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Preview: About.com Archaeology: Most Popular Articles

About.com Archaeology: Most Popular Articles



These articles are the most popular over the last month.



Published: Tue, 06 Dec 2016 11:08:20 +0000

 



The 10 Most Important Aztec Gods and Goddesses

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The top ten of the 200 Aztec gods and goddesses recognized by scholars include the most famous and the important figures of the Aztec religion.



An Aztec God of Fertility and Patron of Warriors

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Tonatiuh (pronounced Toh-nah-tee-uh) was the Aztec sun god. This deity had both a positive and negative aspect.



What Is History, Anyway? A Handful of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Drop in on a collection of quotes from historians--some professional, some decidedly not--trying their hand at defining the dark art of history.



Why Don't Archaeologists Use the Term...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Cro-Magnons are what scholars now call Anatomically Modern Humans or Early Modern Humans, our near-ancestors who started us down the path to modernity



When Did People Begin Using and Controlling Fire?

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The discovery of fire was one of the earliest discoveries of humans, letting us add light, warmth, security, and companionship into our lives.



Why Does Our Modern Calendar Use Christian...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

class="no-js" itemscope itemtype="http://schema.org/Article" > itemprop="description" >AD (or A.D.) is



How did we ever manage to domesticate so many...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

This annotated animal domestication table lists the dates and places that scholars have discovered about when over 30 animals were domesticated



Interested in a Career in Archaeology? Read...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Have you always dreamed of being an archaeologist, but don't know how to become one? Here's how you can get started exploring that dream job.



The Long History of Humans Taming Plants on...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

A collection of plant histories, when and where humans domesticated them, with a table of dates and places and links to the stories themselves.



Considering a Career in Archaeology? Read These...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

What kind of job can I get in archaeology? Does it pay well? What is a typical day like? An FAQ for aspiring archaeologists.



Tenochtitlan: How a City in a Swamp Became the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Aztec capital city called Tenochtitlan was located a marsh in the middle of a lake surrounded by mountains--a place now called Mexico City.



How the Dog Came to Be Domesticated

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

When and where the partnership of dog and humans first occurred is currently under considerable debate.



The Creation Myth of the Aztecs Was One of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

In the 16th century, the Aztecs believed their world had been created and destroyed in violence four times before, and had reason to expect it again.



The Collapse of Angkor - The End of the Khmer...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The end of the Khmer Empire (or Angkor civilization) came about as a direct result of the civilization's inability to adapt to an extended drought brought about by climate change.



The Very Opposite of Monocultural Agriculture...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Mixed cropping, also known as inter-cropping or co-cultivation, is a type of agriculture that involves planting two or more of plants simultaneously in the same field.



The Main Belief System and Multi-Deity Universe...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Aztecs had a complex set of beliefs, ceremonies and gods, each one overlooking an aspect of human life and responding to the needs of the Aztec people.



What was Life in Europe Like Before Farming?

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Mesolithic period in European history includes the history of the complex hunter-gatherers who developed the technology to cultivate crops.



The Aztec Rain God Tlaloc was Based on a...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Aztec rain god, Tlaloc, was one of the most important in the Aztec pantheon, and distantly related to rain gods of other Mesoamerican cultures.



The Legend of Huitzilopochtli, Founding Deity...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Huitzilopochtli was the Mexica god of the sun, war and sacrifice, and the founding patron god of the Aztec Empire



Who Were the Ancient American Civilizations...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Both North and South America were populated when the Europeans arrived in the late 15th century--and their civilizations were vast and sophisticated.



Anthropology Defined

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Anthropology is the study of human beings; their culture, their behavior, their beliefs, their ways of surviving; but that's just my opinion. Here is a collection of other definitions.



Did the "Aryans" Exist and Did They Destroy the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The flawed and racist Aryan Invasion Myth was developed in the late 19th century to explain the blossoming of the Indus River Civilization.



What Do Archaeologists Mean by BP, and Why Do...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Archaeologists use the term 'BP' to mean 'years before humans began to screw up the atmosphere by testing nuclear devices'.



How Cattle Came to Be Domesticated - Perhaps...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The history of the relationship between humans and cattle is a long and varied one, with at least two and perhaps three domestication events.



Why Scholars are Certain the Inca Kept Records...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

By the 16th century, the Inca empire ruled much of South America, and they did it all without a written language. Did the quipu keep their records?



Beautiful Reconstruction Drawings of the Murals...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Although known to the local Lacandon Maya people, Bonampak's mural paintings were first seen by non-Maya eyes in the early 20th century



Pre-Pottery Neolithic: The First Farmers of the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Pre-Pottery Neolithic (abbreviated PPN) is the name given to the people who first developed farming in the Levant and Near East.



What You've Always Wanted to Know about Otzi...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Iceman is the name of a 5,300-year-old human body discovered high in the Swiss/Italian Alps in 1991.



Top 10 Things to Know About the Aztecs

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Short list of the main facts and aspects of Aztec culture



Egypt's Gorgeous Deir el Bahri Temple Was Based...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Hatshepsut's Deir el-Bahri (also spelled Deir el-Bahari) is one of the most beautiful temples in Egypt, built by the architects of Queen Hatshepsut.



How the Water Management System in the Khmer...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Khmer Empire, also known as the Angkor civilization, were compelled to manage water through a complex of man-made canals and reservoirs, the result of which was to permanently alter the local hydrology.



Landscape Archaeology

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Landscape archaeology studies the way people of the past shaped the land around them, consciously or unconsciously.



What Do the Discoveries of Neanderthal and...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Out of Africa or African Replacement Hypothesis argues that every living human being is descended from a small group in Africa.



Three Cultural Groups which Combined to Make...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Triple Alliance was a military and political pact formed by three city-states of the Valley of Mexico, forming what was to become the Aztec Empire.



Ochre is the First Pigment Known to Have Been...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The natural yellow-red-brown pigment known as ochre was humankind's first paint pot, used by our hominid ancestors nearly 300,000 years ago.



Who Were the First People Who Arrived in the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Pre-Clovis is the name archaeologists have given to the oldest and now fairly well-established human occupations of the Americas.



Who doesn't want to be an archaeologist when...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Not all archaeologists are professors at college. There are many different allied jobs associated with archaeological investigations.



Multiregional Hypothesis

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Multiregional Hypothesis argues that our earliest hominid ancestors radiated out from Africa and Homo sapiens evolved from several different groups of Homo erectus in several places throughout the world.



2 Million Years of Humans on the Planet - What...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Modern human beings are the result of millions of years of evolution. But not just physical evolution:



How does somebody who wants to be an archaeolog...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Want to gain experience in archaeology? Thinking about a career or just looking for some interesting things to do with your summer vacation? Then the field school is for you.



Natufian, levant, near east, hunter-gatherers

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Natufian culture is the name given to the sedentary hunter-gatherers living in the Levant region of the near east between about 12,500 and 10,200 years ago.



When Was the Chicken Domesticated? And Who Gets...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The history of chickens and when they were domesticated is something of a puzzle, but most likely it was about 8,000 years ago in Thailand.



What Is a Hominin and How Is It Different from...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Learn more about the Homininae subfamily, including Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).



The Ancient Uses of Asphalt - 40,000 Years of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Bitumen is a naturally-occurring organic byproduct of decomposed organic materials used by humans for many very useful things for the past 40,000 years.



The Mythology of the Aztecs and the Founding of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

This page describes the mythical and archaeological origins of the Aztec people, and the founding of their capital city of Tenochtitan



Were There Really Only Eight Founder Crops in...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Eight founder crops made up the core of new agriculture on our planet--but recent scientific research has shown it wasn't that straightforward.



The Secret Innovations and Inventions of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

This collection of ancient farming includes core concept definitions, archaeological research into ancient farming, and special farming techniques.



Bloodletting Rituals allowed Maya Nobles to...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Bloodletting rituals and sacrifices were a widespread practice among the ancient people of Mesoamerica; royal Maya used them to speak to their gods.



Tezcatlipoca

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Tezcatlipoca was the Aztec god of night, north direction and patron deity of Aztec kings



Need Ideas for a Research Paper? Pick a Topic...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The hardest thing a student does is pick a research paper topic. Archaeology, two million years of human behavior, is an excellent starting place.



Did Climate Change Cause PrePottery Neolithic...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The traditional history of farming begins some 12,000 years ago, in the hilly flanks of the Zagros Mountains of southwest Asia



What Occurred During the Middle Paleolithic...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Middle Paleolithic period (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago or so) is the period during which Archaic humans including Homo sapiens neanderthalensis appeared and flourished all over the world.



Is Your Cat Truly Domesticated? According to...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The modern day cat was permanently domesticated about 4000 years ago, in Egypt; but archaeologists say it may have been closer to 10,000 years ago.



Temple of the Warriors

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Temple of the Warriors is the only known Late Classic Maya building sufficient big enough for large gatherings of people. Page 7.



Chalchiuhtlicue

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Chalchiuhtlicue was the Aztec goddess of running water as well as the patron of navigation and childbirth



An Introduction to the Inca Writing System...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The quipu (also spelled khipu or quipo) is the only known precolumbian information system in South America: it has yet to be fully deciphered.



What You Need to Know About the Early Stone Age

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Lower Paleolithic period (2.7 million to 200,000 years ago) is the first archaeology, that is to say, that period when the first evidence of what scientists consider human behaviors occurred.



What are the Steps of Evolution in Human Stone...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

In 1969, archaeologist Grahame Clark defined a workable system for understanding the evolution of stone tools that is the basis for much of lithic studies today.



Chatelperronian Transition to Upper Paleolithic

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Chatelperronian period ca 40,000-33,000 years ago, is usually associated with Neanderthals, and bears evidence of some kind of interaction with African newcomers to Europe.



Why Would Anybody Try to Domesticate a Goat?

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Beginning about 10,500 years ago, Neolithic people started keeping goats, for their milk, meat, dung, wool... but maybe not their sweet natures.



The Vikings had a well-earned reputation for...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Viking raids were a characteristic of the Scandinavian early medieval pirates called the Vikings, particularly during the first 50 years of the Viking Age (~793-850)



Monumental Architecture: The Public Nature of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Monumental architecture refers to large man-made structures of stone or earth, made by the people and for the people beginning about 12,000 years ago.



Did the Aztecs Really Think Cortes was the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Aztec god Quetzalcoatl, the Feathered Serpent, is one of the most famous pre-Columbian deities, worshiped by many different Mesoamerican cultures.



Was the Upper Paleolithic the Height of...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Upper Paleolithic period saw great changes in the world as Homo sapiens became the only hominid running around on our planet.



Itzamna - The Maya God of Creation, Writing,...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Itzamna is one of the most important ancient Maya gods and considered the god of creation and the inventor of writing, and divination.



Which Society Cultivated Wheat First?

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Wheat was one of the very first crops domesticated by our ancestors, some 10,000 years ago in southeastern Turkey.



The Curly-Nosed Maya Rain God Chaac Had Ancient...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Chaac was the Mayan god of rain, storms, water and lightning. Masks of the god's face called Chaac Masks are carved on many Maya temples.



The Mayan Myth of the Hero Twins - Stories from...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Hunahpu and Xbalanque are two semi-god​ twins whose story is narrated in the Popol Vuh,the sacred book of the Maya Quiché of Guatemala.



If You Could be a Viking, Would You Be a...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Viking society was highly stratified, with three distinct classes, from slave to aristocracy; and clearly defined professions that described life.



The Three Sisters - Traditional Intercropping...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Three Sisters were what Native American groups called the combined intercropping of maize, beans and squash.



What Have Archaeologists Learned about...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Mount Sandel is the name of a small cluster of the oldest houses in Ireland, first built about 9,000 years ago.



What Science Has Learned about the House of the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The House of the Faun is among the most visited of the domestic ruins at Pompeii, famous for its mosaics and its bronze statue of a dancing faun.



How the Iron Age Kingdom of Aksum Flourished in...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Kingdom of Aksum (first through sixth centuries AD) was one of the most powerful kingdoms in sub-Saharan Africa, connecting with Rome and Egypt.



What Scientists Have Learned about the History...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The avocado (Persea americana) is a plant domesticated by ancient Americans, discovered and cultivated in central Mexico perhaps 7,000 years ago.



A Beginner's Introduction to the Islamic...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Islamic Civilization is in reality a mosaic of wide variety of cultures, from North Africa to the western periphery of the Pacific Ocean, and from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa.



Australopithecus

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Australopithecus is one of several species of hominins who may or may not be Homo sapiens direct ancestor.



Pre-Clovis Sites

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Preclovis is the name given to what archaeologists are coming to consider the founding population of the American continents



When was the Common Bean Domesticated? And Who...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The common bean's colorful past includes two domestication events: one in the Andes mountains of South America, and one in central Mexico.



RCYBP - Radio Carbon Years Before the Present

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

RCYBP (Radio Carbon Years Before the Present and abbreviated in many different ways) is a shorthand reference to the uncalibrated date recovered from carbon 14 dating.



How Can Archaeologists Tell if an Animal is...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The mechanism of domestication is an evolutionary one, and very slow; archaeological evidence for domestication of a particular animal is subtle.



Who Were the First Farmers of Europe and How...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Linearbandkeramik Culture (LBK) is the name given by German archaeologist F. Klopfleisch in 1884 to the first true farming communities in central Europe.



10 Things to Know About the Vikings

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The ancient Vikings were undoubtedly raiders: in that the History Channel series is correct. But they were so much more interesting than television tells us...



Coatepec: Mythical Birthplace of the Aztec Sun...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Coatepec, or Snake Mountain, is one of the most sacred places of Aztec mythology and religion and the birthplace of the Aztec patron god Huitzilopochtli.



Chaco Canyon: The Architectural Heart of the...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Chaco Canyon is one of the best known archaeological regions in North America: architectural beauty matched to the arid and forbidding landscape.



Why Don't Scholars Agree on the Dates for...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Figuring out the calendar dates of the ancient pharaohs and the rest of the Mediterranean communities of the Bronze Age is tougher than it seems.



What is the Importance of the Maya book known...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Popol Vuh, often dubbed the Bible of the Maya, narrates the creation myth of the Maya Quiché of Guatemala and the Story of the Hero Twins.



Mother Earth for the Aztecs Was a Horrific,...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Tlaltecuhtli was the Aztec Earth Goddess, a terrifying being whose monstrous body was turned into the earth after a battle with Quetzalcoatl



Did European Solutrean Upper Paleolithic People...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Solutrean-Clovis connection suggests that at least some of the first people in North America were direct descendants of European Solutreans.



Ancient Art Sculpture on a Very Grand Scale

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Megalithic structures are immense collections of stone, earth and wood, some of which were built during the Neolithic and Bronze Age periods of Europe.



What Great Leap Forward does the Levallois...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Levallois is the name archaeologists have given to a distinctive flint knapping technique, which makes up part of the ancient Acheulean and Mousterian artifact assemblages.



Despite Violent Reputations, the Vikings Were...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

In their new colonies, Viking settlers lived on isolated, regularly spaced farmsteads surrounded by grain fields, and led by chieftains.



Archaeology of the Islamic Empire - Towns,...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Settlements of the Islamic empire range from single desert palaces to trade centers to villages to towns and great cities; here is a sample.



Sacred Cenote (Well of the Sacrifices)

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Sacred Cenote at Chichen Itza is a karst pool, used by the Maya residents for religious purposes, including human sacrifice. Page 19.



A Beginner's Guide to the Paleolithic Period or...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

A brief introduction of the Stone Age, more commonly known to scholars as the Paleolithic era.



Clovis May Not Have Been First in the Americas,...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Clovis refers to mobile big game hunters who roamed the Americas hunting elephants and bison for a very brief time 12,000 years ago.



A Kiva Holds a Special Importance to Ancient...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

A kiva is a ceremonial structure used by ancient and modern Puebloan societies through the American southwest



Post-Processual Archaeology

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Post-Processual Archaeology is...



How Did the Wild Boar Become the Sweet Domestic...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Our modern domestic pig (Sus scrofa) was developed from the ferocious wild boar in two very distant places in the world: Turkey and China.



Chetro Ketl Holds the Key to Tree-Ring Dating...

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

Chetro Ketl is a Great House in the Chaco Culture National Historical Park of New Mexico, important for the pioneering use of the tree ring dating method.



What Does the Egyptian Rosetta Stone Teach Us?

2016-12-06T11:08:20Z

The Rosetta stone is a block of dark granite found in Egypt in 1799, that literally transformed modern understanding of 3,000 years of Egyptian history.