directions. Practice this sort of navigation before you go to a place where you don't speak the language and there are few street signs or they aren't in a writing system that you can read. If you'd like to Rock The Casbah yourself in Tangiers, Nick Andriani, who's spent more time wandering further off the beaten path in North Africa and the Middle East than most people I know, has an introduction to Tangiers in his blog. Nick's "Insiders Tip" on getting lost in Tangiers? "Street signs are often missing, street names often don't match your map and very often are misleading.... Tangier is a safe city, and a small city, so getting lost is actually part of the fun" -- if you're not in a race. I met Nick at the TBEX travel bloggers' conference in Cancún in 2014, and I look forward to seeing one of his novels make it into print. Morocco is not a monolingual country. It was a lesson for the racers -- and for real-world travellers -- that wherever you are, it's worth trying any language(s) you know. In Morocco, French serves as a language of education and government and as a link language between native speakers of several varieties of Arabic and of Berber languages. Despite scapegoating of immigrants from the Maghreb (North Africa) for problems in Europe, many Moroccans have worked or have family ties and have lived in Europe, especially in Francophone Europe and in[...]

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 2


Reykjavik (Iceland) - Amsterdam (Netherlands) - Antwerp (Belgium)

This episode of The Amazing Race, like the previous one, featured helicopter shots of spectacular Icelandic scenery. They helped show why Icelandic tourism marketers have been so successful in recent years in changing perceptions of the country as an aviation hub. Flying between America and Europe via Iceland has changed from a perceived drawback to an asset: from an unwanted interruption of the journey and change of planes to a desirable stopover opportunity.

Foreigners visiting Iceland as a stopover en route to or from somewhere else still far outnumber those for whom Iceland is the primary destination, but that is changing. I know some people who've gone to Iceland and back recently from the U.S., without continuing on to Europe.

Despite these changes, Iceland's its role as a transatlantic budget airline hub remains an interesting case study in the history of discounted airline ticket pricing and routes and the ways it has been controlled by politics and oligopoly rather than competition.

Why was it that Icelandic airlines offered lower prices between North America and Europe than any other airlines to a generation of backpackers?

The Amazing Race 30, Episode 1


New York, NY (USA) - Reykjavik (Iceland) Stopovers in Iceland and other stopover possibilities on flights to and from the USA Season 30 of The Amazing Race started with the cast members having to fly from New York City to Reykjavik, Iceland. The teams of cometitors in The Amazing Race around the world all took the same flight on Icelandair, one of two Iceland-based airlines that flies to and from the USA. So the winner of this leg of the race was decided by what happened after they arrived at Keflavik Airport near Reykjavík. The key task for the racers required them to arrange letters spelling out the name of a plaza in Reykjavík, Ingólfstorg. Several of the racers were slow to realize that "Ingolfstórg" is not the same as "Ingólfstorg". English is written without diacritical marks. Diacritical marks aren't even listed in the index of my copy of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, and "accents" get only a passing mention at the end of the essay on alphabets and writing systems. In English, "accent marks" are used, if at all, as optional aids to pronunciation that help indicate the sound of the underlying letters. In many other languages, diacritical marks aren't optional. They are not regarded as "modifiers" but as symbols used to distinguish between what are thought of as different letters. In Icelandic, "ó" is not considered to be the same letter as "o". As a rule, you should assume that if a word is written with diacritical marks, you need to include them when you write the word, or it might not be understood. I'll have more to say about flights on Icelandair next week when the racers continue on to Europe. But while the racers are stopping over in Iceland, let's talk a little about stopovers in general. Along with Dubai and Singapore, Reykjavík is one of the quintessential "stopover" destinations: a place that most visitors probably wouldn't have gone to at all except that it was "on the way" to their "real" destination. If you have to change planes there anyway, why not stop over for a few days and check it out? That doesn't mean that you might not find Reykjavík, Dubai, or Singapore worth the trip as a destination in their own right. (Or you might not. But that's a matter of taste, not of intrinsic touristic value, a concept about which I'm extremely doubtful.) Increasing numbers and a growing percentage of visitors to each of these places are visiting them as their destination rather than merely as a stopover en route to somewhere else. For government ministries of tourism, and sometimes for airlines, promoting stopovers is a problem of making lemons out of lemonade. How do you turn, "To get a cheap ticket on Icelandair, you have to change planes in Reykjavík, instead of taking a direct flight from the USA to Europe," into, "On an Icelandair ticket to Europe, you can stop over for a few days in this really cool place that would otherwise be expensive to get to, Iceland, for no extra charge"? Many fares requires a change of planes but forbid stopovers longer than 24 hours or longer than until the next flight to your final destination (which might be more or less than 24 hours). For an airline, it's a tricky judgement call whether potential ticket buyers' perceptions of its hub (this is all about perception, which may have nothing to do with reality) are such that offering free stopovers is a way to sweeten an otherwise unattractive-seeming routing, or whether its hub is perceived as a desirable and valuable additional destination worth paying extra for. That makes it almost axiomatic that the places where free stopovers are offered are not the first places you would think of as places you would expect to transit and/or want to stop over. The interesting stopover possibilities are in places where there is a di[...]

Bicycling the Danube, Part 3: Highlights and Lowlights



Cycling the Danube (Part 3 of 3):

In Part 1 and Part 2 of this series, I talked about why you might (or might not) want to take a trip by bicycle along the Danube, and about some of the practicalities of such a trip.

In Part 3, below, I'll highlight a few interesting things (not by any means all, and not necessarily the "best") places and things to see and do along the river or nearby, and a couple of particularly outstanding places we stayed.

Bicycling the Danube, Part 2: Practicalities



Cycling the Danube (Part 2 of 3):

Many of the reasons for choosing to take a trip by bicycle along the Danube River that I discussed in Part 1 of this series are logistical and practical: It's one of the easiest and most comfortable long-distance cycling routes in the world, even if you don't think of yourself as a cyclist.

In Part 2, below, I'll give some additional practical advice for those who are thinking about a trip like this.

And in Part 3, I'll highlight a few specific places to see, do, and stay along or near the river that I found interesting and/or enjoyable, and that you might miss if you weren't looking for them.

Bicycling the Danube, Part 1: Pros and Cons


[A "Radler" in German can mean either either a bicyclist or a mildly-alcoholic drink consisting of half beer and half lemonade.] Cycling the Danube (Part 1 of 3): Part 1: Pros and Cons Why Bicycle the Danube? Why Not? Part 2: Practicalities Part 3: Highlights and Lowlights My partner and I spent six weeks in June and July 2017 travelling 2000 km (1200 miles) by bicycle along the Danube River from Donaueschingen, Germany, to Belgrade, Serbia -- about 60% of the river's length from its source to the Black Sea. Travel and tourism statistics rarely include bicycling as a mode of transportation. But a case could be made that the Danube -- at least the 800 river kilometers (500 miles) from Donaueschingen to Vienna, and perhaps the 300 km (200 miles) further downstream to Budapest -- is the world's preeminent long-distance bicycle tourism route. Certainly it's the best-known and most heavily travelled long-distance bicycle tourism route in Europe. In high season, more than a thousand cyclists a day on overnight journeys -- not counting day-trippers -- pass through some of the more popular sections of the upper Danube in Germany and Austria. I don't know of any other route of comparable length, anywhere in the world, that has as large a volume of through multi-day travel by cycling tourists. Yet despite the iconic status within Europe of the Danube as a cycling route popular even with people who don't think of themselves as cyclists, it has a relatively low profile in the USA, even among cyclists who travel to Europe. Some of the factors discussed below that make the most popular parts of the upper Danube so attractive for casual cyclists make it less so for "serious" cyclists, although hard-core riders might nonetheless enjoy the lower parts of the river. For bicyclists from the USA, the most popular cycling destination in Europe is France, followed by the [...]

Former Selective Service director admits draft registration has failed


Bernard Rostker, who was Director of the Selective Service System (SSS) from 1979-1981 durung the attempt to resume registration of all young men in the U.S. for possible military conscription, has publicly admitted what I've been saying for decades: failure by young men to notify the SSS of address changes renders the list of registrants so incomplete and inaccurate that it probably couldn't be used as the basis foir a draft that would stand up to legal challenges to its fairness.

Here's the key portion of Rostker's recent podcast interview with Lillian Cunningham of the Washington Post:

This episode of The Washington Post's "Constitutional" podcast examines the history and evolution of the draft in America with ... Bernard Rostker, former director of the Selective Service and a senior fellow at the RAND Corporation....

CUNNINGHAM: So this is where we are today. America continues to maintain a military registration system. Every young man in the United States between ages 18 and 26 is required to be registered. But if a draft were ever called again, using that list as a basis for the draft would face major constitutional hurdles.

First, because the sex-discrimination argument would now need to be revisited. And also because, the list of registered men's names is problematic.

ROSTKER: The list that they have I doubt could pass the legal definition of a complete and objective list, because it is structurally flawed and Selective Service knows it.

CUNNINGHAM: Many young men don't ever actively register for the draft themselves. Their states automatically send their information to the Selective Service when they get a driver's license. But if they move apartments -- or across the country -- the information doesn't necessarily get updated. And what about the men without driver's licenses? Or the ones who live in states that don't automatically register them?

ROSTKER: It's a list that I'm sure the courts would throw out immediately because it's not accurate.

...CUNNINGHAM: Two bills were introduced in Congress last year that would end registration all together, one was proposed in the House and one in the Senate. The Senate bill, proposed by Senator Rand Paul, was called the Muhammad Ali Voluntary Service Act.

I asked Bernie if he thought these might ever gain enough traction to go through.

ROSTKER: Politicians don't want to be accused of not being soft on defense by not having a standby Selective Service system that's adequate. But that has now survived for decades, and for the life of me I cannot see how it adds any anything to our defense effort.

CUNNINGHAM: This from a man who ran the program.